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Vertical angles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Two lines intersect to create two pairs of vertical angles. One pair consists of angles A and B; the second pair consists of angles C and D.
In geometry, a pair of angles is said to be vertical (also opposite and vertically opposite, which is abbreviated as vert. opp. s[1]) if the angles are formed from two intersecting linesand the angles are not adjacent. The two angles share a vertex. Such angles are equal inmeasure and can be described as "equal" (in the UK or the USA) or "congruent" (in the USA).[2]

Vertical angle theorem

When two straight lines intersect at a point, four angles are made. The non-adjacent angles are called vertical or opposite or vertically opposite angles. Also, each pair of adjacent angles forms a straight line and the two angles are supplementary.[3] Since either of a pair of vertical angles is supplementary to either of the adjacent angles, the vertical angles are equal in measure. Eudemus of Rhodes attributed the proof of this theorem to Thales of Miletus. According to a historical Note,[4] when Thales visited Egypt, he observed that whenever the Egyptians drew two intersecting lines, they would measure the vertical angles to make sure that they were equal. Thales concluded that one could prove that all vertical angles are equal if one accepted some general notions such as: all straight angles are equal, equals added to equals are equal, and equals subtracted from equals are equal.

Algebraic solution for Vertical Angles

In the figure, assume the measure of Angle A = x. When two adjacent angles form a straight line, they are supplementary. Therefore, the measure of Angle C = 180 x. Similarly, the measure of Angle D = 180 x. Both Angle C and Angle D have measures equal to 180 - x and are congruent. Since Angle B is supplementary to both Angles C and D, either of these angle measures may be used to determine the measure of Angle B. Using the measure of either Angle C or Angle D we find the measure of Angle B = 180 - (180 - x) = 180 - 180 + x = x. Therefore, both Angle A and Angle B have measures equal to x and are equal in measure.

Vertical Angles
Vertical Angles are the angles opposite each other when two lines cross
"Vertical" in this case means they share the same Vertex (corner point), not the usual meaning of updown. In this example, a and b are vertical angles. The interesting thing here is that vertical angles are equal:

a = b
(in fact they are congruent angles) Have a play with them yourself, notice how the 4 angles are actually two pairs of "vertical angles":

View Larger

Example: Find angles a, b and c below:

Because b is vertically opposite 40, it must also be 40 A full circle is 360, so that leaves 360 - 240 = 280 Angles a and c are also vertical angles, so must be equal, which means they are 140 each.

Answer: a = 140, b = 40 and c = 140.

The importance of reading

On many of the other pages of advice on this site I have emphasized how important reading is as far as learning English is concerned. However, there is a further, very important reason why ESL students should try to develop their reading skills: Educational researchers have found that there is a strong correlation between reading and academic success.* In other words, a student who is a good reader is more likely to do well in school and pass exams than a student who is a weak reader. Good readers can understand the individual sentences and the organizational structure of a piece of writing. They can comprehend ideas, follow arguments, and detect implications. They know most of the words in the text already, but they can also determine the meaning of many of the unfamiliar words from the context - failing this, they can use their dictionary effectively to do so. In summary, good readers can extract from the writing what is important for the particular task they are employed in. And they can do it quickly! Educational researchers have also found a strong correlation between reading and vocabulary knowledge. In other words, students who have a large vocabulary are usually good readers. This is not very surprising, since the best way to acquire a large vocabulary is to read extensively, and if you read extensively you are likely to be or become a good reader! So if you want your child to be successful at school encourage him or her to read. Reading non-fiction in English is probably the most important, but English fiction and any reading in the mother tongue - if done extensively - will help your child develop the reading competence that is essential for academic achievement. The graphic below illustrates the interdependence of vocabulary, reading ability and academic success.

* "Research findings in applied linguistics and reading research consistently show a strong correlation between reading proficiency and academic success at all ages, from the primary school right through to university level: students who read a lot and who understand what they read usually attain good grades." Pretorius, E.

The Importance Of Reading

The importance of reading is usually accepted by those who can read. It is interesting to see that the most visited page on our site is the "Why Is Reading Important?" page. Two of the three most popular key words used to find our site are: why is reading important and why reading is important. Many people seem to be wondering how vital reading is in our modern society. Let's look briefly at the importance of reading in the four stages of life. The first stage is birth through grade one. Studies show that a child develops 80% of the attitudes, values, fears, and loyalties that he will carry through life during this time. It is a tremendously important time in a person's life. Also it is the time of the greatest learning curve. A child is learning primary relationships, eating, balance [walking], language, and a hundred other foundational things. There is no reason why, when a person's mind is so open to learning, that they should not be taught to read. Public, and many private schools, try to teach children to read by the end of grade 3. Most children between the ages of 4 and 7 can learn to read very well and so ideally they should enter school already reading. [Note: If the school is not prepared to handle children who can already read, then other problems may develop; however, I do not believe holding a child back and limiting their potential is the right answer. We cannot downplay the importance of reading early just because others do not focus on it.] The second stage is the mastery of academic subjects which is taught from grades two through grades 6. In the public, and many private schools, attention is switched from reading to other subjects at the end of grade 3. Any student who is struggling with reading at this point is a candidate for being left behind or put in a special education class when their only real problem is that they have not been taught to read [that's not their fault]. In any case, during this stage of learning students need to master reading, grammar, concrete math, and build on foundational knowledge. The third state is from grades seven through twelve. It is during this period that students are introduced to more abstract concepts in their studies. Again, if they have not mastered reading and the concrete math facts by this time they are likely to struggle in all subjects.

The fourth stage is when they complete school. They can then apply all they have learned so far to further education or to life management skills. Lack of reading skills here can hinder employment, gaining new knowledge, relationships, and the pure pleasure of reading.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tropical forests and high-altitude regions often have high humidity.

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gas phase of water and is invisible.[1] Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporationof moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table, used during summer weather. There are three main measurements of humidity: absolute, relative and specific. Absolute humidity is the water content of air.

Relative humidity, expressed as a percent, measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum for that air

pressure and temperature. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor content of the mixture to the total air content on a mass basis.

Absolute humidity
Absolute humidity is an amount of water vapor, usually discussed per unit volume. The mass of water vapor, volume of total air and water vapor mixture, , can be expressed as follows: , per unit

Absolute humidity in air ranges from zero to roughly 30 grams per cubic meter when the air is saturated at 30 C.[3] (See alsoClimate/Humidity table) The absolute humidity changes as air temperature or pressure changes. This is very inconvenient for chemical engineering calculations, e.g. for clothes dryers, where temperature can vary considerably. As a result, absolute humidity is generally defined in chemical engineering as mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air, also known as the mass mixing ratio (see below), which is much more rigorous for heat and mass balance calculations. Mass of water per unit volume as in

the equation above would then be defined asvolumetric humidity. Because of the potential confusion, British Standard BS 1339 (revised 2002) suggests avoiding the term "absolute humidity". Units should always be carefully checked. Most humidity charts are given in g/kg or kg/kg, but any mass units may be used. The field concerned with the study of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures is named Psychrometrics.



Main article: Relative humidity Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at those conditions. The relative humidity of air depends not only on temperature but also on pressure of the system of interest. Relative humidity is normally expressed as a percentage and is calculated by using the following equation. It is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor (H2O) a prescribed temperature.

in the mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water


Relative humidity is an important metric used in weather forecasts and reports, as it is an indicator of the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. In hot summer weather, a rise in relative humidity increases the apparent temperature to humans (and other animals) by hindering the evaporation of perspiration from the skin. For example, according to the Heat Index, a relative humidity of 75% at 80F (27C) would feel like 83.574F 1.3 F (28.652C 0.7 C) at ~44% relative humidity.[4][5]


, per unit mass of dry air

Specific humidity is the ratio of water vapor to dry air in a particular mass, and is sometimes referred to as humidity ratio. Specific humidity ratio is expressed as a ratio of mass of water vapor, That ratio is defined as: .

Specific humidity can be expressed in other ways including:


Using the definition of specific humidity, the relative humidity can be expressed as

However, specific humidity is also defined as the ratio of water vapor to the total mass of the system in meteorology.[7] "Mixing ratio" is used to name the definition in this section beginning.[8]


A hygrometer

There are various devices used to measure and regulate humidity. A device used to measure humidity is called a psychrometer or hygrometer. A humidistat is a humidity-triggered switch, often used to control a dehumidifier. Humidity is also measured on a global scale using remotely placed satellites. These satellites are able to detect the concentration of water in the troposphere at altitudes between 4 and 12 kilometers. Satellites that can measure water vapor have sensors that are sensitive to infrared radiation. Water vapor specifically absorbs and re-radiates radiation in this spectral band. Satellite water vapor imagery plays an important role in monitoring climate conditions (like the formation of thunderstorms) and in the development of futureweather forecasts.

See also: Greenhouse Effect, Precipitation (meteorology), and Humid subtropical climate While humidity itself is a climate variable, it also interacts strongly with other climate variables. The humidity is affected by winds and by rainfall. At the same time, humidity affects the energy budget and thereby influences temperatures in two major ways. First, water vapor in the atmosphere contains "latent" energy. During transpiration or evaporation, this latent heat is removed from surface liquid, cooling the earth's surface. This is the biggest non-radiative cooling

effect at the surface. It compensates for roughly 70% of the average net radiative warming at the surface. Second, water vapor is the most important of allgreenhouse gases. Water vapor, like a green lens that allows green light to pass through it but absorbs red light, is a "selective absorber". Along with other greenhouse gases, water vapor is transparent to most solar energy, as you can literally see. But it absorbs the infrared energy emitted (radiated) upward by the earth's surface, which is the reason that humid areas experience very little nocturnal cooling but dry desert regions cool considerably at night. This selective absorption causes the greenhouse effect. It raises the surface temperature substantially above its theoretical radiative equilibrium temperature with the sun, and water vapor is the cause of more of this warming than any other greenhouse gas. The most humid cities on earth are generally located closer to the equator, near coastal regions. Cities in South and Southeast Asiaare among the most humid, such as Kolkata, Chennai and Cochin in India, the cities of Manila in the Philippines, Mogadishu in Somaliaand Bangkok in Thailand and extremely humid Lahore in Pakistan: these places experience extreme humidity during their rainy seasons combined with warmth giving the feel of a lukewarm sauna.[9] Darwin, Australia experiences an extremely humid wet season from December to April. Shanghai and Hong Kong in China also have an extreme humid period in their summer months. Kuala Lumpurand Singapore have very high humidity all year round because of their proximity to water bodies and the equator and overcast weather. Perfectly clear days are dependent largely upon the season in which one decides to travel. During the South-west and North-east Monsoon seasons (respectively, late May to September and November to March), expect heavy rains and a relatively high humidity post-rainfall. Outside the monsoon seasons, humidity is high (in comparison to countries North of the Equator), but completely sunny days abound. In cooler places such as Northern Tasmania, Australia, high humidity is experienced all year due to the ocean between mainland Australia and Tasmania. In the summer the hot dry air is absorbed by this ocean and the temperature rarely climbs above35 C (95 F). In the United States the most humid cities, strictly in terms of relative humidity, are Forks and Olympia, Washington.[10] This fact may come as a surprise to many, as the climate in this region rarely exhibits the discomfort usually associated with high humidity. This is because high dew points play a more significant role than relative humidity in discomfort, and so the air in these western cities usually does not feel "humid" as a result. In general, dew points are much lower in the Western U.S. than those in the Eastern U.S. The highest dew points in the US are found in coastal Florida and Texas. When comparing Key West and Houston, two of the most humid cities from those states, coastal Florida seems to have the higher dew points on average. However, Houston lacks the coastal breeze present in Key West, and, as a much larger city, it suffers from the urban heat island effect.[11] A dew point of 88 F (31 C) was recorded in Moorhead Minnesota on July 19, 2011, with a heat index of

133.5, although dew points over 80 F (27 C) are rare there.[12]The US city with the lowest annual humidity is Las Vegas, Nevada, averaging 39% for a high and 21% as a low.[13]


density and volume

Main articles: Volume (thermodynamics) and Density of air Humidity depends on water vaporization and condensation, which, in turn, mainly depends on temperature. Therefore, when applying more pressure to a gas saturated with water, all components will initially decrease in volume approximately according to the ideal gas law. However, some of the water will condense until returning to almost the same humidity as before, giving the resulting total volume deviating from what the ideal gas law predicted. Conversely, decreasing temperature would also make some water condense, again making the final volume deviate from predicted by the ideal gas law. Therefore, gas volume may alternatively be expressed as the dry volume, excluding the humidity content. This fraction more accurately follows the ideal gas law. On the contrary the saturated volume is the volume a gas mixture would have if humidity was added to it until saturation (or 100% relative humidity). Humid air is less dense than dry air because a molecule of water (M 18 u ) is less massive than either a molecule of nitrogen (M 28) or a molecule of oxygen (M 32). About 78% of the molecules in dry air are nitrogen (N2). Another 21% of the molecules in dry air are oxygen (O2). The final 1% of dry air is a mixture of other gases. For any gas, at a given temperature and pressure, the number of molecules present in a particular volume is constant see ideal gas law. So when water molecules (vapor) are introduced into that volume of dry air, the number of air molecules in the volume must decrease by the same number, if the temperature and pressure remain constant. (The addition of water molecules, or any other molecules, to a gas, without removal of an equal number of other molecules, will necessarily require a change in temperature, pressure, or total volume; that is, a change in at least one of these three parameters. If temperature and pressure remain constant, the volume increases, and the dry air molecules that were displaced will initially move out into the additional volume, after which the mixture will eventually become uniform through diffusion.) Hence the mass per unit volume of the gasits densitydecreases. Isaac Newtondiscovered this phenomenon and wrote about it in his book Opticks.[14]

[edit]Effects [edit]Animals

and plants

Humidity is one of the fundamental abiotic factors that defines any habitat, and is a determinant of which animals and plants can thrive in a given environment.[15] The human body dissipates heat through perspiration and its evaporation. Heat convection to the surrounding air, and thermal radiationare the primary modes of heat transport from the body. Under conditions of high humidity, the rate of evaporation of sweat from the skin decreases.

Also, if the atmosphere is as warm as or warmer than the skin during times of high humidity, blood brought to the body surface cannot dissipate heat by conduction to the air, and a condition called hyperpyrexia results. With so much blood going to the external surface of the body, relatively less goes to the active muscles, the brain, and other internal organs. Physical strength declines, and fatigue occurs sooner than it would otherwise. Alertness and mental capacity also may be affected, resulting in heat stroke orhyperthermia.



Humans are sensitive to humid air because the human body uses evaporative cooling as the primary mechanism to regulate temperature. Under humid conditions, the rate at which perspiration evaporates on the skin is lower than it would be under arid conditions. Because humans perceive the rate of heat transfer from the body rather than temperature itself, we feel warmer when the relative humidity is high than when it is low. Some people experience difficulty breathing in high humidity environments. Some cases may possibly be related to respiratory conditions such as asthma, while others may be the product of anxiety. Sufferers will often hyperventilate in response, causing sensations of numbness, faintness, and loss of concentration, among others.[16] Air conditioning reduces discomfort in the summer not only by reducing temperature, but also by reducing humidity. In winter, heating cold outdoor air can decrease relative humidity levels indoor to below 30%, leading to discomfort such as dry skin and excessive thirst.

Many electronic devices have humidity specifications, for example, 5% to 95%. At the top end of the range, moisture may increase the conductivity of permeable insulators leading to malfunction. Too low humidity may make materials brittle. A particular danger to electronic items, regardless of the stated operating humidity range, is condensation. When an electronic item is moved from a cold place (e.g., garage, car, shed, an air conditioned space in the tropics) to a warm humid place (house, outside tropics), condensation may coat circuit boards and other insulators, leading to short circuit inside the equipment. Such short circuits may cause substantial permanent damage if the equipment is powered on before the condensation has evaporated. A similar condensation effect can often be observed when a person wearing glasses comes in from the cold (i.e. the glasses become foggy).[17] It is advisable to allow electronic equipment to acclimatise for several hours, after being brought in from the cold, before powering on. Some electronic devices can detect such a change and indicate, when plugged in and usually with a small droplet symbol, that they cannot be used until the risk from condensation has passed. In situations where time is critical, increasing air flow through the device's internals when, such as removing the side panel from a PC case and directing a fan to blow into the case will reduce significantly the time needed to acclimatise to the new environment.

On the opposite, very low humidity level favors the buildup of static electricity, which may result in spontaneous shutdown of computers when discharges occur. Apart from spurious erratic function, electrostatic discharges can cause dielectric breakdown in solid state devices, resulting in irreversible damage. Data centers often monitor relative humidity levels for these reasons.



Traditional building designs typically had weak insulation, and it allowed air moisture to flow freely between the interior and exterior. The energy-efficient, heavily-sealed architecture introduced in the 20th century also sealed off the movement of moisture, and this has resulted in a secondary problem of condensation forming in and around walls, which encourages the development of mold and mildew. Additionally, buildings with foundations not properly sealed will allow water to flow through the walls due to capillary action of pores found in masonry products. Solutions for energy-efficient buildings that avoid condensation are a current topic of architecture.


Breanne Young Environment, all of the external factors affecting an organism. These factors may

be other living organisms/biotic factors or nonliving variables/abiotic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, day length, wind, and ocean currents. The connections of organisms with biotic and abiotic factors form the ecosystem. Even minute changes in any one factor in an ecosystem can influence whether or not a particular plant or animal species will be triamphant in its environment. 2. ENVIRONMENT 3. ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC INTERACTIONS Organisms and their environment always interact. Both are changed by this

interaction. Like all other living creatures, humans have clearly changed the environment but they have done so generally on a grander scale than have all other species. Some of these human-induced change such as the destruction of the worlds tropical rain forests to create farms or grazing land for cattle have led to altered climate patterns. In turn, altered climate patterns have changed the way animals and plants are distributed in different ecosystems. 4. THE INTERACTION 5. EXAMPLETHE NITROGEN CYCLE The term "interaction" is used by ecologist in many different contexts, and

clarification is required before proceeding. Almost all definitions and discussions of ecosystems refer, in some manner, to communities of organisms interacting with each

other and with biogeochemical factors that collectively represent the environment. 6. INTERACTION 7. RELATIONSHIP CYCLE 8. THE CARBON AND OXYGEN CYCLES In the picture, the cow together with the trees make up the environment. Their

interaction with each other is through the Oxygen Cycle. The animals releases carbon dioxide which plants use to make oxygen and the oxygen supplies the animals to support them with carbon dioxide 9. From the viewpoint of biology, abiotic influences may be classified as light or more

generally radiation, temperature, water, the chemical surrounding composed of the terrestrial atmospheric gases, as well as soil. The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above. Not to mention pressure and even sound waves if working with marine, or deep underground, biome. Theses are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment which affect ecosystems. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology. Abiotic factors, while generally downplayed, can have enormous impact on evolution. Abiotic components are aspects of geodiversity. They can also be recognised as "abiotic pathogens". Abiotic components are the nonliving components of the biosphere. Chemical and geological factors, such as rocks and minerals, and physical factors, such as temperature and weather, are referred to as abiotic components. 10. ABIOTIC FACTORS These environmental factors are abiotic factors. When a variety of species are

present in such an ecosystem, the consequent actions of these species can affect the lives of fellow species in the area, these factors are deemed biotic factors. When an ecosystem is barren and unoccupied, new organisms colonising the environment rely on favourable environmental conditions in the area to allow them to successfully live and reproduce. Abiotic factors are essentially non-living components that effect the living organisms of the freshwater community. 11. Any nonliving thing is an abiotic factor. 1. oxygen 2. carbon dioxide 3. sunlight,

temperature 4. wind 5.water In a very simplistic form it is the availability of suitable abiotic environment that provides the conditions for a distinct biotic community to exist. Importantly thought, the biotic community can greatly influence and even change the abiotic one. 12. ABIOTIC FACTORS ON EARTH

social factors - include land use, water resources, etc. edaphic factors - include

the nature and type of the soil, geology of the land, etc. climatic factors - include sunlight, humidity, temperature, atmosphere, etc. 13. ABIOTIC FACTORS Abiotic factors may be grouped into the following main categories: Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2o. A water molecule

contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co- exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. 14. THE DIFFERENT ABIOTIC FACTORS Oxygen (O) is a chemical element. In nature, oxygen is a gas with no color or

smell. Oxygen is a very important element because it is a part of the air people breathe and the water people drink. Because of this, oxygen supports life. All living things (including humans) need oxygen to live. 15. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as

sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by the clouds or reflects off of other objects, it is experienced as diffused light. Sunlight, in the broad sense, is the total frequency spectrum of electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, particularly infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through the Earths atmosphere, and solar radiation is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. 16. Wind is often defined as the horizontal movement of air relative to the earths

surface. All winds, from gentle breezes to raging hurricanes, are caused by differences in the temperature of the atmosphere, by rotation of the Earth, and by unequal heating of the continents and the oceans. The sun heats the earths surfaces unevenly. Air above hot areas expands and rises. Air from cooler areas then flows in to replace the heated air. This process is called circulation. Wind is air that moves over the earths surface. Wind is moving air. Wind can move so softly that it can hardly be felt. Or it may blow so hard and fast that it smashes over trees and buildings. 17. Natural sources of CO2 occur within the carbon cycle where billions of tons of

atmospheric CO2 are removed from the atmosphere b Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted in a number of ways. It is emitted naturally through the carbon cycle and through human activities like the burning of fossil fuels. 18. y oceans and growing plants, also known as sinks, and are emitted back into the atmosphere annually through natural processes also

known as sources. When in balance, the total carbon dioxide emissions and removals from the entire carbon cycle are roughly equal Biotic factors interact as : Producers, consumers, detrivores, decomposers,

parasite, host, predator, competitor, herbivore, symbiant and pathogen. This is a lot more than just listing the plants, animals or micro-organisms found in an ecosystem. It includes the roles played by the organisms. Biotic components are contrasted to abiotic components, which are non-living components of an organisms environment, such as temperature, light, moisture, air currents, etc. are the living things that shape an ecosystem. A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism, including animals that consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism consumes. Each biotic factor needs energy to do work and food for proper growth. Biotic factors include human influence. The living components of an ecosystem are known as the biotic factors - living biological factors that influence the other organsims or environment of an ecosystem. 19. BIOTIC FACTORS The Impact of Changing Factors If a single factor is changed, perhaps by pollution

or natural phenomenon, the whole system could be altered. For example, humans can alter environments through farming or irrigating. While we usually cannot see what we are doing to various ecosytems, the impact is being felt all over. For example, acid rain in certain regions has resulted in the decline of fish population. Biotic Factors Biotic, meaning of or related to life, are living factors. Plants, animals, fungi, protist and bacteria are all biotic or living factors. 20. Biotic factors are all organisms in an ecological setting. Things that are considered

alive are biotic factors when studying the cycles of ecosystems and how environments function as a whole. This refers to animals, plants, trees and any materials they directly produce such as waste or falling leaves. The nonliving materials in an ecosystem, such as minerals, gases, liquids and chemicals are referred to as abiotic or non-biotic factors. In some ecosystems, such as jungles, the number of biotic factors is very high while the abiotic factors are relatively simple. In other places like deserts the abiotic factors are predominant and there are few biotic factors, which are all the more valuable because of the scarcity. In ecosystems, biotic factors are all living organisms and the waste that they produce. This refers to large life-forms such as trees or mammals, small life-forms such as insects and algae, and microscopic life-forms such as bacteria. These are the most diverse and easily changeable parts of ecosystems, subject to the balance of food chains and influenced by disease, pollution and abiotic conditions. 21.

Small biotics are the smaller organisms in an ecosystem, many of which feed on

the waste or living material of the larger biotics. These include lichens, algae, worms and insects, many of which provide an integral food source for the larger predators, including birds and small mammals. These biotics do not produce as much waste as the large animals or trees. Plants and animals that feed on them are the largest biotic factors in ecosystems. Plants can be as small as grass or as large as trees, depending on the area, and many different types of animals live on them. Animals that in turn feed on these animals are even larger, such as hawks, wolves and lions. While these are the most noticeable biotic parts of the ecosystem, they are often the lowest in number, smaller biotics being much more prevalent. These large biotics produce much of the waste that is also considered biotic materials, from leaves to dead bodies. 22. Although by far the smallest biotics, the microscopic organisms are some of the

most important. Plankton, viruses and bacteria are all vital microscopic biotic organism. Bacteria can either be helpful, breaking down dead organisms into nutritious matter and helping larger organisms digest food, or harmful, spreading infections. Plankton is a vital resource in ocean ecosystem, and viruses have a tremendous impact on the health of environments, although negative. 23. Both biotic and abiotic conditions can affect how an ecosystem thrives. Abiotic

factors such as light intensity or what kind of soil is present directly affect biotic systems, but also rarely change. Biotic changes can occur more easily and threaten an ecosystem more completely. A disease or unbalance of predators can change one link of the food chain, which will in turn affect all lifeforms. Abiotic factors are generally changed only by outside interference, such as pollution. 24. Here is a List of Producers: Bamboo Banana Trees Rubber Trees Cassava

Bromeliads Producers:The rain forest grows in three levels, the Canopy, which is the tallest level it has trees between 100 and 200 feet tall. The second level called the understory contains a mix of shrubs, ferns, palms, small trees and vines. The third and lowest level is the Forest floor where herbs, mosses and fungi grow. A producer is an organism that makes its own food from light energy or chemical energy. Most green plants that are one-celled organisms like slime molds and bacteria are producers. Producers are the base of the food chain. 25. THE DIFFERENT BIOTIC FACTORS Here is a list of primary consumers: Colobus Monkey Sloth Most bats Humming

birds Bees Wasps Lemurs A consumer is a living thing that eats other living things to

stay alive. It cannot make its own food like a producer but relies on producers for their source of food. There are more Primary Consumers then Secondary Consumers. 26. Here is a list of Secondary Consumers: Anteater Spiders Scorpions Secondary

Consumers:Predators in the tropical rain forest use skill, force, poisons and traps to kill their prey. Since the tropical Rain Forest has over 15 million different species of both plants and animals, and also being more primary consumers, means the secondary consumers can find food very easily. These Predators have very unique adaptations, for example the Orb-Weaving Spider found along the coast has a web so thick and strong, the web can take down a normal sized bird. Also the Boa constrictor can strangle a human. These adaptations help these secondary consumers able to hunt and survive in the forest. 27. Here is a list of Decomposers: Earthworms Fungi Termites DecomposersThey

may look like they dont do a thing but decomposers are the most important kind of species. Without Decomposers the Tropical Rain Forest would be piled high with branches, rotting trees decaying fruits. All of the decomposers team up and work together to decompose plant matter. In six weeks all of the litter would be composed, the Tropical Rain Forest Biome has the fasting working decomposers out of all other biomes. For example to decompose a log you would have termites eating it so eventually their wouldnt be any fallen branches on the ground to rot, or any organic litter. So as you can see the decomposers are very important! 28.

Interactions of Organisms
Learn about how organisms interact with eachother and with the nonliving parts of their environment and how these interactions result in the flow of energy and cycling of matter throughout the sytem.
Why Organisms Interact Organisms (including humans) interact with eachother all the time, whether we know it or not. Most of the interactions between species involve food: competing for the same food supply eating avoiding being eaten

Energy and the Food Chain A food chain does more than show who eats whom. Eating is how an animal gets energy. A food chain charts this flow of energy through the system. The Sun The ultimate source of energy is the sun. Plants (producers) use photosynthesis to use the energy from the sun to nourish themselves. Everything else in the food chain is considered a consumer. Some animals (primary consumers) eat

the plants. Some animals eat plant-eating animals (secondary consumers). Their predators are called tertiary consumers. The further away from the producers in the food chain, the less energy is obtained from the sun. A carnivore (an plant/animal that eats only meat) would be the furthest away from the sun's energy. The Predator A plant or animal that preys on other animals for food. A nasty beast, we must say. Examples of predators include polar bears, tigers, walruses, the venus flytrap and many, many more. The Prey The unlucky devil who gets eaten by the predator. They prey of a polar bear, for example, includes seals, walruses, small whales and others. Scavenger An animal that feeds on dead flesh or other decaying organic matter. They serve the purpose of removing decaying remains. Vultures are scavengers and feed on dead flesh. Symbiosis Symbiotic means, living together. This is a relationship in which in which at least one of the species benefits: Mutual - If both organisms benefit in a symbiotic relationship, it is called mutualism. Commensal - One of the organisms benefits, where the other was is unaffected. Parasitic - One of the organisms benefits, where the other one is injured.

Mutual Relationships Mutual relationships between plants and fungi are common. The fungus invades and lives in the cells of the host's roots. The fungus then helps the host plant absorb minerals from the soil. Commensal Relationships Commensal means "at the table together." A common example of a commensal relationship is that of barnacles to other marine life. One tyep of barnical attaches itself to the the the jaws of whales. Without the whale they could not live, but the whale is not hurt by their presences. Another example is the bacteria that live in our large intestines. It is harmless, but it lives off of the food in our gut.

Parasitic Relationships Animals and plants can have parasites. Some may be living and others (like viruses) can be nonliving. A parasite is an organism that lives on or in the body of another organism, from whose tissues it gets its nourishment, and to whom it does some damage. Parasites can damage their host by either causing tissue damage or delivering toxins.