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GSM

Architecture of the GSM System

GSM-elements & interfaces

System Architecture: Radio Subsystem

Mobile Station (MS) ( )

Mobile Station (MS)

Block Diagram of BTS with TRX

Block Diagram of BTS Contd Contd.


Transmitter/Receiver Module The TRX consists of a low-frequency part for digital signal processing and a high-frequency part for GMSK modulation and demodulation. The operations and maintenance (O&M) module connected directly to the BSC by means of a specifically ifi ll assigned i d O&M channel. h l That allows the O&M module to process the y into the commands from the BSC or the MSC directly BTS and to report the results O&M module provides a human-machine interface (HMI), which allows for local control of the BTS.

BTS & BSC

Block Diagram of BSC

BSC Contd.
Terminal Control Elements (TCEs)
Abis-Interface Terminal Control Elements
Abis-TCEs are to set up LAPD connections toward the BTS peers, the transfer of signaling data, and lastbut not leastthe transparent transfer of payload. l d

A-Interface Terminal Control Elements


Th The connection ti of f a BSC to t the th MSC i is established via the A-TCEs. g up p and operating p g the SS7/SCCP A-TCEs is setting connection toward the MSC.

BSC Contd.
Database (DB)
maintenance status of the whole BSS, the quality of the radio resources and terrestrial resources, and so on are dynamically administrated BSC database contains the complete BTS operations software for all attached BTSs and all BSS specific information,such as assigned frequencies.

BSC Contd.
Central Module
One of the major tasks of the BSC is to decide when a handover should take place place. The BSC may decide on intra-BTS handover and intraBSC handover without needing g the MSC. In contrast, for all BSC external handovers, the BSC needs to involve the MSC. Handover decision and power control are main tasks of the central module.

Transcoding Rate and Adaptation U i (TRAU) Unit


The task of the TRAU is to compress or decompress speech between the MS and the TRAU. TRAU
called regular pulse excitationlong term prediction (RPE-LTP) (RPE LTP)

It is able to compress speech from 64 Kbps to 16 Kbps


Fullrate channel (net bit rate with fullrate is 13 Kbps) and to 8 Kbps in the case of a halfrate channel (net bit rate with halfrate is 6.5 Kbps)

Possible Sites for TRAU

System Architecture: Network and S i hi S Switching Subsystem b

Home Location Register (HLR)


Home Location Register manages the mobile subscribers database which stores
subscriber information part of the mobile location information International Mobile subscriber Identity Mobile station ISDN Number
It is the subscriber number commonly used

VLR address

Visitor Location Register (VLR)


Dynamically stores subscriber information, needed to handle incoming/outgoing calls, which includes,
Mobile Station Roaming Number
When a roaming mobile enters an MSC area. This MSC warns the associated VLR of this situation; the mobile enters a registration procedure through which it is assigned a mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN)

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity, if applicable The location area in which the mobile has been registered Data related to supplementary service parameters

MSC & VLR

MSC & G-MSC G MSC

The NSS hierarchy

The NSS

AUC/EIR
Authentication Center(s) (AUC)
Providing the authentication key used for authorizing the subscriber access to the associated GSM PLMN.

Equipment Identity Register(s) (EIR)


Handling H dli M Mobile bil St Station ti E Equipment i t Id Identity tit

Equipment Identity Register(s) (EIR)

White list: contains all the approved types of mobile stations Black list: contains those IMEIs known to be stolen or to be barred for technical reasons Gray list: allows tracing of the related mobile stations

Numbering Arrangement in GSM


International Mobile Subscriber Identification number (IMSI)
It identifies a unique international universal number of a mobile subscriber, subscriber which consists of MCC+MNC+MSIN MCC+MNC+MSIN. 1) MCC: country code, 460 2MNC: network code, 00 or 01 , H1H2H3H4 9XXXXXX, , 3MSIN: subscriber identification, H1H2H3H4: subscriber registering place H1H2: assigned by the P&T Administrative Bureau (operator )to different provinces, to each province H3H4: assigned by each province/city the IMSI of user will be written into the SIM card by specific ifi d device i and d software ft and db be stored t di into t th the HLR with other user information.

Numbering Arrangement in GSM


Mobile Subscriber ISDN NumberMSISDN

It is the subscriber number commonly used. China uses the TDMA independent numbering plan: CC+NDC+ H1H2H3H4 +ABC CC: country code, 86 NDC: network code, 135139, 130 H1H2H3H4: HLR identification code ABCD: mobile subscriber number inside each HLR

Numbering Arrangement in GSM


International Mobile Equipment Identification code (IMEI)

It will uniquely identify a mobile station. It is a decimal number of 15 digits. g Its structure is: TAC+FAC+SNR+SP TAC=model ratification code, 6 digits FAC=factory assembling code, 2 digits SNR SNR=sequence code, d 6 di digits it SP=reserved, 1 digit

Numbering Arrangement in GSM


Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN)
The MSRN is temporarily distributed to the subscriber by the VLR according to the request by the HLR when this subscriber is called. called The MSRN is released and can be assigned to other subscriber later. CC + NDC + 00 + M1M2M3 + ABC CC: country code, 86 NDC mobile NDC: bil network t k code, d 135139, 135 139 130 M1M2: same as the H2H3 of MSISDN ABC: 000 -- 999

Numbering Arrangement in GSM


Temporarily Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (TMSI)

To insure the IMSI security, security the VLR will assign an unique TMSI number for the accessed subscriber. It is used locally only and is a 4-byte 4 b te TMSI number n mber BCD code. code

OSI Reference Model

Data Flow in OSI Reference Model

Layer Structure in GSM

Layer Structure in GSM

GSM- Air Interface GSM

The Air InterfaceInterface Um


Allocated bands:
GSM900:
Uplink: 890915 MHz (= mobile station to base station) Downlink: 935960 MHz (= base station to mobile station).

GSM1800 (previously: DCS-1800):


Uplink: 17101785 MHz Downlink: 18051880 MHz

GSM1900 (previously: PCS-1900):


Uplink: 18501910 MHz Downlink: 19301990 MHz

The Air InterfaceInterface Um Contd. Contd


The method chosen by GSM is a combination of time- and frequencydivision multiple access (TDMA/FDMA) The FDMA part involves the division by frequency of the (maximum) 25 MHz allocated bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies spaced 200 kHz apart

GSM-TDMA/FDMA GSM TDMA/FDMA Structure

The Air InterfaceInterface Um Contd. Contd


One or more carrier frequencies q are assigned g to each base station Each of these carrier frequencies is then divided in time time, using a TDMA scheme
The fundamental unit of time in this TDMA scheme is called a burst period and it lasts approx. 0.577 ms Eight burst periods are grouped into a TDMA frame (approx. 4.615 ms) which forms the basic unit for the definition of logical channels One physical channel is one burst period per TDMA frame

The Air InterfaceInterface Um Contd. Contd

Carrier Frequencies, Duplexing & TDMA frames f

GSM Frame Hierarchy

GSM- Frame Structure GSM

GSM Bursts GSM-Bursts

Uplink & Downlink S Syncronization i i


For technical reasons, it is necessary that the MS and th BTS do the d not t transmit t it simultaneously. i lt l Th Therefore, f the th MS is transmitting three timeslots after the BTS.
The time between sending and receiving data is used by the MS to perform various measurements on the signal quality of the receivable neighbor cells.

RandomAccessBurst
TB 8
Synchronizationsequence 41 Data(RACH) 36 TB 3 GP 68.25

88 bits

~35 Km (Max)

UP / Down-Link

Uplink

Downlink

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GSM-Logical GSM Logical Channels

GSM-Logical GSM Logical Channels

Mapping of Logical Channel onto Ph i l Channel Physical Ch l An A E Example l

GSM Mapping Example (DL)

GSM Mapping Example (UL)

Air Interface Protocols

Air Interface Protocols

Air Interface Protocols

Block diagram of the base scenarios i