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Parham, Altha de Puech: My Odyssey: Experiences of a Young Refugee from Two Revolutions. Louisiana State University Press, 1959.

Lo del rebelde negro en Saint Domigue que es fusilado y se encuentran en sus bolsillos: a) La declaracin de los derechos del Hombre, b) Un objeto de culto religioso afrocaribeno, posiblemente vod: El pasaje, completo es importante por diversas razones: 1) Palmi lo usa como ejemplo de hibridez. Pero deja fuera lo ocurrido alrededor del fusilamiento del esclavo: su agency. 2) Se trata de un fragmento que (expandiendo la hipotesis de Popkin sobre la influencia de las narrativas de cautivos) puede colocarse en relacin con las diversas narrativas que dieron origen a la dialctica del amo y el esclavo. Aunque slo fue publicado en 1959, su narrativa (de ser un documento de la poca) bien podra ser emblemtica de los relatos (orales o escritos) que dieron origen (al menos parcialmente) a la dialctica hegeliana. 3) Refleja la tctica al estilo Babo (Melville) de los rebeldes: Aponte pudo haber practicado algo semejante en sus declaraciones. Ver lo que dice Childs al respecto. El pasaje del annimo narrador (Parham simplemente traduce de un original en francs supuestamente escrito por uno de sus ancestros), comienza describiendo el desdn de los militares blancos contra los soldados rebeldes negros: se trata de eventos que tienen lugar alrededor del Cabo Francs (la fecha que se da es 1793, pero debe estar equivocada porque aparece mencionado Jeannot Bullet: ste haba sido ejecutado por Jean Francois algunos meses despus de iniciada la insurreccin: ver lo que dice Parham, en su breve introduccin, sobre la ausencia de fechas en el original): We were sitting down to dinner when we saw their signal, which is always the burning of some stalks of sugar-cane. Our general, a man of appetite as well as of combat, decided we should continue with our repast, and after giving several orders for the safety of our quarters, sat down to dinner. We were eating heartily until the moment a cannonball passed through the window and carried away, right under our beards, the table and all the plates. The general, infuriated by this mishap, mounted his horse with food still in his mouth, and left camp with six hundred men and four pieces of artillery. Two hours later one could not find a living Negro within a circle of two and a half miles, and the roads were strewn with their bloody remains. (...) I will terminate this martial chapter by a character sketch which can give you an idea of the type of people which we have to combat. (...) I pursued a Negro whose regalia caused me to judge him to be one of the

principal chiefs. As I was about to overtake him, he turned around, took aim, but happily for me, could not make his powder fire as it was too damp. I prepared myself to cleave his head with my sword, whereupon he fell to his knees, kissed my boots, and told me with tears in his eyes, that he was my Mothers godson, that he was present at my birth, and carried me in his arms more than once, and beseeched me not to kill him; that he was a good Negro and that he had always loved the Whites. His manner disarmed me; I dismounted from my horse before having him conducted to camp. However, a soft sound made me quickly turn my head, and I saw the miserable hypocrite, who had richarged his gun, aiming pointblank at my head; being troubled at finding himself discovered, prevented him from aiming accurately, and the bullet went past me. I fell upon him, but he was on guard for my attack; and there we were both acting as if playing Prisoners Base. I caught my runner at the moment when he was about to slash me and threw him into some weeds. Even then he had the impudence to maintain that I had not seen correctly, and that he loved the son of his godmother too much to try to kill him. When we heard himself convinted by a number of soldiers who had just arrived and had witnessed the incident, he changed his tune and told me in his jargon: Master, I know that is true. It is the Devil who gets inside of this body of mine. I am a good nigger, but against my will the Devil is too strong. His excuse made me laugh despite my anger, and had I been alone, I would certainly have saved him; but the soldiers seized him and bound him to a tree to be shot. When he saw his fate was sealed, he began to laugh, sing, and joke. At times, however, reviling us in a furious tone, at times jeering at us in mockery. He gave the signal himself and met death without fear or complaint. We found in one of his pockets pamphlets printed in France, filled with commonplaces about the Rights of Man and the Sacred Revolution; in his vest was a large packet of tinder and phosphate of lime. On his chest he had a little sack full of hair, herbs, bits of bone, which they call a fetish; with this they expect to be sheltered from all danger; and it was, no doubt, because of this amulet, that our man had the intrepidty which the philosophers call Stoicism. (31,32, 33 y 34) Inmediatamente despus de lo anterior (despus de describir los elementos de guerra o incendiarios que lleva el rebelde fusilado) habla de cmo fue quemada su plantacin y de cmo ha perdido toda su fortuna. (34) Lo anterior: acaba de llegar a Saint Domingue, procedente de la Francia revolucionaria. Casi inmediatamente despus de su llegada estalla la insurreccin. La violencia de los esclavos rebeldes: masacres y torturas, las notiicias llegan a la plantacin del narrador. Aqu aparece lo de los bebes atravesados en picas como banderas de los rebeldes, p.28: ...troop of cannibals.... Se traslada con otros refugiados a Le Cap. ...a war of extermination(29). It was possible to calculate by the reflection of the flames which new habitation was being burned (29). El narrador va a unirse al ejercito de los blancos (29). Se convierte en uno de los oficiales del general de Bouvray. Habla de las tcticas de guerrilla de los rebeldes: no presentan combate cara a cara, etc: emboscadas (31). Los rebeldes: algunos desnudos, otros con harapos, otros vestidos con las ropas saqueadas a las casas de los amos, armados con instrumentos de agricultura y con armas de fuego (31). Habla de la msica africana que acompana a los rebeldes (31)

Habla de los negros: ...these unchained tigers whose roots in barbarism cause Nature to shudder. (40). Descripcin idlica de la esclavitud, critica de los filantropos: friends of the African races..., son intelectuales que desconocen la realidad de las plantaciones, etc (40, 41). Habla de los beneficios de la esclavitud: civilizacin vs el salvajismo de Africa, etc (42). El ltigo: This method of chastisement was adopted because the African, barely civilized, is considered a child, and must be treated as such.(42). Compara la situacin de los esclavos (ante las quejas de que stos trabajan da y noche) con la de los trabajadores en todas partes del mundo (43). Los criollos son cuidadosos y gentiles con sus esclavos, etc, etc (44). Acusa a los Amis des Noirs de ser los causantes de la revuelta de los esclavos (44). Se refiere a los Contrarrevolucionarios (la tesis del complot monarquico), (44). OJO: One must find the reason, at last, in the character of all the ignorant populace, principally in the Negroes, like machines which can be easier be made start than to stop! These are the causes which started, accelerated, and prolonged the revolt, and destroyed the most beautiful country upon the earth. (44) Los atacan con flechas (61). Atacan a un jefe negro en su supuesto seraglio (62) Una negra quiere arracarles los ojos a los militares blancos. En otra ocasin se disfrazan de negros (se pintan la cara) y uno de los sirvientes finje ser el comandante del grupo (62). El protagonista combate con un negro mondongue. Otro soldado mata al negro. Varias referencias irnicas a la pica clsica (64) Contina el relato. Habla de Candi, viene a rendirse el lder mulato que sacaba los ojos a sus prisioneros blancos (70)

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