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Latin America About 19 countries conforms a vast area from Mexico to Argentina, fermented beverages produced and consumed

beside beer and distilled spirits are described as follows: Chicha: this beverage can be made with several ingredients (pineapple, sweet potato, yucca and corn), however corn is the most used principly for its short period of harvest. The traditional recipe for “chicha” needs that corn kernels should be chewed and then spat into a clay pot. This mixture is mixed with water and then boiled during 3 or 4 hours, after that, the liquid is cooled in an open area and left to ferment normally during 72 hours. Depending of the country it is sweetened with honey or “panela” which is the juice of the sugar cane boiled and solidified. The final product could be sweet or with a small content of alcohol, depending of the fermentation time, it is served cold and commonly in pumpkind bowls “totumas", Chicha is very popular in Peru, Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela (Quevedo, 1997), if it is well prepared the final product could be very refreshing and nutritious. Due to the natural fermentation a mixture of natural yeast including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bacteria Leuconostoc sp., Lactobacillus, Acetobacter sp. And fungi like Aspergillus sp. (Blandino et al, 2003), those are the primary microorganisms responsible for the primary fermentation. Pozol and teshuino: widely consumed in the southern part of Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador, these beverages are based on the fermentation of coarsely grounded corn kernels which are cooked for several hours forming a soft dough, when the dough is ready it is covered in banana leafs and then left to ferment, Once it has reached the desired point, the dough is dissolved in fresh water and consumed as a refreshing beverage. Pozol follows a natural fermentation composed basically by yeast (S. cerevisiae), lactic acid bacteria (Lecuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. delbrueckii, Streptococcus bovis, Bifidobacterium minimum among others)(Nabil & Ampe, 2000). Pulque: This is one of the most studied beverages in latin America, pulque was used since the ancient mayas, it is an example of the strong legacy preserved through generations. There are several variations of the pulque recipe, it could be mixed with other fruits like pineapple, apple, and sugar cane juice, giving different flavor to the natural pulque. However all of them start with the fermentation of the sages of Agave (A. atrivirens, A. Americana) plants, The natural fermentation is performed by acid lactic bacteria (L. mesenteorides, L. lactococcus lactis subsp lactis), alcohol producer bacteria Zymommonas mobilis and yeast like S. cerevisiae (Escalante et al, 2008). Pulque fermentation could take from a few hours to overnight, the final alcohol vary from 2% for the sweet varieties to 7% in the most fermented.



plantarum. Mahewu: a non alcoholic beverage made from a mixture of cereals (sorghum. wheat. mesenteroides) and yeast (S. this is chewed and then is left to ferment naturally. rye and maize) with other adjacent ingredients like pineapple.2%). Traditionally. It is a cereal based preparation (wheat. 5 to 2% with the alcoholic fermentation vitamin B is present in bouza as a nutrient. warum)(Zorba et al. 2003) the protein content of bouza is about 1. the saliva amylases hydrolyze the starch present in the plant then the natural microflora start the fermentation. L. Turkey and other western European countries. lactis. the predominant microorganisms in this process is L. Lb fermentum. Ecuador and Peru. mesenteroides subsp. 1996). 2008). that mixture is then left to ferment spontaneously. Bouza: bouza is a fermented beverage made from wheat. “lulo” (Solanum quitoense). paramesenteroides. maise and others) mixed with sugar and water. the main microorganisms present in these fermentation are basically yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Champus: this is a popular beverage consumed in Colombia. 1999). corn and milled malt). Zygosaccharomyces fermentati among others)(Osorio et al. - - . Isaatchenkia orientalis. the fermentation is normally carried by a natural fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (L. it is made boiling corn kernels until its softening. - Africa Traditio ns and culture made part of the majority of the fermented beverages founded in this continent. cloves or orange leaves. L. this is made from the plant of Cassava (yucca) (Manihot utilisima) or corn kernels. Yeast are not present in this beverage (Gadaga et al. Boza: it is a non alcoholic beverage made from several cereals (wheat. sugar cane. coprophilus and the yeast are basically S.5-4. It is made under a natural fermentation although industrial production is available due to its high demand. the main species involved are L. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast are responsible for the flavor and the pH dropping.- Masato: it is a beverage made in the Peruvian amazonic region. rye. from Egypt to south Africa there are several traditional beverages. the microorganisms involved are similar to the chicha process. Pichia fermentans. lactis subsp. L acidophilus. basically lactic acid bacteria and yeast (Sotero et al. cerevisiae and S. this mixture is left out to cool down at room temperature and then fruit juice or “panela” syrup is added to provide flavor and as a starter due to most of the bacteria and fungi present naturally in the grain are destroyed by the prolonged heating. is very popular in Egypt. All this mixture is left to ferment at 12-15ºC for 24 or 48 hours producing a low alcoholic content beverage (2.

lactic acid bacteria. then is wet milled and sieving. then is “inoculated” with Umwanike (this is the residue of previous Impeke preparation) - - - - . coliforms and yeasts present during the preparation give to tonto an acidic flavor and a final alcohol content of 6-11% depending of the time and the temperature of the process (Mwesigye & Okurut 1995). it suffers a spontaneous fermentation during 6-7 days. the utensils and the methods of preparation could bring different Coliforms. it is used to feed young children in west Africa. Issachenkia orientalis. L. the main microorganisms involved are basically the present microbiota onto the fruit skin. when the juice of green bananas is not diluted with water then the alcoholic content is higher. on the other hand millet is mixed with water and allowed to germinate for 2-3 days. Goetrichum candidum)(Omemu et al. Impeke is prepared for wet sorghum which is soaked and germinated during two or more days. glabrata. candidum. Pichia fabianii)are the most representative at the final product (Nyanga et al. A similar beverage is made in Burundi receiving the name of Urwarwa. particularly Nigeria and Benin. divergens among others) and fermentative yeasts (S. Ogi: is a well known fermented gruel made from maize. However. 2007). plantarum) and in lesser extent yeasts (S. C.4 (Blandino et al. Geotrichum penicilliatum and G.cerevisiae. after that is roasted and sun dried. after that the pit covered with banana leafs to maintain the temperature and this is left outdoor to 2-4 for a natural fermentation. Kweete: it is a popular beverage in Uganda. The maize flour is buried for 7 days and then roasted and sun dried. Maize and millet are mixed with water and they fermented for 1-2 days the fementation process is carried out by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus and Lactococcus) and natural yeasts present at the preparation (Mwesigye & Okurut 1995). this beverage is made soaking maize grains in water for 24-72 h. The fruit is riped and left outdoors to carry the natural fermentation. to extract the juice of the bananas. It is consumed as a gruel or mixed with sugar or ice as a refreshing beverage. acid lactic bacteria(Lactobacillus agilis. 2003). cerevisiae. less carbonated and without hops. The final product is a creamish. this juice is then mixed with roasted sorghum and poured into a pit. plantarum. Candida tropicalis. this filtered becomes sour and then is called Ogi. Tonto: This fermented product is made in uganda. it is used mashed green bananas. thick with a sweet-sour flavor. Lactic acid bacteria are always predominant over yeast on a radio of 2. Fermentable sugar content of banana varies from 20-23%. 2007) which are responsible for the flavor and aroma. Impeke: in Africa brewing techniques are different from western countries. Lactic acid bacteria (L. is made from equal parts of roasted maize flour and germinated millet. due to these African artisanal brew products are sour. Masau: it is a fermented beverage made from Masau fruit (Ziziphus Mauritania). cerevisiae. yeasts and moulds into the fermentation. L.

however there are presence of methanol. The microbial succession of this beverage is less studied. 1999). Pito: This beverage follows the same preparation that Burukutu. grinded and boiled for several hours. cooled again and new malt is added. basically the fruit is cleaned. 2009). one of the succesfull cases is the well known “Amarula”. Grains are spread onto banana leaves and watered on alternate days and turned over at intervals. then Monkoyo roots are add to the porridge and the mix is left to ferment during 48 hours. other variation of this product is the addition of marula´s syrup to the traditional marula wine (Gadaga et al. S. but include wild yeasts and bacteria from the sorghum and from the manipulators. Monkoyo roots have high amount of amilolytic enzymes. a alcoholic beverage based on marula fruit (Wyk. the acidity of the beverage is due to the lactate produced mainly by Lactobacillus delbrueckii lactis. Doro: it is a millet beer produced in Zimbabwe. The final product is filtered through a cloth and the clarified liquid is left to mature overnight before consumption. A spontaneous fermentation produces a low alcoholic beverage (0. the skin is removed and the flesh is then soaked in water during 3 days. 2011). Pito´s fermentation is achieved principally by S. the cereal is dispersed in water and simmered until a thin paste. Monkoyo: traditional cereal-based beverage produced in Zambia. it is prepared cooking a cereal grain flour (traditionally maize). The microorganisms associated to the fermentation are basically S. buthanol and other alcohols (Gadaga et al. they are washed and drained. this is left for 2 days more and finally coarsely ground malt is added and left it to ferment again for one more day. Then. Finally the mixture is fermented for 48 hours resulting in a cloudy liquid with vinegar taste. and the alcohol content by Saccharomyces cerevisiae after 15 hours of the beginning of the process (Kibwega-foma et al. After five days grains start germination. the mix is boiled. - - - - . 2007).04%). Marula: this is made from the marula plant fruits (Scleroicarya caffra). the sorghum grains are stipped in water overnight. 1999). The final product is a sparkling wine with soft taste. This fruit is one of the most promessing traditional product with market potential. these malted grains are sun dried. cerevisiae. the stones are taken out and the juice is left to ferment for two days.afterwards it is left to ferment during two more days (Nzigamazabo & Angeline. chavelieria and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (Kolawole et al. The final content of ethanol is about 4%. then a clear supernatant which is collected and fermented will be called as “Pito” and a thicker brown suspension which is take to burukutu fermentation. 2012) Burukutu: sorghum beverage consumed in Nigeria. when the grains are boiled and left to cool down separation of the mixture take place. then it is cooled at room temperature and mixed with malt meal and left to ferment for a few days.

Pito normally has a sour and alcoholic taste (Orji et al. this product is then called “bite”. - - - - . Kachasu: distilled spirit made from maize meal but bulrush of finger millet meal. Lactobacillus plantarum. this is added to a fresh medium composed by diluted honey (4 kg in 12 L of water) and then is left to ferment for 24 to 72 hours. usually is used a “inoculum” from previous Otika fermentations. as alternative sources of carbohydrates other fruits and banana peels could be added. Otika: alcoholic beverage produced in Nigeria. the final product is achieved filtering the mixture (Gadaga et al. sliced banana/plantain which are packed in a clay pot and then covered with water left it to ferment during 1-5 days where the juice is filtered obtaining the final product. it is used a commercial yeast starter. water and honey. The mange bark seems to add nutrients for the yeast and provide protection against other contaminants. 2003) - Chikokivana: this a fermented beverage produced in Zimbabwe made with maize meal and millet malt. after that it is filtered producing Ogol (Teramoto et al. The mixture is simmered for a few hours. The main microorganisms involved are S. The fermentation process is carried on earthenware or metallic drums for 24 hours at ambient temperature. Agadagidi: this beverage is made from peeled. yeast and sugar are added to the mixture. 1999). All the fermentation that last about 4-7 days is carry on a pot with a hole (the hole will be used in the process of distillation). the final product is finally filtered and consumed (Chinyere & Onyekwere. this flour is mixed with water and boiled for at least 3 hours. for its preparation it is used red grains of the guinean variety of corn or previously malted sorghum grains. The alcohol content could vary from 7-41%. The grains are turned into flour into a pestle or mortar. then. The fermentation process is made in two steps with a initial inoculum made with Mange bark (Blighia unijungata baker). Pediococcus halophilus and Candida tropicalis. Ogol: Beer from honey produced in small villages in Ethiopia. cerevisiae and Pichia membranensis.cerevisiae. 2005). 1996). This mixture is left to ferment for 2 weeks. then is filtered and the liquid is left to ferment for 72 hours.