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Article 2: An integrative framework for understanding cross-national human resource management practices Summary: Level of competition has been

increased at both national and international level and the growth of new markets such as in Eastern Europe, China, India, South East Asia, and Latin America and the growth of new international business areas. In nowadays managers and policymakers need to know how human resources are managed in different regions of the world. It is also important to have an understanding about the main determinants of HRM policies and practices in different regional and national settings. This article focuses on to develop the framework, and proposed framework for cross-national HRM comparisons and finally the workability of framework is discussed here. Then here four comparative management frameworks are discussed that are classifies into four categories. 1. Economic development approach: It developed by Harbison and Meyers (1959) and based on the premise that managerial input plays a significant role in achieving rapid industrial and economic development. 2. Environmental approach: That was proposed by Farmer and Richman (1965) and based on the assumption that managerial effectiveness is a function of external environmental factors (such as sociocultural, legalpolitical, economic and educational). Compared to the economic development approach, which primarily focuses on the economic factors in the environment, this approach assumes that there is a much more sophisticated set of determinants and conceptualizes the environment in a much broader framework. 3. The behavioral approach: This was developed from the work of scholars working in the field of organizational behavior (such as Barrett & Bass, 1970; Davis, 1971; Haire, Ghiselli, & Porter, 1966). It is based on the assumption that management practices, as well as managerial effectiveness, depend on cultural variables such as attitudes, beliefs, values systems, behavioral patterns, management philosophies, and so forth. Variables in this approach are operational in terms of attitude and values scales (Nath, 1988). 4. Open systems approach: It is used to conceptualize organizations and their interaction with the environment. Negandhi (1975, 1983) describes three kinds of environments in this regard: organizational (which deals with variables such as size, technology), task (which includes distributors, suppliers, employees, government, stockholders, and community), and societal (the macro environment explained in the environmental approach). This article presented the range of main national factors that create a metalogic for HRM and their various components. We have also delineated the important contingent variables and outlined the organizational and HR policies and strategies, which determine HRM policies and practices in a cross-national context. Different configurations of cultural, institutional, industry sector or business dynamic basically change the specific impact that the individual contingency factors have. Also understanding the complex interactions and causes-and-effect relationships between these different sets of metalogic factors, contingent variables and organizational strategies and policies now plays a crucial role in highlighting the cross-national but context-specific nature of HRM in different settings. By having view it enabled us to understand why the impact of certain factors and variables on HRM in India and Britain is similar or different. Such an evaluation is useful

for policymakers to form appropriate HRM policies and practices. For academics, this can act as a reference point for future similar evaluations.

Article 3 Human Resource Configurations: Investigating Fit With the Organizational Context Summary: The present study investigated how key organizational contextual factors relate to bundles of human resource (HR) practices. In a two-phase study of a sample of 661 organizations representing a full range of industries and organizational size, the authors found that organizations use 1 of 5 HR bundles: cost minimizers, contingent motivators, competitive motivators, resource makers, and commitment maximizers. In addition, the authors showed that the organizations that use a given type of HR bundle may be distinguished by the organizational values they pursue and their organizational structure, thus suggesting that HR choices are related to the context within which organizations operate.