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Assignment 6 1) The effect of alcohol on useful consciousness: Ten pilots performed tasks at a simulated altitude of 25,000 feet.

Each pilot performed the tasks in a completely sober condition and, three days later, after drinking alcohol. The response variable is the time in seconds of useful performance of the tasks for each condition. The longer a pilot spends on useful performance, the better. The research hypothesis is that useful performance time decreases with alcohol use. The data are as follows: Pilot No Alcohol Alcohol 1 261 185 2 565 375 3 900 310 4 630 240 5 280 215 6 365 420 7 400 405 8 735 205 9 430 255 10 900 500 Graph these data. What are the null and alternative hypotheses? What is the appropriate statistical test and why? Do that test using SPSS and report the results in APA format, including the effect size. Interpret the results in words. Paired Samples Statistics Mean N Std. Deviation Noalcohol Alcohol 546.6000 311.0000 10 10 238.81197 108.03292

Pair 1

Std. Error Mean 75.51897 34.16301

Mean

Paired Samples Test Paired Differences Std. Std. 95% Confidence Deviation Error Interval of the Mean Difference Lower Upper

d f

Sig. (2tailed )

Noalcoho Pai 235.6000 227.4990 71.9415 72.8569 398.3430 lr1 0 6 2 8 2 Alcohol

3.27 9 5

.010

Null: There is no difference in performance when pilots are given alcohol, compared to when they are flying sober. Alternative: There is a decrease in performance when pilots are given alcohol, versus when they fly sober. Use a: One directional Paired t-test, because: Were doing a within-subjects experimental design. o Each participant has two pairs of scores. Were making a one-directional hypothesis.

t(9) = 3.28, p = 0.005 (one-tailed), r^2 = .54

Our experiment supports the idea that there is a significant decrease in performance when pilots are given alcohol, versus when they fly sober. According to the effect size coefficient, a large amount of the variance and magnitude on performance can be attributed to the treatment of alcohol.

2) A researcher wanted to determine whether fear of spiders is specific to real spiders or whether pictures of spiders can evoke similar levels of anxiety. Twenty four subjects participated in the study. Twelve were asked to handle a spider and their anxiety level was measured. Twelve other subjects were shown pictures of a spider and their anxiety level was measured. Larger numbers represent greater anxiety. The results are shown below. Picture of Spider Real Spider 30 40 35 35 45 50 40 55 50 65 35 55 55 50 25 35 30 30 45 50 40 60 50 39 Graph these data. What are the null and alternative hypotheses? What is the appropriate statistical test and why? Do that test using SPSS and report the results in APA format, including the effect size. Interpret the results in words. Null: There is no difference on anxiety between participants given a picture of a spider or participants handling a real spider. Alternative: There is a difference on anxiety between participants given a picture of a spider or participants handling a real spider. Use a: Two-directional T-test of independent groups, because: We have two different indepdent treatments, for a between-subjects experiment. Groups observed indepdently. Data seems normally distributed. SPSS tells us the two groups are similarly varied. Were not making a directional hypothesis.

GroupSpider Picture of Spider Real Spider Eeek

Group Statistics N Mean 12 12 40.0000 47.0000

Std. Deviation 9.29320 11.02889

AnxietyLevel

Std. Error Mean 2.68272 3.18377

t(22)= -1.681, p < .107 ( two-tailed ). The significance level (2-tailed) was not less than 0.05 ( 0.107), meaning that theres no significant difference on anxiety on a participants who see a picture of a spider versus those who handle a real spider. Theres no need to report an effect level, because the null hypothesis was not disapproved.