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I should work on active reading. What is active reading 1. Finding the purpose: Why the author wrote the piece 2. Understanding the structure: Mapping the passage 3. Finding the main idea: Stating what the passage is about Step 1: Finding the purpose: I will know what is important and unimportant about the piece. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How to find the purpose: Read the first 2 lines of the first paragraph Read the first line of each body paragraph Read the first and last line of the paragraph Look back at your note: What is the common idea? Is the author presenting facts? Examining different view? Answering questions?

Step 2: Understanding the structure: If I am familiar with the types of structures on the Toefl ibt, I will know where to look to find the information I need The structure of introduction paragraph: 1. Read the first sentence and sometimes the second, if the first does not provide enough information and the last sentence very carefully 2. Skim through the sentence in the middle The structure of body paragraph: 1. Read the topic sentence carefully: make sure that you are looking in the right paragraph for the information you need 2. Sort through the specific details until you find what you need The structure of Conclusion paragraph: 1. Read the first sentence: If the topic sentences introduce more details skim through them 2. Read the very last sentence: Try to figure out what the authors final message or point is Following the Direction of the Passage Step 3: State the main idea:

1. Read the first sentence of each paragraph 2. Skim the rest paragraph for direction markers 3. Remember to read both the first sentence of each paragraph in the passage and last sentence of the conclusion 4. The main idea should connect all the ideas found in the first sentences of the paragraphs and the last setence of the conclusion TIPS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Skim, do not read Trim the fat Dealing with difficult vocabulary Every correct answer must be found in the passage Correct answer on Toefl ibt do not generally contain strong language: all, always, impossible, must, never, none These choices contain information that is mentioned in the passage; however, the informaiton does not answer the question Many wrong answers repeat parts of the passage word for word Beyond the informaiton: a. EX: if the passage states: some species of chimpanzees make crude tools out of branches; the answer choice may read: many animals can make a tools Never answer a question from memory alone



Principle 1: The answer to every single question is found in the passage Principle 2: Do them first and save the killer question for later Principle 3: Process of Elimination: When using POE, make sure that you examine each answer choice carefully Never blindly pick the first answer that stands out or seems good because it may be a trap When using POE, take notice of wrong answer on the Toefl reading, often fall into: Not mention, extreme (all, always, impossible, must, never, none), right answer but wrong question (the choices contain info that is mentioned in the passage; however it doesnt answer the question, verbatim = word for word, beyond the information Becoming familiar with the wrong answer is almost as important as finding the right answer


Active read the passage: The purpose, the main idea, the structure Attack the questions Find the answer Use POE QUESTION TYPES

1. 2.

Voc in the context Go back to the passage and read a few lines and after the word in question Come up with your own word for the shaded base on the clues in the sentences Return to the answer choices and eliminate Reference: A reference problem ask you to identify a word or phrase in the passage that refers to a pronoun - Focus on the lines before the phrase or word - Eliminate answer that mentions words or phase that show up only after the reference - Eliminate use words or phrase that are ot mentioned at all in the 2 or 3 sentence before the reference 3. Lead words - Rephase the question - Find the lead word 4. Detail: A detail problem asks you to answer a question about a specific point in the passage - Be carful with answer choice which is verbetism Quick Review: Voc in the context, reference question, Lead word and Detail question in Toefl ibt Rephrase the question Use clues in the question to find appropriate place in the paragraph Read a few lines before and after the lead word or reference State the answer to the question in your own words

Notice: The wrong and answer to these questions: not mentioned in the passage at all, mentioned in the passage, but beyond the specific lines needed to answer the question or verbatism 5. Paraphase Questions: A paraphase problem asks you to choose the best restatement - Find the essential information by TRIM THE FAT. Look at the main subject and the main verb in the sentence

Try to identify the subject of the sentence. One of the choice will usually have a different subject. Eliminate this choice

6. 7. -

Defintion: Find the subject, verb and object Look at the other parts of the sentence See if the remainin parts define or clarify the subject, verb or object Before/after Rephrase the question Concern the first or last paragraph Using active reading to figure out the basic meaning of the paragraph (the main subject of the paragraph) - The correct answer in before/after question will be related to the main idea of the paragraph Eliminate the choices: Introduce new information/ interupt the structure/ repeat information 8. Sentence insertion - Look at the sentences before and after the black squares. The correct answer will join these sentences together by mentioning an idea from each sentence. - When POE, eleminate the choices: - Doesnt match: The sentence you add should form a link between 2 sentences. - Half right: Make sure the sentence matches ideas with both the sentence before and after it. Wrong answes often are only partial matches 9. Except/ not/ least - Rephrase the question - Use the answer choices like a checklists, return the passage to find each one - Mark each answer as either TRUE or FALSE based on the passage - Choose the answer that is different from the other three Notice: Wrong choices is not support for the passage

Correct answer: - Contain the information not mentioned: Info not found in the passage makes a good answer for these questions or use extreme language is acceptable 10. Inference: An inference problem asks you to draw a conclusion based on info in the passage The correct inference in Toefl ibt must be true based on the information in the passage - Restate the question - Use the lead word to locate the appropriate part of the passage - Remember to read only the lines around lead word

Follow the process similar Except/ Not/ Least Should eliminate the answer: Could be true and extreme: always, never, impossible, all, none, best, worst/ beyond the information **: If the question have no lead word or line reference to help. There are 2 choices: 1) read the entire passage and try to answer the question based on your reading, 2) using the answer choice to guide your reading. ** According to Barrons: Locate the evidence then draw conclusion 11. Summary - Identify the main ideas and details of the passage - Eliminate the choices: too specific ot not mentioned Note: The correct answer refers to some part of the main ide of the passage. You will notice that the first response roughly matches with the first paragraph, the second response to body paragraph and the last correct answer is supported by the final paragraph ** According to Barrons: State the main idea and summerize the major point of sections 12. Purpose Questions: A purpose question ask you to understand why the author organize a passage or explains a concept in a specific way 13. Opinion: An opinion problem asks you to recognize the authors point of view

CRACKING FOR LISTENING IN TOEFL IBT Not try to note down every detail or understand a single word in listening section Use POE effectively. Take notice of extreme/ tempting answer it is wrong one Dont memorize and do not take many note 1. Find the main idea or purpose 2. Focus on the structure 3. Listen for tone and attitude Focus on the structure: FOR LECTURE 1. Compare and contrasts: several theories, possible explaination, many different views, in constrast, on the other hand, however, similarly, additionally, also 2. Cause and effect relationships: Why would this happen, what is the reason for this, how could this happen, what lead to this, cause, result in, produce, lead to, bring about,responsible for 3. Abstract Category/ Specific Examples: on approach, one theory, the idea is, the concept, the basic premise is, for example, one instance of this is, consider, we see this in/with, this is illustrated by/ with 4. Sequence: process, development, stages, tranistion, first, second,, third, next, then, ititially, finally, Focus on the structure: FOR CONSERVATION 1. Problems and Solutions: problems, issues, difficulty, trouble, why dont you, if I were you, maybe you should, have you tried thought of 2. Service encouter: requirement, application, form, recommendation, prohibited 3. Significant events: have you heard about, did you see, let you know about, program/ events/ opportunity/chance Listening for tone and attitude: Pay attention to transittion: Main idea questions: Wrong answer choices may bay too specific or too board The trap answer often uses the word or phrase from the lecture or converstaion in a deceptive manner

The anser is not mentioned

Detail questions: Extreme answers Answers that are contrary to the main idea

Purpose questions: Need to grasp the structure, it will make purpose questions Cross out the new idea: answer choices that contain new information not realted to the main idea are wrong Cross information contrary to the main idea

Definition Questions: Need to write down/listen/understand abou the definition since POE cannot help you much

Inference/ Suggestion Questions: Wrong topic Wrong tone Extreme

CRACKING THE SPEAKING SECTIONS: BASIC PRINCIPLES Words that indicate as sequence or progression: First Second Third After Lastly- Then Previous Before- Following Finally Words that indicate as connection between ideas Because Therefore Thus And Also Furthermore Additionally So Words that indicate a contradiction between ideas However, Despite, Yet, Although, But, In contrast to, On the other hand

Template 1: Personal Preference Question: Ask you to describe something that you would prefer to do, see or experiene

For instance: Describe a place you would like to visit and explain why you chose this location. Use detail and examples to support your position 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State your personal preference Reason 1 Specific for reason 1 Reason 2 Specific for reason 2 Reason 3 Specific for reason 3

Template 2: Choose an Option Question 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State your option Reason 1 Specific for reason 1 Reason 2 Specific for reason 2 Reason 3 Specific for reason 3

Template 3: Summerize an Opinion Question: