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EVALUATION OF THE EDDY-CURRENT METHOD FOR THE INSPECTION OF STEAM GENERATOR TUBING
S.D. BROWN AND J.H. FLORA Battelle Columbus Laboratories

SEPTEMBER 30, 1977

PREPARED FOR THE CORROSION GROIJP DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR ENERGY BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK 11973

SPONSORED BY U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DIVISION OF ENGINEERING STANDARDS UNDER CONTRACT NO. EY-76-C-02-0016 PROJECT 10-19-02-01

DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document.

DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document.

EVALUATION OF THE EDDY-CURRENT METHOD FOR THE INSPECTION OF STEAM GENERATOR TUBING -DENTINGS.D. BROWN A N D J.H. FLORA Battelle Columbus Laboratories

SEPTEMBER 30, 1977

PREPARED FOR THE CORROSION GROUP DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR ENERGY BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON. NEW YORK 1 1 9 7 3
7 NOTICE

SPONSORED BY U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DlVlSlON.OF ENGINEERING STANDARDS UNDER CONTRACT NO. EY-76-C-02-0016 . PROJECT 10-1'9-02-01

PTRlBUTION O F ' THIS DOCUMENT IS UNLIMITHB

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N O T I C. E
I

This report was prepared as a n account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal or usefulness of any informaliability or responsibility for the accuracy, cornplrter~rs tion, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

Printed in the United Stat& of America Available from , ' ~&onal Technical Information Service . : U.S. Department of Commerce .. 5285 Port Royal Road 'Springfield, VA 22161 Price: Printed Copy $4.50; ~icrofiche $3.00

December 1977

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During t h e l a s t two years t h e phenomenon r e f e r r e d t o as d e n t i n g has become widespread i n c e r t a i n P W R steam generators.. This d e n t i n g i s caused by a runaway o x i d a t i o n o f t h e ' c a r b o n s t e e l tube support p l a t e s i n t h e c r e v i c e s between t h e 1nconel tubes and t h e support p l a t e s : The magnetite produced by t h i s runaway c o r r o s i o n e x e r t s s u f f i c i e n t force on t h e Inconel t u b i n g t o d i s t o r t i t ( d e n t As a r e s u l t o f b o t h . . these d i s t o r t i o n s , s t r e s s c o r r o s i o n c r a c k i n g .hasSbeenobserved . i n t h e Inconel i t ' ) and t o d i s t o r t t h e carbon s t e e l support p l a t e s as . w e l l . .tubing, o r i g i n a t i n g from t h e primary c o o l a n t side.
I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o determine t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e commercially used eddy

c u r r e n t techniques t o d e t e c t t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1, t h e presence o f magnetite f i l l i n g t h e t u b & - t u b i ' s u p p o r t c r e v i c e s , 2, t h e degree o f d e n t i n g present, 3, t h e presence o f s t r e s s c o r r o s i o n type d e f e c t s i n t h e dented area, and 4, t h e presence o f c o r r o s i o n induced d e f e c t s . on t h e tubes above t h e dented area, especial l y where t h e d e n t i n g i s t o o severe t o p e r m i t passage o f a 'standard eddy c u r r e n t probe. D e t e c t i n g t h e . presence o f magnetite d e p o s i t s i n t h e c r e v i c e s g i v e s t h e o p e r a t o r . o f t h e 'steam generator an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c o n d i t i o n s 1eading t o d e n t i n g may be developing. The accuracy i n measuring t h e s i z e o f small dents i n d i c a t e s t h e a b i l i t y of t h e eddy c u r r e n t i n s p e c t i o n t o determine, by i n s p e c t i o n s a t s e l e c t e d time i n t e r v a l s , t h e r a t e o f progress o f t h e d e n t i n g r e a c t i o n s , and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r a t e o f s t r a i n i n g o f the Inconel tubes and t h e carbon s t e e l supp o r t plates. The a b i l i t y o f t h e technique t o d e t e c t d e f e c t s i n t h e presence o f dents r e f l e c t s on i t s a b i l i t y t o perform i t s primary f u n c t i o n : t h e d e t e c t i o n o f wastage o r cracks b e f o r e t h e y progress t o t h e point' a t which they become a s e r i o u s hazard t o continued s a f e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e steam generator. a f f e c t s i t s continued usefulness i n p e r f o r m i n g i t s primary function. Consequently, t h e experimental program a t B a t t e l l e-Columbus ~ a b o r a t o r i e s , t h e f i r s t phase o f which was r e p o r t e d i n B N L - N U R E G - ~ O ~ I ~), R ( was ~ extended t o i n c l u d e a study o f these c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e standard eddy c u r r e n t i n s p e c t i o n equipment.
I t i s apparent t h a t t h e s i g n a l s produced by t h e dents a r e pronounced
.
.

The a b i l i t y

o f t h e technique t o d e t e c t d e f e c t s i n areas o f t h e . t u b i n g above t h e dents a l s o

iii . -

so t h a t denting has a s u b s t a n t i a l , negative i n f l u e n c e on t h e a b i l i t y o f the standard eddy c u r r e n t i n s p e c t i o n technique t o d e t e c t small, corrosion-induced defects i n t h e dented areas. A l t e r n a t e techniques a r e being developed t o overcome t h i s problem, and a r e being t e s t e d on an experimental basis 'by t h e industry; t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s were o u t s i d e t h e scope o f t h i s phase of t h e program..

Since t h e t u b i n g i s r i g i d l y supported by t h e magnetite deposits i n the dented.area, t h e presence o f a s h o r t through-wall crack i s u n l i k e l y t o l e a d t o r u p t u r e o f t h e tube, and, therefore, t o massive leakage d u r i n g t h e b r i e f pressure t r a n s i e n t s a n t i c i p a t e d t o occur i n t h e event o f a design b a s i s accident. Further, t h e cracks observed i n t h e dented areas of tubes t h a t have been r e moved t o date f o r examination, have a l l been p r i m a r i l y l o n g i t u d i n a l .
.

The l e n g t h

o f such cracks i s u n l i k e l y t o .exceed t h e thickness o f t h e support p l a t e , o r 314". Consequently,, p o s s i b l e safety concerns over t h e i n a b i 1it y o f t h e eddy c u r r e n t technique t o d e t e c t such cracks a r e countered by t h e l e s s e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e i r causing p i p e r u p t u r e i n these areas. T h i s r e p o r t represents t h e f i n d i n g s by t h e B a t t e l l e workers. The data t h a t i t contains should be u s e f u l f o r those eval u a t i ng i n - s e r v i c e i n s p e c t i o n programs and t h e r e s u l t s of these programs i n steam generators i n which d e n t i n g has been observed.

John R. Weeks Leader, Corrosion Group Brookhaven National Laboratory

REFERENCE 1. J.H. Flora, S.D. Brown and J.R. Weeks, " E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Eddy Current

Method o f I n s p e c t i n g Steam Generator Tubing", September 30, 1976.

SUMMMARY REPORT

EVALUATION OF THE EDDY-CURRENT METHOD FOR THE INSPECTION OF STEAM GENERATOR TUBING

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

September 30, 1977

S. D. Brown and J. H. F l o r a

BATTELLE Col umbus Laborator,ies 505 King Avenue Col umbus, Ohio 43201

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TABL.E OF CONTENTS

...................... .. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Denting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eddy C u r r e n t ' I n s e r v i c e I n s p e c t i o n . . . . . . . .


SUMMARY

.......... 1 . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . .' . . . . . . . . . 2 ............ 5

. .

Dent F a b r i c a t i o n . . . . . . . ......... I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . D e t e c t i o n o f , D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s . i n Dented Regions . . . . . . . . . . E f f e c t s o f Reduced Probe Diameter f o r I n s p e c t i o n o f Regions Beyond R e s t r i c t i n g Dents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D e t e c t i o n o f Small Dents . . . . . . . . . . . . . D e t e c t i o n o f M a g n e t i t e Formation . . . . . . . . E s t i m a t i o n o f Dent S i z e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUGGESTED AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; 3 8 . . . . . . . 38 Pancake C o i l . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . 'Cross-Wound C o i l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8 Electronic Absolute/Differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39


CONCLUSIONS LIST OF FIGURES
,

FIGURE 1 . FIGURE 2 . FIGURE 3

C r o s s e c t i o n a l View o f Denting a t Tube Support P l a t e s Block Diagram o f Basic Eddy-Current System

. . . . ..........

D i f f e r e n t i a l Eddy-Current Test C o i l and C u r r e n t Flow I n s i d e Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dual-Coil S i g n a l P a t t e r n Which R e s u l t s From Scanning an O D Defect . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

. .8
8
1 1

FIGURE 4 . FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE

. 5 . T y p i c a l Eddy C u r r e n t Response S i g n a l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . Typ'ical Dent D i e and Large Dent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7'. L a b o r a t o r y I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . Signal P a t t e r n s f o r F l a t Bottomed Hole i n Dent. 400 KHz. s c a l e 0.5 v / d i v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .

13 15 16

LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Page FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. Signal P a t t e r n s f o r L o n g i t u d i n a l O D Notch, 1 I n c h Long i n Dents400KHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D e t e c t a b l l i t y o f 60% L o n g i t u d i n a l I D Notch 118 I n c h Long i n Dent, 400 KHz, Scale - 0 . 5 v I d i v . . . . . . . . . . .

..

18

. .
.

13

Signal P a t t e r n s f o r Large Clearance Probe Caused by F l a t Bottumed 1.101cs (FBH) 40, 60, 80, and. .100% of Wall , 400 KHz, Scale - 0 . 5 v / d i v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal P a t t e r n s f o r Dent and Tube Support, 100 KHz, Scale 0.5v/di v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S i g n a l P a t t e r n s f o r Dent and Tube Support, 200 KHz, Scale 0.5v/div . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S i g n a l P a t t e r n s f o r Dent and Tube Support, 400 KHz, Scale 0.5v/div . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE .18.
FTGURE 19.

. 23
24
2.5

..
..
-

S i g n a l P a t t e r n s f o r Dent and Tube Support, 700 KHz, Scale 0.5v/div . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S t r i p Chart Recordings o f D i f f e r e n t i a l C o i l I l l u s t r a t i n g D e t e c t a b i l i t y o f Dents Under Supports. . . . . . . . . .

26
28

. .

S t r i p Chart Recordings o f Absolute C o i l I l l u s t r a t i n g Detecta b i l i t y o f Dents Under Supports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S i g n a l P a t t e r n s f o r Tube Support W i t h and Without Magnetite. Absolute C o i l Response t o Tube Supports, 400 KHz

29

31 33 34 34 36

. . . . . .
...

FIGURE 20. FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22.

S t r i p C h a r t Recordings o f Dents o f Various Sizes u s l r ~ y A b s o l u t e and D i f f e r e n t i a l C o i l s . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dent S i z e C a l i b r a t i o n Charts f o r Both A b s o l u t e and D i f f e r ential Coils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S t r i p C h a r t Recording o f Seven-Mil Ding.

. . . . . . . . . . .

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EVALUATION O.F THE EDDY-CURRENT METHOD FOR THE' .INSPECTION OF STEAM 'GENERATOR TUBING'

.L

S. D. Broen and J:H.

Flora

SUMMARY Continued e v a l u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g eddy-current i n - s e r v i c e i n s p e c t i o n ( I S I ) methods f o r steam g e n e r a t o r t u b i n g has emphasized t h e e f f e c t s o f denting. Denting i s a c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l d e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e t u b e i n t h e support r e g i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a magnetite, Fe304, c o r r o s i o n p r o d u c t on t h e carbon s t e e l t u b e support p l a t e i n t h e c r e v i c e between t h e support p l a t e and t h e tube w a l l . i n g on eddy c u r r e n t i n s p e c t i o n a r e t w o f o l d : The e f f e c t s of dent( 1 ) The d e t e c t i o n and measurement o f d e f e c t s i n t h e dented r e g i o n i s hampered by t h e d i s t o r t i o n of t h e eddy-current response s i g n a l s caused by t h e dents and ( 2 ) l a r g e ' d e n t s may p r e v e n t ' t h e passage o f h i g h f i l l f a c t o r probes f o r c i n g t h e i n s p e c t i o n teams t o use a s m a l l e r probe i n undented r e g i o n s . t h e i r depth can r e s u l t . T h i s r e p o r t p r e s e n t s an experimental e v a l u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g e d d y - c u r r e n t I S 1 methods when used t o i n s p e c t dented r e g i o n s . denting. Tubes were m e c h a n i c a l l y dented t o s i m u l a t e v a r i o u s degrees o f s e r v i c e induced These tubes were t h e n i n s e r t e d i n carbon s t e e l t u b e s u p p o r t Diametral d e n t s i z e s considered Eddy-current s i g n a l p l a t e s and t h e c r e v i c e r e g i o n between t h e support p l a t e and t u b e was.subsequently packed w i t h powdered magnetite. d u r i n g t h i s program v a r i e d between 1 and 10 m i l s . Unless a p p r o p r i a t e measures a r e taken, l e s s r e l i a b l e d e t e c t i o n o f d e f e c t s and e s t i m a t i o n o f

p a t t e r n s and s t r i p c h a r t reco'rdings were o b t a i n e d r u s i n g a v a r i e t y of t e s t parameters, such as frequency,. phase r o t a t i o n .and c o i 1 c o n f i g u r a t i d n , .on .tube samples c o n t a i n i n g v a r i o u s degrees o f d e n t i n g ' a n d w i t h several t y p e s ' o f d e f e c t s i n t h e dented r e g i o n .

Results o f l a b o r a t o r y experiments suggest t h a t d i a m e t r a l dents which a r e 1 m i l and grLeater have an adverse e f f e c t on. t h e d e t e c t i o n an'd measurement o f small volume d e f e c t s , i . e . , region. region. notches and p i t s , i n t h e dented R e l a t i v e l y l a r g e dents, 5 m i l s o r g r e a t e r , prevent r e l i a b l e small D i f f e r e n t i a l probe c o i l s o f reduced diameter can be used t o i n -

volume d e f e c t d e t e c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g c o i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s i n t h e dented spect undented regions i n t h e steam generator tubes ,if t h e probes can be .centered and r e s t r i c t e d from excessive wobble. The d e t e c t i o n o f magnetite p r i o r , t o dent formation appears feas i b l e and may be b e s t accomplished u s i n g an a b s o l u t e probe c o i l i n which t h e support s i g n a l has been minimized i n t h e v e r t i c a l channel. t e n i n g o f t h e support s i g n a l as observed on t h e s t r i p c h a r t . E a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f d e n t i n g i.s e a s i l y accomplished. Laboratory i n v e s t i g a t i o n s suggest t h a t an a b s o l u t e probe c o i l f o r which t h e tube support s i g n a l has been minimized i n t h e v e r t i c a l channel provides more r e l i a b l e d e t e c t i o n and d e n t , s i z e measurement. ~ e a s u r e m e n to f dent s i z e i s p o s s i b l e by t h e establishment o f a p p r o p r i a t e c a l i b r a t i o n curves and ) . . p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t e r r o r s i n d i a m e t r a l dent s i z e estimates u s i n g eddy-current tec'hniques a r e on t h e o r d e r o f t w e n t y - f i v e percent. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND The presence o f magnetite i s determined by a r e d u c t i o n i n amplitude and a f l a t -

As shown i n F i g u r e 1,the Series 51 Westinghouse designed P W R steam generator t u b e l t u b e support p l a t e i n t e r s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a nomi n a l l y 0.75 i n c h h i g h c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l gap w i t h a nominal r a d i a l c l e a r -

ance o f 0.014 i n c h .

Corrosion o f t h e carbon s t e e l support p l a t e has Since t h e volume o f magnetite

occurred w i t h i n t h i s annular space producing a n o n - p r o t e c t i v e l a y e r o f magnetite, Fe304, c o r r o s i o n product. formed i s approximately t w i c e t h e volume o f carbon s t e e l consumed, t h e

Muximum -Corrosion Rote

F i g u r e 1.

C r o s s e c t i o n a l view of d e n t i n g a t t u b e support plates.

gap between t h e tube and tube support becomes f i l l e d w i t h magnetite as t h e tube supports corrode w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t r a t e o f p l a t e c o r r o s i o n o c c u r r i n g a t mid-plane. As magnetite f o r m a t i o n continues, s u f f i c i e n t This y i e l d i n g i s The pressure i s e x e r t e d on t h e tube t o cause y i e l d i n g .

g e n e r a l l y symmetric about t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f t h e tube w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e tube support p l a t e and i s r e f e r r e d t o as denting. n e t e f f e c t o f d e n t i n g i s t o reduce t h e o v e r a l l diameter o f t h e tube w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y no r e d u c t i o n i n t h e tube w a l l thickness, i . e . , 52 percent. F i e l d data r e l a t i v e t o t h e d e n t i n g phenomenon suggest t h a t a t e x t e n s i v e l y dented s i t e s , i . e . , e x h i b i t moderate denting, i . e . , Surry & Turkey P o i n t , dents a r e i n d i For u n i t s which cated a t a l l tube-to-tube support p l a t e i n t e r s e c t i o n s .

P o i n t Beach & Ginna, t h e dents a r e predominantly on t h e h o t l e g si'de. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f dent s i z e appears t o be random across t h e support p l a t e , w i t h d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s , i . e . , mean and standard d e v i a t i o n , on t h e h o t l e g and c o l d l e g sides. Mean depth o f d e n t i n g may t y p i c a l l y vary between one and s i x t e e n m i l s diametral. Extreme d e n t i n g i s on t h e o r d e r o f 60 m i l s d i a m e t r a l . The I S 1 i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e n t i n g a r e apparent. Inspection f o r

d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n t h e dented r e g i o n i s d i f f i c u l t because of t h e superp o s i t i o n o f t h e eddy-current dent s i g n a l and t h e d e f e c t s i g n a l . The dent s i g n a l i n general i s o f l a r g e amplitude and may i n f a c t s a t u r a t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n obscuring any d e f e c t s i g n a l . Large dents may preRegions beyond decreased sensivent t h e passage o f t h e normal 0.720 i n c h diameter probe. probes r e s u l t i n g i n a lower s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e r a t i o , i . e . , are u t i l i z e d . Since d e n t i n g can be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e e f f i c i e n t and s a f e o p e r a t i o n o f steam generators, e a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f d e n t i n g and t h e accur a t e measurement of t h e amount o f d e n t i n g a r e i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Furthermore, i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o d e t e c t t h e presence o f a magnetite f i l l e d c r e v i c e between t h e tube and support p l a t e s b e f o r e a c t u a l d e n t i n g has occurred. Therefore, i t i s o f i n t e r e s t t o investigate the detrimental

t h e r e s t r i c t i n g dent may have t o be inspected w i t h s m a l l e r f i l l - f a c t o r t i v i t y and increased wobble, unless a p p r o p r i a t e probe c e n t e r i n g devices

e f f e c t s of d e n t i n g on e x i s t i n g I S 1 eddy-current methods. t h i s r e p o r t t o address t h e f o l l o w i n g areas of i n t e r e s t :

Specifical ly,

i t has been t h e purpose 0.f t h e experimental' i n v e s t i g a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n

Procedure and c a p a b i l i t y f o r d e t e c t i n g e a r l y stages ofdenting;


.0.

A b i l i t y t o measure t h e amount ,of d e n t i n g ; E f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g probe diameter r e q u i r e d t o c l e a r l a r g e dents on t h e measurement o f d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n ' . non-dented areas o f t h e tubes;

0
.. .

0
.
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A b i l i t y . t o d e t e c t d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n .dented areas; A b i l i t y t o detect magnetite formation before denti'ng occurs. Eddy C u r r e n t I n s e r v i c e I n s p e c t i o n


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Eddy-current t e s t i n g i n v o l v e s p l a c i n g a c o i l o f e l e c t r i c a l l y conducting i n s u l a t e d w i r e . i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e m a t e r i a l t o be i n spected. When t h e t e s t coi.1 i s e x c i t e d by an' a l t e r n a t i n g . c u r r e n t , usual l y s i n u s o i d a l

, .an

a1 t e r n a t i n g magnetic f l u x p e n e t r a t e s t h e m a t e r i a l
.*

and 'induces eddy c u r r e n t s . . I n general, these eddy c u r r e n t s f l o w a t r i g h t angles t o t h e magnetic f l u x l i n e s . : . T h e induced c u r r e n t s i n t u r n produce 'a magnetic f l u x t h a t op-' poses t h e magnetic f l u x o f t h e t e s t c o i l . impedance seen a t the' t e s t - c o i ' l t e r m i n a l s . Changes i n t h e magnitude and For example, i f a c r a c k i s T h i s ' w i l l change ' t h e mag.

phase o f t h e eddy c u r r e n t s cause corresponding changes i n t h e e l e c t r i c a l p r e s e n t a t t h e surface o f t h e m a t e r i a l , i t w i l l a1 t e r t h e f l o w ' o f eddy c u r r e n t s when t h e t e s t c o i l i s near t h e crack. impedance of t h e t e s t c o i l . t e s t - c o i l impedance. n i t u d e and phase of t h e magnetic f l u x and i n t u r n a l t e r t h e e l e c t r i c a l S i m i l a r l y , changes i n e l e c t r i c a l r e s i s t i v i t y , magnetic permeabi 1 it y , and m a t e r i a l t h i c k n e s s wi 11 cause changes i n t h e '

.Eddy c u r r e n t instruments t r a n s l a t e these.changes i n t e s t - c o i l impedance i n t o o u t p u t voltages whichccan be monitored a t t h e instrument


'

o u t p u t t e r m i n a l s . . F i g u r e 2 . i s a b l o c k .diagram i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e components o f t h e b a s i c . e d d y - c u r r e n t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n used .to i n s p e c t steam generator t u b i n g .

An i n t e r n a l . d i f f e r e n t i a l . probe c o i l . i s u s e d . t o i n s p e c t t h e
steam generator t u b i n g . This .incorporates two annular-shaped t e s t c o i l s adjacent t o each o t h e r i n t h e a x i a l d i r e c t i o n so t h a t both c o i l s i n duce eddy c u r r e n t s i n t h e t e s t m a t e r i a l , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. The d i f f e r e n t i a l b r i d g e network s u b t r a c t s t h e a l t e r n a t i n g voltages associated w i t h one t e s t c o i l from t h e v o l t a g e associated w i t h t h e o t h e r coil. ferent. Output s i g n a l s r e s u l t o n l y when t h e t e s t - c o i l impedances a r e d i f For example, abrupt changes i n t h e t u b i n g such as c o r r o s i o n
L

p i t s and s h o r t cracks cause,impedance d i f f e r e n c e s and, t h e r e f o r e , a cond i t i o n o f b r i d g e unbalance. t h e b r i d g e network. This produces a s i g n a l a t t h e o u t p u t o f Gradual changes such as temperature g r a d i e n t s and

some i n s i d e diameter v a r i a t i o n s cause much s m a l l e r changes i n t h e o u t put, depending on t h e design and spacing between t h e t e s t c o i l s . The , v e r t i c a l (V) and h o r i z o n t a l (H) o u t p u t s a r e simultaneously recorded on a s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r and 6 M (Frequency Modulation,). tape r e c o r d e r so t h a t t h e s i g n a l s can be r e d i s p l a y e d f o r subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . The V and H o u t p u t s a r e a l s o d i s p l a y e d on a storage o s c i l loscope with V.connected.to t h e v e r t i c a l i n p u t and H connected t o t h e horizontal input. d u r i n g tube scans. tion. This provides real t i m e > i n d i c a t i o n s i g n a l . i n t e r Balance adjus,tm,ents compensate f o r . d r i f t and assure p r e t a t i o n and accommodates balance adjustment o f both V and H o u t p u t s t h a t th'e recorded voltages f a l l w i t h i n dynamic range o f t h e instrumentaThe. F M tape r e c o r d i n g s f a c i l i t a t e d i s p l a y o f t h e V and H o u t p u t voltages on t h e storage o s c i ' l loscope a t a l a t e r t'ime, so . t h a t data, can he c a r e f u l l y analyzed.

oO
Phase Shifter Phnse splitter

.
r

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Test. Coils

Detector

Figure 2.

Block d i a g r a m of b a s i c e d d y - c u r r e n t system.

Test Coil

Corrosion

/ E d d y Current

Figure 3.

D i f f e r e n t i a l e d d y - c u r r e n t t e s t c o i l and ' c u r r e n t flow i n s i d e tubing.

F i g u r e 4.

D u a l - c o i l s i g n a l p a t t e r n which r e s u l t s from s c a n n i n g an OD d e f e c t .

The phase rotat.i.on i s a d j u s t e d before t e s t i n g steam g e n e r a t o r tubes s o t h a t t r a n s v e r s e movement and t i 1 t o f t h e t e s t c o i l cause a s i g n a l v o l t a g e t h a t appears p r i m a r i l y i n t h e H o u t p u t . T i l t and wobble This r e s u l t s p r o v i d e a t e s t - c o i l response t h a t i s n e a r l y c o n s t a n t i n phase, b u t prov i d e s a change ' i n t h e magnitude o f t h e t e s t - c o i l impedance. i n a voltage a t the H output. V o u t p u t f o r probe wobble a f t e r ,phase A r e l a t i v e l y small v o l t a g e i s seen a,t t h e r o t a t i o n has been a d j u s t e d p r o p e r l y . After i n i t i a l

'Flat-bottomed h o l e s d r i l l e d t o v a r i o u s depths and diameters a r e used t o c a l i b r a t e each c o i l f o r measurement o f d e f e c t , d e p t h . phase adjustment and c a l i b r a t i o n , t h e t e s t c o i l i s ready t o scan t h e tubes. The c h a r t r e c o r d e r p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e f e c t s and t h e i r approximate'location. The V o u t p u t i s t h e b e s t i n d i c a t o r , s i n c e i t d i s p l a y s a Tube supports serve as minimum amount o f o u t p u t when t h e probe wobbles. l o c a t i o n o f d e f e c t s a l o n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e tube. The o u t p u t s i g n a l s from d e f e c t i v e areas a r e reexamined a f t e r t h e scan by p l a y i n g t h e FM'recorded V and H v o l t a g e s i n t o t h e . v e r t i c a 1 and h o r i z o n t a l i n p u t s o f t h e s t o r a g e o s c i l l o s c o p e , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
.

r e f e r e n c e s i g n a l i n d i c a t i o n s on b o t h t h e V and H o u t p u t s f o r approximate

Each

p o s i t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t a n t beam on t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e screen r e p r e s e n t s t h e magnitude.and phase o f t h e impedance d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two c o i l s . S i g n a l s caused by d e f e c t s and tube supports make f i g u r e - e i g h t p a t t e r n s on t h e scope and a r e r e t a i n e d u n t i l t h e y a r e erased by manual c o n t r o l . The f i g u r e - e i g h t - p a t t e r n i s a c l a s s i c r e s u l t o f t h e d u a l - c o i l response. ,For example,. as t h e f i r s t c o i l approaches a f l a t - b o t t o m e d The magnitude.reaches F i g u r e 4 shows h o l e i t s impedance changes i n magnitude and phase.

a maximum when t h e t e s t c o i l i s centered under t h e h o l e . play.

.how t h e f i g u r e - e i g h t p a t t e r n i s t r a c e d by t h e s t o r a g e - o s c i l l o s c o p e d i s Since t h e s i g n a l from t h e f i r s t c o i l i s i n v e r t e d by t h e b r i d g e network, t h e phase o f t h e impedance d i f f e r e n c e v e c t o r sweeps through an angle w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l and r o t a t e s i n t o ' t h e f i r s t ' quadrant i n t h e c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n as i t scans o v e r t h e f l a t - b o t t o m e d hole. As t h e f i r s t c o i l leaves t h e h o l e and t h e second c o i l approaches t h e hole, t h e phase angle c o n t i n u e s t h e s h i f t i n t h e c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e direction.

Since s i g n a l s from t h e two c o i l s a r e s u b t r a c t e d , t h e v e c t o r r a p i d l y decreases toward z e r o magnitude as t h e f i r s t c o i l leaves t h e h o l e r e g i o n and t h e second c o i l approaches t h e h o l e . center o f . t h e oscilloscope display. The z e r o p o s i t i o n i s t h e As t h e

Note t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f c o i l wobble

and o t h e r unwanted v a r i a b l e s p r e v e n t an e x a c t z e r o from o c c u r r i n g . i s t r a c e d i n t h e f i r s t quadrant o f t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e screen. o f d e f e c t depth i s p r o v i d e d b y measuring t h e angle, The a n g l e

second c o i l scans t h e f l a t - b o t t o m e d hole, t h e m i r r o r image o f t h e d e f e c t Estimation As

shown i n ~ i ~ u 4. r e

i s measured from t h e h o r i z o n t a l i n a c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n .

t h e f l a w depth decreases, t h e e n t i r e s i g n a l p a t t e r n r o t a t e s i n t h e c l o c k wise d i r e c t i o n . Eddy-current response s i g n a l s f o r v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 5.. The frequency used was 400 KHz which i s t h e normal inspecF i g u r e 5 ( b ) shows t h e s i g n a l p a t t e r n s f o r d i s c o n t i t i o n frequency f o r t h e S e r i e s 51 Inconel 0.875-inch OD, 0.050-inch w a l l thickness tubing. n u i t i e s o f v a r i o u s depths..

A through-wall h o l e r e s u l t s i n a p a t t e r n
O D d e f e c t s tend t o g i v e Figure 5 (b) also

whose phase angle i s n o m i n a l l y 40 degrees, whereas s h a l l o w e r OD d e f e c t s g i v e a phase angle g r e a t e r t h a n 40 degrees. phase angles which range from 40 t h r o u g h 160 degrees. shows t h e p a t t e r n f o r a 48 p e r c e n t deep ID defect.

ID d e f e c t s w i l l g i v e

p a t t e r n s whose phase a n g l e v a r i e s between norrlinally 0 and 40 degrees. ~ h & , d e f e c t s which i n i t i a t e a t t h e ID s u r f a c e and p e n e t r a t e through t h e w a l l w i l l show a t o t a l phase spread o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 degrees, whereas d e f e c t s o r i g i n a t i n g on t h e O D s u r f a c e and p r o p a g a t i n g t h r o u g h t h e t u b e w a l l w i l l e x h i b i t a phase spread o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 120 degrees. The imp l i c a t i o n o f t h i s i s t h a t , because o f t h e phase compression f o r ID def e c t s , l e s s p r e c i s e e s t i m a t e s o f d e f e c t depth w i l l g e n e r a l l y be obtained. I n t e r f e r e n c e s i g n a l s o f i n t e r e s t a r e shown i n F i g u r e 5 ( a ) . The most prominent i n t e r f e r i n g s i g n a l s i n c l u d e tube supports, wobble and dents. F i g u r e 5 ( b ) p a t t e r n s a r e a t a frequency of 400 KHz, and a t t h e same s e n s i t i v i t y as ( a ) . Thus, a d i r e c t comparison o f t h e i n t e r f e r i n g s i g n a l s w i t h d i s c o n t i n u i t y s i g n a l s can be r e a l i z e d .

Figure 5. - T y p i c a l eddy - current i r : . . ,?$ i;.;.- Y?7 response s i g n a l s .


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Experimental evaluation of the effects of denting on eddycurrent IS1 techniques required the fabrication of dents by a r t i f i c i a l methods. This was accompl ished by d r i l l ing, tapping and threading two 3/4-inch thick steel plates approximately 2 .inches wide by 4 inches long. After the plates were t i g h t l y fastened by 1/4-inch steel bolts, a center hole was d r i l l e d and reamed t o a size s l i g h t l y smaller than the diameter of the steam generator tubing. The exact center hole diameter was a function of the dent size being induced. A die and an extreme dent are = -, -*, ,. ,-= shown i n Figure 6, Clamping the dent die around the tube and tightening the steel bolts produced a dent approximately equal t o the difference between the tube diameter and the die diameter. The edges of the die hole were rounded so t h a t the greatest extension of the dent would occur i n the center portion of the 3/4-inch thick die. Diametral dents of 1 , 2, 3, 3-1/2, 9 and 100 mils were formed in samples of Inconel tubing.* Carbon steel tube supports machined t o simulate corresponding degrees of magnet i t e formation were placed over the dents. The annular cavity between the tube and tube support plate was f i l l e d w i t h powdered magnetite. The 3/4-inch thick tube support plate was capped on one end by a l u c i t e plast i c ring which was held firmly i n place w i t h epoxy. Close tolerance between the l u c i t e ring and the outside surface of the Inconel t u b i n g f a c i l i t a t e d f i l l i n g and packing the tube-to-tube support plate cavity with magnetite. A t h i n steel cylinder s l i g h t l y larger in diameter than the Inconel t u b i n g b u t l e s s than the tube support plate hole diameter, was used t o pack the magnetite in the tube cavity. After packing, the other end of the tube supports were sealed with a second l u c i t e ring.
L .

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*Inconel 600 t u b i n g was provided by Westi nghouse f o r this investigation through courtesy of M r . W. D. Fletcher.

Figure 6 .

Typical d e n t , d i e and l a r g e d e n t ,

Instrumentation

The laboratory test equipment employed was compatible with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nucl ear Power Plant Components, Appendix IV , Eddy-Current Examination Method for Nonferromagnetic Heat Exchanger Tubing, December 31, 1975. A block diagram illustrating specific test equipmcnt is shown in Figure 7. Zetec ID differential probe coils (OD 0.720 and 0.580 inch) were used. Coil cable length was approximately 65 feet. A Nortec NDT-15 eddy-current instrument was used to generate the conventional vertical and horizontal outputs for oscilloscope display and recording. The NDT-15 provides continuous adjustment of frequency beyond the range of frequencies usual ly incorporated in eddy-current instruments used for inspection of steam generator tubing. Instrumentation calibration procedures were performed in compliance with the Section XI inspection code. Detection of Discontinuities' in Dented Regions
. .

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Detection of simulated pits and cracks in the dented tube support region is illustrated in Figures 8 through 10. Figure 8 is a series of signal patterns caused by flat-bottomed holes in the tube support region. The fslat-bottomed holes have a depth of 50 percent of the tube wall and are 7164-inch in diameter. All holes are located in the center of the tube support region. The eddy-current measurements were taken with an excitation frequency of 400 KHz. The sharp response from the flat-bottomed hole is clearly distinguishable when no dents are present as indicated by the signal pattern in the top left-hand portion of Figure 8. However, the signal from a small 0.001 -inch diametral dent partially obscur& the signal from the flat-bottomed hole. Larger dents provide even greater distortion in the signal patterns so that the 50 percent flat-bottomed holes are not even detectable. A series of experiments were performed with Inconel -600 tubing containing long notches to simulate cracking in the tube support region.

Nortec NDT-15 H V

Filter

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Probe Coil

Motor Driver Rubber

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Figure 7.

Laboratory instrumentation.

50 % F B H

50 % F B H

I
M i l Dent

Tube Support

50% F B H

+ Tube

Support

50% F B H

+ Tube

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50% F B H

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Support

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Figure 8.

S i g n a l p a t t e r n s f o r f l a t bottoned h o l e I n d e n t , 400 kHz, s c a l e 0 . 5 v / d i v .

They were fabricated by e l e c t r o n discharge machining on the tube OD. notches were 1-inch long and approximately 0.010-inch wide.

The

The notches

were machined w i t h a gradual contour t o simulate the gradual increasing depth of s t r e s s corrosion cracks which can occur i n steam generator tubing. Shallow dents 0.001-inch diametral were induced a t t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l Tube supports were then located over the crack center o f the cracks.

centers and packed w i t h magnetite. The s i g n a l p a t t e r n s produced by these samples are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 9. response O f s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the pronounced d i s t o r t i o n i n t h e crack by the combined e f f e c t o f the dent and tube support. The presence of a d e f e c t i n t h e tube w a l l i s suggested by t h e l a r g e v e r t i c a l The s i g n a l p a t t e r n d i s t o r t i o n by t h e The presence o f

component o f the signal patterns. l a r g e dents, i.e.,

dent p r o h i b i t s accurate measurement o f d e f e c t depth. measurement o f l o n g i t u d i n a l OD cracks.

5 m i l diametral, completely obscures d e t e c t i o n and

S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were obtained w i t h notches located on t h e I D o f the tube near t h e dents i n the tube support region. Short cracks o f The t h i s type can occur a f t e r denting has caused s t r e s s on the tube I D . t r a t e d i n Figure 10.

signal patterns from a l o n g i t u d i n a l I D notch, 118-inch long, a r e i l l u s Signal patterns from transverse ID notches o f comNarrow transverse notches produce parable depth could n o t be d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e presence o f s i g n a l s caused by tube supports and dents. eddy-current c o i l s a r e employed. The signal p a t t e r n s a t the top o f Figure 10 i n d i c a t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e t e c t i n g I D cracks i n dented areas. Since the s i g n a l patterns from both I D crack and dents produce shallow angles w i t h respect t o the h o r i z o n t a l axis, i.e., l e s s than 45 degrees, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between I D cracks and dents i s most d i f f i c u l t . Dents greater than 5 m i l s are expected t o obscure the signal p a t t e r n s from I D defects even though they are 50 percent o f the tube w a l l i n depth. small signals compared t o l o n g i t u d i n a l notches when t h e conventional

. k -Notch

*-

-1

.
Notch

Dent

Notch 40% of Wall i n 1 MIL uent Tube Support + Fe 0 3 4

Notch 60; of Wall i n 1 M i l Dent Tube Support + Fe 0 3 4 ,=. Notch

Notch 80%of Wall i n 1 M i l Dent Tube Support + Fe304 Figure 9.

+
" , ,

Signal patterns for longitudinal 1 3 D no&r 1 inch long i n dents 400 kHz.

Notch

Dent

-m
ID Notch Only
I D Notch

+ 1 Mil

Dent

Notch

ID Notch

+ 1Mil

Dent

+ Tube

Support

+ Feg04

Figure 10. Detectability of 60%longitudinal I.D. notch 118-inch long i n dent, 400 kHz, s c a l e

Effects of Reduced Probe Diameter For Inspection of Regions Beyond Restricting Dents Denting greater than 0.03-inch will require inspection with a probe of reduced diameter for clear passage. Probe coils of this size have relatively small fill factor and therefore a corresponding lower level of sensitivity. If conventional probe coils are used, the small fi 11 factor wi 11 a1 low greater lateral movement of the probe. This wi 11 increase wobble and cause a higher level of noise signal during inspection. Consequently, it is of interest to evaluate a small diameter probe coi 1 and compare its performance to the conventional 0.720-inch diameter coi 1. Tube samples have a nominal ID of 0.775-inch. Eddy-current probes having a diameter of 0.720-inch are usually employed to inspect straight sections of tubing. An appreciably smaller probe of 0.580inch in diameter was procured from Zetec for comparison with the 0.720inch diameter probe. The 0.580-inch probe can be used to inspect tubes with dents as large as 0.195-inch and, therefore, is,considered to be representative of a worst-case condition. Figure 11 illustrates signal patterns produced with the 0.580inch diameter probe coil compared to signals produced by the 0.720-inch diameter coil. In each case the signal patterns caused by flat-bottomed holes, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent of the tube wall, were recorded. The signal patterns obtained with the 0.580-inch probe were obtained with the probe located in three lateral positions. Signal patterns obtained with the probe coil windings in close proximity to the flat-bottomed holes were accomplished by inserting the probe in an eccentric plastic sleeve. The probe was rotated in the tube so that the thin side of the sleeve, approximately 0.015-inch thick, was adjacent to the flat-bottomed holes. A second set of signal patterns was obtained by inserting the probe in a centering sleeve. The sleeve was machined with an ID of 0.590 inch and an OD of 0.720 inch so that the extent of wobble was essentially equivalent to that of the conventional probe. A third set of data was obtained by inserting the probe in the eccentric sleeve and rotating so that the coil windings were located at a maximum distance from the flat-bottomed holes.

0.720 Inch Probe

3.580 Inch Probe Centered

L ---------*

--------0.580 Inch Probe Near FBH

0.080 Inch Probe .%wayfrom FBH

Figure 11. Signal patterns f o r l a r g e clearance probe caused by f l a t b o t t m e d h o l e s (FBH) 40, 60, 80, and . 100%of w a l l , 400 kHz, s c a l e 0.5 v/div.

With the exception of a small difference in phase angle and a small decrease in amp1 itude, the signal patterns generated by the 0.580inch probe. are comparable to those generated by the 0.720-inch probe when the coil windings are located near the defects. However, considerable sensitivity is lost when the coil windings of 0.580-inch coil are located on the opposite side of the tubing. Noise signals caused by probe wobble and variations in electrical properties along the length of the tubing can easily mask the signal patterns from defects. When the 0.580-inch probe is centered in the tube, the sensitivity is about one-third that of the 0.720-inch probe. If lateral movement of the 0.580;inch probe could be restricted to minimize wobble, it is estimated that the 0.580-inch probe could approach the performance of the 0.720-inch probe in detecting OD defects. This could be accomplished by development of a suitable centering mechanism. Consideration should also be given to optimization of excitation frequency since the coil diameter will effect eddy-current distribution of currents in the tube wall.

Detection of Small Dents Initial eval uation of conventional eddy-turrent inspection of dents confirmed the belief that relatively large dents, 0.050-inch to 0.100-inch on the diameter, completely dominate the signal response obtained with the differential, annular coil. Detection of these larger dents is straight forward with the eddy-current test. Further studies have emphasized the evaluation of smaller dents O. UU I - to U. U05-I fich on the tube diameter. It has been of interest to determine detectabil ity of these small dents and to evaluate eddy-current operating parameters such as excitation frequency, probe coil configuration, i . e . , absolute versus differential and choice of phase reference. A series of eddy-current signal patterns recorded for frequencies ranging from 100 KHz to 700 KHz are illustrated in Figures 12 through 15. It is instructive to observe the signal patterns caused by isolated dents and tube supports as well as those attributed to combinations of these variables. The signal patterns produced by 7/64-inch

2 - r i l Dent Only

3-mil Dent

Tube Support

+ Fe 304

=-

-_.

Tube Support Only Figure 12.

Flac Bottomed Holes

- 40,

60, 80, 100% ~f Wall

S i g n a l patterns f o r dent and tube su?port, 0.5 v/div. 100 kHz, s c a l e

2 - m i l Dent Only.
r . :

-.
=

3-mil Dent

+ "be

Support

+ F e 30 4

Tube Support Only Figure 13.

: 1; 4 . ., ..

,'

F l a t Bottomed H 2 l
-:'
.. -

-..-

, IW-

lf
'IC-

80

F f -

100%of Wall

'Signal patterns f o r dent and tube' su?pcrt, 200 kHz, s c a l e 0.5vIdiv.

2-mil Dent Only

3-mil Dent

Tube S u p p c r t

Fe O

3 4

Tube Scpport t h l y Figure 1 4 .

.. ,-6; Signal p a t t e r n s f o r dent and tube support, 0.5 v/5iv. 400 kHz, s c a l e

F l a t Bottomed H o l e s

40, 60, 8 0 , 100% of Wall

2-mil Dent Only

3-mil Dent

+ Tube

Support

+ Fe304

Tube Support Only F i g u r e 15.

F l a t Bottomed Holes

- 40,

60, 80, 100% of Wall

S i g n a l p a t t e r n s f o r d e n t and t u b e s u p p o r t , 700 kHz, s c a l e 0.5 v l d i v , . ,

diameter ' f l a t - b o t t o m i d holes, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent was a1 so recorded a t each frequency f o r comparison.
:
,

Figures 12 through 15 show a marked increase i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o , conversely, t h e sen, .

t h e small 0.002-inch dent as frequency i s increased.

s i t i v i . t y t o t h e c a r b o h ' s t e e l tube support: decreases r a p i d l y with frequency. Consequently, t h e combination o f a tube support a n d small dent in' the, tube causes a s l i g h t l y d i s t o r t e d tube s u p p o r t s,ibnal p a t t e r n at..100 Wz.
.

How-

'

ever, a t 700 KHz, t h e s i g n a l p a t t e r n , shown i n t h e upper r i g h t - h a n d o f F i g u r e 15, i s caused p r i m a r i 1 y : b y t h e 0,002-inch dent. T.herefore, i t i s Based, on t h e s e concluded t h a t small dents can e a s i 1.y-be detected by o p e r a t i n g t h e eddyc u r r e n t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h frequencies. i n c h u s i n g ' t h e 400 KHz o p e r a t i n g frequency.
,

exper,iments, i t should be p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t dents on t h e o r d e r of. 0.001A1 though t h e frequencies


. r t a i n disadvanabove 400 KHz p r o v i d e g r e a t e r s e n s i . t i v i t y t o denting, . c e

tages, such as increased s e n s i t i v i t y t o wobble and problems associated w i t h c a b l e capacitance, may n o t warrant o p e r a t i o n a t h i g h e r frequencies . w i t h conventional i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l enhancement o f t h e small dent s i g n a l can a l ' s o ' b e achieved as f o l l o w s . signal. Since dents occur w i g h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e tube 'support area, t h e tube support can be considered as an extraneous n o i s e E x i s t i n g IS1 eddy-current procedures a r e such t h a t a t 400 KHz,
. .

t h e tube ,. . support s i g n a l makes an ang1.e o f , a.p p r o x i m a t e l y , 4 5 degrees, i.-e., . t h e in-phase and quadrature compo,nents a r e equal.
I f t h e eddy-current
. .t a t i o n i s chosen p r o p e r l y , t h e tube support s i g n a l can be m i n i phase r o

mized i n , t h e v e r t i c a l channel and maximized i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l channel. Dent presence i s then determined .by ' m o n i t o r i n g t h e o u t p u t o f t h e v e r t i c a l
.

'channel .'

he

dent s i g n a l i s now a s i g n a l o f i n t e r e s t , whereas t h e tube By m i n i m i z i n g t h e tube support signal., t h e

support i s a n o i s e s i g n a l . t a b i 1i t y .

dent-to-support s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e r a t i o i s maximized enhancing dent detec. . .

A comparison o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y described procedures f o r detect i o n o f dents under supports i s .shown i n Figures 16 and 17 f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l and a b s o i u t e probe c o i l s . with the d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l . .Figure 16 illu s t r a t e s r e s u l t s obtained

A t t h e t o p o f t h e f i g u r e , t h e normal ISI

set-up i s shown whi'le t h e bottom o f t h e f i g u r e shows r e s u l t s when t h e

Dents Only
n

Dents p l u s Tube S u p p o r t

Tube S u p p o r t Only

'
I
I

I ,

Code Setup

BRUSHACCUCHART

Tube Supports Minimum

F i g u r e 1 6 . S t r i p c h a r t k e c o r d i n g s of d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l . i l l u s t r a t i n g d e t e c t a b i l i t y of d e n t s u n d e r supports.

28

Dents Only

Dents p l u s Tube S u p p o r t s

Tube S u p p o r t Only

Code Setup

I 1

I ,

I I

I I

I I I

I I

I I

I I

I .

Tube
- -

Minimum

~~~~~r~~

F i g u r e 1 7 . S t r i p . c h a r t r e c o r d i n g s of a b s o l u t e c o i l i l l u s t r a t i n g d e t e c t a b i l i t y of d e n t s u n d e r s u p p o r t s .

phase r o t a t i o n i s s e t t o minimize t h e tube support s i g n a l i n t h e v e r t i c a l channel. L e f t ' t o r i g h t i n F i g u r e 16 a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y dents o n l y . dents under tube supports, and tube supports o n l y . F i v e dent s i z e s were considered; thes'e were 9 m i l s , 3.5 mil.s, 3 m i l s , 2 m i l s and 1 m i l d i a m e t r a l . . w i t h an absolute probe c o i l . Figure 17 data l a y o u t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h F i g u r e 16, except a l l d a t a were taken The a b s o l u t e c o i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n was,achieved by u t i l i z i n g t h e f r o n t h a l f o f a d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l and balancing a g a i n s t o n e - h a l f o f another d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l placed i n a good s e c t i o n o f I n c o n e l 600 tubing.

A d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Figures 16 and 17 i s r a t h e r involved, b u t i n general, t h e f o l l o w i n g conclusions can be rr~ade: ( 1 ) I n a l l f o u r


cases considered, i.e.

I c o i l s , norrr~al I S 1 , a b s o l u t e and d i f f e r e n t i a l probe


( 2 ) For

.set-up and tube supports minimized on t h e v e r t i c a l channel, dents down t o 2 m i l s can be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e tube supports; dents on t h e o r d e r o f one mi.1, d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t between t h e dents p l u s tube support waveform and t h e tube support waveform so t h a t dent presence can i n general be i d e n t i f i e d ; ( 3 ) The maximum r a t i o o f d e n t s i g n a l t o tube support; i . e . , channel. maximum s i g n a l - t o - n o i s e r a t i o , i s achieved f o r t h e case w i t h t h e a b s o l u t e probe w i t h t h e tube support m i n i n ~ i z e di n t h e v e r t i c a l T h i s . l a t t e r i t e m can be seen i n t h e lower h a l f o f F i g u r e 17. Here a normal tube support s i g n a l swings p o s i t i v e on t h e h o r i z o n t a l chann e l , whereas a dent s i g n a l swings n e g a t i v e on the( v e r t i c a l channel.

-. c t i o n o f Magnetite Formation Dete

E a r l y d e t e c t i o n o f d e n t i n g would a l l o w immediate a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e r e a c t o r o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n t o prevent f u r t h e r chemical a t t a c k on t h e tube supports. Therefore, i t i s o f . i n t e r e s t t o d e t e c t t h e format i o n o f magnetite between t h e tube ahd tube-support b e f o r e d e n t i n g occurs. F i g u r e 18 shows t h e normal I S 1 set-up eddy-current response s i g n a l s a t 100 KHz'and 400 KHz, f o r tube supports w i t h and w i t h o u t magnetite packed w i t h i n t h e t u b e / t u b e s u p p o r t annular gap.
I

/
/

A comparison o f t h e s i g n a l
Analysis o f

p a t t e r n s r e v e a l a s l i g h t change i n phase'angle and about 30 percent r e d u c t i o n i n s i g n a l amplitude when t h e magnetite i s present.

.*' .-'

.
8

-'.

. .

Tube Support Only

Tube Support

+ Fe304

- Tube Support

+ Feg04

Tube Support Only

400 kHz, scale

3.5v;div

100 kHz, scale


Figure 18:

lv/div

Signal patterns for tube support with and without magnetite.

the associated s t r i p chart recordings indicate the change or reduced ampl i tude to occur in the horizontal component of the support signal. N o change in waveform shape other than a reduction in amplitude was observed. A magnetite packed tube-support and normal tube support was rescanned using an absolute coil configuration and the tube supports minim i zed procedure described previously. The resultant s t r i p -chart recordings are shown in Figure 19. Comparing the signal responses, one can again see a reduction in support signal amplitude when magnetite i s present under the tube support. The presence of the magnetite also appears to change the signal shape slightly. The tube support with magnetite waveform i s less rounded than the support plate only case. Thus, the absolute coil may offer advantages in the detection of magnetite because of changes in normal support plate signal ampl itude as we1 1 as signal wave shape.

Estimation of Dent Size The feasibility of estimating dent size using eddy-current techniques was considered by scanning a series of known dents and observing the resultant signal response. Both absolute and' differential probe coils were utilized. Initially i t was reasoned that the differential coil would be sensitive t o axial dent contour changes since i t acts as a differentiator. Hence, an absolute probe coil might be expected to provide a more accurate measure of dent size. The resultant eddy-current response signals are shown in Figure 20, for five dent sizes, i.e., 1 , 2, 3, 3.5 dr~d9 mils, for both the abso1ute and di fferenti a1 probe coi 1 A1 1 dents were positioned under tube supports. The horizontal channel positive peak deflection ampl i tude of Figure 20 ( b ) and the vertical channel negative peak deflection amplitude of Figure 20 ( a ) are plotted in Figure 21. The relationship between peak amplitude and dent size i s approximately linear on a log-log plot over a dent size range of 2 to 9 mils, for both the absolute and differential coil. For the absolute coil there i s an apparent curvature below 2 mils. The same dents without tube supports were rescanned several times independently using absolute and differential probe coils and the resultant

Vertical (200 mvldiv)

BRUSH ACCUCHART
1 1 1 1 I I ~ ' 1 I ~

Horizontal (200 mvldiv)

"

"

'

"

"

Normal Tube Support


Figure 19.

Tube Support

+ Feg04

"

"

Absolute c o i l response t o tube suppoyts, 400 KHz.

........ I . : . . .- . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. :. . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . .._....... a..... _... . . . ....... . ... . .. . .. . . ... .. .... ... .. . . . ....... . :: i . . ... ... . . .. ::.::::.:.::.,.$.','.: ":.: *. . . ... . . ... .. .. ... . ... . . . . . . . . . ... . . ... . . ... . . ..:.:.: .. I - . . .* .. . ..!. . .. ..:.. " . . .. . . .. ... . .. . _ . * . . .... . . . ' . . . . . . I. . . . . .. .. .. .. . :.,_ .. ... : .. ... ... ... .i.. .. .. .. . .. : . . " .:i.. . .. . ... . . L.... ..... f .... .i. : i . . . r ! . : : . ; . :t::::i.::..
q .

i.....

; ' ; : . I . :

. . < .

I.

(a) A b s o l u t e Coil- Tube S u p p o r t s Minimum D i f f e r e n t i a l C o i l - Normal I S 1 Setup

Figure 20. S t r i p chart recordings of dents of various s i z e s using a b s o l u t e and d i f f e r e n t i a l coils.

DENT S l Z E mllr DIAMETRAL

Figure 21. Dent s i z e c a l i b r a t i o n charts f o r both a b s o l u t e and d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l s .

c a l i b r a t i o n curves a r e sometimes 1 i n e a r o r curved

below 2 m i l s d i a m e t r a l .

This discrepancy has n o t bcen r e s o l v e d b u t may be due t o probe p o s i t i o n i n g ; I n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e eddy-current technique t o e s t i m a t e dent s i z e , t h e f o l l o w i n g experiment was conducted. a d d i t i o n a l dents were f a b r i c a t e d . t h e experiment and found t o be 2 m i l s d i a m e t r a l . non-minimized, i.e.,'.normal I S 1 procedures. Two The dents were measured subsequent t o The eddy2current i n s t r u - .

ment was s e t up u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t i a l probe c o i l w i t h t h e supports s i g n a l The dent c a l i b r a t i o n standard used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c a l i b r a . t i o n curve i n F i g u r e 21 was scanned and t h e eddy-current s e n s i t i v i t y was a d j u s t e d u n t i l a s i , m i l a r curve was obtained. The two a d d i t i o n a l dents were then scanned f o u r times w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t peak s i g n a l amplitude on t h e s t r i p - c h a r t r e c o r d e r noted. The average peak amplitude obtained was 69.25 mv, w i t h extremes being 65 mv and 72 mv.
I f t h e average peak amplitude i s used t o e n t e r t h e

lower c a l i b r a t i o n curve i n F i g u r e 21, a diametral dent s i z e o f about 2.5 m i l s i s obtained. This g i v e s an e r r o r on t h e o r d e r o f 25 percent. The i n t e r a c t i o n between an eddy-current probe c o i 1 and a dent i s r e l a t i v e l y complex. The dent volume and a x i a l dent contour can be Both t h e a b s o l u t e and d i f h o r i z o n t a l chanexpected t o a f f e c t t h e r e s u l t a n t dent s i g n a l .

f e r e n t i a l probe c o i l s a r e s e n s i t i v e t o dent contour as can be seen by comparing t h e % m i l dent s i g n a t u r e s o f F i g u r e 20, i.e., n e l i n ( b ) and t h e v e r t i c a l channel o f ( a ) . The p e r t u r b a t i o n on t h e 3-

m i l dent s i g n a t u r e i s p o s s i b l y due t o a x i a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e dent. The e f f e c t o f dent volume i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 22, where t h e response from a 7-mil r a d i a l d i n g i s shown. over t h e e n t i r e circumference o f t h e tube. i s reduced s i g n i f i c a n t l y .

A d i n g i s an i n d e n t a t i o n of
The r e s u l t a n t eddy-current
,

t h e tube w a l l which i s l o c a l i z e d i n area, as opposed t o a dent which e x i s t s response i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t from a dent b u t t h e amplitude o f t h e response The d i n g i n F i g u r e 22 was scanned a t t h e same. Thus, s e n s i t i v i t y used t o e s t a b l i s h t h e dent c a l i b r a t i o n curve i n F i g u r e 20 ( b ) . The s t r i p - c h a r t s e n s i t i v i t y i n F i g u r e 22 i s t w i c e t h a t o f F i g u r e 20.
i f t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l c a l i b r a t i o n c h a r t i n F i g u r e 20 ( b ) i s used t o

estimate t h e s i z e , an underestimation would r e s u l t .

Figure 22. Ding.

Strip charc recording of seven mil (Localized tube indentation. )

Dents g r e a t e r t h a n 2 m i l s d i a m e t r a l a r e r e l i a b l y d e t e c t e d u s i n g e i t h e r a d i f f e r e n t i a l o r a b s o l u t e probe c o i l . Dents on t h e o r d e r o f 1 m i l d i a m e t r a l a r e more r e l i a b l y d e t e c t e d u s i n g an a b s o l u t e probe c o i l w i t h t h e phase r o t a t i o n such t h a t t h e t u b e support s i g n a l i s minimized i n t h e v e r t i c a l channel o f t h e eddy-current s t y i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r . d e t e c t i o n frequency o f 400 KHz, i . e . ,

A dent

t h e normal inspec-

t i o n frequency f o r @ ~ e r i e s 51 PWR steam generators, i s a reasonable compromise between enhancement o f t h e small d e n t s i g n a l and m i n i m i z i n g e f f e c t s o f probe wobble.
0

L a b o r a t o r y experiments i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l eddyc u r r e n t IS1 procedures can be'used t o d e t e c t t h e presence o f m a g n e t i t e l o c a t e d between t h e t u b e and t u b e s u p p o r t p r i o r t o the formation o f denting. A c t u a l implementation i n t o e x i s t i n g i n s e r v i c e i n s p e c t i o n s i s dependent on adequate p r e - s e r v i c e b a s e l i n e d a t a and c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f tube support signals.

Denting has a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e d e t e c t a b i l i t y and measurement o f d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n t h e dented r e g i o n .

A 50 p e r c e n t t h r o u g h - w a l l FBH i s u n d e t e c t a b l e i n dents
3 m i l s diametral o r greater. volume d e f e c t s , i . e . ,
I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t small

cracks, w i l l n o t be r e l i a b l y de-

t e c t e d and measured i n dents g r e a t e r t h a n 1 m i l d i a m e t r a l .

Probes o f reduced diameter, which can pass t h r o u g h s e v e r e l y dented r e g i o n s , can be used t o d e t e c t discont i n u i t i e s i n undented s e c t i o n s o f steam g e n e r a t o r t u b i n g i f a c e n t e r i n g mechanism i s employed t o m a i n t a i n c o l l i n e a r alignment o f t h e c o i l c e n t r a l a x i s w i t h t h a t o f t h e tube. s i t i v i ty. Excessive wobble o r l a t e r a l s h i f t o f t h e probe c o i l w i l l cause s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n probe sen-

The a b s o l u t e probe c o i l , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an eddyc u r r e n t setup procedure i n which t h e t u b e support s i g n a l i s r o t a t e d such t h a t i s appears predominantly on t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s o f t h e s t r i p c h a r t r e c o r d e r , appears t o o, f.f e r advantages i n dent d e t e c t i o n r e l i a b i l i t y . For t h e case o f small dents, i t should a l s o ' o f f e r an advantage i n dent lileasurement s i n c e t h e e f f e c t s of tube supp o r t s a r e more r e a d i l y minimized. more c a r e f u l l y e v a l uated.
'

The e f f e c t s o f tem-

p e r a t u r e changes, wobble and tube ID changes need t o be

SUGGESTED AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH With emphasis on t h e d e n t i n g phenomenon, suggested areas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s a r e b e s t d i r e c t e d towards t e s t c o i l design. S p e c i f i c c o i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s : Pancake C o i l Enhancement o f t h e d e t e c t i o n o f d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n dented r e g i o n s can be expected by use o f a small diameter pancake c o i l . T h i s t y p e of c o i l would induce eddy c u r r e n t s b o t h p e r p e n d i c u l a r and para1 l e l t o ' t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f t h e t u b e and hence be e q u a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o t r a n s v e r s e and longitudinal defects. Use o f a small dial,~et& c o i l would i n c r e a s e t h e deThis f e c t signal t o dent signal r a t i o improving detection r e 1 i a b i l i t . y . t y p e o f c o i l would be a p p l i c a b l e t o small and l a r g e dents.
.

Cross-Wound C o i l

'

Small d e n t s i g n a l s and t h e e f f e c t s o f tube supports may be r e duced by t h e use o f a c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l as opposed t o

, the existing axial d t f f e r e n t i a l c o i l .

Since small d e n t s and tube sup-

p o r t s . a r e c i r c u l a r symmetric, a cross-wound c o i l would tend t o s u b t r a c t o r m i n i m i z e these i n t e r f e r i n g s i g n a l s enhancing a d e f e c t s i g n a l .

E l e c t r o n i c Absol u t e I D i f f e r e n t i-a1 Both t h e a b s o l u t e and d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f f e r advantages i n t h e i n s p e c t i o n o f steam g e n e r a t o r t u b i n g . p r o c e s s i n g may 'achieve t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . Rather t h a n


,

p a r a l l e l i n g two separate c o i l systems, a p p r o p r i a t e e l e c t r o n i c s i g n a l As an example, t h e o u t pu.t o f a s i n g l e a b s o l u t e probe may be e l e c t r o n i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ,

i.e.,
i.e.,

high-pass f i l t e r e d , and' para1 l e l e d . s.imul t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e unThe o u t p u t s o f a d i f f e r e n t i a l c o i l can be i n t e g r a t e d , I n e i t h e r case, a s i n g l e c o i i c , o n f i g u r a t i o n i f low-pass f i l t e r e d and a g a i n paralleled~simultaneouslyw i t h t h e

f i l t e r e d output. u n f i l t e r e d output.

a p p r o p r i a t e l y processed may o f f e r t h e advantagesvof a t w o - c o i l System.