^i,o^laA^^ o^ V^ ^'^
DOVER PUBLICATIONS,
INC.,
NEW YORK
NIVEN,
M.A., F.R.S.
Volume Two
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE
XXVII.
XXVIII.
On
the
Viscosity
or
InternaZ
Friction
of Air
and
other
Gases
(The
1
Bakerian Lecture)
XXIX.
On On
the the
6 of Electric
Currents
Maintenance
by Mechanical
7,9
XXX.
XXXI. XXXII.
XXXIII.
On On
Work
86
Sci'een
.
96
101
The Construction of Stereograms of Surfaces On Reciprocal Diagrams in Space and their relation
Stress
Function of
102 105
in
XXXIV.
On
Governors
XXXV.
XXXVI.
XXXVII. XXXVIII. XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
XLII.
XLIII.
"Experiment
(in
letter to
W. R. Grove,
121
F.RS.)
On a Method of Making a
magnetic Force;
Direct Comparison of Electrostatic wiHi Electrowith a Note on the Electromagnetic Theory of Light
.
125
On
the Cyclide
144
On a Bow seen on the Surface of Ice On Reciprocal Figures, Frames, and Diagrams of On the Displacement in a Case of Fluid Motion
Address
to
tJie
160
Forces
. .
.161
208
215
tion (1870)
of the Retina
230
233
241
On
On
the Solution
Functions
....
. . .
256
257
267
XLIX.
On On
tlie
Geometrical
Mean
Distance of
280
286
Uie
Currents
an
Infinite
Plane Sheet
of
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
On
the
Conditim that, in the Traiisf&rmation of any Figure by Curvilinear Coordinates in Three Dimensions, every angle in the new Figure shall be equal to the corresponding angle in the original Figure
.
297
'"^01
LI.
LII.
LIII.
Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism. By Sir W. Thomson. (Review) On the Proof of the Equations of Motion of a Connected System On a Problem in the Calcidus of Variations in which the solution is dis.
308
continuous
3^0
311
LV?LVI.
LVII.
On Action
at
By
Professors Sir
W.
Thomson and
P. G. Tait.
(Revieuj)
.324
On
On
the
Theory of a System of Electrified Conductors, and other Physical Theories involving Homogeneoxis Quadratic Functions
....
the Rev.
to
329
the
LVIIL
LIX.
An
On
On
Focal Lines of a Refracted Pencil Essay on the Mathematical Principles of Physics. (Review) Challis, M.A., dx. of Gases
332
By
to the
James
338
Kinetic Theory
343
of a System of Molecules in motion subject
forces of
LX.
LXI. LXII. LXIII.
351
355
361
LXIV. LXV.
On Double Refraction in a Viscous Fluid in Motion On Hamilton's Characteristic Function for a narrow Beam of Light On the Relation of Geometrical Optics to other parts of Mathematics and
.
379
381
391 393
Physics
4JLyiL
LXVIII.
LXVI.
"
(Review)
to
400
the Solu
On
the
tion of
a Geometrical Problem
.
406
.
Van der Waals on the Continuity of the Gaseous and Liquid States On the Centre of Motion of the Eye On the Dynamical Evidence of the Molecular Constitution of Bodies (A
ture)
407
416
Lec
418
to the
On
the Application
Theory of
LXXIIL
I^QCIV.
Atom
Attraction
LXXV.
LXXVI. LXXVII.
LXXVIII.
On
On
Bern's
tions
492 498
501
Diffusion of Gases through Absorbing Substances General considerations concerning Scientific Apparatus
505
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Vll
PAGE
LXXIX.
523
LXXX. LXXXI.
LXXXII. LXXXIII.
528
533
buildings
from
lightning
538
541
LXXXIV.
^
592
599
LXXXVI.
LXXX VII.
LXXXVIII.
LXXXIX.
XC.
XCI. XCII.
XCIII.
Diffusion
On On On
the
Electrical
Capacity of a long
. . .
of sensible thickness
.672
.
from
Inequalities of Temperature
681
XCIV.
XCV.
XCVI. XCVII.  XCVIII. XCIX.
C.
The. Telephone
713 742
756
763
Tait's
....
776 786
.
794
797
CI.
Harmonic Analysis
ERRATA.
VOL,
II.
3,
line
5,
read
i.
p.
25
,.
73,
14,
p.
60
(181)
76.
p. (189).
^^~~^
10, insert
dPF dydz
"
(PF
^dxdy'
18,
line
21,
the
in
value of
r*
is
given
as
11128,
where
the
radius
of
of
each
of
the
as
movable
discs
used
4,
the experiments on
14, this
Viscosity.
the
value
the
diameter
given at
page
line
number should be
12208.
in
the
be
The values of Q, the quantity in the fifth line, increase in the same proportion Hence according to equations (23) and (24) the values of /x, the coefficient as the values of A. wiU approximate to those obtained of Viscosity, will be smaller than they appear in the text and reductions was pointed out by by more recent experiments. The above inaccuracy in the numerical Mr Leahy, Pembroke College, Cambridge.
XXVII.
On
the
8,
1866.
The
gaseous form
of
matter
is
distinguislied
by the great
Bunplification
it
passes into
The
when
in the gaseous
are less
into
is
therefore
be
The investigation of other properties of matter more simple if we begin our research with matter
is
The
viscosity
of a body
it
offers
is
to
a continuous
effected.
forces
of suftorsion
applied to glass fibres produces a permanent set which increases with the time
force of torsion is
removed the
fibre
slowly
Softer
untwists,
so
soHds exhibit
away with part of the set it had the phenomena of plasticity in a greater degree
as
do
acquired.
;
but the
investigation
difficult,
forces
solid
and their
it
effects
is
extremely
actually impressed on
but on
all
during
its
previous existence.
*'
Nachwerktmg
VOL. n.
2
Professor
friction
W. Thomson*
the
takes place in
torsional
has shewn that something corresponding to internal vibrations of wires, but that it is much
found
that,
has been previously subjected to large vibrations. I have after heating a steel wire to a temperature below 120", its
its internal friction increased.
elasticity
by passing them through of by swinging pendulums in themj, and by the torsional vibrafluid tions of an immersed disk, and of a sphere filled with the The method of transpiration through tubes is very convenient, especially Graham and Poiseuille it for comparative measurements, and in the hands of The
has
been
investigated
capillary tubes t,
\\.
is has given good results, but the measurement of the diameter of the tube that certain be cannot we bore the of smallness the of account on difficult, and of the the action between the molecules of the gas and those of the substance
tubes
does
not
I
afiect
the
result.
is
capable
of great
accuracy,
and
believe
progress
by which
its
merits
tested. as a means of determining the properties of the resisting medium will be chief direct. The and sunple is fluid the in disk a swinging of The method difficulty is the determination of the motion of the fluid near the edge of the
disk,
which introduces very serious mathematical difficulties into the calculation The method with the sphere is free from the mathematical of the result. makes it undifficulty, but the weight of a properly constructed spherical shell
suitable for experiments
on gases.
In the experiments on the viscosity of air and other gases which I propose to describe, I have employed the method of the torsional vibrations of disks, but instead of placing them in an open space, I have placed them each between two parallel fixed disks at a small but easily measurable distance, in which
case,
when the
period of vibration
is
+ Liquids
Gases
1846 and
1849.'
;
1826
"On
Crelle's
II
iii. p.
Ann
cxiii.
(1861)
p. 55,
and
instead
of one,
so
which
con
may
the
weight
of
structed by
Mr
XXI.
p.
30,
is
fig.
represents the
of the
MQRS
in the
The
form of a
is
EE
it.
is
under surface
in
strengthened
is
by
into
ribs
cast
the plate
EE, and
is
4 feet
screwed
rests
on a
wooden ring PP with three projecting pieces which rest on the three brackets QQ, of which two only are seen. The upper surfaces of the brackets and the
under surfaces of the projections are so bevilled
off,
wooden ring
in
its
own plane
circular
EE.
F, G, H,
are
plates
of glass
of the
form represented in
fig.
2.
Each has a hole in the centre 2 inches in diameter, and three holes near the circumference, by which it is supported on the screws LL.
Fig.
represents
the
mode
of
LL
is
is
EE.
>S is
upper part
turning
the
easily
in
of larger diameter,
so
and
little
means of
and enable
ACB,
so
fig.
1,
is
A
is
The
scale
that the difference of the readings gives the pressure within the apparatus.
is
is
a vessel containing
vessel,
Another
containing
to the
air
Z)
is
pump
is
mirror d.
12
SO as
The
of
tin vessel
the
brass
plate
EE
wooden support YY. QQ. The was then well wrapped up in blankets, and the top covered with a feather cushion; and cold water, hot
by means
of projections on the brackets
vessel
till
made to flow through the tin seen through the window W, became stationary.
water, or steam was
the thermometer T,
The suspension piece a, fitting airtight into the top of the tube and holding the suspension wire by a clip, represented in fig. 5. The axis cdek, suspended to the wire by another cHp at C. The wire was a harddrawn steel wire, one foot of which weighed 2"6 grains. The axis carries the plane mirror d, by which its angular position is observed through the window C, and the three vibrating glass disks /, g, h, represented Each disk is 10*56 inches diameter and about '076 thick, and has in fig. 3.
75 diameter. They are kept in position on the axis by means of short tubes of accurately known length, which support them on the axis and separate them from each other. The whole suspended system weighs three pounds avoirdupoise.
a hole in the centre
In erecting the
apparatus,
the
is
screwed
off".
The fixed disks are then screwed on, with a vibrating disk lying between each. Tubes of the proper lengths are then placed on the lower part of the axia The axis is then passed up from below through the and between the disks. The vibrating disks and tubes, and is screwed to the upper part at e. disks are now hanging by the wire and in their proper places, and the fixed disks are brought to their proper distances from them by means of the adjusting
nuts.
715
is
When
desired
so
to set the
disks in motion,
to
a battery of magnets
is
placed under
N, and
moved
as
bring the
initial
proper value.
Fig.
centrically
it
It is placed is a brass ring whose moment of inertia is known. on the vibrating disk by means of three radial wires, which keep
its place.
is
exactly in
Fig.
a tube
weights,
which
slide
inside
it,
by
verniers.
in finding
the
moment
of inertia
of the
duration of the
telescope,
vibrations
are
which
shews the
reflexion
scale
in
the
The
scale is
on a
with the
of the
instrument.
vibration
of 19 36',
The extremities of the scale correspond to an arc of and the divisions on the scale to 17. The readings are
Method of Observation.
When
vibration
the
instrument
placed on a board
below
iV",
was properly adjusted, a battery of magnets was and reversed at proper intervals till the arc of
scale.
off,
At
intervals
When
the ampli
tude decreased rapidly, the observations were continued throughout the experi
ment
for
left
the room
an hour, or
In
observing
so
far
accurate results.
a quantity which
decreases
in
a geometrical
ratio
in
equal
times,
the most accurate value of the rate of decrement will be deduced from a
initial
comparison of the
of e to
1,
values
with
values
which
are
to
where
so
= 271828,
it
is
system
In
practice,
however,
best to
the
vibrations are
much
beginning a
new
experiment.
the observations, the sum of every five maxima and of the minima was taken, and the differences of these were written as the terms of the series the decrement of which was to be found. In experiments where the law of decrement is uncertain, this rough method is inapplicable, and Gauss's method must be applied but the series of amplitudes
In
reducing
consecutive five
in these
so accurately
geometrical,
The logarithm
of each term
of the
Thus,
if
fifty
observations were
tens,
taken of the
so
first
combined by
as
to form
terms of a decreasing
taken.
The logarithms of these terms were then of the first and fifth of these logarithms was then the second and third, and the result divided by
series.
five
mean logarithmic decrement in five complete vibrations. The times were then treated in the same way to get the mean time of The numbers representing the logarithmic decrement, and the vibrations.
five vibrations,
time for
The
series
any departure from uniformity in the logarithmic decrement depending on the The logarithmic decrement was found to be constant amplitude of vibration.
in
each experiment to within the limits of probable error; the deviations from
direction
,
and sometimes in the opposite, and of any law of increase The or diminution of the logarithmic decrement as the amplitudes decrease. forces which retard the disks are therefore as the first power of the velocity,
uniformity were sometimes in one
and there
such
as
is
is
when
bodies
velocity
move
of
rapidly
through the
of
air.
In
these
experiments the
maximum
the circumference
The retardation
to the action of the
of the motion
air,
disks
is,
since
own,
W. Thomson
to
vrires
after
being subjected
and
longi
in
up
for
The
total
moment
of the disks.
7
vibrations
torsion.
some months
torsion
before,
set
its
into
torsional
with
various
of
till
weights attached to
to
determine
moment
part
of
of
Its
moment
Its
and
its
viscosity
viscosity
moment
of
torsion
diminished
the apparatus was again heated, no further change seems to have taken place.
During each course of experiments, care was taken not to set the disks vibrating beyond
the
limits
of
the
scale,
so
that
the
viscosity
of
the
wire
may
be
but the part of the retardation of the motion due to the viscosity of less, as there were only two surfaces exposed to the action of the
six.
instead of
before,
Supposing the
effect
is
as
the difference of
air,
retardation
is
additional strata of
wire.
and
air,
Arrangement
,,
2.
,,
0"5 inch.
3.
Three
disks, each
4.
5.
0425.
different
018475.
By comparing
of
viscosity
the
results
of
these
arrangements,
the
coeflScient
same time
subjected
to
rigorous test.
The
best
final
result
may
be
considering a stratum
of
air
between two
horizontal
planes of
extent,
at a distance
Suppose the
upper plane to be set in motion in a horizontal direction with a velocity of V feet per second, and to continue in motion till the air in the different parts
of
will
air
its
final
velocity,
air
uniformly as
we
If the
then the velocity will increase  feet per second for every foot
we
ascend.
The
to that
friction
air
will
it.
then be equal
in
contact with
Suppose that
then
/ on
every square
foot,
where
fi
is
we
should find
/it
at once, for
is
oscillatory instead of
constant,
It will be
same
principles as rectilinear
which causes
fig.
is
shewn
in
8,
where
which,
air,
The
another
different
circular
edge introduces
the
depending on the
air
near
edge
being
into
The lines of equal motion of the air are shewn in fig. 9. The consideration of these two circumstances introduces the calculations, as wiU be shewn hereafter.
certain corrections
velocities,
forces,
&c.
of measurement.
If L,
M,
(a
represent the units of length, mass, and time, then the dimen
sions
is
of/
pressure
are
so
L~'MT~'; a
that
is
a length, and
of
fi
velocity
LT~\
the
dimensions
are
Thus
and
fi'
if
/x
1
1
inch
foot
'
1 1
pound
grain
of
*
1
1
second
_
Pietrowski*,
that
fi
minute
Helmholtz and
is
According
velocity
to
the
experiments
MM.
the
of
of
the surface
but a certain amount of actual slipping takes place in certain In the cases between the surface and the fluid in immediate contact with it. in fluid the velocity of is the considering, if v^ case which we have been
/ the
where
o
is
the coefficient of superficial friction between the fluid and the par
which
be the velocity of
v,
and depends on the nature of the surface as The coefficient cr is of the dimensions L~*MT~\ the fluid in contact with the plane which is moving
it
flows,
with velocity
and
if o'
f=<T\vv,).
The
is
Hence
^=/( +  +
we make  = S, and
cr
If
,
cr
= ^,
then
=/f^
* SitzungabericlUe der k,
VOL.
II.
10
or the fiiction
slipping,
is
if
there
had
been
no
and
if
^ + ^.
In
may
)8
the value of
is
+ yS' may
that
it
so small
on
air,
= "0027
The
inch.
probability
air
is
no slipping between
and
glass,
discrepancy in the
value of.
yx
and that the value of ^ given above results from accidental observations. I have therefore preferred to calculate the
is
air
and
The value
condition.
of
fi
the
gas
and on
densities,
its
it
physical
is
By making
of
is
different
shewn
that
at
/x
value
decrement of arc in
where the value of L, the logarithm of the ten single vibrations, is the same for the same temperature,
is
in
some
cases
than
in
others.
In
hypothesis
win be
seen,
rises
and
falls
with
the
These temperatures
range from 51" to 74" Fahr., and were the natural temperatures of the
room
that
on different days in
the viscosity
zero of the
is
May
1865.
The
results
hypothesis
airthermometer.
raised
by a current of steam sent round the space vessel. The temperature was kept up for several hours, till the thermometer in the receiver became stationary, before The ratio of the upper temperature (185" F.) the disks were set in motion. to the lower (51"), measured from 461"F., was
rature
was
to
185"
Fahr.
12605.
11
The
is
The
simplicity
of
the other
is
known laws
really
relating to
to
gases
warrants
us in concluding that
the viscosity
proportional
the
temperature,
and
its
the results deduced by Mr. Graham from experiments on the transpiration of gases through tubes
the
more to be depended
on,
since
diameter. The constancy of the viscosity for all changes of density when the temperature is constant is a result of the Dynamical Theory of Gases*, whatever hypothesis we adopt as to the mode of action between the The relation between viscosity molecules when they come near one another. and temperature, however, requires us to make a particular assumption with
of small respect to the force acting between the molecules.
If the molecules act on one
This, however,
is
certainly
as the experiments of
Graham and
as
the
first
is
we must assume
to
the force
proportional
inversely
the
fifth
The present
paper,
however, does
air,
not
but only
Experiments were made on a few other gases besides dry air. Damp air, over water at 70" F. and 4 inches pressure, was found by the
mean
air at
of three
less
be much
15 6.
less
viscous
than
air,
the
ratio
of
A
large
small
increase
proportion of
of viscosity,
air mixed with hydrogen was found to produce a and a mijxture of equal parts of air and hydrogen
J^
of that of
air.
The
ratio
of the
viscosity
to be 859.
" Illustrations of the
22
12
It appears
of
Mr. Graham
air
is
that
the
ratio
of
the
transpiration time
hydrogen to that of
from
*4855,
and that
less
of
carbonic
acid to air
I
"807.
think that
the
the
gases
being
pure
in
my
air
from leaking into the receiver during the preparation, desiccation, and admission
of
the gas,
least
an
hour
and
half
before
the
appears to
is
me
the
of
transpiration
although
the
method here
viscosity,
described
is
better
to
adapted to determine the absolute value of the the objection that in fine capillary tubes the
and
of
is
less liable
influence
molecular
action
between the gas and the surface of the tube may possibly have some
effect.
00001492(461' +
^).
At
62" F.
/u,
= 007802.
Vp
/A
= 00417,
I
or not
half the
this difference.
^ = 01878(1 + 00365^).
M. 0. E. Meyer gives
seconds, at 18' C.,
as
the
value
of
/x
in
centimetres,
grammes, and
000360.
This,
when reduced
to metregrammesecond measure, is
/x
= 0360.
make
/x,
at 18'
C,
=0200.
13
is
1*8
times greater
than
that
adopted
in
different
dis
turbance of the air near the edge of the disk from that given in this paper.
He
of
supposes that
when the
I
disk
is
edge
is
proportional
this
to the thickness,
Journal a vindication
solution
supposition.
of the
case
of a disk
fluid,
but
it
can easily
finite
disk were
infinitely
thin.
is
to
be accounted
for,
at
least
in
part,
by
his
effect of
The
effect
much
less in
water than
so
that any deficiency in the correction will have less influence on the
in
paper.
Mathematical Theory of
the
Experiment.
disk
oscillates
in
its
own
horizontal
gression,
air
disks,
the
amplitude
diminishing
in
geometrical
pro
what part of the retardation is due to the viscosity of the between it and the fixed disks. That part of the surface of the disk which is not near the edge may be
to
find
infinite
treated as part of an
disk,
each
horizontal
the
motion
of
every
part of each stratum can be accounted for by the actions of the strata above
and below
it, there will be no mutual action between the parts of the stratum, and therefore no relative motion between its parts. Let 6 be the angle which defines the angular position of the stratum which
is
at
the distance y from the fixed disk, and let r be the distance of a point
i,
on
its
^'d^t=^
14
The tangential
will
be
is
d'd
d'O
(2)'
Pde^^mi
which
y=
is
independent of
conditions to
r,
The
h,
when y = 0, ^ =
e=Ce''co3{nt + a)
The disk is suspended by a wire whose elasticity of torsion is such that the moment of torsion due to a torsion 6 is Icj'^O, where / is the moment The viscosity of the wire is such that an angular of inertia of the disks.
velocity
jis
resisted
by a moment 2lk
r.
of the
disks
is
then
^(f^^f'f^^Swhere
wand iV
is
A = j27rr'dr = ^7rr*,
for the
the
moment
the
number of
The equation
motion of the
air
may be
satisfied
by the
solution
(5),
provided
2pq =
^
P(4),
(6),
and
and in order to
fulfil
q^f =
the conditions (3) and
(7);
circular functions,
we
find
k)= NAii{l icl + ic\n^  3?) + ^^^{nH  1^) + ^\^n* + ^'nH^  ^l')} (9),
c
= 46>
where
Z
= observed
Napierian logarithmic
decrement
of
the
amplitude in unit of
time,
A;
= the
15
When
are
the
oscillations
are
when the
viscosity
disks
large,
when the
small
is
and the
rapidly convergent.
When
the time from rest to rest was thirtysix seconds, and the interval
1
inch,
then
for
air
of pressure
29*9
were
l00'00508
+024866
+000072
+000386 = 124816;
but when the pressure was reduced to 1*44 inch, the series became
10
 00002448
is
0005768
The
the
disks.
sensible.
series
also
between
When the distance was 1847 inch, the first When the pressure was 29*29, the series was 1 000858 +000278 = 1 00058.
motion
of
At
The
the
is
air
between
the
two disks
is
represented in
oscillates.
fig.
8,
row
when
will
5,
6.
when
If
if
is
in
2,
very
small,
or
very great, or
if
the
disks
very small, these curves approach more and more nearly to the
lines.
form of straight
The
arises
in
treating the
case of the
moving disks
from the necessity of determining the motion of the air in the neighbourhood of the edge of the disk. If the disk were accompanied in its motion
indefinite
by an
surface,
plane
of
ring surrounding
it
the motion
the
air
would
be
its
of
indefinite
extent; but
if
on
the
parts
of
the
disk
be increased.
The
actual
effect
of the air
on the disk
may
we have
to
consider
is
confined to
we may
were
16
infinite
in
Let
w
is*
,
be
dw
with the conditions
Id^w
i'lt=i'[T^ + df)
w;=(rwhen
(!)'
y=h
3/
(11),
and
I
w = Ccos nt when = 0,
and x
is
positive.
...
(1 2).
it
stands,
so long,
between
is
the
disks
is
so
small,
that
we may
d^w
^
neglect
reduced to
d?w
o 5S + d7 =
,,^.
(13)
am
Professor
into
W.
Thomson,
set
conditions
another
who has shewn me how to transform with which we are more familiar, namely,
w=l
1
.
when y = 0, and x is greater than +1, and w= I In this case we know that the lines of equal values
loci
are
hyperbolas,
having their
is
at the points y
= 0, x= 1, and
that
w^sin'"^'
where r
If
r^
(14)
foci.
we put
lines for
</
(15),
then
the
which
<f>
constant
will
be
ellipses
orthogonal to the
hyperbolas, and
^Mh'
and the resultant of the
* Professor Stokes "
Phil.
^''^'
friction
On
Cambridge
Tram. VoL
viii.
17
at
(f>,<f)^,
where
(/>
is
the
value
of
(ft
at
the
beginning, and
<^,
the end
In the plane y =
0,
when x
whole
is
very
great,
<^
x='[,
fk
= \og
2,
2,
so
that the
friction
between
x=l
18
log2x.
TT
Now
let
and
<^
be expressed
in
;
terms of r and
6,
may
be stated thus
When 0=, w = 0.
= 11 and
r greater than
let
1,
When
^=
1,
iv=l.
When
w=
I.
Now
x\ y
= hQ and
IT
x'
= 61ogr
TT
(17).
and
tions
let
w
x'
and
(j)
be expressed in terms of
will
still
(13)
and
(16)
be
true;
h,
w = 0,
and when
y=0
and
positive,
w = l.
<f)
When
whole
x'
is
great,
x'
= 0,
(f>
= \og2,
TT
so that the
friction
on the surface
is
'
+ ^g2
2h
is
(18),
which
is
the same aa
its
if
log, 2
to the surface at
edge.
The
curves
of
equal
velocity
are
represented
in
fig.
at
u, v, w, x, y.
They
totes
a set of asymp
F,
W, X, Y, arranged
friction
are
represented at
o,
p, q,
as
r,
s,
t.
The form
to
of straight lines
we
pass
the
left
18
The dotted
of the
vertical
straight lines
0, P, Q, R, S,
if
the disk
AB
panied by an extension of
The
total friction
on AB, extending to the point C, on the supposition that the moving surface has an accompanying surface which completes the infinite plane.
&c.,
is
w,
equal to
that on a surface
In
the
actual
case
is
by a
slightly
rounded edge.
Its section
may
AB.
The
total
friction
on the curve
is
still
is
less
than that
AB.
the
disk
is
2/3,
the
thickness of
disks
= 26,
6 A
= 5log.lo{log2+log..sm^^i=^}*
strip,
(19).
we must suppose
it to
be at the same distance from the axis as the actual edge of the disk.
of
Instead
^ = r* m
equation
6/8.
(9),
we must
therefore
of h
we must put
of z
r* for
of
in inches
4)
and
7).
Four
were used in
these experiments.
The
following Table gives the numbers required for the calculation of each
two
from
it.
19
Arrangement
20
The values
6,
of
it
Q
is
1,
2,
4,
12, so
that
easy to eliminate
K
into
and
air
find
/x^.
had
reason, however, to
believe
therefore intro
of K, K^
and K^,
change respectively.
^1 = 01568
Z,= 01901.
The value of
is
/x
in
6P
Fahrenheit
for air
fi
= 00001492
(461"+^).
each experiment and compared with
The value
ment was
of
for
was calculated
mean square of a single experiThe probable error of fi, as determined from the equations, from this and found to be 036 per cent, of its value.
the error of
way
amount of
slipping between
the value of
that
for
^ = 0027
The
that of
I
/x
= (000015419)
(461!^).
error
of
mean square
be
slightly
^ was
40 per
cent.,
and
= l*6
per cent.
/8
is
zero,
that
is,
there
is
no
slipping,
original value of
yx
is
the best.
As the actual observations were very numerous, and the reduction of them would occupy a considerable space in this paper, I have given a specimen of the actual working of one experiment.
Table
observation,
I.
shews the readings of the scale as taken down at the time of with the times of transit of the middle point of the scale after
21
and sixth readings, with the sum of ten successive ampHtudes deduced
therefrom.
Table
II.
decrement.
Table III.
kinds.
shews the method of combining forty experiments of The observed decrement depends on two unknown quantities, the
different
viscosity
The experiments
and
are grouped
together
according
final
to
the
coefficients
of
fi
when the
results
The
calculated
results
last
column.
fifth
Table IV. shews the results of the twelve experiments with the ment.
it
arrangeair,
They
are
and
as
calculating
fifth
column.
By
arranging
the
values
of
was found that within the range of atmospheric temperature during the course of the experiments the relation between the viscosity of air and its temperature does not perceptibly differ from that
in
LU
assumed
ments, as
in
the calculation.
time, to determine whether the viscosity of the wire increased during the experiit
did
first
There did
in
unit
in scientific
measurements.
Note,
added February
6,
1866.
In
the calculation
of the results
of
the
experiments, I
disks
made use
moment
of inertia of the
and axi8 = l"012 of the true value, as determined by six series of experiThe ments with four suspension wires and two kinds of auxiliary weights.
22
numbers
the coefficients of
/x
in
Table IV.
are
the value of
is
^ = 00001492(461' + ^).
The same
error
ran through
all
Table
I.
Experiment
62.
Arrangement
5.
Dry
9,
Temperature 68" F.
May
1865.
Greater
scale reading
OF AIR
AND OTHER
GASES.
23
Table
Equations from which
/x
III.
for air
was determined
'A6V + e
Number
of
experiments
24
Table V.
Coefficient
of viscosity in dry
air.
inch, grain,
Fahrenheit temperature,
/I
At
(metre,
60" F.
the
experiments,
(461
^ = 007763.
Taking
= '000179
+ ^).
In metrical units
= 01878(1 + 00365^).
is
The
air as
coefficient
/x
by multiplying
by the ratio of the transpiration time of the gas to that of determined by Graham*.
Postscript.
Received December
7,
1865.
Society, Professor
my
"Ueber die innere Reibung der Case," in Poggendorff's Annalen, cxxv. (1865). M. Meyer has compared the values of the coefficient of viscosity deduced from the experiments of Baily by Stokes, with those deduced from the experiments These values are 000104, 000275, and 000384 of Bessel and of Girault. respectively, the units being the centimetre, the gramme, and the second.
M. Meyer's own experiments were made by swinging three disks on a vertical The disks were sometimes placed in contact, and axis in an airtight vessel. sometimes separate, so as to expose either two or six surfaces to the action
of the
The diflference of the logarithmic decrement of oscillation air. two arrangements was employed to determine the viscosity of the air.
The
effects
in these
of
&c.,
and of
The
so
far
calculations
are
made on the
the
receiver
of
the same as
At the
distance of 30 millims.,
disks
and with a period of oscillation of fourteen would be very small in air at the
\'i)L.
//
riATi: IX
F^^lffil
VOL.
II.
PLATE
IX.
Kg.
9.
25
of experiments with an
axis
In November 1863
three
brass
made a
on
a
series
arrangement
of
disks
placed
I
vertical
exactly
as
in
M.
Meyer's experiments,
except that
had then
no
airtight
apparatus,
and
the disks were protected from currents of air by a wooden box only.
I attempted to determine the viscosity of air by means of the observed I obtained the values mutual action between the disks at various distances. of this mutual action for distances under 2 inches, but I found that the results
were so much involved with the unknown motion of the air near the edge of no dependence on the results unless I had a
complete mathematical theory of the motion near the edge.
is
This will diminish the effect of the edge in comparison with the total
air
but in rarefied
increased.
is
effect
of the
edge
are
much
of the
rated.
for
disks
This,
the viscosity, and for the fact that with the brass disks which vibrate in
it
first
increases
and then
M. Meyer concludes that the viscosity varies much less than the pressure, and that it increases sHghtly with increase of temperature. He finds the value
of
fi
8'3 C.
000333
2r5 C.
34'4 C.
000323
000366
interposed
difficulties
In
my
experiments,
in
is
between
;
the
moving
/x
from which
/x
must be determined.
these
inter
prefer the
results
M. Meyer has
gases, founded
also
VOL.
II.
clvii.]
XXVIII.
Chi
the
(Received
Theories of the constitution of bodies suppose them either to be continuous and homogeneous, or to be composed of a finite number of distinct particles or
molecules.
it is
convenient
homogeneous
in order to
of matter in each
am
may
be affirmed dogmatically, but cannot be explained mathematically. Molecular theories suppose that all bodies, even when they appear to our
senses
homogeneous, consist
of
multitude
of
particles,
or
small
parts
the
Those
relative to the
body may
dynamical
be called
motion,
theories.
theories,
and
is
those
which
suppose
rest,
the
molecules to be in
even while
the
body
apparently at
may
be
called
If
rest
we adopt a
statical theory,
in
their positions
of equilibrium
centres,
by the action of
forces in
the directions
properties
body
a function of
coordinates
when
matical theory
small change
of
bodies
of
this
kind,
into
play by a
of form
to those excited
by
27
is
Now we know
that of volume
is
that in
fluids
the
elasticity
of
form
will
evanescent,
while
fluids.
considerable.
Hence such
theories
not apply to
to
many
cases
be smaller in
volume than the theory gives*, so that we are forced to give up the theory of molecules whose displacements are functions of their
that of
coordinates
when
The theory of moving molecules, on the other hand, is not open to these objections. The mathematical difficulties in applying the theory are considerable, and till they are surmounted we cannot fully decide on the appHcability of the
theory.
We
phenomena by the
bodies oscillate
position
to
solid
from
one
be
constantly
moving
to
into
new
of
the
neighbouring
of
molecules
of
the
greater
part
the
path
each
properties
pressure,
and to shew
that,
besides
density,
and
temperature
in
single
affords
mechanical
explanation of the
its
known chemical
commonly
relation
equivalent weight,
called the
Law
explains the diff'usion of one gas through another, the internal friction of a gas,
gases.
motion
is
to be found in
Lucretius.
moving downwards
places,
suffer
with
equal
velocities,
which,
at
quite
uncertain
times
and
an
imperceptible
collisions
taking place
* In glass, according to Dr Everett's second series of experiments (1866), the iatio of the elasticity of form to that of volume is greater than that given by the theory. In brass and steel it is less.
March
7,
1867.
42
28
an action of which we
The language
conception by looking at the motes in must of course be interpreted according but we need not wonder that it suggested
of his theory
of gases,
as well
as
his
whom we owe
developments of
of authors
its
particles
Deux
first
comme
1818.
du
second,
Geneve
also
et
Paris,
The
memoir
is
explains gravity
corpuscles
set
which
gases
in
their
by the impact of "ultramundane corpuscles" on bodies. These in motion the particles of light and various ethereal media, turn act on the molecules of gases and keep up their motions.
is
faulty,
essentially
the same as
the
dynamical
theory as
it
now
stands.
The second memoir, by Prevost, contains new applications of the principles of Le Sage to gases and to light. A more extensive application of the theory of His theory of the collisions of moving molecules was made by Herapathf.
perfectly
hard
it
bodies,
such
as
he
supposes
the
molecules
to
be,
is
faulty,
inasmuch as
makes the
result
of impact
we
absolute
direction
This author, however, has applied his theory to the numerical results
in
experiment
many
cases,
and
his
speculations are
often
throw much
real light
of
pointed out.
Poggendorffs Anncdm, Jan. 1862.
Translated hj G. C. Foster, B.A,, Phil. Mag. June, 1862,
2 vols.
t MatheTnatical Physics, kc., by John Herapath, Esq. Herapath's Railway Journal Office, 1847.
% Mathematical Physics,
(fee, p.
London
Whittaker and
Co.,
and
134.
29
Dr Joule*
molecules,
Professor
Clauslus,
of
Zurich,
that
we owe
the
most
complete
and
memoirs On
of
the hind
of Motion which we
call
Heat, are a complete exposition of the molecular theory adopted in this paper.
After
reading
his
investigation fcollisions,
the
distance
described
by each molecule
of
gases,
I
between successive
collisions
I published
and deduced
properties
especially the
also
friction.
my
M. 0. E. Meyer" has
also
investigated
the
propose
to
of
a gas, not
molecules repelling one another with a force whose direction always passes very
nearly through the centres of gravity of the molecules,
is
gravity.
results
of
my
and
inversely as the
number
we suppose an imaginary plane drawn through a vessel containing a of such molecules in motion, then a great many molecules will
it
great
cross
the plane in the positive direction over that of those which traverse
negative direction, gives a measure of
the plane in
the Constitution of Elastic Fluids, Oct. 3, 1848. t Phil. Mag. Feb. 1859. " Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases," Phil. Mag. 1860, January and July. X
II
"Ueber
die innere
30
If the plane be
made
to
is
no excess
the
mean
There
gas which
will
and carrying with them a certain amount of momentum into the portion of
lies
the gas on
the
other
is
this gas
by the
rest.
This force
is
If the
velocities
of the molecules
moving
in different directions
were indeof
pendent of one another, then the pressure at any point of the gas need not
be the same in
all
directions,
gas
separated by a plane
need
not
to
that
plane.
Hence, to
directions,
we must suppose
some cause equalizing the motion in all directions. This we find in the deflection of the path of one particle by another when they come near one another.
Since,
in
all
is
of
or
perfect
equality in
friction.
the
rise
the
in
phenomena
bodies
of
viscosity
internal
The
phenomena of
viscosity
:
all
may
thesis, as follows
A
call
distortion or
strain
of
call
S, is
produced in
of
stress
or
elastic
force
which we
strain
is
thus excited.
The
between the
stress
and the
remain
may may
be written
F=ES,
where
kind of
strain.
will
= ^>S, and
dF^p^dS
'
dt
If,
dt
is
viscous,
wUl not remain constant, but will tend to of F, and on the nature of the
body.
If
we suppose
may
be written
dF_j^dS_F
dt
dt
T'
81
indicate
the actual
phenomena
in
an empirical
manner.
For
if
*S'
be constant,
F=ESe'K
shewing that
gradually disappears,
so
that
if
the body
is
left
to
itself
it
finally
distributed as
If
J at
is
constant, that
is,
if
there
is
shewing that
ment.
displax^e
may
the product
of a
coefficient of elasticity,
F, and a time
T,
of relaxation"
In mobile
is
of a second, and
is
In viscous
It
is
solids
T may
is
easily measured.
possible
for
T may
account
the gradual untwisting of wires after being twisted beyond the limit of perfect increases, the parts of the wire furthest For if T diminishes as elasticity.
from the axis will yield more rapidly than the parts near the axis during the twisting process, and when the twisting force is removed, the wire will at first
there is equilibrium between the stresses in the inner and outer These stresses will then undergo a gradual relaxation; but since the actual value of the stress is greater in the outer layers, it will have a more rapid rate of relaxation, so that the wire will go on gradually untwisting for
untwist
till
portions.
stress
on the interior
portions
maintaining
Weber
in silk fibres, by Kohlrausch in glass fibres, and by myself in steel wires. In the case of a collection of moving molecules such as we suppose a gas be to be, there is also a resistance to change of form, constituting what may gives resistance this called 'the linear elasticity, or "rigidity" of the gas, but
way and
32
elastic
sides,
Then
it
can easily be shewn that the pressures on the sides of the vessel due
to the impacts of the molecules are perfectly independent of each other, so that
fluid,
but like an
elastic
Now
first
dicular to
of the
vessel
be altered
by small
Then
it will
become
8a
86
Be
or if there
is
no change of volume,
^=2
shewing that in this case there
the coefficient
is
pa'
a "longitudinal" elasticity of form of which
is
2p.
The
coefficient of
"Rigidity"
is
therefore =J9.
molecules
pressure in
great,
all
directions.
infinite;
but not
The rate at which this equalization takes place is and therefore there remains a certain inequahty of
independent of
if
phenomenon of viscosity. by experiment that the coefficient of viscosity in a given gas the density, and proportional to the absolute temperature, so
that
ET
be the viscosity,
ETa:^
Hence the number of
is
But E=p,
and
is
independent of
is, of the velocity of the molecules, and is proportional If we suppose the molecules number of molecules in unit of volume. hard elastic bodies, the number of collisions of a given kind will be proportional to the velocity, but if we suppose them centres of force, the angle of deflection will be smaller when the velocity is greater; and if the force is inversely as the fifth power of the distance, the number of deflections of a given kind will
the
GASES.
in
33
Hence
making
my
The
to
effect
of the
all
is
the pressure in
directions, but,
when molecules
to
the
formerly shewed
same
different
kinds of molecules.
its
Now
the
pressure
due
each molecule
proportional to
vis
viva,
hence
the whole pressure due to a given number of molecules in a given volume will
the
molecules,
provided
the
molecules
other.
of
When
is
one
the
zero,
the temperature
gases
at
said
to
be
different
contain
of of
molecules.
This result of the dynamical theory affords the explanation of the "law of
equivalent volumes" in gases.
We
centres
shall
see
is
true in
the case of
is
molecules acting as
of force.
probably to be found
connecting the temperatures of liquid and solid bodies with the energy possessed
by
their
molecules,
of
the
nature
of
the
connexions
The molecules
of force
velocity.
of a
which move
These molecules
may
by their
endowed with inertia, or the capacity of performing work whOe losing They may be systems of several such centres of force, bound together mutual actions, and in this case the different centres may either be
as
separated, so
to
may
be
be actually coincident,
necessary,
;
to
small
solid bodies of a
determinate form
the parts
of the
of these
and
all
so
second order.
matter
two portions
of molecules.
being deductions from our experiments with bodies sensible to us, have no application to the theory
VOL. n.
of matter
34
The actual energy of a moving body consists of two parts, one due to the its centre of gravity, and the other due to the motions of its parts If the body is of invariable form, the motions relative to the centre of gravity.
motion of
of its
if
parts
relative
to
the centre of
but
the parts of the body are not rigidly connected, their motions
may
consist
in
their
motion of the centre of gravity and that due to the rotation, or other internal motion. If the molecules are pure centres of force, there can be no energy of
rotation,
is
but in
all
other cases
may be
represented by ^Mif^,
translation.
where
ratio
^ is ^ will
The
an
the
be
dijBferent
for
molecule
after
every encounter
with
another
molecule,
but
it
will
have
of
been shown
by Clausius.
The value
of
can be determined
if
we know
either
specific heats of
The method of
is
paper,
to
all
the
mean
mean mean
(^) the
velocities
(y)
;
values of
functions
of
the
The
by
itself,
or
by
diffusion
through
another gas,
given by
(a),
gas on
given by
(/8),
given by
(y).
to the
encounters of the molecules with others of the same system or of a different and 3rd, to the 2nd, to the action of external forces such as gravity system
;
passage of molecules through the boundary of the element of volume. I shall then apply these calculations to the determination of the statical
caaes
of
the final
distribution
of
gravity,
the
35
rature in a vertical
temperature between two gases, and the distribution of tempecolumn. These results are independent of the law of force
I
shall
also
consider the
dynamical cases of
force
diffusion,
between the
molecules.
On
Let
the
the
masses
of
these
be
if,,
Jf,,
and
other
let
their
^,,
velocities
{,
resolved in
^,,
ry,,
to
each
be
17,,
and two
4.
molecules will be
^,if,
+ ^A M, + M,
of
'
rnMr+vM. M, + M,
'
will
mutual
of
the molecules,
whatever nature
that
may
be.
"We
may
therefore
moving
If
will
will
to
itself
we regard
describe a plane
be similar to each other and synmietrioal with respect to the line of apses.
If the molecules
move with
sufficient velocity to
carry
them out
of their mutual action, their orbits wiU each have a pair of asymptotes inclined
at an angle
7^
to the line
b^
of apses.
orbit
of 3/,
at
from the
centre
and
those
of
M^
MA = M,b,.
The
distance between
two
parallel asymptotes,
one in each
orbit, will
be
b = b, + h,.
If,
while the two molecules are stiU beyond each other's action,
we draw
a straight line through J/, in the direction of the relative velocity of 3/, to
line,
52
36
dicular will be
6,
relative
motion
again
When,
will
it
after
no sensible action
between
them, each
be moving with the same velocity relative to the centre of gravity that had before the mutual action, but the direction of this relative velocity will be turned through an angle 2^ in the plane of the orbit. The angle ^ is a function of the relative velocity of the molecules and of b, the form of the function depending on the nature of the action between
the molecules.
If
we suppose the
rotation,
internal vibration,
The value of 6 and the final velocities amount of internal energy in each molecule
and on the particular form of that energy at every instant We have no means of determining such intricate
our knowledge of molecules,
so that
is,
we must
on an average,
the same as for pure centres of force, and that the final velocities differ from
the
initial velocities
may
although in a great
many
arrive,
at
a final
ratio,
which we
shall
suppose to be that of
to
/3
1.
M^
after it has passed
We
Let
may now
determine the
final velocity of
beyond
be the velocity of
31^
the components of
are
#i^l^2,
ViV2,
LL
The plane
inclined
<^
of
the orbit
is
to a
plane containing
the
direction
its
of
is
turned
V and b. Let this plane be and parallel to the axis of x then, since round an angle 2^ in the plane of the orbit,
that containing
while
find
the value of
^^
after the
encounter.
^'^
= ^^ +
M!fw, ^^
 ^^)
^ '"'^^ "^
20cos<l>}
(1).
37
final
velocity
we know
the
initial
positions
and
velocities
of
3f,
and
3/,
we can
determine F, the velocity of M, relative to M^; h the shortest distance between if, and il/j if they had continued to move with uniform velocity in straight
lines
;
and
<f)
the
h
angle which
determines
6,
the
plane
in
which
and
lie.
From
and
is
we can determine
if
problem
pass from this case to that of two systems of moving molecules, suppose that the time during which a molecule is beyond the action of other molecules is so great compared with the time during which it ia deflected by that action, that we may neglect both the time and the distance
When we
we
shall
described
as
and the distance described while the molecules are free from disturbing force. may also neglect those cases in which three or more molecules are within
We
On
the
Molecv.les.
kind
in
unit of volume
in
be
^V,,
be
mass of each being J/,. The velocities of these molecules will Let us select those different both in magnitude and direction.
lie
general
molecules
between
77,
f and
,
^1
+ cZ^i
q^
and
+ dq,
L and
The
^^
+ dt
and
will
let
On
cules
definite,
account of
molecules, the
nimiber of mole\\aLl
which at a given
so
have
velocities
within
given 'limits
be
that
dN,=f{i,'n,Qdi4^Mr
(^)
We
Let
the
number of molecules of the second kind dN^ of these have velocities between ^; and
dX,=f(i,r).Z.)deM4L.
unit of
volume be
+ c?^3,
i^;
and
t;,
c/t;.^
and
it
+ d^, where
38
of any of the
dN^ molecules
system
is
of the
first
system relative to
vsdll
V,
in
describe a relative
the second
cylindrical
and
+ dh.
(f)
two
it.
planes
Finally,
be drawn
let
Vht perpendicular to
(f>
through
and + d({> with a plane two planes be drawn through Vht making angles V parallel to the axis of x. Then the volume included between the and the two cylindric surfaces
If this volume includes
will be Vbdbd<f>ht. one of the molecules M,, then during the time
ht
four planes
M^ and M^,
in
which b
is
between b and
+ db, and
of
and + d(f>. dN^ molecules similar to M^ and dN^ similar to M, in unit volume, the whole number of encounters of the given kind between the two
(f)
between
<f)
<f)
systems will be
Vbdbd<f>BtdN,dN,.
Now
let
its velocity in
molecule which
kind,
certain
so that
is
altered
then
during
the time
Q',
Bt
number
changed to
while
^^^ = {QfQ)VbdU^dN,dN,
Here
(3).
29^^ refers
ot
sum
of the values of
for the
dN^ molecules
,
In
all
'
g^
the
rate
of
of
Q among
first
kind,
we must perform
with respect to
respect
<j>
from
b
<;^
to
<^
= 2ir.
6=oo.
These
operations will give
2nd, with
to
from 6 =
to
39
3rd, 4th,
with respect to
with respect to
dN dN
or /
(^^t?,^) c^^/Zr^.c?^,.
ov /^{^,rj^Qd^4vi<iLin general a
1st.
<f).
Since the
molecules
is
the
I
same
{Q'
in
whatever plane
it
takes place,
we
the value of
^.
Q)d<j>'m
several cases,
of Q'
^,
77,
and
then
Let
Q = ^, and
= i\,
jy.Qd<f> = j^^{i.l)^nsin'0
{^)
(4).
Let
Q = l' and
Q'
= e',
^'
+(^LY2{i,^,y}7rsm^2d]
(5).
By
'"
transformation of coordinates
d<i>
we may
'^'f''
r V.V,  iv,)
+ i (^'  ^^=)
(f''"
3M.($,l){v,V,)]
with similar expressions
(y)
functions of
i,
C
Q = id^,' + + L% and Q' = ei{i7 + v' + i\'); then putting ^.' 1.' + L' = v,\ + a, = u, a + + ^' = v^\ LL + and (^,^,)' + (^.^0' + (^.W=^^ ^e find
Let
ri.n.,
n.'
^yj\^Ly^)d<i>=^^^^.sm^e{(LL)v,^^2UUv,')]
+
[^^){^^ sin' e M,
Stt sin'
29) 2 (f,
 Q ( U
V^)
(7).
(87rsin'^ + 27rsin'2^)f,F'
40
whose changes we
a,
/8,
shall
have to
we
shall
indicate
is
or y, according as the
2nd.
to b.
We
respect
to 6
oo
We
to
must bear
in
mind that ^
$ occurs
find the
is
a function
is
of h
and
determined when
known.
In
the
expressions
have
If,
deal with,
and
(
sin' 20.
therefore,
we can
\
two values of
(8),
B,=
we can
iTrhdhsm'd,
and B,=
nbdbsm'^e
b.
B^ and B^
be functions of
we have found
^ as a function of b and V.
Determination of
sive
Let us assume that the force between the molecules M^ and M^ is repuland vanes inversely as the nth power of the distance between them, the
the
value of
moving
force
at
then
we
find
by the
1'<
J,
where x = , or the ratio of
time
is
:
.
to
'\
n
''''
/.v1 \a,
the
distance
;
of
the
molecules at a given
is
therefore
a numerical quantity
is
and
J. T^^a^^
The
limits of integration are
(10)
x' is
i^4:(r=
(")
41
evident that 6
la
a,
function
of a and n,
and when n
is
known
may
^30 that if
'''={^m^r^^
we put
^, =
j
^''^'
47rac?a sin' ^,
A,=
7rac?a sin'
2^
(13),
Ay^
and A,
is
will
may be
ascertained
when
given, and
and
B,
may
\
Before integrating further
M,M,
we have
which
to
will
to multiply by V, so that the form in have to be integrated with respect which enter into the expressions
will
be
It
will
be shewn that
we have
on the viscosity
In this case V will disappear from the expresof gases to believe that n = 5. sions of the form (3), and they will be capable of immediate integration with respect to dN^ and dN,.
If
a*
y\iy
^ = ^"^'2'^jo7lsin'<^8in'l,
Jcoa24F^i^4
(14),
where
Fg^^
is
first
kind and
is
given in
Legendre's Tables.
A^.
42
GASES.
43
function
t), &c., already determined, and f, is the is some function of ^, {, which indicates the distribution of velocity among the molecules of the
second kind.
In the case
of integration
in
which n =
5,
disappears,
result
Q^v
the
of
where
is
and
A^, is
If,
mean value of Q for all the molecules the number of those molecules.
is
the
second kind,
however, n
to
not equal to
of
5,
so that
we should
require
we
The
ters
only
case
in
this
function
is
whose velocity
In the Philosophical
Magazine
parallel
for January 1860, on the assumption that the probability of a molecule having a velocity resolved
to
limits
is
not in any
way
affected
parallel
to
y.
by the As
assumption
may
now determine
On
the
Final Distribution of Velocity among the Molecules of Two Systems acting on one another according to any Law of Force.
given point
let lines
From a
direction
either
will
be drawn representing in
of
velocities
every
molecule
of
The extremities
of these
if
lines
ele
an
ment of volume
lines
dV
be taken
which
will
terminate within
dV
will
be f{r)dV,
where
r is the distance o{
dV
from O.
first
Let
OA = a
be
kind,
and
OB = b
that of a molecule
62
44
BA
he
the
velocity
of
relative
to
B; and
OG,
if
we
divide
AB
in.
OG
will
be the velocity
two molecules.
Now
the
let
encounter,
OA' = a' and OR = b' be the velocities of the two molecules after GA = GA' and GB = GR, and A'GE is a straight Hne not
the plane of
is
necessarily in
OAB.
Also
AGA' = 20
if
is
The
relative
motion
molecules
is
completely defined
we know
encounter,
2$ the angle through which and ^ the angle which defines the direction of the plane in which BA and RA' lie. All encounters in which the magnitude and direction of BA, and also 9 and <^, lie within certain almost contiguous limits, we shall class The number of such encounters in unit of as encounters of the given kind.
the
encounter,
time will be
n^n^de
where
n,
(17),
and
Wj are
and
the numbers of molecules of each kind under consideration, and of the angle 6, and de depends
on the Umits of variation within which we class encounters as of the same kind.
and
describe
dV
while
AB
A\ and
will
also
describe
of the
first
kind, the
velo
dV
at A, will be
(18).
n,=f,{a)dV
The number
to
OB
will
be
n,=f._{h)dV
(19);
f,(a)Mb){dVYFdc
The
to
(20).
lines representing the velocities of these molecules after encounters of the given kind will terminate within elements of volume at A' and R, each equal
dV.
45
manner
we should
find
for
the number of
encounters
between
described
dV
about A' and B', and whose subsequent velocities correspond to elements equal
to c^F described
about
and B,
where F'
is
(21),
that
is
of
BA
and
AGA'.
is
When
to
OAy OA,
OB
OA',
OR
is
equal
to
the
OB
OB,
then the
final
distribution
be
obtained,
which
will
when
(22).
fMMi)=fM)MV)
Now
the only relation between
a,
and
a',
h' is
(23),
whence we obtain
where
f,{a)
= C,e~^\
f,(b)
= Cy^
(24), (25).
M,a' = MJ3"integrating
jjjC^e'
C^.
If,
*'
By
molecules
didrj dC,
therefore,
and equating
distribution
the
result
to
xV
we
.V,
the
of velocities
among
and
rj
+ drj, and
and
"'
+ dC
is
dN,= ^\e~
aV
didqdC
be
altered
(26),
then
this
distribution
of
velocities
will
not
by the exchange
of
velocities
their
mutual
action.
It
This
is
therefore
also
the
only
form
for
if
there
were any
other,
velocities
Suppose that the represented by OA and OA' would not be equal. number of molecules having velocity OA' increases at the expense of OA. Then since the total number of molecules corresponding to OA' remains constant, OA' must communicate as many to OA", and so on till they return to OA.
Hence
if
OA,
OA',
OA",
&c.
be a
series
of
velocities,
there will
be a
tendency of each molecule to assume the velocities OA, OA', OA", &c. in order,
returning to OA.
Now
it
is
impossible
to
assign a
reason
why
the successive
46
velocities
reverse
equal, direct
order.
therefore,
OA
and OA'
is
not
Hence the
exchange between
is
OA
and OA'
is
equal,
determined
attained only
when the
rapidity
molecules have
had a great
encounters
the gaseous
velocity
is
number of
each
encounters,
with
which the
succeed
other
is
the
form
When the gas moves in mass, the velocities now determined are pounded with the motion of translation of the gas.
When
com
the differential elements of the gas are changing their figure, being
compressed or extended along certain axes, the values of the mean square of
the velocity will be different in different
directions.
It
is
probable
that the
Am)=^iei^'''^^
apyrr
(27),
where
a,
$,
gate the exact distribution of velocities in this case, as the theory of motion
of gases does not require
it.
When
through
a
one gas
gas,
is
when heat
as in
is
being conducted
and negative
considered.
directions,
we have
very small in
most actual
The
principal
conclusions which
this
investigation
are
as follows.
1st.
The mean
velocity
is
(28).
2nd.
velocity
is
v'
= xa' = o**
(29).
3rd.
f* is
?*
(3^)
47
of i*
is
^'
is
= a*
(31).
(32)
fV
f^' =
6th.
When
M,a'
=MJ3'
M,iw
be the same
in
it is
(33), (34),
whence
or
is
M,v,' =
the
mean
vis
viva of
a molecule will
each system.
This
and
all
independent of the
the law
We
shall find
leads
to
of gases
known
to
We
cases.
may now
shall
proceed
to
write
down
SO
the
values
of gin
the
diflferent
We
indicate the
mean value
of one kind
by placing a bar over the symbol which represents that quantity to for any particular molecule, but in expressions where all such quantities are W"e bar. the omit convenience, for shall, we values, mean their be taken at shall use the symbols h, and S, to indicate the eSect produced by molecules of
the
first
kind
forces.
and
second
shall
83
to
indicate
the effect of
external
since
is
it
We
confine
ourselves to
difficulty,
5,
is
but
In this case
disappears,
and we have
for the
effect of
on the
first,
'^M^^^}''!:^''''"'
where the functions of
values
for
all
^,
77,
<"'
C in
the
molecules,
in
according as
(7).
the
equations
(4),
(6),
We
thus obtain
^''^''
t^lEOT^F^^^^^^'*
48
(37);
.(38);
(r)
8t
2.
t. r)}
M^,
M,
Jf,
(2^^
 ^^ J 2 (^.  ^0 ( C^^
F,0
(39),
S^
to
from
tlie
action of molecules
These
ii,
are
the values
for
of
the
rate
of
variation
first
of
the
mean
values
of
^i,
^{qi,
and ^iFi^
In all of them we must multiply up all and take the mean values of the products so found. As has to be done for all such functions, I have omitted the bar over each
of
^,
q,
C,
To
find
among the
^j,
particles of
we have only
to
alter
the suffix
,j)
into
throughout, and to
change K, the
force
coefficient
of the force
first
between M^ and
system.
We
thus find
W
<'^)
f =0
^=(m!f^'^^M%'+L'2S,'{v,v.+iA.2i,m
,(40);
(41);
^ = {m})'^'^^^MZ.v,(J:}
(42);
'
49
W^'=(2i?)^'^'^'''("^'^'^''
These quantities must be added to those
to
in
^''>
variation
in
the molecules of
When
there
kind of
On
"We
in
the Action of
shall
the molecules.
force
for
the variations of
",
and
^F"*
due to
this cause,
W
(^)
Tt =
(")
%^=2fX
^^ = nX + ^Y
(45);
(16);
(r)^'=2f(fx+,,r+2)+;fp
where
8, refers
<*)
forces.
to variations
On
the
Total rate of change of the different functions of the velocity of the molearising
from
molecules of both
systems
and from
To
we must add
h9.
ht
'
^=^
Bt
'
^"""^
.r.A
^3^
W
r),
the quantities
already found.
We
shall
find
it,
and
C,
u+
i,
and
u'
+C
(^8),
VOL.
II.
50
where
and
are
so
mean
values
of the
com
We
M,N, = p,,
where mass
p,
M^, = p,
(49),
is,
and
pj are
the
in unit of volume.
We
''
^^ (2?)' = ^
<^):
from
K> h> and k are quantities the absolute values of which can be deduced have not as yet experimental data for determining experiment*
We
M, N,
or
K.
We
(a)
thus find for the tate of bhange of the various ftlnctions of the velocity,
(51);
^ = kA^,{u,u,) + X
kp.
(52);
+
also
AM
(n,^
^'^ ^^'
^
'^'^
.(53).
(y)
As the
media
variation
of functions
shall
of three
dimensions
use
in
mixed
them,
I shall
+ X (3^,^ + ^/ + L^)
+ 2Y^,'n, + 2Za.
(54).
51
Theory of a
Medium composed
of Moving Molecules.
We
shall
rectangular axes, and that the component velocities of any one of them, resolved
in the directions of x, y,
z,
are
W+ where
w,
v,
^,
Tf,
w\t
are
mean
velocity
of
all
the molecules
^,
17,
t,
are
of the
relative
mean
velocity.
u,
v,
The
^,
quantities
w may
will
be treated as functions of
x, d.
y,
z,
and
t,
in
The
quantities
t
4,
for
each molecule.
8.
will
be indicated by the
symbol
in
The mean values of ^* and other functions of ^, the element of volume may, however, be treated
t.
17,
t,
for all
the molecules
of x, y,
2,
as
functions
and
If
u,
V,
w,
we consider an element of volume which always moves with the velocities we shall find that it does not always consist of the same molecules,
molecules
treat
it
because
therefore
are
as
continually
passing
through
its
boundary.
u,
v,
We
is
cannot
w,
as
done
in
hydrodynamics, but
we must
consider
molecule.
When we
during
its
We
and
^,
q,
we may
call
N the
of each molecule,
in the element dx dy dz be number of molecules in unit of volume. If and p the density of the element, then
N dx dy
dz,
then
is
the mass
MN = p
Transference of Quantities across a Plane Area.
(55).
must next consider the molecules which pass through a given plane of unit area in unit of time, and determine the quantity of matter, of momentum,
We
72
52
of heat, &c. which
is
We
shall
first
divide
^,
the
tj,
molecules
in
unit
of
volume
into
classes
and ^ for each, and we shall suppose that the number of molecules in unit of volume whose velocity in the direction of x lies and i + dt, is dN, dN will then be a between ^ and i+d^, q and q + dq, function of the component velocities, the sum of which being taken for all the
t,
medium
in its state of
AT
equiHbrium
dN=,e~ aV
In
the
present
investigation
function.
PW+C
'
d^dqdi
require
to
(56).
we do not
know
the
form
of
this
Now
let
a velocity of which the part resolved parallel to x is u\ plane relative to the molecules we have been considering is
there are
The
velocity of the
u{u + ^),
and
since
dN
it
will overtake
{u'{u^^)]dN
such
molecules
in
unit
of
time,
and
the
number
of
{u\^u)dN.
Now
let
be
vis
any
viva,
property
&c.,
belonging
it
to
the
it
molecule,
across
such as
its
mass,
momentum,
which
carries
with
the plane,
being
supposed a function of f or of ^, q, and ^, or to vary in any way from one molecule to another, provided it be the same for the selected molecules whose
number
is
dN,
then
the
quantity of
transferred
across
l(uu'+^)QdN,
or
If
{uu)jQdN+jiQdN
we put
(57).
call
QN
for
jQdN, and
JQ^
for
the
mean value
of Q,
we may
write the
expression
for
{uu')QN + lQN
(58).
53
(a)
Velocity
is
of the Fluid.
M
is
then,
since
make Q
all
equal
molecules
of the
sion
same kind,
reduced to
M=M;
zero,
the expres
{uu)MN={uu)p
If
(59).
u = u, or
if
u,
transferred
zero
may
therefore be
(yS)
Transference of
Momentum
across
a Plane
System
of Pressures at any
point of the
Fluid.
one
get
is
M{u + ^).
transferred
Q,
we
the quantity of
momentum
(uu)up + f'p
If the plane moves with
(60).
is
the velocity
of
^'.
u,
this expression
reduced to
^'p,
where
mean value
This
the whole
negative
momentum
the
from
plane
the
to
positive
of
medium on
of the
partly
of
the
momentum
thus
transferred,
The
plane
latter
in
gases,
that
we may
them.
medium on
kept
the
in
entirely
also
due to the
constant bombardment
up between
of y
There
be a transference of
plane,
momentum
directions
and
across the
same
{uu)vp{$r)p
(61),
(62),
and
where
^q
(uu)2vp +
Ep
54
If the
mean
velocity
exerted on the
it
medium on the
positive side
force
into
a normal pressure
a tangential pressure
^p
in the direction of x,
^p
in the direction of y,
z.
If X, Y, Z are the components of the pressure on unit of area of a plane whose direction cosines are I, m, n,
,,,.(63),
+ nCp
all
When
a gas
is
direc
we put
(64),
the quantity
will represent
_
rj^p,
^'p,
difier
from
rji^p,
C^p,
and
^rjp will
then
Energy in
the
Medium
Actual Heat.
partly
The actual
centre of gravity,
on the velocity of
its
and partly on
It
its
may
be written
(65),
^EM
is
is
is
the internal
part of the
at present
unknown.
Summing
the energy
(66).
The first term gives the energy due to the motion of medium in mass, the second that due to the agitation of the
of the molecules,
translation of the
centres of gravity
and the third that due to the internal motion of the parts of
each molecule.
55
of internal
we assume with
that,
of the
mean energy
we may conclude
preserved, so that
always
E = {fil){^' + l' + C)
The
total
(67).
i^(f + ^' +
or
(68),
(69).
WP
This
energy* being in
the
(y)
a Plane
Conduction
of Heat.
(70),
Putting
= iy8(f +
7y'
+ r)^,
and u = u
we
find
for the quantity of heat carried over the unit of area by conduction
in unit of time
i^ii'+ff+mp
where
^,
&c.
(71)'
indicate
the
mean
values
of
^,
&c.
They
are
always small
quantities.
On
the
Rate of Variation of
in
an Element of Volume,
being
any property
Let
the
for
mean value
The
for all
quantity
may
vary from
element
may by
their
mutual action
The molecules within the two causes. of external forces produce action or by the
pass into the element and
an alteration of Q, or molecules
so cause
may
out of
it,
and
the symbol S to
an increase or diminution of the value of ^ wathin it. If we employ denote the variation of Q due to actions of the first kind on
3
56
consideration,
dQN = hQ
dt
d ^N g^^')^^+^^^
.r
(72),
where
the
equations,
in
mean
velocity
of
the
system of
molecules,
Equation of Continuity.
Put
putting
QM
MN=p,
the
mass of a
dp
molecule;
M
dw\
is
unalterable,
and we have,
,^
,.
(du
dv
i+p[r.+Ty+dz)=''
which
is
(^'^'
the
ordinary
equation
of
continuity
in
Combining
this equa
was obtained, we
find
^f+(?^^+(^^)+rf4(^e^)=^f
a more convenient form of the general equation.
Eqtiations of Motion (a).
(").
momentum
We
written
SO
g
firom equation
(51),
P'lt'^dz
(^^^)
(5'6).
57
the
In this equation the first term denotes the efficient force per unit of volume, second the variation of normal pressure, the third and fourth the variations
of tangential pressure, the fifth the resistance due to the molecules of a different
system, and the sixth the external force acting on the system.
The investigation of the values of the second, third, and fourth terms must be deferred till we consider the variations of the second degree.
In a state of equilibrium
u^
and
w,
vanish,
pi^,'
becomes
p^,
S=^''
which
is
independently
that
if
This equation, being true of the system of molecules forming the first medium of the presence of the molecules of the second system, shews
several kinds
of molecules are
in
vessel
and
be the same as
if
This
exist
is
the same
a
mode
of
distribution
that
which
Dalton
considered
to
in
mixed
atmosphere in
left
If currents
so
as
to
mix
as
of
the
law
of
force
between
the
Diffusion of Gases.
If
the
motion of the
gases
is
slow,
we may
still
pressures.
system of molecules
(78),
h^ + ^ = tA^M,u,) + Xp
VOL. n.
58
and
dp.^
(79).
In
equation.
all
cases
of
quiet
we may
/d,
neglect
the
If
we then put
p^ ip^
=p, and
+ pj = p, we
find
1=^"
If
(^)
we
also
Mu.u)=M'^u,)=^^;^.(x^^
Here Pi(u,u)
across
is
(81).
first
same area
The external
in
force
has very
little
effect
vessels
of moderate size^
We
two
may
therefore leave it
gases.
When two
a vessel at
equal
by gravity are placed in different parts of and temperatures, there will be mechanical equiwill
and u
always be
zero.
mately true of heavy gases, provided the denser gas is placed below the lighter. Mr Graham has described in his paper on the Mobility of Gases*, experiments
which were made under these conditions. A vertical tube had its lower tenth part filled with a heavy gas, and the remaining ninetenths with a lighter gas.
After the lapse of a
off,
part
of the tube
was shut
in it analyzed, so
gas which had ascended into the upper tenth of the tube during the given time.
In this case
we have
p,,= ^^
'
u=
(82),
_J^l^. p^pJcA^p dx
(83), ^
'
59
W^i^r',u,) =
whence
(84).
^. =
^Py
^.
(85);
or
if
we put
D=
^',
dt^d:^
The
solution of this equation
is
^^^^
^, = C,+
If the length of the tube
is
C>'"'^'cos(r2j;
if it is
+ a) + &c
(87).
a,
and
i?.=
Q + C,e""^ cos^+C^
^
cos2 + &C
(88),
where
the
C^,
from x =
for
C C, are to be determined by the condition that when t = 0, Pi=p, from x = ^ to x = a. The general expression to x = ^, and p^ =
which the
t
case in
first
to x
= b, and
in
=
1
to x
=c
.
is
collected, is
27rc
p
where
= +7e
a
ir'c
\
la
^<
*
''
+&c. a
,
^
'^
,__. (89),
to x
is
first
gas
to
from
x=
= c.
Graham's experiments,
gas,
in
In
Mr
which
onetenth
first
of
the
tube was
filled
with the
first
at the other
end ascertained
We
where
find
for
series
of values
of
^^
T.
tJ^^^^
82
60
P'
T
2T ZT 4r Sr 67 87
lOT \2T
00
01193
02305
03376
04366
05267
06072
07321
08227 08845
'10000
acid
Mr
and
air,
this
Table,
T=500
Now
(91),
log^^
whence
for carbonic acid
X)
= 0235
and
air,
in inchgrainsecond measure.
D
and
is
the
the volume of gas reduced to unit of pressure which passes in unit when the total pressure is uniform and equal to p, pressure of either gas increases or diminishes by unity in unit of
distance.
may be
It varies directly as
the
square of the
of length
are evidently
this
air,
we have assumed
that air
a simple gas.
Now
it
is
well
known
that
the constituents of air can be separated by mechanical means, such as passing them through a porous diaphragm, as in Mr Graham's experiments on Atmolysis.
THE DYNAMICAL THEORY OF GASES. The discussion of the interdiffusion of three or more gases leads more complicated equation than that which we have found for two
it
is
61
to
much
and
gases,
It
is
be
desired that
of
experiments
should be made
on the
inter
diffusion
of
every
pair
do not act
mixture being
Mr Graham
the
results
pt.
2,
p.
74,
of
The
coefl&cients
of diffusion
026216
'010240
'00962
'00771
Air and
Ammonia
Air and defiant gas Air and Carbonic acid Air and Sulphurous acid Air and Chlorine
'00682
'00582 '00486
The
mixed gas
value
for
carbonic
acid
is
the
experiment
column.
The
is,
inequality
of
composition of the
;
different
parts
of the vessel
however, neglected
it
dialess
Those experiments on
values
of
diflFusion
which lasted
ten
hours,
all
give
also
smaller
result
Interdiffusion through
a small
hole.
When
the
hole
;
two
of
by a small
hole.
mixture
gases
in
near the
and the inequality of the pressure of each gas will extend to a distance from the hole depending on the diameter of the hole, and nearly proportional
to that diameter.
62
^^
,^+^'=i^p^,K.)+xp, dx
dt
.(92)
the term
will
dx
Hence when the hole is very small the righthand side of the equation may be neglected, and the flow of either gas through the hole will be independent of the flow of the other gas, as the term kAp^^{u^u^) becomes comparatively insignificant.
One gas
as
fast
therefore will escape through a very fine hole into another nearly
as
into
vacuum; and
if
the
volumes difiused will be as the square roots of the specific gravities inversely,
which
is
by Graham*.
(y3).
By
putting for
in equation (75)
(52),
we
find
...(94).
first
invisible agitation
by expansion; the
xii. p. 222.
63
or
viscosity
sixth,
effect
of fluid
friction
and
by conduction.
The
quantities
of diffusion,
simplified
in
various
cases,
which we
shall
take
in
Ist.
Law of Equivalent
(94)
is
Volumes.
We
of heat
shall
is
The equation
then reduced
ip.
A(f,' +
V+
= ;^^W(f^ +
'/='
+ 3/,(f,' + V + }....(95).
If
we put
j^^_ ii: +
we
or
find
v:
+ C;) = Q
and
^^^
(f,=
+ ,. + C,=) = ft
(96),
{Q,Q,)=^^^(Mj>.A + M,p^,){Q,Q,)
Q.Q. = Ce,
where ^ =
are
in
(97),
(98).
If,
therefore,
the
gases
and Q.
will
rapidly
become
equal.
is
Now
of invisible
agitation
called
equality of
temperature
are at the
same temperature,
Q.
Q.
(99),
1_2,_3/.(^,1+^,MJ^
Pt
54
^^ = ^'
Pi P
(100),
or
the
masses of the
the gas. can be deduced This result, by which the relative masses of the molecules at by GayLussac the relative densities of the gases, was first arrived necessary result of the from chemical considerations. It is here shewn to be a we adopt as to theory whatever so, it is Theory of Gases; and
from
Dynamical
molecules, as may be seen by the nature of the action between the individual assumptions as to the general perfectly from deduced is which equation (34),
We
If
may
for
~,
where
Sj,
s,
are the
specific
6 to denote the temperature reckoned from absolute zero of a hydrogen, F,' its mean square gas thermometer, M, the mass of a molecule of of any other gas referred gravity specific the s unity, temperature at of velocity
we
use
is
M=M,s
Its
(101).
mean square
of velocity,
^'~s
l>
^^^
(102).
= ^7^^o'
(103).
We
Cooling hy Expansion.
dx~dy~dz~
du
and
''
3p
dt
dy
and
all
zero.
65
will
mass of gas
is
of the
be
*''^f*^'l=
^'f^fi^f^Sfif
3^
<^^).
(lOG),
T = 30J
which
gives
2 dp
,,,,
C"^)'
in
the
relation
between
gas
We
also find
dp
dO
'^'j
which gives the relation between the pressure and the density.
().
Specific
at Constant
Volume^
The
mass
is
^)3F'
= ^',
or
^=^f
If,
(mit
without
changing
density,
^^=f? = ff
Hence the
measure
specific
(no).
in
heat of unit
of
is
dynamical
'^^^^P
(111)
VOL. u.
66
Specific
at
Constant Pressure.
dd and the
till
By
pressure
dE
pressure 9p.
Now,
to
let
its
sinks
the gas expand without communication of heat former value, and let the final temperature be
the
+ d'0.
The temperature
^Sd'B
dp
a^
^
'
3^
2
dd
^^^^^^^
"r==
specific
+ 3)8
y
is
^'
and the
fe'^fe
The
is
()
ratio of the
specific
known
We
by
(114),
^
'
= 2^ y '^
3/8
whence
)8
=f
yi
is
(115).
The
specific
at constant volume
,4t^
and
at constant pressure
(").
^f.
where
("^)>
is
From
and
has
Dr Rankine* has
of
air,
found the result to agree with the value afterwards determined ex
perimentally by M. Regnaultt.
* Transactions of the Royal Sodtty of Edinburgh, Vol. xx. (1850). t Comptes Rendus, 1853.
67
ting
to
diffusing into one another, then, omitting the terras relaheat generated by friction and to conduction of heat, the equation (94)
gives
.(118).
By
(78),
and
(79),
of this equa
tion becomes
(pi^i
/dp,
\_(dp,
dp,
dp
 ip. ^
{^x
 (U/ +
V,'
+ W',').
X{p,u, + p,u,)
d.pu
d.pv
d.pw
dz
,.(119).
The whole
external
If
forces
increase
therefore
minus
to
the
cooling
mixture,
exactly
the
heat due
diffusion
will
be
neutralized
by
the
of
each gas as
it is rare.
it
where
it is
92
68
GASES.
Determination of the Inequality of Pressure in different directions due Motion of the Medium.
to
the
Let us put
Pifi*=i'i
(52),
+ 5i and
p^i'=p2 + q,
(120).
Then by equation
...(121),
if
we omit
in equation
(75) terms
neglect of three dimensions in i, q, I, which relate to conduction of heat, and coeffilarge the by multiplied not when and p^p, quantities of the form ^p
cients
ky,
and
k^,
we get
+ 2i>^f/>(x; j;^.+ dx + dy
If
du
dv
dw\ _hq
(122).
dzl
St
the
that
motion
of
is
not subject
to
as
in
all
cases
except
the
propagation
of
we may
neglect
In a single
system of molecules
=
2p
(du

3kA^
/du
,
.(12a),
dv
dwW
whence
1
If
we make
p t^1
=/a
shall
(125),
/Lt
will
we
(dv
(du
dv
dv
dwW
dw\\
(125),;
(dv)
(du
69
(dv dz
dvr'
dy
fdw
fdu
du\
dv
(127).
when the
These are the values of the norittal and tangential stresses in a simple gas variation of motion is not very rapid, and when /x, the coefficient
is
of viscosity,
may
be neglected.
we
find
dp
(d'u
ct'u
d\]
d fdu
written
that of
dv
dw\
w ith
form
two
other
equations wbich
is
may
be
of these equations
identical
with,
those
elasticity,
a rate
proportional
to
its
amount.
by supposing the strain to be continually relaxed The ratio of the third and fourth terms
exist
in
of the
we suppose the inequality of pressure which we have denoted by q to the medium at any instant, and not to be maintained by the motion medium, we find, from equation (123),
q^
= Ce"''''^
(129)
= Ce~^
the stress q
is
if
T=j\ =
f^
(130);
itself,
so that
1=1
We
may
"
(131).
call
Cah. xx.
p.
139.
On
the Friction of Fluids in Motion and the Equilibrium and Motion of Elastic Solids^" Camhr'uhje
viil.
Tram. Vol.
(2).
70
If
GASES.
= 3,
so
medium
an
elastic solid,
^^^^^^st^(i:4,w)=
n.ay be written
()
(133),
where
is
a,
/8,
jt)
we suppose
then,
value
of
equal to p,
after
a small dis
placement,
i'i'^(l++S)i's
and bj transformation of coordinates the tangential pressure
(^)^
^^=^(4f)
The medium
rigidity of
(>)
has
is
properties of
is
an
elastic
solid,
the
which
fp*.
if
The same result and the same ratio of the elasticities would be obtained we supposed the molecules to be at rest, and to act on one another with
depending on the distance, as in the
statical
forces
ticity.
molecidar
theory of elas
are
in
The coincidence of the properties of a medium in which the molecules held in equilibrium by attractions and repulsions, and those of a medium
the
molecules
which
all,
move
in
straight
lines
at
who
is
The
of our
medium
therefore
molecules, causing
them
The
therefore
>....(136).
J
Now p
Hence
density.
varies
as
while
varies
varies
as
the
absolute
temperature,
and
is
independent
of
the
Camh.
Phil.
Trans. Vol.
viil.
(1845),
p.
71
of
Mr Graham
on the Tran
of Gases*,
and by
my own
is
The
the
molecules.
result
Dynamical
It
Theory
of
Gases,
was
deduced
0. E.
by myself J
molecules,
and M.
Meyer
The experimental
temperature,
as
result,
is
proportional
to the absolute
requires
make
it
vary
the
square root
force
is
of the
of a
repulsive
inversely as the
molecules, which
Using the
for
foot,
the grain,
units,
my
experiments give
air,
= 00936.
we
find,
If the pressure
is
30 inches of mercury,
_p = 477360000.
Since
rigidity
in
pT=fi,
we
find
that
the
modulus
is
of
the
time
of
relaxation
of
and temperature
5oa9Ao600
This
vibration
of a second.
time
of
is
exceedingly
small,
of
the
most acute
audible sounds
so
that
sound we
may
consider the
we have
t Proceedings of the Royal Society, February 8, 1866; Philosophical Transactions, 1866, Magazine, January 1860. [Vol. i. xx.] X Philosophical
II
p.
249.
"
On
the effect of the Internal Friction of Fluids on the motion of Pendulums," Cambridge Transac
72
Viscosity of
a Mixture of Gases,
is
all
the gases.
Putting
equation (122) becomes
p,
t(^rMJ)=^
(^).
j^^m
to
(139).
p=Pi+Pi and
q = qi + q
where
and q
refer
the mixture,
we
have
tiU=q={q, + q,),
where
If
to
fx
is
we put
and
5^
for
referred
0^
and p at temperature
and
p,
and
'^
pA
'
SAAs,Ep,' + IIp,p,+
ZAMGp.'
^'
where
p,
is
^(25A + 3M,)
{k,s,
F= 3A,
25,,
Si
+ S,
(141),
reduced to p^ when ^, =
0,
and
to p,
when Pi=0.
k,
For
we
require
to
know
the value of
the coefficient
73
This might
mutual
interference
of
the
molecules
/x
of
for
the
two
gases.
be
is
deduced
by
mixtures,
of the
interdiffusion
two
gases.
The
experi
my
experiments
for air,
Air
k,=
^,
481 xlO",
1
Hydrogen
Carbonic
42'8
39
1 0'",
acid... /:,=
10".
diffiision
The experiments of Graham in 1863, referred to at page 58, on the interof air and carbonic acid, give the coefficient of mutual interference
Air and carbonic acid
^=52xl0"';
k,
of these gases,
and by taking
this
as
ratios
we
find
^ = 298x10"'.
air
to
oxygen
and
nitrogen.
It
is
also
of k between
of calculation
Mr Graham.
by Graham
air,
have
of
also
examined the
transpirationtimes
acid,
determined
for
mixtures
value of
hydrogen
to
It will
and
carbonic
assuming
k roughly,
satisfy
the
experimental
about
the
middle of
the
scale.
bonic
acid
exhibit
observed
in
the
experiments,
that
a small
both
series
quicker gas.
and the
results of observation
and calculation
of mixtures of
VOL. IL
10
75
{,
whose values
will
the molecules.
exist
its final
acting on
(31), (32),
it
at
j^=3r.r=3^
(144),
r?= ??=
fP= eC=
^^
(145).
K p
(146);
5^^^=3V^^{^^ + ^^ +
(^^^)'
(147),
as
Society,
con
2(/8
1)/,
itself,
when
left
to
in
equation
Equation (147), as now corrected, shews that the flow of heat depends on the variation of temperature only, and not on the direction of the variation
of pressure.
vertical
in
thermal equilibrium,
When
not the
I first
^*
is
same
as
^% and so
obtained
as
that
it
the
temperature
them
does by expansion
when
air
is
carried
up
in mass.
* The
last
102
76
which
but
inconsistent
with the
second
law
of
thermodynamics.
difficulty
wrote to
Professor Sir
W. Thomson
discovered
about this
one of
result,
and the
presently
my
mistakes,
and arrived
at
the height.
and I was
in
some
But
it
is
In fact, if the temperature of any substance, when in thermic a function of the height, that of any other substance must be the same function of the height. For if not, let equal columns of the two
equiUbrium,
is
thermodynamics.
substances
be
enclosed in
at
cylinders
If,
communication
the
the
are
bottom.
at
when
in
thermal equilibrium,
the tops of
two
columns
different
temperatures, an
by taking heat
refuse
from
the
hotter
and
the
giving
it
up
till
heat would
circulate
is
round
in
system
to
mechanical
dynamics.
energy, which
contradiction
the
second
law
of
thermo
The
result
is
as
now given
is,
when
in
thermal
said
equilibrium,
follows from
that temperature
independent of height in
all
other substances.
we
assumptions,
different
velocities
we
shall
find
this
that unless
equation
is
result.
Now
f* = 3^.
we should have
to
We
may
there
fore
as in
Coefficient
of Conductivity.
If
is
the coefficient of conductivity of the gas for heat, then the quantity
of
area in
unit
of
de_^ ^
by equation
(147).
^dx'k^A,^
do dx
^^^^^
77
its
value in terms
(125),
value in terms of
by equation
of y by equation (115), and for A;, and calling ^ p and Q^ the simulgas,
taneous pressure,
cific
density,
and
the spe
we
find
<'^^)
^=3(^.tJ
For
274'6C.
air
we
have
absolute
y= 1*409,
zero,
and
at
the
temperature
per
for
of
melting
ice,
or
above
/^ = 918*6
measure.
feet
second,
at
and at
16''6
C,
^ = 0"0936
in footgrainsecond
Hence
air
(7=1172
That
is
to say,
is
surface
through every square foot of horizontal surface a quantity of heat the mechanical
energy of which
per second.
Principal
is
heat
in
bars,
Forbes* has deduced from his experiments on the conduction of that a plate of wrought iron one foot thick, with its opposite
in
surfaces
is
25"
C, transmit
the
much
Now
It
dynamical
equivalent
in
foot^grainsecond
is 1 '91
57 x
10'".
25" C.
than
air at
M.
of
/x,
and from a
different value
air. is
heat
Now
not
iron
far
M. Clausius
in actual value.
kind
of
measure to
its
186162.
78
Since
all
are constant
except
it
/x,
the conductivity
subject to the
viscosity,
that
is,
is
ture.
The conductivity
Also,
since
is
nearly
the same
for
air,
oxide, to
gases will
nitrogen,
Oxygen,
and
air
will
have
equal conductivity, while that of hydrogen will be about seven times as great.
The
value
its
is
of
for
carbonic
acid
is
1'27,
its
specific
gravity
is
oxygen, and
acid for heat
viscosity
of
of that
of oxygen.
oxygen or of
the
Royal
XXIX.
On
the
Theory of the Maintenance of Electric Currents by Mechanical Work ivithout the use of Permanent Magnets.
The machines lately brought before the Royal Society by Mr Siemens and Professor Wheatstone consist essentially of a fixed and a moveable electromagnet, the coils of which are put in connexion by means of a commutator.
The electromagnets
greatly
increase
in
which
much
as
possible,
begin by supposing
to
have
no
cores,
and,
to fix
our ideas,
the
form
of
rings,
the
smaller
revolving
within
diameter.
The
equations of
the
currents
in
two neighbouring
circuits
are
my
paper
"On
= Sy + ^^{Mx + Ny\
rj
and
and
are
the coefficients
selfinduction
the
is
two
circuits,
that
is
is,
their
potentials
on themselves
induction,
unity,
and
are
M
of
their
coefficient
of mutual
on
their
relative
position.
measurement, X, M,
velocities.
circuit,
and
the
and
and
of
are
first
L may
be
metaphorically called
"electric
inertia"
the
L f 2M\ N
469.
80
take the case of the two circuits thrown into one, and the
so that
two
is
constant.
Then
(1),
x = x,e~^^^^'
the
initial
(2).
value of the
current.
If
we put
of the time
t t
varies
i + 2if+iV ^'''
R\S
_t
._.
'V'^^
then
x = x,e
(4).
The value
similar
outward form,
as
depends on the nature of the coils. In coils of as the square of the linear dimension, and
inversely
whose
section
is
the
sum
of the sections of the wires passing through unit of section of the coil.
In the
sistance
in
large
experimental
T
coil
of ret
is
1864,
much
crease.
greater,
was about '01 second. In the coils of electromagnets and when an iron core is inserted there is a still greater
in
Let
secondary
us
effect
of
a sudden change
of position
in
t^
the
coil,
which
alters
the value of
from
M^
to
M^
in a
time
t^,
x^ to
x_.
(5).
we
we may
effect
neglect the
first
term in com
may
by saying that the electromagnetic momentum of the circuit remains the same To ascertain the effect of the commutator, after a sudden change of position. currents x and y exist in the two instant, given a at that, let us suppose into one circuit, and that x' is the then made are coils two the that coils,
MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS BY MECHANICAL WORK.
current in the circuit the instant after completion; then the same equation
gives
81
(1)
{L + 2M\N)x'
= (L^M)x^{N\M)y
(7).
circuit
The equation shews that the electromagnetic momentum of the completed is equal to the sum of the electromagnetic momenta of the separate coils
made and
broken.
if
If A,
be the ends
and
C,
we
enclose in brackets
varieties
the parts
in
electric
:
connexion,
four
as
in
the
following Table
(1)
82
During the whole motion the current has also been decaying at a rate which varies according to the value of L + 2M+N; but since varies from + if to J/, we may, in a rough theory, suppose that in the expression for the decay of the current M=0.
If the
secondary
x^,
coil
makes a semlrevolation
in
the current
will
be
^T X, =e
' r,
^^^^^
'=R^
is
''
W'
and r
For the
kind,
""imTN
By
increasing
(!")
the
speed,
T may
r
is
When
greater than
sufficient
or less
than
1,
;
the
will
current
may
be maintained by giving a
it
first case,
and
it will
be a reciprocating current
the second
When
lies
between
+1 and 1,
Let there be
second, then
coil
and q windings
in the
we may
L = lp\ M=mpq,
where
the
Z,
N = nq^
ln
(11),
m, n are quantities depending on the shape and relative position of coils. Since L^2M+N must always be a positive quantity, being the
of selfinduction
positive.
coefficient
of the
whole
circuit,
is
m\ and
first
therefore
LNM*
is
must be
When
the
commutator
is
of the
;
kind,
the ratio r
pm
greater than qn
and when
f=('V3(i^r In
which
is
(12).
the
maximum
value of
r.
83
When
r
lies
the ratio of
4 1
between
and
p to q lies between that of n to m and that 1 and the current must decay but when
, ;
of
m
is
to
I,
pi
less
may be kept
up,
and
will
increase
most rapidly
when
p="
q
m\ V U^J
1_
/l_"''
In
1
When
circuits,
is
'=(13"'
the commutator
as
to
is
<>3).
first
step
is
to close both
circuit
so
The second
thus stopped.
on the
Lx + My = Lx' r My'
In this case
(14).
M=
so that
(15);
(LM)x^Lx
where x
is
new
The next
to throw the
circuits
being
now
positive.
{L + M) X
=(L\2M+N)
is
x"
to
(16).
The whole
the ratio
effect
of this
commutator
therefore
DM'
L{L + 2M+N)'
The whole
effect of
the semirotation
is
by the
ratio
L + 2M+N
L2M+N'
The
total
effect
of a
semirevolution supposed
instantaneous
is
to
multiply
the
VM*
^''L{L2M^N)'
112
84
If
in the first
and second
coils
respec
'^~l{lp'2mpq + nq')'
which
is
greater than
1,
provided 2lmp
is
When
\m
)
r,
SJ
we have
for the
maximum
value of
I + 2In
experiment of Professor Wheatstone, in which the ends of the were put in permanent connexion by a short wire, the equations more complicated, as we have three currents instead of two to consider.
the
coil
primary
are
The equations
are
(17),
(18),
are
The
in
true
of the cores
currents
in
an elaborate discussion of them would be out of place what professes to be only a rough explanation of the theory of the experi
ments.
in
the secondary
coil,
coil
is
always in rigid
is
with
that
in
the
primary
except
With
whose
its
electric
inertia
is
of
can have
current
coil.
85
On
coil
loses
when highly
magnetism,
great
increase
of
current
to
increase
whereas
its
much
less
magnetism can be maintained at a considerable value by a current powerful. In this way the diminution in resistance and selfinduction
in
due to the shunt may more than counterbalance the diminution of strength
the primary magnet.
Also, since
is
very small,
all
instantaneous
coils,
and
will
receive
of variable
currents than
[Extracted from The Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, No. 32, 1867.]
XXX.
I PROPOSE
On
the
to
and inextensible
to it at
Let two systems of lines, cutting each other at right angles, be drawn upon any surface, and let their equations be
Notation.
<^ {xyz)
=G
and
^^ (xyz)
= H,
equal to a constant, and com
is
found by putting
or
itself,
yl,{xyz)^S.
Now
of
let
let
H vary,
and
let
length
of
the curve
= constant)
which
varies
will be a function of
H and
G.
In the same way, making dS^ an element of the curve (1^= constant) we
may
H and
G.
in the element dS^ experience a stress, consisting of a force inwhich in direction the in and increases, G which the direction in equal and creases, acting on the positive side of the linear element dS^, and
Now
let
opposite
forces acting
on the negative
side.
These
will constitute
a longitudinal
we
shall
denote by
_X_
^""'dS,'
87
and a shearing
force
call
Y
In like manner,
will
if
the
element dS^
side
is
acted on by
forces
Y' and
force,
X'
it
experience on
its
positive
the values
of which will be
forces
must be equal
force,
to that on
p,^
dS^
called the
((?
When
stresses
there
is
no shearing
then
and p^ are
principal
at the
point,
and
if p^^
= constant)
and
(ff= constant),
are
called
lines
^^
dS,
^ + (i^ni^.)5^^=0
,
.
d'S,
(1),
dp^dS,
dHdG^^^'' ^'''UGdH'^
d%
_
^2^'
^'+P^ = N,N,
The
first
(3).
and second of these equations are the conditions of equilibrium and second lines of principal tension respectively.
is
The
r,
third equation
are
and
r^
and
They
on which
other side.
r,
N, is the normal pressure of any fluid on the surface from the side and r, are reckoned positive, and N, is the normal pressure on the
If the systems of curves G and H, instead of being lines of principal stress, had been lines of curvature, we should still have had the same equation (3), but r, and r, would have been the principal radii of curvature, and p,, and p^.
88
EQUILIBRIUM OF
have
been
A SPHERICAL ENVELOPE.
and not
would
In
r,
the
iV,
case
of
spherical
surface
= i\, and
= iV, = 0,
becomes
(4),
Pn+P =
whence we obtain from the
first
=(sy='=where C^
is
a function of
(IZ"= constant)
is
H, and
at
(7,
of G.
the system
such a distance
equation
will
where {dhf
length
constant,
lines,
this
we draw two lines of p^(dS^y = (dhy at any point continue true through the whole
If then
tha,t
of these
that
is,
the
principal
stresses
will
be inversely as the
stress.
square of
of
Since this
is
we may assume
and
Hy
of stress,
stress at
fdHy
where
[dG\
and
((t
,.x
(^= constant)
is
line
of principal tension,
= constant)
a line of
principal pressure.
K
unity,
differing
and
also
differing
these two systems of lines will intersect everywhere at right angles, the distance between two consecutive lines of one system wiU be equal to the distance between two consecutive Imes of the other, and the principal stresses
will
by and
be
in
the
directions
of
the
lines,
and inversely
as
intervals
between them.
if
Now
two systems
of
lines
these conditions,
we know from
equipotential of uniform conductivity, that if one set of the curves are taken as of lines systems the two that and flow, lines of will be set other the lines,
will give
a conducting sheet.
point of the
sheet,
a solution of some problem relating to the flow of electricity through But we know that unless electricity be brought to some
and carried
off at
89
exist,
the
sheet.
points,
Hence,
at
if
such
all
systems
lines
of
lines
there
must
be some
y^is
singular
which
the
of
flow
meet,
and at which
infinite.
If j^
is
nowhere
infinite
infinite,
there
can
be
no
systems
of
lines
at
all,
and
if
j^
is
at
any
point,
there
is
an
infinite
stress
at
that point.
which can only be maintained by the action of an external force applied at that
point.
Hence
be free fi"om
forces
spherical
surface,
it
to
which no external
forces
are
applied,
must
stress,
and
are
given,
is
there can
true
in
This
equation
not
of
plane
surface.
In a plane surface,
(3)
disappears,
sufficient to
we have some other conditions, such as the by which the question may be rendered determinate.
case of a
spherical surface acted on
The simplest
in
by external
forces
is
that
are
diameter.
evidently
be
tension
lines,
com
bined with an equal and opposite pressure along the parallels of latitude, and
the magnitude
P
2na sin^ 6
where
(7),
a
r^
is
the
radius
of the
sphere,
the
force
at
the
If
<f)
poles,
is
and
the
the longitude,
and
if
and and
are
respectively,
if
we make
G = log/^^ndH=<i>
then
(8),
and
will give
^~27ra\dsj ~27ra\dsj
VOL.
II.
*^''
90
To
pass
from
this
case
to that in which
any points,
I shall
make
If a surface of any form is in equilibrium under any system of stresses, and if lines of principal stress be drawn on it, then if a second surface be the inverse of the first with respect to a given point, and if lines be drawn on
it if
which are inverse to the lines of principal stress in the first surface, and along these lines stresses are applied which are to those in the corresponding
first
point of the
surface
inversely
as
the
inveision,
equilibrium,
or
will
For,
surfaces,
if
we compare
shall
we
find
with the line through the point of inversion, The moment of the force on either element about the point
therefore
as
in the two them are in the same plane and make equal angles with it.
of
inversion
its
is
the
product
of
the
length
of
the
element,
into
distance
But the length from the point of inversion into the intensity of the stress. of the element is as its distance, and the stress is inversely as the square of
the distance, therefore the 'moments of the stresses about the point of inversion If now any portion of the first surface is are equal, and in the same plane.
in in equilibrium as regards moments about the point it will be The corresponding portion of the second siirface will also be in It is therefore equilibrium as regards moments about the point of inversion.
equilibrium,
of inversion.
either
in
equilibrium,
or
the
resultant
force
acting on
it
point of inversion.
Now
is
let
the
first
surface
first
be a sphere
surface
we know
surface
also
a sphere.
is
In the
the
in
surface
^11+^^22
= 0.
In
the
second
Hence in the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances. the direction of in equilibrium = is there or the second surface also, Pu^P^ ^> in the radius is any, if resultant, the that have seen we But the normal. Therefore, if we except the limiting case in which the radius vector vector.
the
first
in
is
is
complete in
surface,
all directions.
We
a
may now, by
acted
inverting the
pair
spherical
sphere
on
by a
of
tensions
applied at the
91
that
in
which
= 2a.
The
lines of tension
be
circles
passing
circles
<f>
circle
through
in
The angle
is
the
the inverse
surface.
The
planes
if
lines
of
pressure,
being
orthogonal
polar
of
to
these,
will
be circles whose
the
chord.
Let
r,,
r,
be the
distances
any point on the sphere from the extremities of the chord, then
for
is
constant
each of these
circles,
it
has in
Hence,
if
we make
G = log/^ G
and
and
H=
4>
(10),
will
stress,
stress at
any point
be
P~
If
P sin a /c^ffy
2na
[dsj
we draw tangent
qi,
and
if
q.
are
the
perpendiculars from
on these planes,
it is
Pa sin' p=2.^q:
If
,._,
<''>
any number of
points
of
forces,
forming a system
envelope,
into
in
equilibrium,
be applied at
follows.
different
spherical
forces
we
may
proceed
pairs
this,
as
First
a system of
sphere.
of equal
if
and opposite
n
forces
acting
along
chords
of
the
To do
there are
as
to render
all
If too
many
chords have
been
The ji forces drawn, some of these tensions vnll involve unknown quantities. will now be transformed into as many pairs of equal and opposite forces as
chords have been drawn.
122
92
Next
of these
find
pairs
the distribution of
of forces,
composition of stress*.
if
stress in the spherical surface due to each and combine them at every point by the rules for the The result will be the actual distribution of stress, and
any unknown
result.
forces
from the
The
these
are
calculation of the
resultant
stress
stresses,
when
same
given in
terms
of
unsymmetrical
coordinates
of difierent
I shall therefore
shew how
paper,
to effect the
Airy's valuable
"On
the strains
If
we
place the
is
point of inversion
if jp^,
verse
surface
a plane, and
on the surface of the sphere, the inp^, and pyy represent the components of
we have
for equilibrium
^ ^=0 ^ ^
dx
+ ay
+
(13),
dx
dy
(14).
P^ = df'
where
d'F
d'F
d'F
,_.
^^^^'
P^=d^y^ Pyy=d^y.
F
the
is
equations of
equilibrium,
may
exist
forces.
To
solve the
question
we
in
require to
know not
elasticity of the
uniform, or
variable
point,
and
at the
same
point.
When, however, we have found two cases, we can combine the results by
tion 15) are linear in form.
solutions
of
corresponding to different
(fig.
29)
be the
plane;
AP =
r^,
I.
p. 49.
98
BP =
to
<f>
1\,
angle
APB = XAT=<f).
and the
r, is
Bisect
AB
is is
in.
C,
and draw
through
PD
perpendicular
for
AB.
is
Then
r,
circle
and B,
for
which
constant,
of
pressure
an orthogonal
<f>
circle
which the
ratio
ratio
of to
to
constant,
of
r,
r,
differ
stants.
We
may
and
H are
^"'~
2na
\dx\
dy\)
Psina
27ra
dG dG
dx dy
/,yv
^^~
From
_ Psina /dG
27ra
dG
dx
have
.(18).
\dy
and
H we
dy
dG^_dH ^^dG^dH
dx
whence
,^g.
dy
, ^ ^ ^^^
dx
.
d^Gd^G
of the
^+^ =
in
d^H
^ dm ^
+
(dGV\
,v
(2^)'
=^
The values
values of G,
component
stresses,
we must,
therefore,
order to express
them
as linear functions,
d'F
P sin a
\(dG\
,_,
We
shall
x,
and integration
with respect to
^y'^^Ti^f^^^
()
94
EQTJILIBEIUM OF
A SPHERICAL ENVELOPE.
the arbitrary functions must be zero,
Since
,
dy?
I
r =
ay''
in
this
case,
and
(21).
we have
The
from that of
by ordinary integration of
result is
Psma {ADAC,
A
and
AP PD
(a^,
AT>n\V
(oa\
or if the coordinates of
are
h^ and
(a^,
h),
(yh>)' Psina f. {2xa,a:)(a,a,) + {2y\\){\hy ( xa,Y + ^ '^^ (x ^ = ^^:^ \* (a,a0^ + (6,6,)^ a^f + (y  6,)^
(2y 
6,
 6,) (3^a,)^(2x g
^^
F
for
.,
...(25).
If
we
all
the
pairs
of forces
acting
them
together,
we
shall
find
new
value of F,
the
coeflScients
of
which,
system of components of stress in the plane, which, being transferred to the sphere by the process of inversion, will give the complete solution of the
We
have
now
solved
forces
applied to points
to this, but it is
of the
spherical
and
all
other cases
may be reduced
of
special cases.
If
sphere,
two
equal
and opposite
twists
be
the
we can determine
For
if
we put
(26),
the
equations of equilibrium
will
hold,
stresses
at
any
point
If
moment
p=
In figure
lines
Jf sina
4i7a='
vm
IdG''
()
projections
of the
principal
is
of
stress
the
cases
which
we have
considered.
When
a tension
AB,
AB,
VOL. J I.
PLATE
X.
95
and the
so
lines
of pressure
are
These
circles are
drawn
The
the
lines
lines
are
principal
the case of
twists
applied to
the
spherical
AB.
by
fluid
pressure,
if
the pressure
line
is
of
the
distance
from a given
of
point,
joining
lines
centre
the
sphere as an axis,
of
circles,
and the
at
fluid pressure
will
be a function
total
efiect
the
the pole.
If
we suppose the
is 6,
of
pressure balanced
for
by a
single
force
2Bm'ep,,
= aj Nam2dd0
(28),
and
to
p = Nap,i,
latitude.
the
XXXI.
In
which
experiments
the light
is
on
the
spectrum,
it
is
usual to employ
slit
through
or
admitted,
and one
in
more
lenses to bring the rays of each distinct kind to a distinct focus on the screen.
The most
light
perfect
arrangement
is
which two
while
of
parallel
rays
lenses at his
or
command,
heat,
or when,
the rays of
he
is
re
stricted
the
use
of
materials,
it
may
as
still
the
lenses
and
prism in
such a
way
to
bring the
colours to
We
lens,
shaU
first
examine
pencils
passing
through
it,
we may
to disappear.
When
or
a pencil of light
is
is
convergency
divergency
this
less
is
in
that
and
change
greater as the
is
angle of incidence
greater,
and
also
as
greater.
When
will
the
pencil
passes
it
through
a prism
will
its
convergency
it
or
divergency
be
diminished as
pencil
enters,
and
be increased when
emerges,
and
the
emergent
will
be
more
or
less
97
This effect will increase with the difference of these angles and with
When
is
of the pencil
angle of emergence,
This
effect
will
be
increased
less,
and
If
all
and
it
that
is,
slit.
the
angle
of the prism
the pencils
may
way.
This correction, however, diminishes
inapplicable
to a prism of large angle,
the
it
separation of
the colours.
It
is
and
By
the lens
may
be
made
to
The
rays.
effect of a
convex lens
;
is
and
the
to
greatest on
most refrangible
towards the
slit,
The
prism,
except
when
base
is
very
much turned
makes the
highly refrangible
rays
divergent than the less refrangible rays, according as they were convergent or
divergent originally.
lens,
If the rays pass through the prism before they reach the the pencils will be divergent at incidence, and the more refrangible will
If they
so
then
fall
on the
lens,
they will be
all
more
converged
than
foci
the
rest
may be
rays
brought to their
at approximately
the
same
distance.
If the
violet
come
light,
to their focus
first,
and
vice versa.
We
To
through a prism
13
98
be the index of refraction of the prism, a its angle, <^i and (f), the angles of incidence and emergence, 0, and 6^ the angles of the ray within the prism with the normals to the first and second surfaces, S the difference of these
angles
then
by geometry
refraction,
sin
</>i
= ft sin 6,,
sin
<^,
= /t
sin
6^,
(f),
is
all
so that
sin 6^
/x.
dd^
djl
_ ~
dd^
dfj.
sin^i
fJL
d^ _
'
sin a
cos
Oj^'
cos
0^
o?ft
cos
0^
cos
<^2
The
last
it
expression gives
the
dispersion, or breadth
is
of the
spectmm, and
light.
shews that
As the
Let
parallel to
we have
only to consider
when we wish
be the distance of the focus of incident light from the prism, v, measured to the that of the emergent light, and u that within the prism, all
right,
cos' ^1
"
ft
cos' ^1
'
ft
COS'^o
cos'
(f).j,
i\ cos' 0^ cos'
^2
= i\ cos' 0, cos'
<^i.
Taking the
differential coefficient of
1 dv,
Vi
dfji.
2 sin
0,
d0,
dfjL
2 sin cos
<f),
d(f),
_]_dv,_
v dfi
2 sin
cos
0,
d0,
'
cos
0^
<f)^
^fx
0,
dfi
1 dv,
1 dv^
2 sin
sin
2 sin'
ft
2 sin
ft
0, 0,
sin 0,
0^ cos'
(j)^
cos' ^,
cos
cos 0o.
and
fi'
we
find
di\
dv,
{cos
4 sin a
( ft'
v,djx~v,djl~
a + coa
By
The quantity on the right of this equation value of 8 exceeds that given by the equation
(ft'
99
ray
and a =
of
60,
then S
= 22''52',
is
that
is,
the
makes
If
correct
an
angle
11*26'
two lenses* are used, of the same material with the prism, we may
the defects of the prism without turning
it
so
far
from
its
position of
least deviation.
slit
/i be the focal length of the lens between the prism and slit, and J] that of the lens between the prism and the screen, then the condition of a flat image is
1 i\
Let
di\
di\
/ 1\
i\
\/
/,
Let us
first find
the conditions of a
spectrum 8
When 8 = 0,
i\ = v^ and we
1_J^_1_1_/11\
fi~A
from which yj and f^
+C03
b~\a'^b)
may be found
in terms of
known
quantities.
f,
i = i(l+c) b^
is
+ ic. 'a
then
When
g,
60",
._
3(4;.')
K
of
is
greater in proportion to
b,
the
prism.
is placed in the position of least deviation, and the lens placed between and the screen, while the distance from the slit to the prism is to prism the that between the prism and the screen as 1c is to c. For quartz, in which
prism
/I
= 1584
1*5 3 6,
for
the
ordinary
lens
slit
ray,
 = 253,
so
that
the
best
arrangement
is
a=
or the
distance
from
the
one and a half times the distance from the prism to the screen.
of the
London Mathematical
Society, Vol.
Ii.]
XXXII.
To make a
the
surface
lines
it
and to exhibit
ac
nature of
on the surface
and
lines of greatest
Monge represents surfaces to the eye by on a surface may be drawn. two systems of lines of curvature, which have the advantage of being independent of the direction assumed for the coordinate axes. For stereoscopic representation it is necessary to choose curves which are easily followed by the
and
figure
eye,
which
from
are
sufficiently
dijfferent
in
one
being visually united with any other than the corresponding I have found the best way in practice to be as curve in the other figure. how many curves, are to be drawn on the surface, determine First follows:
and
to
at
what
intervals,
and
points
on these curves.
A
is
find the numerical values of the coordinates of convenient method of drawing the figures according
Cartesian coordinates
to
draw an
equilateral
triangle,
find
its
centre of
gravity,
of the
side
of the triangle
distant hori
zontally
and the
figure,
I
lines
joining
this
amount of
relief to
the figures.
When
the coordinates
x,
y,
z,
of a
I
point are
easily
lines
w,
y = 0) and
line
(z
= 0,
ty
= 0)
in both figures.
iv,
By means
(without
of a
in
divide the
first
in
in the ratio of z to
PQ
all
drawing the
the
point
and divide
the
figure.
PQ
in
By drawing
in each
figure,
figure,
we
get
way
ii.]
XXXIII.
On
and
their relation to
Let
let
tov
i,
7},
F
C
x,
y,
we may
suppose referred
(in
thought)
^,
rj,
^.
We
shall
call
x, y, z
dF
^~dx'
"^
_dF
dy'
^,
7/
dF
^
dz'
t,
When
of x, y,
z,
the form of
is
known,
and
may
fixed.
<^
a function
of
f,
tj,
t,
be found from
= x^+yyi + zlF\
then
it is easily
shewn that
_d^
"^"dr
Hence the
that the
first
_d<f>
y~'dri'
^"^'
second
_d<f)
diagram
is
is
second
They
are
But
lating
reciprocal
diagrams
have
is
capable
of extensive applications, from the most elementary graphic methods for calcu
the stresses of a roof to the most intricate questions about the internal
103
shall
indicate
Let
a,
first
diagram,
and
a,
/8
Then
if
surface
is
compounded
of a tension
parallel
a^ and equal
"^
to
Fy
^^^^
^{j^'^'^
first
TT*
'
being a constant
way
will
The components
shewn
to
fulfil
If any number of states of stress can be represented in this way, they can be combined by adding the values of their functions (F), since the quanThis method, however, is applicable only to certain states of tities are linear.
stress
;
but
if
we
write
_d'C
d'A
^^~d^^dz''
^"'~
P""' dif
_<IAa.^ '^
djf
'
^^'
we
get
d'A dydz'
__.^ dzdx'
^^
=__^^
dxdy'
B, C,
Second Method. Let a be any element of area in the first diagram, and a the corresponding area in the second. Let a uniform normal pressure equal to F per unit of area act on the area a, and let a force equal and parallel
to
a,
stress
the
first
figure
defined
in
this
way
will
in
equilibrium.
104
The components of
^""^Uy*"^
Id'F d'F
dydz\)'
^^
^Ufdaf
dzdx\,
d'F\
dxdyj'
^"
U^
dy
^pld'F
'
d'F
^^
\dx dy dy dz
'
(d'F d'F _
[dy dz dz dx
d^
dz'
d'F\
'
dx dy)
though not a perfectly general, representation of
linear, it is difficult of
a more complete,
;
a state of stress
appHcation.
If however we confine ourselves to problems in two dimensions, either method leads to the expression of the three components of stress in terms of the function introduced by the AstronomerRoyal*.
^'^'^
_pd'F
dy^'
^^~
__p_dLl_
dxdy'
and
is
if
ah and
a/S
be corresponding
lines,
"On
the
Royal
Society,
XXXIV.
On
Governors.
GovEKNOR
is
is
wMch
the velocity of
in the
the machine
driving
power or the
resistance.
centrifugal
force
When
increases
and
so acts
on a break or a valve.
class
is
In one
of
regulators
of
machinery, which
we may
call
moderators*,
Thus in pendulum revolving within a circular case. When the velocity increases, the ball of the pendulum presses against the inside of the case, and the Motion checks the increase of
the resistance
increased
velocity.
velocity.
In
Watt's
governor
for
steamengines
the
arms
centrifugally
pumped
up,
is
much
smaller
increase
the moderator.
But
on
the
if
the
machine,
See
in
Mr
Siemens "
VOL.
II.
14
GOVERNORS.
as
106
resistance
long as the
velocity
is
above
that
its
its
action
when
the
velocity to the
velocity is below same normal value whatever variation (within the working
value,
of the machine) be
I propose
direct
made
at present,
of such governors.
It
in
will
its
governor consists
general
disturbance which
expressed as the
sum
:
of several
component motions.
increase.
These components
may be may be
2.
3.
4.
It
increasing amplitude.
decreasing amplitude.
The
first
the motion
and third cases are evidently inconsistent with the stability of and the second and fourth alone are admissible in a good governor.
is
This condition
roots,
all
the possible
and
all
shall
be negative.
I
for equations
of
will
obtain
The
attention
actual
taken notice of by the inventors of such machines, who naturally confine their
to
the
way
in
which
it
is
designed to act;
If,
and
this
is
generally
by
altering
the adjustments of
there
is
governing power
is
continually increased,
generally a
at which
becomes an
oscillating
it
action
of the
may
be rendered practically useful by pointing out the remedy for these disturThis has been actually done in the case of a governor constructed by
bances.
Mr
Fleeming
Jenkin,
with
adjustments,
by
which
the
regulating
power of the
GOVERNORS.
governor could be altered.
be
107
the regulation
could
By
rapid,
at
last
a dancing motion
shaft,
of the governor,
alteration
shewed that an
shall
In the
first
kind,
the
centrifugal
piece
the
the
axis of motion,
but
its
rubs varies
when
velocity varies.
itself
In
the
governor this
it
is
tends to move
machine.
and
this
made moveable about the axis, and the friction motion is made to act on a break to retard the
off
which takes
the break
when
the friction
is
less
than
a given quantity.
Mr
Jenkin's governor
piece
is
on
this
its
principle.
centrifugal
does
not change
velocity.
position,
and that
its
pressure
is
always
the same
function
of the
It
velocity depends in some degree on the two surfaces which cannot be kept always
in the
same
to
move
further
but
of
is
restrained
by a
force
position
the
centrifugal piece in
such a
way
that,
if
the velocity of
rotation
every position.
centrifugal
velocity
is
piece
fly
out or
fall
is
motion of the
piece.
But a break
arranged so that
made more
or less
powerful according to the distance of the centrifugal piece from the axis, and
thus the oscillations of the centrifugal piece are restrained within narrow
limits.
W. Thomson
is
and
by M. Foucault.
In the
first,
that of
a spring acting between a point of the centrifugal piece and a fixed point at a considerable distance, and the break
of the spring on the fixed point.
is
the
In M. Foucault's arrangement, the force acting on the centrifugal piece is weight of the balls acting downward, and an upward force produced by
142
108
GOVERNORS.
balls.
The
is
:
on the balls
is
proportional to
their
The break
the
first
place,
made
to act
less
air
allowed to pass,
same law.
principle
similar conditions.
far
The
centrifugal
vertical,
piece
it is
is
not
and
much from a
fixed angle
differential
by the
system.
drivingforce
The break
less,
into
a liquid more or
vertical.
principal shaft
worked by the
is
differential
apparatus
it
ensured by connecting
over
Mr
in
C.
W.
is
by a screw and a
is
spring,
lowered and
made
perfect, the
normal
of
of
the
cup will
remain
the
same
through
a considerable
range
drivingpower.
It
appears from the investigations that the oscillations in the motion must
oscillation.
This
may
be done
oscillating
body with a body hanging in a cause the body to rise and fall in the liquid.
To check the
viscous liquid
rotation,
may be
It
wiU have no
effect
on uniform
by the
viscosity
so that
GOVERNORS.
109
by the name of
In
several
" viscosity,"
origin.
is
contrivances a differential
system of wheelwork
introduced
between the machine and the governor, so that the drivingpower acting on the
governor
I
is
nearly constant.
have pointed out that, under certain conditions, the sudden disturbances
through the
differential
When
fulfilled,
motion
itself
is
not liable to
and Governors.
the
In regulators of the
resistance,
first
if
kind,
let
be
drivingpower
and
R
Let
the
both estimated as
and
dx
7
and
let
be
the
moment
of inertia
reduced to the
given axis.
(dx
tt
T^
^.K)=^^^(t^)
When
the machine has obtained
its final
(^)
and
(2) ^'^^
^=V + ?^ ^^ dt F
Hence,
if
is
increased
of
or
this
diminished,
as
be
permanently
increased.
Regulators
kind,
Mr
than governors.
Rotation," Phil. Trans. 1866,
p.
'
On Uniform
657.
110
GOVERNORS.
regulator,
is
the force
^\^^)>
instead of
being
which continually increases the resistance, or diminishes the drivingpower, by a quantity depending on the whole motion of B.
If y represents the whole motion of B, the equation of motion of
is
and that of
K^D^^d'^)
^(3fg=Piei.(F) + (.,
B
(=)
(4).
where
is
when
space.
We
we
find
B^ = F{xVt)
so that if the governor
(5);
is
the velocity
the same
as
if
Jenkin's Governor.
In
Jenkin, and
used in
electrical
principal axis,
slides
and
is
on the edge of a loose wheel, B, which works on the same axis. The edge of this wheel would be proportional to the square of the but a constant portion of this pressure is taken off by a spring which velocity
pressure on the
;
acts
on the centrifugal
piece.
The
force acting
on
to turn
it
round
is
therefore
C";
and
if
we remember
we may
where i^
is
is
GOVERNORS.
Since this force necessarily
it
is la
Ill
the positive direction,
oflf
ax;ts
on
B
in
and
and,
since
to B,
tending to turn
explained,
it
in
for
reason
be afterwards
this
weight
made
to
hang
in
a viscous
The equation
of motion of
may then
be written
<)>
^t=^(t'^)^^?^
where
is
and
is
t,
we
find
B^ = F{xV,t)YyWt
If
(7).
has come to
rest,
we have
x = (r. + ^)<
+ ^3,
(8),
or
the
position
of
the machine
is
afiected
and
V.
+ ^=V.
(9),
where
is
The equation
M<^, = PnF[^^v)Gy
This
(10).
must
be
combined with
equation
is
(7)
to
whole apparatus.
The
solution
of the form
(11),
where n^ n
n, are
(12).
n be a
pair
of roots
of this
aJlh,
then the
112
If
GOVERNORS.
a
a
is
a negative quantity, this will indicate an oscillation the amplitude If a is zero, the amplitude will remain constant,
and
if
is
positive, the
of the equation (12) is evidently a real negative quantity. real part of the other roots should be negative is the condition that
One
root
The
[F
Y\YG
...
...
\^^b)b~B^^
This
will
positive quantity.
If it is not fulfilled there is the condition of stability of the motion. be a dancing motion of the governor, which will increase tiU it is as great To ensure this stability, the value of as the limits of motion of the governor. Y must be made sufficiently great, as compared with G, by placing the weight
W
is
in
a viscous liquid
sufficient.
if
not
To
is
determine
the
value
if
of
fix
the
and
be
the velocities
and
P\
F= PF VV
of the break
To determine G, let the governor act, and let y and y when the drivingpower is P and P', then
be the positions
P P'
yy
W.
is
ThoTuson's
and M. FoucauWs
Governors.
Let
be the moment of
of a revolving apparatus,
revolution.
The equation
of motion
dt\^
where
dtj
(1),
is
the
moment
GOVERNORS.
IIH
(the
diverLjence
Now,
let
be a
function
of
another variable
of the
<f>
centrifugal piece),
and
let
where
If
may
also be a fiinction of
4>,
if
is
con^plex.
is
we
of
also
<^,
function
kinetic
and
potential,
is
(2).
we
find
d4>/,dAde'
dt
\^dj
"^^
rdBd^l
d4. di\
di\
dP\^. ^ f/</>r
dScVe
dt
j.d^d^
dt
dt^
(3),
de^""
dO
_dd (dAddd^
.^
^dt~di\dcfdtdt.dt'
whence we have, by eliminating L,
M)
two
terms on the
righthand
side
indicate
a force
tending
t..
velocities
of the
main shaft
anil
of the
centrifugal piece.
The
force indicated
called the
centrifugal force.
If the apparatus
is
so arranged that
P = ^^o)' + conat
where
cj
(^)'
is
d
dt
/^d<}>\ ^d<f>\
.dAjae^ .dAldSf
\ A
dBd4> ,dBdT
/gx
VOL.
II.
^*
114
GOVERNORS.
In
this
is
case
the
value of
(f)
angular
velocity
equal to w.
A
velocity
shaft
of rotation without
^ may be written
^1^3^t=^
()
dA
is
rr
shaft.
They
will
neither
increase
nor diminish
if
there are
equations.
To
and
convert
in
this
apparatus
of
into
governor,
let
us assume viscosities
piece,
the
motions
the
and a
resistance
G(f)
dA
cj
= K,
come
^S+^f+^f+^^=^
w<^)is
^f+4t^f
The condition of
that
all
stability
of
(11)
be negative
and
this condition is
{^ + ^(^y+l^')>GK
Combination of Governors. If the break of Thomson's governor moveable wheel, as in Jenkins governor, and if this wheel
or
'
(12).
is
applied
a of
to
works
steamvalve,
three pieces.
more powerful
break,
we have
Without entering
into the
GOVERNORS.
motion of these
bances,
pieces,
115
to the
we may
confine
ourselves
case
of small
distur
d<f>
dd
^de^^ dt'^di
dSft
dxjji
= =
.(13).
de
<f),
dt
xp are the angles of disturbance of the main shaft, the centrifugal where 6, wheel respectively, A, B, C their moments of inertia, moveable the arm, and is what was formerly denoted by their connexions, of viscosity the F, Z X,
^
d({)
(u,
and
and
J are
The
resulting equation in
is
of the form
Aif + X)i
Kn + T
J
(14).
K
+ it
Bn+Y T
Civ + Zn K']
n'
(13).
have not succeeded in determining completely the conditions of stability of the motion from this equation; but I have found two necessary conditions, which are in fact the conditions of stability of the two governors taken
I
separately.
If
we
(16),
it
is
then,
in
necessary that
pq>r
I
and ps>t
sufl&cient.
(l'')
am
This compound
152
116
GOVEENOBS.
On
the
Mr
C.
W.
Let
p be
tlie
density of the
fluid,
r,
B,
with respect
section
in
to
the tube,
of time.
Q
Also
the
let
unit
volume of liquid which passes through any the following integrals, taken over the whole
tube, be
]plcr'ds
= A, jprW = B, jp^ds = C
(l),
Let
the
<f)
moment
be the angle of position of the tube about the vertical of momentum of the liquid in the tube is
axis,
then
H=A^^^BQ
The moment
time
is
(2).
of
momentum
f^='>'^<2f+''J<?'where r
is
()
orifice,
its section,
The energy
^'^=*^f[+^<2S+4^<2"
The energy of the
fluid
Wis
^' = P.<2(A +
*p.'f
+ .icosag>f + i(?
(5).
is
di_d^/dH dH\
dt~
The
dt \dt
"^
,.
''
dt I
is
dW dW
dt
'^
dt
'
QOTERNOBfl.
117
Equating
this to the
4^4?+'"^^3^''^^'=^
B^+o'+i^<?+,,i,+^ip^^;=o
These equations apply to a tube of given section throughout.
is
in
(8).
If the fluid
in
open
channels,
the
values
of
and
point,
will
filled
at each
and that of k
depend on the
the
to,
governor
the
described
is
by Mr
C.
W.
Siemens
in
discharge
practically limited
by the depth
at
The
is
/= Jg' +
(0*1^.
If the
brim
is
perfectly
horizontal,
(where x
to the
is
mean square
Q^.
is
proportional to
a;",
where x
is
the
will
or as
^.
n= ^,
then the overflow and the mean square of the velocity are both
x.
proportional to
From
we
mean square
of velocity
^K4^^^''t^(^^
If the velocity of rotation
<^)
and of overflow
is
Q_^d4> ~=r'
dt
2g{h + z)
as
in
(10).
From the
cos a =
first
equation,
supposing,
Mr
and
B = 0,
we
find
^=p<t
(")
118
In
tion
is
GOVERNORS.
Mr
is
an arrangement by which a
fixed rela
established between
and
z,
L=Sz
(12).
f = 4f'..* + ^f.<?f
If the
(13).
conditions
of overflow can
the
velocity,
represented
by
pis
is
and
if
the strength of
also
arranged so that
i^')
f=f'^<?
the equation will become,
if 2gli
= o}^r^,
o^f
unless the velocity of rotation
is
f<i^
w.
is
()
which shews that the velocity of rotation and of overflow cannot be constant
probably
difficult to
obtain accurately
but very good results have been obtained within a considerable range
of drivingpower
spring.
If the rim
is
uniform,
there will be a
maximum
velocity for
p.
a certain drivingpower.
This seems to
667 of
Mr
Siemens's paper.
K
in
minimum
velocity instead of a
maximum.
equation which determines the nature of small disturbances
fourth order,
The
is
difierential
general of
the
but
may
be
reduced to the
third
by
mean
overflow.
which
itself
also capable
These two
axes
may
be
at
right angles,
wheels; or they
may be
adapted to clockwork.
GOVERNORS.
119
Let i and
tively,
rj
that of the
be expressed in
that of the governor; then 6 and and and the motion of any point of the system can terms either of f and 17 or of ^ and
main
shaft,
r),
<f>
<f)
and
<f}.
is
X be dx d^
,
dr)
drP'di+1di
with
similar
<'''
expressions
for
the
putting suffixes
and q
for these
directions.
Then Lagrange's
a Sf+H8,Sm(Sx+Sy + g8z) =
where
(2).
H and H
putting
are
the
forces
tending to increase
^ and
rj
respectively,
no
any other
point.
(3),
Now
hx
d^x
=pM + 9i^,
d'^
^
^d
,
d'q
dt^=P^de^^^di^
W'
,.
(B2,ny
and
since 8^
f Stp?)
X(mp')=L,
Sf + (h
tmp<i
^tnut'll)
8, = 0...(5);
zero.
and
must be
K
where
we now put
t(mpq) = M,
t{mq')=N
and
q'
(6),
p*=Pi+P,'\p,\
P? = Mi + M + Ps^^
q'
q,'
+ q\
H=^f^
=^f+^^.
If
(^).
wwill
the
apparatus
is
so
;
arranged
that
be
will
be about
120
conjugate
GOVERNORS.
axesthat
is,
and
the
be the drivingpower of the shaft on the differential system, differential system on the governor; then the equation of
motion becomes
eBe^^<P^(BL^M^^^^(nMN^S,^0
^^d
'^
hri
(9);
= RBe+sm
^'''^'
and
if
we put
(11),
</>
will
be
(12).
If
If
M' = 0, then
the
motions in
and
<^
will
be
is
also 0,
LPQ + 3IRS=0
and
on
if this
is
(13);
fulfilled,
(ft.
will
have no
effect
the
motion in
The teeth
of the
differential
main
shaft
will
In such
governor
in
differential
systems a
state
constant
is
H,
sufficient
to
tj,
keep
the
proper
is
of to
efficiency,
and the
shaft
^.
made
in this
work a valve
is
the
machine.
case
merely the
If the
moments
that
will
M' = 0,
act instantaneously on the valve, but will not communicate any impulse to
the governor.
for
May, 1868.]
XXXV.
IN
A LETTER TO
W.
R.
GROVE,
F.R.S.*
8,
March
27,
1868.
Dear
Sir,
Since
our
I
conversation
yesterday
it
electric inductionf,
result.
have considered
mathematically, and
coil,
the
have
left
and the secondary sparks merely indicate a strong alternating primary The phenomenon depends on the magnetoelectric machine, the electrocurrent. the condenser. and magnet,
in
which
we may compare
a mechanical force
alternately
pushing and
pulling at a body.
The
resistance
of
the primary
wire
we may compare
to
to
the effect of a
forwards.
body
is
made
The electromagnetic coil, on account of its selfinduction, resists the starting and stopping of the current, just as the mass of a large boat resists the efforts of a man trying to move it backwards and forwards. The condenser
a
resists
its
surface, just
as
railwaybuffer resists
Mr W.
4.
R. Grove, F.R.S.
p.
March 1868,
184.
VOL.
II.
IS
122
Now
place
let
us
suppose
fore
fluid,
and kept
in
its
by
buffers
and
ropes
were away,
would not prevent a man from pulling the boat along with a longcontinued pull; but if the man were to push and pull in alternate seconds of time, he would produce very little motion of the boat. The buffers will effectually prevent the man from mo\ang the boat far from its
position
if
being not very different from that in which the buffers would cause the boat to vibrate about its position of equilibrium, then the force which acts in each vibration is due, partly to the efforts of the man, but chiefly to
of
alternation
man
will
mean
position
than he would
free.
Thus,
when an
extent of the
displacements
position
of
is
may
be
much
greater
is
attracted
towards a
equilibrium by a force
perfectly free.
in
the body
The
body by and
a
electricity
the primary
coil
its
when
it
is
resisted
only
on
account
of
is
motion;
and
case the
coil is
current
small
When
the primary
interrupted
the
electricity
is
resisted
with a force
is
proportional to
the
restrained
by a spring
sufficient
rapidity
may be much
Yours
J.
truly,
CLERK MAXWELL.
Mathematical Theory of
the
Experiment.
Let
be the revolving
the poles of the magnets, x the current led through the coil of the electromagnet R, and interrupted by the condenser C. Let the plates of the condenser
y.
123
Let
the
MsinO
be the
if
value
of the
potential
coil
n,
of
armature; then
the
2Li cos
nt.
Let
R
L
coil
of the armature
M and
these
Let
"
of
two
coils
taken together.
in this
wire
at
any
instant,
then
Lx
be
its
" electromagnetic
momentum."
x
Let
plate
C
CP.
in
We We
have then
P = P'J
For the charge of the condenser,
(!)
.(2).
x,
Mn cos nt + Ex + L dx P= dt
If
(3).
we assume
x = Acos
{nt
+ a),
we
find
A' =
p= {( 1
C0t~^7^
,1
Lpn
cot
124
alternating current
is
determined by
If
epoch of the
we make p = 0, the
^' =
R + Un'
when the
current
closed.
If
we make
/a
oo
the
effect
is
that of
y,
and
circuit.
In this case
A' =
^ + (^^J'
This expression
gives
is
a greater
value of
circuit
is
closed,
provided 2CLn^
may
or
the
CDn = l,
the expression
is
reduced to
This
is
is
the greatest
if
effect
the same as
so
as
will
depend
the
reaction
of
the secondary
on that of the primary which has just been found. Although current on the primary coil will introduce a
phenomenon
as
described
by
Mr Grove
sparks
coil.
into
this
calculation,
the
secondary
observed
Vol. CLViii.]
XXXVI.
On a Method
;
Electromagnetic Force
of Making a Direct Comparison of Electrostatic with with a Note on tlie Electromagnetic Theory of Light.
There
are
two
distinct
and independent
methods of measuring
electrical
quantities with reference to received standards of length, time, and mass. The electrostatic method is founded on the attractions and repulsions be
tween electrified bodies separated by a fluid dielectric medium, such as air; and the electrical units are determined so that the repulsion between two small electrified bodies at a considerable distance may be represented numerically by
the product of the quantities of electricity, divided by the square of the distance. The electromagnetic method is founded on the attractions and repulsions
and separated by air; two equal straight conductors are placed parallel to each other, and at a very small distance compared with their length, the attraction between them may be represented numerically by
observed between
conductors
carrying
electric
currents,
if
and the
determined so that
the
product
of
the
currents
multiplied
by the
sum
of
electricity
These two methods lead to two different units by which the quantity of The ratio of the two units is an important is to be measured.
which we propose to measure. Let us consider the relation function of these units to those of space, time, and force (that of force being a of space, time, and mass). In the electrostatic system we have a force equal to the product of two
physical quantity,
quantities
electricity
of
will
electricity
distance.
The unit of
therefore vary
126
The unit of current in this and the unit of electrical quantity, which is that which is transmitted by the unit current in unit of time, varies as the unit of time and as the square root of the unit
currents
multiplied
by
the
ratio
of
two
lines.
of force.
The
velocity
ratio of the
is
therefore
is
in
other words,
this
ratio
and
this
velocity will be
of
the
we
adopt.
The electromagnetic value of the resistance of a conductor is also a quantity of the nature of a velocity, and therefore we may express the ratio of the two electrical units in terms of the resistance of a known standard coil; and this expression will be independent of the magnitude of our standards of length, time and mass.
In
either
the experiments
of
;
here
described
length,
time,
or mass, the
ratios
and the velocity determined is expressed in terms of the British Association Unit of Resistance, so that whatever corrections may be discovered to be applicable to the absolute value of that unit must be also applied to the
volved
velocity here determined.
resistancecoil
whose resistance
is
r^resent the velocity derived from the present experiments in a manner independent of aU particular standards of measure.
electrostatic
The importance of the determination of this ratio in all cases in which and electromagnetic actions are combined is obvious. Such cases occur in the ordinary working of aU submarine telegraphcables, in inductionBut a knowledge of this ratio coils, and in many other artificial arrangements.
is,
think,
of
still
greater
scientific
importance
when we
consider that
the
medium
depends on this
ratio,
and,
according to
my
calculations*, is
expressed by the
The
first
numerical
is
that of
Weber and
Kohlrauscht,
who measured
the
capacity
of
a condenser electrostatically by
* "A Dynamical Theory of the Electroma^etic t Pogg, Ann. Aug. 1856, Bd. xcix. p. 10.
127
radius,
with
the
capacity
of
sphere of
known
and electromag
the condenser
through a galvanometer.
The
and
attention to the
Committee of the British Association have turned their means of obtaining an accurate measurement of this velocity,
;
for this purpose have devised new forms of condensers and contactbreakers and Sir William Thomuson has obtained numerical values of continually increasing
own methods.
velocity
is
which
is
so great
and time
different instruments
but as
it
in
construction
and
to
improvement
a
these
determined
employ
effects.
with
electromagnetic
I
should
not,
had not
Mr
Gassiot,
liberality,
my
am
charged with corrosive sublimate, with the use of his laboratory to work
To
coils,
Mr Willoughby Smith
resistance
indebted
for
giving a
of
and to Messrs
resistancecoils,
the use
of a galvanometer
and
Mr
devised
currents
C.
Hockin,
who has
of
greatly assisted
me with
suggestions since I
first
the
experiment,
undertook
by
means
I
He
resistances,
and
in fact
done
everything
librium,
which
undertook myself.
The The
which
potential,
electrostatic
force
observed
disks,
of
one,
six
inches
diameter,
four
and
maintained
at
high
as
inches diameter,
potential
electricity
on the surface of
Sir
this
W.
Thomson,
so
when
in
position
were in
space.
one
plane,
at
the
same
potential,
In this
way the
electrical
action
its
front surface,
228
could exist at
its
surrounding surfaces.
was mounted on a slide worked by a micrometerscrew. The small disk was suspended on one arm of a torsionbalance so that in its were in one plane. position of equilibrium its surface and that of the guardring
The
large
disk
If
is
between them
is
R^l
where a
is
(1),
and V
is
the radius of the small disk, h its distance from the large one, the velocity representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to the elec
The electromagnetic force observed wa3 the repulsion between two circular of the suspended disk, and the coils, of which one was attached to the back separated from it by a plate of being disk, large the other was placed behind was made to pass through current A compound. Hooper's of glass and a layer
these coils in opposite directions, so as to produce a repulsion
=.2nnn'^y^
where n and n are the number of windings of each
coil,
(2),
is
'i=i^ ^(^^wfS
where
''''
c=>siny=
^
l^;,
a,
and
a,
are the
mean
radii
of the
coils,
and
the
mean
distance of their
planes,
and
When V
If
area,
2A
2a'
we take
to
of sensible
this
but in these
it
coils
made equal
129
^^
of
two
coils,
given
at
p.
508
of
my
paper on the
Electromagnetic Field,
d'M
da'
"^
d'M
db'
a da
dM ~"
[1^'.], where a
about
1
is
^^''
that the
correction
is
the depth
of the coil
correction which
in this case
'000926.
coil.
coil.
glass scale.
Current through R.
xx.
cup.
Cunent through
S.
Primary
coil of
galvanometer.
y.
coils
and
G,.
Secondary coiL
Great resistance.
S.
Shunt
M. Mercury
One quarter
instrument
is
not shewn.
and coils is cut away to shew the interior. The case The galvanometer and shunts were 10 feet from the Electric Balance.
[Vol.
I.
of the
p.
591.]
VOL.
II.
17
130
coil,
experiences
this
magnetism.
To balance
in
couple,
exactly
similar
in
first.
was
attached
coil
to
torsionbalance,
the second
that in the
When
the
current was
made
no
efiect of terrestrial
magnetism could be
obseived.
The torsionbalance consisted of a light brass frame, to which the suspended coils and disks were attached so that the centre of each coil was about eight This firame was suspended by a inches from the vertical axis of suspension.
copper wire
(No. 20), the upper end of which was attached to the centre of a torsion head, graduated, and provided with a tangent screw for small angular The torsion head was supported by a hollow pillar, the base of adjustments.
lid
of
the
instrument
so
as
to
admit
of
small
in every direction.
The
screw,
fixed disk
and
coil
were mounted on a
slide
worked by a micrometerthe
front
and
were
protected
by a
cylindrical
brass box,
of which,
forming the guardring, 7 inches in diameter, had a circular aperture 426 inches diameter, within which the suspended disk, 4*13 inches diameter, was free to move, leaving an interval of "065 of an inch between the disk and the aperture.
glass
scale
with
divisions
of
xio
^^
^^
'^^^^
"^^^
attached to the
electrified,
and
this
was viewed by
a microscope attached to the side of the instrument and provided with cross
carefully adjusted
by the maker,
face
of
the
guardring,
or front
of
the
in
micrometerbox.
of
the micrometerbox,
when
in
position
was made vertical by means of three adjusting screws. The suspended disk was then pressed against the fixed disk by means of a slight spring, and the fixed disk was gradually moved forward by the micrometerscrew, while at the same time the graduated scale was observed through In this way the graduations on the scale were compared with the microscope.
the
instrument,
till
disk
of
came
the
one
point,
when
regularity
A
the
WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE.
This
disk
w<a8
131
then
brought
so
to
the
position
of
of
first
contact,
glass
and the
scale
microscope was
bisected
adjusted
cross
that
kno\\Ti
division
the
glass
was
to
by the
wires.
small
piece
of
silvered
was fastened
the outside of the guardring, and another to the back of the suspended disk and these were adjusted so as to be in one plane, and to give a continuous
image of reflected objects when the disks were in contact and the surface of
the
ring.
suspended disk
was therefore
in
the
plane
of the
surface
of
the
guard
The
so
fixed
disk
was
then
screwed
back,
in
adjusted
when
same position as
zero
division
of
the
glass
and
by examining the
balance
could
reflections
The
torsion
be
moved
it
bodily
base
of
the
pillar;
could
could
be turned about any horizontal axis by sliding weights, and round the vertical In this way the position of axis by a tangent screw of the torsion head.
equilibrium
of
made
to
coincide
an inch;
and
the
adjustment
when
not having the tendency to untwist gradually which I have observed in steel The weight of the torsion piece was about 1 lb. 3 oz., and the time of wire.
a double
disk,
oscillation
its
The
oscillations
of the
suspended
were found to subside very rapidly, the in pumping the air through the narrow expended being energy of the motion suspended disk. and the guardplate the between aperture
when near
The
electrical
One
electrode
Mr
Gassiot's
great
with a key.
When
pressed
and thence,
through Mr Willoughby Smith's resistancecoils, to a point where the current was divided between the principal coil of the galvanometer and a shunt, S, These partial currents reunited at a consisting of Mr Jenkin's resistancecoils.
point
in
with the case of the instrument, and with the earth. Another battery was employed to send a current through the
electrode
of
this
coils.
One
the
contact
piece
of
172
132
key,
so
that,
coil
first
through
the
secondary
then through
of thick wire, of the galvanometer, consisting of thirty windings through the so and the fixed coil, then to the suspension wire,
coils
two suspended
disk.
torsionbalance
to earth,
the brass frame of the torsionbalance and the suspended from the centre of the stout copper wire, weU amalgamated, hanging to the case, communication metallic made mercury, into a cup of
to
and to the other electrode of the battery. When these arrangements had been made, the observer at the microscope,
the
when
suspended
disk was
stationary at
zero,
disk waa attracted, the with both batteries by means of the key. was worked so as micrometer the and powerful, great battery was the more the fixed disk repelled, was disk the If disk. the of to increase the distance till a distance was found at disk, suspended the to nearer had to be moved by the scale was at rest and at zero, no eflPect was produced
If
the
which,
when
the simultaneous
action
of
the batteries.
With
so that when the adjustthe equihbrium of the scale at zero was unstable; from zero, and contacts directed always was ment was nearly perfect the force such a way as to in zero, approaching was scale be made as the
had to
bring
it
to
rest,
if
possible,
at
zero.
In
the
meantime
the
other
observer
at
the
galvanometer
was taking
of the two advantage of these contacts to alter the shunt S, till the effects other. each currents on the galvanometerneedle balanced When a satisfactory case of equilibrium had been observed simultaneously
at
micrometerreading and the the galvanometer and at the torsionbalance, the results of the experiment. the as down set were shunt the of resistance the difficulties experienced arose from the want of constancy in
The
chief
batteries,
the
ratio
of
the
currents
varying
first
making
resistance I think that by increasing considerably the contact. uniform. more made could be batterycircuit, the current
of
the great
When
a sufficient
number
of experiments
on
a current was
made
to
the galvanometer,
coil
units
S'
BA
with a
resistance
S' added.
the
coils
In
this
of the
two
were compared.
The
resistance
of
the
coils
were tested by
133
its
Mr
Hockin,
who
also
made
all
adjusting shunts.
To determine
is
first,
8^^,
If
2^n^y
(6).
is
the current of the great battery passing through the great resistance
if
R, and
x'
of this
passes through
is
G,
to earth, then
E = Rx+Gx
and
Also
if
gr,
(7),
Gx=S{xx)
Qi
is
(8).
of
the principal
coU
of
is
the galvanometer,
and
in equilibrium
(9)
= 9^
galvanometer,
if
coils
of the
x,
and
y^
are
the
we have
9i^i
= 9^i
other,
(1<^)
But
ometer
of 31
y,
is
parts,
and the
y,x\
passes through
the
shunt
Ohms.
Hence
x,{G + S')=(y,x,)31
(11).
v,
From
these equations
we
1
B (RG
^\
31
an equation containing only known quantities on the righthand n and n are the numbers of windings on the two coils, a
the radii of the suspended disk and the aperture, the fixed disk and the suspended disk,
radii of the coils,
side.
is
Of
these,
the
mean
of
is
^
is
found from
and
a,,
the
mean
and
h'
their
mean
distance by equation
(3).
is
that
of the shunt
and
parison of galvanometercoils.
134
In
absolute
this
the
only
quantities
which
other
must
its
be
determined
in
The
of
of
quantities
which
must
be
of
the radius
radius
the disk to
the
coils
and the
ratio
of the
to
them.
of
windings in the
are
of
course
abstract numbers.
In the experiments,
?i
= 144
inches.
n' a'
= 121
=1934
inch.
a = 20977
was measured
One turn
to '0202 inch.
of the micrometerscrew If
was found by
Mr Hockin
to
be equal
m
&
is
= m1270,
we have
= m + 2631.
a and
a',
for
a'
a= 10385
The
turns,
= 9575
turns.
:
by Mr Hockin
as follows
R=\
(t=
The experiments were made for two days, using a small battery charged bichromate of potash. The current due to this battery was found to diminish so rapidly that a set of Grove's cells was used on the third day, which was found to be more constant than the great battery. A proper combination of the two batteries would perhaps produce a current which would
with
diminish according to the same law as that
difficulty
of
the
great
battery.
Another
arose
from the fact that when the connexions were made, but before
if
except by
leakage
electricity
floor.
When
the
proper zero.
In certain
kept
my
more accurately.
When
135
the
took care to
make the
of
observations
without touching
micrometer,
and
took advantage
oscillations
of the disk.
The
as
me
have acquired,
It must be borne better results might be obtained by the same method. mind that none of the results were calculated till after the conclusion of all the experiments, and that the rejected experiments were condemned on account
still
in
of errors
Any
introduce
from
want
the
of
of
insulation
potentials
of
the
fixed
disk
would
is
no
error,
as
the difference
in
measured
by
that
the
current
galvanometer,
through a known
resistance,
essential
to
accuracy
is
making contact should be at true zero, the same as when there is no electrical action, and that this equilibrium should not be disturbed when simultaneous
contact
is
batteries.
Experiments on
Number
May
8.
*S'=1710 Ohms.
of
136
6,
were
rejected
an average value of v =
27'39.
The value of v derived from these experiments is considerably smaller than 31074 that which was obtained by MM. Weber and Kohlrausch, which was
Ohms, or 310,740,000 metres per second. Their method involved the determination of the
condenser,
electrostatic capacity of a
the
electrostatic
determination of
its
potential
when
charged,
and
a galvanometer.
The capacity
solid
dielectrics
of the condenser
its
charge repeat
known
radius.
Now,
of
since
all
condensers
exhibit the
phenomena
for
"electric
absorption,"
this
recharged to a certain extent after each discharge, so that the repeated division potential. The capacity of the charge would have too small an effect on the overestimated, the number of electrostatic units in the discharge would
being
be overestimated, and the value of v would be too great. In pointing out this as a probable source of error in the experiments of MM. Weber and Kohlrausch, I mean to indicate that I have such confidence
the ability and fidelity with which their investigation was conducted, that obliged to attribute the difference of their result from mine to a phenomenon the nature of which is now much better understood than when their
in
am
the result of
present
experiments
depends on the
of
the
experiments of
Eesistance.
The
in
his
B.
A.
determined by
Weber
from
by Dr
currents.
Joule
and about 1'2 per cent, less than that derived experiments on the dynamical equivalent of heat by
1862,
effects of direct
a value of v not very different from mine. on the value of the B. A. unit.
William Thomson's experiments, not yet published, give His method, I believe, also depends
of the velocity of light, that of the late
M. Foucault,
is
137
Note on
In a paper
the Electromagnetic
Theory of Light.
I
laid
is
before
elec
me
to
believe
that light
an
tromagnetic
electricity
phenomenon,
the
laws
of
which
all
can
these
phenomena
are affections
of
len,
Two
for 1867, bearing on the same subject. The first, by the late eminent mathematician Bernhardt Riemann, was presented in 1858 to the Royal Society
of
till
Gottingen,
last year.
but
was withdrawn
before
if
publication,
for
Laplace's equation
we
substitute
(13),
^a"A'F+a'47r/3 =
being
the
electrostatic
potential,
all
and a a
velocity,
This equation
is
equi
is
The
author,
however,
seems
avoid
making
explicit
mention
of light.
of
any
takes place,
but he
shews that
The second
electric
paper,
by M. Lorenz, shews
that,
The propagation of
though the medium
also,
From
first,
we may draw
the conclusions,
that action and reaction are not always equal and opposite,
and second,
its
that apparatus
resources.
may
For
joining
potential
position
will
let
two
with
oppositely
electrified
bodies
and
travel
them
or
equal
velocities
in
the direction
AB,
then
is
either
the
at
(as
attract
attracts
p.
backwards.
i.
459. [Vol.
p.
527.]
VOL. U.
18
138
Now
rigid rod.
in
the direction
AB,
will
pull
in
may
either continually
augment the
velocity,
may
be used as an inexhaustible source of energy. I think that these remarkable deductions from the latest developments of
only be avoided by recognizing the action of
The statement of the electromagnetic theory of light in my former paper was connected with several other electromagnetic investigations, and was thereI propose, therefore, to state fore not easily understood when taken by itself it in what I think the simplest form, deducing it from admitted facts, and shewing the connexion between the experiments already described and those
which determine the velocity of
light.
The connexion
manner.
of electromagnetic
in the following
Theorem A.
then the
If
of
integral
a closed curve be drawn embracing an electric current, the magnetic intensity taken round the closed curve is
Att.
intensity
may
the means
and magnitude of
currents,
when we can
of
Theorem B. If a conducting
netic
force,
and
if,
from
any
cause whatever,
diminished,
number
of lines
The number
integral
of
lines
of
magnetic force
may
by
the
element of
surface,
and by the
coefficient
the
circuit.
This theorem
of this
is
mode
of expressing
due to Faraday, as the discoverer both of the facts and them, which I think the simplest and most com
prehensive.
LIGHT.
139
force
Theorem
periences
C.
When
is
a dielectric
call
is
acted on by electromotive
If the
it
ex
what we may
called
electric
polarization.
if
direction
dielectric
of the elec
tromotive force
positive,
and
we suppose the
bounded by
then the
negatively.
two conductors,
surface
on
the
negative,
is
and
on the positive
side,
of the
conductor
positively
electrified,
and that of
If
we admit
that the
polarized
dielectric,
we must
admit
that
is
the amount
and depending
also
The energy stored up in any portion of the dielectric is half the product of the electromotive force and the electric displacement, multiplied by the volume
of that portion.
It
may
in
also
be
dielectric
there
is
mechanical
pressure
tension
all
combined with
an equal
directions
right
angles to
these lines,
tension on unit of area being equal to the amount of energy in unit of volume.
I think that these statements are an accurate rendering of the ideas of Faraday, as developed in various parts of his " Experimental Researches."
Theorem D.
effect
is
When
to
equivalent
that
current
in
direction.
Thus,
if
the
two conductors
time,
since
in
now
joined
by a
wire,
to B.
At
the
same
from
to
the
electric
displacement
in
the dielectric
is
diminishing,
electric current
to
through the
dielectric.
According
is
this
in
discharging a condenser
and might be traced within the dielectric itself by a I am not aware that this has been done, galvanometer properly constructed. so that this part of the theory, though apparently a natural consequence of the former, has not been verified by direct experiment. The experiment would
a
complete
circuit,
and
difiicult one.
Let
light,
us
now apply
these four
principles
to
182
140
of propagation be taken as the axis of z, and let all of z and of t the time; that is, let every portion functions be the quantities instant. of any plane perpendicular to z be in the same condition at the same Let us also suppose that the magnetic force is in the direction of the
axis
of y, and let
)8
Let
plane
of
z.
the
closed
be the magnetic intensity in that direction at any point. curve of Theorem A consist of a parallelogram in the
sides
yz,
two of whose
where
let _p
are
and
The
^(y8o)8),
is the value of /8 at the origin. be the quantity of electric current in the direction of x per parallelounit of area taken at any pomt, then the whole current through the
Now
gram
will
be
hpdz,
i:
and we have by
(A),
h{^,^) = 4.7rj'hpdz.
If
we
divide
by
and
differentiate
with respect to
z,
we
find
(^^)'
xz,
z.
f.='^
Let us next consider a parallelogram in the plane of sides are a along the axis of x, and z along the axis of
If
two
of
whose
P
/u,
is
of x,
round
this parallelogram is
a(PPo).
afi^dz,
and
since
by (B) the
total
electromotive force
is
equal to
the rate
of
dimi
a{PP,)=^^j\t.^dz.
Dividing by a and differentiating with respect to
z,
we
find
(15).
^=^f
LIGHT.
14]
dielectric
P=where k
is
(10).
particular
dielectric,
which
may
be
the
current
p,
already considered,
.(17).
We
quantities
have
/S,
now
four
equations,
If
(14),
(15),
(16),
(17),
p, P, and
we
eliminate p,
P, and
we
df ~
If
Anfidz'
(18).
we put
Awfji
(19).
is
^ = cf>,{zVt) + <f>Az+Vt)
shewing that the disturbance
is
(20),
The other
Thus,
if
quantities p, P, and
/3.
/3
= ccos
C
.
7(z Vt)
A.
277,
T.X
(21).
P = c^Fcos^(zF()
A
place
to
shew
that
the
velocity
the
same
For
this
purpose
let
extent,
the
difference
142
is
PyE.
displacement
in
is
is
/= t P.
lines
The energy
per unit of area
unit
of
of
force
^ Pf.
The
attraction
is
X = i7ra^Pf
If this
surface,
area
in
is
separated by a
smaU
if
interval
interval
of the plane
as
this
radius
of the
by
surface
of
revolution,
the section of which, at any sensible distance from the surface, will be a circle
whose radius
is
of
the
This
Let
us
next
consider
y.
carrying a current
to
The magnetic
is
the current
is
h,
be uniform round
fi,
this
If
circle
the
will
radius
the integral
round the
be 2nhfi =
4tTry
by
Hence
Let
distance
will
y8
= 2
y'
(23).
a
6,
wire
carrying
let
current
be
first
at
and
This portion
force
if Oj is
the aperture of the guardring, and b the distance from the large fixed disk, then
Tj the
we must
substitute for
j^
+9T/T
\i 'w^here
is
(a^a^).
J.
C.
LIGHT.
143
by the number of
moves,
or,
lines
which
it
through which
it
in
symbols,
_o
If the
if
h'
MJOT
two wires instead of being straight are circular, of radius a, and is very small compared with the radius, the
as if they
T^ 5
attraction
will
be
,,
.
=2/x
{2d).
When
h'
is
2A
by
elliptic integrals.
Making A^=
(6),
we
find
^^
but,
()
by
(19),
P = ^.
i'
Hence
where v
is
= /xF
(27),
is
But
to
made
is
assauied ecjual
we have
(28),
is
finaUy
v=V
or the
number of
electrostatic units in
34, 1867.]
XXXVII.
On
the Cyclide.
In optical treatises, the primary and secondary foci of a small pencil are sometimes represented by two straight lines cutting the axis of the pencil at Every ray of the pencil right angles in planes at right angles to each other.
is
lines,
Pliiker'""
order.
fulfil
The
tion
for
system
all
of rays,
as
of
optical
pencils,
common
no
surface
can
be
drawn which
cut
all
at right angles.
Sir
in
W.
general
the
E. Hamilton has shewn, that the primary and secondary foci are points of contact of the ray with the surface of centres of
If
we
select a pencil
their
points
caustic
of
contact
on
two
of
is
small
areas
on
the
surface.
The
sections
axis
wiU
appear,
when
the pencil
of
the wavesurface,
when one
or both
of
really
line,
Let
us
first
the
normals
of
a surface
may
fixed
Let
i2
RP
curve at P.
Let
PT
EPT
a plane through
and PT.
* Philosophical Transactions, 1864.
THE CYCLIDE.
145
Of the two
lines
of
is
curvature
through
it.
R,
the
first
if
touches
the
plane
RPT, and
about
line
the second
perpendicular to
as
Hence,
the plane
RPT
and
of
turn
the
tangent
PT
an
axis,
it
will
of curvature.
its
The second
line
of curvature
its
therefore
circle,
PT
passes through
All length,
as
centre perpendicular to
plane.
curvature
are
equal
and
equally
inclined
to
PT,
right
so
that
they
may
is
be considered either
the
generating
or as
Unes
of
a
of
fixed
curve,
the radii
all
sphere
whose
as
centre
at
P,
and which
a
series
The
spheres,
to
surface
may
be
defined
the
envelope
of
of
whose centres
any law.
If the
normal passes
of
the envelope
fixed
through two fixed curves, the surface must also be second series of spheres whose centres He on the second
all
curve,
If
we
first
series.
the
series,
the surface
may
be
manner.
definition
This
(p.
is
the
the
given
by Dupin,
in
his
Geometne
both
200),
of
surface
of
because
If the
side
(inside
may
or
outside)
of the
touching sphere,
There be on the opposite side from the other two. described touching series of spheres which may be
but
to
are
thus
four
difierent
the
we cannot
pass
Since all the Let us next consider the nature of the two fixed curves. pass through both curves, and since all those which pass through a point P are equally inclined to the tangent at P, the second curve must
normals
lie
on a right cone.
point
If
now
the point
be taken so that
its
distance from
a
to
in
a plane conic.
conic,
is a minimum, then cone will become a plane, therefore the second curve is In the same way we may shew, that the first curv^e is a plane
PQ
will
be perpendicular
VOL.
11.
19
146
THE CYCLIDE.
The two curves
are therefore
its
plane conies,
is
a right cone.
The
are
therefore
in
"We
shall call
these
ellipse
be
a,
= ccosa,
angle,
2/
=
to
(1),
where a
is
the eccentric
and
y=
the
equations
point
on
the
hyperbola be
x = bsecB, where
0,
= (c'  6^ tan J5
fulfil
(2),
B is
For
uniformity,
we
shall
sin/?;8
= (e^c^)
= tan 5
(3),
and we
shall
suppose
y8
and
so related, that
sin ^)8
1
cos A/8
sec Ay8
,.
The equations
may then
be written
(5).
x = hcoskl3,
= 0,
= (c^ 
1'')*
sin A/3
First MetJiod.
Let
be a point on the
ellipse,
FQ = c sec B h cos a
Now
or
take on
FQ
a point R, so that
where r
is
a constant,
(bcr).
then
if
(7),
(8),
will give a
system of points
on the cyclide
For
fixed
if
while
F F
be fixed while
varies,
will
describe
circle,
circle,
and
if
be
will
describe
another
and these
circles
cut at
ight
angles,
FQR
at their intersection,
and
THE CYCLIDE.
since
147
the
P
The
and
on the conies,
whole system
of circles
will
form a cyclide.
circle
corresponding to
fixed
point
on the
ellipse,
is
in a plane
line
^=7. y=o
and makes with
it
(9),
an angle
The
circle
corresponding
to
Q
=
fixed
point
in
the hyperbola,
is
in
f.
(10).
it
an angle
tan
^
\ Y,
fTu sin
B\
of all
series
pass
through
one
of
two
The
line
of intersection
of the planes
of the
two
at
circles
will
therefore
pass
lines
points
and
T,
where
the coordinates of
and those of
T,
^ = ^, T'
cr
yy = i^_:iltana,
(c".6n*
(11),
xJ,
c
2/
= 0,
z=^^^^^smB
c
(12),
and
it
is
easily
shewn that
SR
15^^^1
(13).
cos iJ
Hence,
we deduce
the following
192
148
THE CYCLIDE.
Draw
and
(12),
lines,
and
find points
and
it in
segments
is
It will
This
cyclide,
construction
is
very
convenient
as the
line
distances
and the
and "
ST
can
sector,"
In this
cyclide,
way
have
drawn
stereoscopic
of the
in the line
x = y = z,
shewing the
circles
On
the
Forms of
c
the Cyclide.
We
differ
shall
suppose
and
to
eifect
of giving
different values to r.
from those
iV^'o^e
on a ReaiImage Stereoscope.
superposed, and the observer, looking through two lenses, or prisms, or at two mirrors, sees the figure
the observer looks at a real image of the pictures, which appears in front of the instrument, and he
not
may be
common
One
stereoscopic
One
foot
from
this a
frame
is
two convex
lenses of half a
foot
and having their centres distant one and a quarter inches horizontally.
feet
beyond
these
is
placed a convex lens of twothirds of a foot focal length and three inches diameter.
lens, so that
the lefthand picture, and with the left eye an image of the right>hand picture.
These images are formed by pencils which pass centrically through the two small lenses respectively,
so that they are free
from
distortion,
The
figures of the
cyclide,
and they appear to be nearly at the same distance as the large lens, on the frame of the large lens sees the combined figures at once. though constructed for this stereoscope, may be used with an ordinary
is
stereoscope, or they
may
THE CYCLTDE.
positive
149
positive
values only.
(1)
When
lies
between zero
circles,
and
in
h,
the
section
foci,
in
the
plane
of
the
ellipse
consists of
two
and which
intersect at
a point of the
ellipse.
The
of
two
circles
The
cyclide
consists
negative
decreases.
lobe.
is
one
the
largest,
two lobes exterior to each other, of which the and increases with r, while the positive lobe
in
two
conical points,
is
where
it
The
by
w^hole
figure
their bases,
Figure I.*
The continuous curves represent the lines of curvature of both series. The dotted curves represent the ellipse and hyperbola through which the normals pass, and the dotted straight lines represent the axis of x, and the two straight lines through which the planes of
represents a
cyclide
kind.
When
II.
lies
between
and
c,
of which
greatest
on the negative
side.
Figure
(3)
When
on the
is
is
greater than
c,
the
cyclide
the
one within the other, meeting each other in two conical points which are
positive
situated
The
semivertical
angle at
these points,
/^cV
a singular tangent plane
There
touches
is
also
in
all
which
repre
the
.
2
Figure
III.
150
sents such a cyclide.
conical
points,
THE CYCLIDE.
The outer sheet with its circles of contact and reentering and the inner spindle with its conical points meeting those of the outer sheet, have a certain resemblance to the outer and inner sheets
of Fresnel's
WaveSurface
singular
and,
if
we
bear
in
has
four
such
points
we may
find
Figure
If
III, useful
in forming
we
(3),
give
(2),
to
(1),
all
values from
(
oo
to
oo
the cyclide
assumes the
forms
is
1), (
times
2),
the
3)
in
succession,
traversed
four
by
surface.
For
so
point
is
within the
spindle or
inner sheet
it
of (3).
As
diminishes,
the
r^,
spindle
contracts,
c,
and when r = c
vanishes
greater than
At
r
this
instant the
stiU
beyond R, but as
before
surface
diminishes,
it
the
surface
and
finally
rj,
vanishes
for
when r= b,
which
which the
or
passes
through R.
sheet of
of (1).
(3),
At
may have
sheet
or of the
ring cyclide
of one
The
increases
it
when r becomes
becomes a
of
ring,
less
than
h,
and
as r diminishes,
till
when r= b
(
it
and when
r= c
3).
r^,
r,
This value
r^ is
r,.
(
When r=c
definitely
i\,
sheet of
3)
is
developed,
r^
and
which
increases
is
in
as
r diminishes,
is
so that for
some value,
of
r,
less
than
the point 72
We
cyclide
real
may
once.
first
at
The
corresponding to
r^,
is
(3),
The second
of
(l).
sheet, corresponding to
(3),
r^,
When
the
first
meets
it
at a conical
it
point on the
at
positive
hyperbola, and
when the
sheet exists,
meets
it
a conical
THE CYCLIDE.
The
third
either
(
151
three
(
sheet,
corresponding
lobe case
of
it
to
(l),
7'
has also
different
forms.
It
may be
sheet of
it
the
positive
first
2),
or
the outer
3).
it
In the
second
meets the
the
third
sheet.
has no conical
point
point,
and
in
meets
the fourth
a conical
on the
negative
hyperbola.
is
the
interior
spindle
of
the
cyclide
3), and
always
Parabolic Cyclides.
When
tity,
the values of
if
h,
c,
r,
and
this
quantity
is
indefinitely
and x are each increased by the same quanincreased, the two conies become in
call
the limit two parabolas in perpendicular planes, the focus of one being the vertex
of the other,
When
between h
and
c,
x = 2h
and x = 2c r.
on the positive and negative side of the sheet are linked together as the earth and the air are linked together by a bridge, the earth, of which the bridge
forms
part,
embracing
the
air
air
embracing the
bridge
is
from above.
In fact the earth and bridge form a ring of which one side
much
A
two
= h\c,
c,
is
When
of the lobe.
r does not
lie
between
and
conical points,
and an
infinite sheet
Surfaces of Revolution.
When
of radius
less
= 0,
the cyclide
is
circle r
is
own
If
c,
than
the form
is
that of an anchor
If
is
greater than
the
surface consists of
in
two
conical
points.
When
= c,
is
When
=c=
0,
tlie
152
If the
origin
THE CYCLIDE.
be transferred to a conical point, and if the dimensions of the figure be then indefinitely increased, the cyclide becomes ultimately a right cone, having the same conical angle as the original cyclide. If b = c, the cone
finite,
while
c,
r,
indefinitely great quantity, the cyclide ultimately becomes a right cylinder, whose
radius
is
when
becomes another sphere, every cydide similarly inverted There is, however, a certain relation between the becomes another cyclide. parameters of the one cyclide and those of the other, namely
drawn to a
fixed point,
^^Z^^
= 7^37^
(^^)'
73^7^^F
If the point of inversion
be taken oh
af
+ f2
h'
+ r'c' = 0,
=
a...
(16),
or
a;^
+ 2^2^6='r^ + r = 0,
y=
(17),
= 0, and
(18)
r:^^^
if
first circle,
or
'(19)
r'h'
C
if it
C'O'
be on the second.
"When
than
6,
is
less
than
is
c,
the
first
circle
is
real;
the second
circle
real.
In the ringcycUde r
is
greater
and
c,
and the
THE CYCLIDE.
If
153
one of them be made the point
and
right
'
if
of
COS
inversion,
'
cyclide
is
becomes a
than
b,
cone,
jA
whose
if
semivertical
angle
h.
is
Ij
less
or cos
is
greater than
becomes a parabolic
If the
itself.
cyclide.
point of inversion
be x =
he
= 0, z=
0,
the cyclide
is
inverse
to
On
Definition.
individual
the
If
on
any
surface
two
systems of curves
be drawn, each
it,
and
if
if
curves
first
ratio to the
curves of the
first
second,
as
two systems of
con
conjugate
If
functions.
the surface
be
now supposed
be a uniform
ducting lamina placed between nonconducting media, one set of these lines will be
isothermal
for
will
be lines of flow.
Lame on
Isothinvnal Functio7is.)
is
of a
line
of curvature of the
first
c/^,
=
c cos
JO J np
{c'hyda
cos a
is
(20),
ds^ of
(21).
^
'
VOL.
II.
20
'
154
If
THE CYCLIDE.
now ^ be a
function of
a,
and
<f)
of
(3,
sucK that
dSi
~ d<j>
then d and
If
<f>
will
=k
(r
p^ 6 cos a
If r
and ^
is
<i>
=k
jr ccoshp
6,
^^r^
we
find
(22),
satisfied.
greater than
{r^
hy
r cos
a.
It
is
6,
thus
sm a =
'
co8a=
V ^^)
(24).
If
7
is
less
than
6,
we have
(r'by.
Similarly,
we
^ and
<^,
when
is
greater
than
c,
(^c?8in;^P^j
tan
B = siD.h^=
r + ccosh
jj
(r*
jri
cy
+ r cos y^
A^
secB = coshlB=
r + c cos h
^1
'
,
(25).
^
When
is
less
than
we must
substitute
(c' ?")*
for
(?^c*)*
and turn
THE CYCUDE.
Having found them any number
these
155
functions
conjugate
pairs,
isothermal
^,
we may deduce
from
of other
as
and
<^
where
(26)
^^^^iand^'^'^^'^'
On
Confocal
Cy elides.
focal
ellipse
may
and
the
two
one conic and pass through the other, form three systems of orthogonal surfaces,
and therefore
By
inversion
we may
get
may
also be considered as a
system of wave
surfaces in an isotropic medium, corresponding to a pencil of rays, each ray of Each cyclide corresponds to a certain which intersects the two focal conies.
value of
r,
which we may
call
Now
the form
let
of
^+^.^^.=1
By
putting p
(^n
= c, we
By
putting p
= h, we
t^=''y='
These
conies.
(2^)
two
If,
conies
therefore
may
be
called its
focal
for vertex,
we draw
hyperbola,
be
confocal
cones,
whose three axes are normal to the The two cones will interi\,
at right angles
7\,
i\,
202
156
THE CYCLIDE.
The normal
to
will
and
will
bisect
r,
and
r,,
and
in
also that
between
r,
r,
and
is
r^.
the
direction
would be
i\\r^
reflected
the direction of
r^
reversed;
hence,
At the
point of the
= constant) where
it is
x = p,
r^^x + c,
r^
= x c.
(r
ellipsoid
= constant) may
be expressed in terms
and
r,
thus
r,
+ n = 2/3
between
ellipsoid
r,
(30).
The normal
and
r^,
whence we
+ r,= 2p
values of
r,
(31).
among the
r,
+ r, + r, + r, =
(32).
The normal to the hyperboloid of one sheet (/u, = constant) bisects the angle between r^ and r^, and also that between r, and r, whence we obtain the
equations
ri
(33).
The normal
between
i\
to the
hyperboloid of two
= constant)
bisects
the
angles
and
r,,
and between
r,
r^
and
whence
(r^^r^
(34).
+ r, = 1v=
in
These are the equations to the conicoids in terms of the four rays of the
pencil.
The equations
to
the
four
cyclides
teims
easily
r,=
p + ^iv'
n=
r,=
r,=
pfi + v
p + fi + v pfiv
(35).
THE CYCLTDE.
Since the quantities
p,
c,
fi,
157
h,
v,
it
is
evident that
p, r^,
p,
r,
is
 p  p. + v)
 p + p.v)
{r
+ p p.v)
{r
\
p + p.^v)
:
=Q
(36),
in Cartesian coordinates
{b' he')
thus
rj 2{x+
b
r)
2
(if
 z')
(c'
h')
+ Sbcrx + (c'  bj =
the
...
(37).
When
=c
there are
two
focal
points
values
of the
r,=
r,=
RF+c]
r,=
r,=
RFc RF +c
RFc.
.(38).
The equation
of the ellipsoid
2p
in this case
= r, + r, = RF+RF'
constant.
(39)
sum
of the
distances of
foci is
+ r, = 2v = RF'RF
constant.
(40)
distances
In order to extend a property analogous to this to the other conicoids, us conceive the following mechanical construction
:
let
and
and hyperbola represented by thin smooth wires, always rest against the two curves, and Let a string let r be measured along the rod from a point fixed in the rod. whose length is b + c be fastened at one end to the negative focus of the ellipse and at the other to the point (\h) of the rod, and let the string slide on the To keep the string always ellipse at the same point as the rod rests on it. focus of the ellipse round positive the from pass string equal another tight let
Suppose the
let
focal
ellipse
an
158
THE CYCLIDE.
These strings
will
also rest
of the rod rests on the positive branch of the hyperbola, or the negative portion
of the rod rests on the negative branch.
meter
Then the point r of the rod lies is r, and as the rod is made
we
is
i2,
it
in four
different
positions
corresponding
to
cones
whose
vertex
The
Ey and
first
corresponds to the
first
passes through R.
its
If
we denote
by \H and
H,
E,
+H,
R.
The second
intersections
is
position,
r^,
either
E, R,
+H or
+H,
or
H,
E, R.
The
third
intersections is either
R, E,
H,
R, E.
The fourth
intersections
is
position,
r^,
R,
H,
E,
of rays
is
of the
Now
if
two
a string of sufficient length be fastened to a sufficiently distant negative point of the first rod, be passed round the point R, and be fastened to a sufficiently distant negative point of the second rod, and if
two of these
four positions,
and
if
VOL.
II.
PLATE XI
HQRNED
cycl:::
11
PARABOLIC CYCLIDE
VOL. U.
PLATE XL
111
RING
CYCLIDE
IV
SPINDLE
CYCLIDE
THE CYCLLDE.
the two rods be then
intersection R, then
159
string
tight
at
the
point
of
out a conicoid.
and second
and
fourth,
and third
and
fourth,
first
and fourth
and
third,
the conicoid
a plane,
of
and
i\
is
parallel to the
axis
of x.
Hence
if
rays
all
parallel
to
the
axis
wave
and
if
the rays are twice reflected, they will become again parallel to the axis.
vii.]
XXXVIII.
On a Bow
On
coloured
the
26th
of
January,
frozen
about
noon,
of
bow
on
the
surface
John's
CoUege, Cambridge.
of an
Its appearance
once
of the
Dr
that
Parkinson, President
of
S.
John's
College, a sextant
the
angle
between the bright red and the shadow of the large mirror
for
was
of
41 50',
and that
bow,
bright
blue
in
40" 30'.
The angle
Oi^tics,
is
for
the
primary
40 32'.
as
given
Parkinson's
ice I
42 20',
and that
I
for
violet
crystals
are
seen
side.
suppose the
ice.
bow which
saw to be
takes
If the
were
flattened,
so
as
to
of incidence
eflfect
would be of
is,
that
lie
the
ice
bow would be
it,
increased.
its
How
upon
without wetting
and losing
Only a small part of the ice presented this appearance. It was best seen the incident and emergent rays were nearly equally inclined to the horizontal. The ice was very thin, and I was not able to get near enough to the place where the bow appeared to see if the supposed water drops really
when
existed.
the
Vol. xxvi.]
XXXIX.
On
7tli
Feb.
1870.)
Two
figures
are
reciprocal
when the
properties
of the
first relative
first.
to the
Several kinds
of reciprocity are known to mathematicians, and the theories of Inverse Figures and of Polar Reciprocals have been developed at great length, and have led to
remarkable
reciprocity,
results.
I
is
propose
capable
to
investigate
a difierent kind of
geometrical
which
also
of considerable
development,
nd can be ap
necting a
Frame may be defined geometrically as a system of straight lines connumber of points. In actual structures these lines are material pieces, beams, rods, or wires, and may be straight or curved; but the force by which
each piece resists any alteration of the distance between the points which
it
joins
of
a frame,
we may
the
consider
its
different
of
When
or
forces
acting between
the two
points
together,
is
to
prevent them from separating, the action along the joining line
called a Tension.
When
them
called a Pressure.
If
we
divide
the
resultant of the whole internal force acting between the parts thus divided will
order
be mechanically equivalent to the tension or pressure of the piece. Hence, in to exhibit the mechanical action of the frame in the most elementary
manner, we
VOL.
II.
may draw
it
as a skeleton,
in
162
by straight
way which
geometrical
as
regards
direction
of
certain
is
magnitude,
we may
represent
line.
This
done in Elementary
Statics,
where we
draw a
there
are
line
from
the point of application of the force in the direction in which the force acts,
and to cut
force
off as
force,
many
and
it
is
line
as
units
of
in
the
to
head,
to
shew that
a force
of the
line
with an arrowit
of
By
we should
frame,
superposed
on
the
skeleton
of the
opposite
arrows for
To
should
test
the
equilibrium
of
these
of
forces
proceed
by the
construction
with two of the forces acting at the point, completing the parallelogram,
drawing the diagonal, and combining this with the third force
till,
in
when
all
the
forces
had been combined, the resultant disappeared. We new hnes, one of which is an arrow, in taking
leaving at last not only a great
first,
number
of useless
forces,
lines,
and
To
simplify
in
this
process,
we
are
told
to
by drawing
succession
lines
parallel
and proportional
last.
If the
acting at
the
way
will
be a closed one.
Here we have
force
is
for
the
first
not
only
represented in
line,
we have only
this
polygon
or not.
indicate
To secure
advantage,
however,
for
the sides of the polygon do not pass through one point as the forces do.
We
its
forces
163
one diagram,
forces.
and
of the
By
greatly
simplify
ruler,
draw one diagram of the frame and a sepamte diagram method we shall not only avoid confusion, but we shall mechanical calculations, by reducing them to operations with
this
in
the
parallel
which no useless
a figure,
lines are
line
repre
Diagram of Forces
is
nitude and direction the force acting along a piece of the frame.
To express the relation between the diagram of the frame and the diagram of forces, the lines of the frame should each be indicated by a symbol, and the corresponding lines of the diagram of forces should be indicated by
the same symbol, accented
if
necessary.
lines
We
sary
if
to
be
is
parallel,
and
it
is
neces
that
all
of
the
diaorams round
be perpendicular
to the corresponding line. If any number of lines meet at the same point in the frame, the corresponding lines in the diagram of forces form a closed polygon. It is possible, in certain cases, to draw the diagram of forces so that if
any
number
of
lines
meet
in
a point in
the
diagram
of
forces,
the corre
sponding
lines in the
which we use
In such cases, the two diagrams are said to be reciprocal in the sense in If either diagram be taken as representing the it in this paper.
of the
in
equi
librium.
properties of the " triangle " and " polygon " of forces have been long a "diagram" of forces has been used in the case of the "funiand known, cular polygon," but I am not aware of any more general statement of the method of drawing diagrams of forces before Professor Rankine applied it to The "polyhedron of frames, roofs, &c., in his Applied Mechanics, p. 137, &c.
The
forces,"
or the proposition to
portional
beheve, been enunciated independently at various times, but the application of this principle to the construction of a diagram of forces in three dimensions
was
first
made by
212
164
In the
of
for April
1864, I
reciprocal
any
cated
plane
rectilinear
which
is
the
British
Association
a method of
polars'^".
drawing the
liave
each
force
Mr W.
of diagrams of forces in which had been independently discovered by P. Taylor, and had been used by him as a practical method of detersince
construction
line,
is
represented
by one
for
several
I
yeais
before I
had taught
is
it
in
myself.
understand that he
preparing
of the
so
that
it
can be
made use
in
of
method to various kinds of structures in by any one who is able to draw one
published by the Society,
Professor
Fleeming Jenkin,
a paper recently
first,
to
an elementaiy way, as a practical method of solving questions about the stresses in actual frameworks, without the use of long calculations.
and of
I
shall
method
of
then discuss the subject in a theoretical point of view, and give a defining reciprocal diagrams analytically, which is applicable to
figures either of
Lastly,
stress
in
extend
body,
the
method
shall
to
the
Investigation
of the
state
of
a continuous
and
stress
first
two dimensions,
On Reciprocal Plane
Definition.
of an
figures
PectiJincai' Figures.
Two
when they
consist
equal
are
number
so
at right angles,
and corresponding
in
AND DIAGRAMS OF
2^ote.
FORCES.
165
It is
often
its
own
is
plane
90*.
Corresponding
are
then
parallel
to
sometimes more convenient in comparing the diagrams by the eye. Since every polygon in the one figure has three or more
point
in
sides,
it.
every
Since
line in
every
the
line
If either of
these
sent
pressures
will
a system of forces such that, these forces being applied as tensions or along the corresponding pieces of the frame, every point of the frame
be in equilibrium.
The simplest example is that of a triangular frame without weight, ABC, jointed at the angles, and acted on by three forces, P, Q, R, applied at the The directions of these three forces must meet in a point, if the frame angles. We shall denote the lines of the figure by capital letters, is in equilibrium.
and those of the reciprocal figure by the corresponding small letters we shall denote points by the lines which meet in them, and polygons by the lines which bound them. Here, then, are three lines. A, B, C, forming a triangle, and three other Py Q, R, drawn from the angles and meeting in a point. Of these lines,
;
forces
let
that
along
be
given.
Draw
the
first
line
of the
reciprocal
diagram parallel to P, and of a length representing, on any convenient scale, the force along P. The forces along P, Q, R are in equilibrium, therefore, if
from
one
extremity
of
p we draw
so
parallel
to
Q,
and
from
the
other
will
extremity r parallel to R,
as
to
form a triangle
pqr,
then q and r
and R.
forces
in
make
a point
of
along
in
the
direction
which the
166
concourse
of
PQR, and
let
polygon
pqr.
Then, the direction in which the point travels along any side
of the polygon
wiU be the
direction
in
which the
towards
force
acts
If
is
acts
from the
a tension
if
it,
it
a pressure.
forces
The
other
extremity of
P B
meets
Hence,
B
if
along these
we draw a
triangle,
having
for
and
described
forces
;
cates that only one of these triangles forms part of the diagram of forces.
The
cases
is
as
follows
Of
B
one
PRB, and
PQC,
and
r,
is
a side in the
We
We
the
tensions
and not from the other extremity, and we must draw the intersection of p and q.
have now a second triangle,
of
_2:>Z>c,
parallel
to
from
point
or
concourse of P,
pressures,
To determine whether these forces we must make a point travel round phc, so that
B,
C.
course along
piece
is
P
If
PBC
and
PQR
we now
QC
and A,
c,
we
by the
lines
q and
We
meeting
have
now
constructed
diagram of
in
which each
forces
force is represented
by a
single line,
and
in
at
any point
are
in
this
is
expressed
visibly
by the corresponding
lines
in
the
There
at
figure six lines, having four points of concourse, and To determine the direction of the force along a given any point of concourse, we must make a point travel round the cor
responding
respect to
polygon
in
is
positive
with
that polygon.
For
to
AND DIAGRAMS OF
in
FORCES.
167
when we
arrive at the
naming the two polygons which it divides, we travel along it in For instance, if pqr be one of the polygons, the others are opposite directions.
same side
pbc, qca, rah.
Xote.
It
may be
q,
r,
h,
with
r and h, c; but, since it represents the Hence the following geometrical theorem:
If the
lines
if
in
4,
is
parallel
to
A.
PQR, drawn
ABC, meet
in
point,
then
a,
6,
JW
c
he a triangle with
its
and
if
be drawn from
lines a, h, c will
meet
in a point.
is
A
four
circles
triangles
lines.
joining
These
lines,
lines
meet
in
the
four
centres,
six
A, B, C; P, Q,
R; but by
in this
way
this,
is
definite
in
size
and
position,
but any
I
similar
to
it
is
reciprocal
diagram to the
the
simplest
first
original figure.
forces,
its
have
explained
the
construction
of
diagram of
is
more at
length, as I wish to
fixed
on,
line
drawn and
extremities
by means of
in
the
In any complete diagram of forces, those forces which act at a given point Hence, there will be as many closed frame form a closed polygon.
in
polygons
piece
the
diagram
as
in
the frame.
Also,
since
each
and
opposite forces
form
other
is
extremities,
polygons.
;
These
in
polygons
might be drawn
in
any positions
to
each
but,
the diagrams here considered, they are placed so that each force
line,
represented by one
to
which
If
it
belongs.
we regard
will
the
polygon
be
outline
by other polygons,
so
168
that
whole
assemblage
of
polygons
will
which
must either be an infinite surface or a closed The diagram cannot be infinite, because
of finite lines representing finite forces.
It
surface.
it
is
made up
of a finite
number
must, therefore,
be a closed surface
returning on
either
itself,
in
such a
way
diagram at
or
of polygons, which
as
are in
contact with
When two
If
which
is
common
the
is
to
common boundary
positive,
of
two
all
sheets of
diagram.
we reckon
those areas
of positive rotation
round the
the
sign.
then
sheet,
At every
number of
positive
as of negative sheets,
The diagram,
polyhedron,
polygons, which
therefore,
may
bounded by
rectilinear
may
or
may
not, as far as
we yet know. He
Let
If
us
next
consider
any of the
faces
of this
we may, by drawing
is
additional hnes,
necessarily in a plane.
We
by plane
faces.
Every angular point of this polyhedron and its height above it.
shall
call
defined
by
its
the
origin,
and draw
If
We
shall call
this
line the
axis.
we
then draw from the origin a line perpendicular to one of the faces of the polyhedron,
it will
may
projection of that
From
this point
draw a
line perpendicular to
is
and take on
this line
equal to that
of the intersection of the axis with the face of the polyhedron produced, but on
the polyhedron.
By
we
with
its
AND DIAGRAMS OF
FORCES.
169
To every edge of the polyhedron will correspond the line which joins the Each of these points corresponding to the two faces which meet in that edge.
perpendicular to the projection of the other; for the perpendiculars is from the origin to the two faces, lie in a plane perpendicular to the edge in which they meet, and the projection of the line corresponding to the edge is Hence, the edge is the intersection of this plane with the plane of projection.
lines
line.
The
projection of the
line,
edge on
is
therefore
corresponding
and
therefore to
In this
the
plane of projection,
and
so
in a
jectionj
and x = 0, y = 0,
if
= Ax + Bi/+C, = cB,
^=cA,
and we may write the equation
r)
C=C,
If
tion,
we suppose
^,
rj,
considering x,
y,
to the point.
If
we suppose
if
x, y, z
and
^,
rj,
{as
variable,
Hence,
plane
passes
These points and planes are reciprocally polar in the ordinary sense with
respect to the paraboloid of revolution
2cz =zx^
'if.
We
sidering
have
thus arrived
at
being reciprocal to one another, in the geometrical sense, with respect to a certain paraboloid of revolution.
VOL.
II.
22
170
Each
it is
of the diagrams
must
fulfil
any of the
which
many
points corresponding
to
that side as there are different planes passing through three points of the
side,
indefinite.
Number
every
new
either
parts,
two drawn to an isolated point, or to a point already connected with the system. Hence the sum of points and faces is increased by one for every new line. K the closed surface is acycHc, or simply connected^^
one
point
into
new
is
according
as
it
like
that of
it,
then,
if
from any
point
faces.
we draw a
we
divide the
faces.
surface into
if
two
We
Hence,
be the
number of
general
es f=
* See Riemann,
sions;
also
Crelle's Journal, 1857, Lehrsdtze aits der ancdysis situs, for space of two dimenCayley on the Partitions of a Close, PhU. Mag. 1861; Helmholtz, CreUe's Journal, 1858,
J. B. Listing,
Wirbelbewegung, for the application of the idea of multiple continuity to space of three dimensions; Gottingen Trans., 1861, Der Census Rdumliclier Complexe, a complete treatise on the
subject of Cyclosis
and Periphraxy.
Werke,
v.
On
605,
"Von
der Geometria
Sittcs
die
Leibnitz ahnte
nur einem Paar Geometern (Euler nnd Vandermonde) einen schwachen Blick zu thun vergonnt war, wissen und haben wir nach anderthalbhundert Jahren noch nicht viel
die
nichts."
und in
mehr wie
iTo^e
added March
14,
1870,
Since
this
was
(a
written,
notation,
cyclic.
I have seen Listing's Census. In his body with n I holes through it) is (2n  2)
2n
cyclosis,
is
= 0,
number of points, e the number of lines, K^ the number of endless curves, J" the number Kg the number of degrees of cyclosis of the faces, Wj, the number of periphractic or closed faces, V the number of regions of space, K^ the number of degrees of cyclosis, tT^ their number of degrees of periphraxy or the number of regions which they completely surround, and w is to be put = 1 or =0, according as the system does or does not extend to infinity.
of faces.
AND DIAGRAMS OF
when
FORCES.
171
many
lines be
drawn.
But
in
the case of a
w =  2.
doubly connected, like that of a solid body with a hole through it, then if we draw one closed curve round the hole, and another closed curve through the hole, and round one side of the body, we shall have
If the closed surface
is
(^
= 2,
.9=1,
/=1,
so that
m = 0.
If the surface
it,
is
?ily
connected,
like
that of
a solid with
nl
holes through
then we
may draw n
nl
We
and
shall
in
s
(nl)
points and
= A{n l),
= 2(n l),
/= 2,
this
and
esf=2nA,
and
is
edges,
n\j connected.
The plane
hedra,
reciprocal diagrams,
of such
points,
poly
lines,
and
polygons.
= e
first
s,=f
and/ = 5
n.;,,
or the
On
the
origin
of s points
;
in space,
G.
therefore,
the lengths of 3s
6
system
of s points be given,
and
if
points
be
determinate,
and the
system
will
be rigidly connected.
22
172
If,
a system of
these lines will not be independent of each other, and the lines of this partial system will only give 3s' 6 independent data to determine the complete system.
In a system of
points joined
by
be 3s 6
e
degrees of freedom, provided that in every partial system of s' points joined by e lines, and having in itself p' degrees of freedom, p' is not negative. If in
=p
is
negative,
and
if
the system
is
be a function of q independent variables. Such a system may be said to have p' is negative in any partial system, then the deq degrees of constraint. grees of freedom of the complete system are pp\ where p and p' are got
from the number of points and lines in the complete and partial systems. If s points are connected by e lines, so as to form a polyhedron of / faces, enclosing a space n times connected, and
if
sides,
then
mf=2e.
We
and
have also
es/=2n4,
3s
e=p\6,
j
whence
p = 6(ln) + (2
e.
m = 3,
and we have
p = 6{ln).
If
faces,
n=l,
or in
is
p = o,
that
if
longer rigid
any one of
were wanting.
of triangles,
In such a
figure,
if
made
of
web
the rods would be completely determined by the external forces appUed to the
figure,
and
if
we
other,
and
if
On
p. 80.]
AND DIAGRAMS OF
intersecting these,
tions
FORCES.
173
intersec
triangles,
and
faces
if
we now
same
diflfering
the
surface
shall
a system of
rectilinear
triangles
having the
angular
points,
little
we
triangular
infinitely
sponding
line
on the polyhedron.
We
may, therefore,
substitute
for
in all questions
We
1st,
That
of
invariable
form*; 2nd,
forces f
;
That the
3rd,
stresses
if
in
is
the surface
That
there
no external
no
is
possible,
In the limiting case of the curved surface, however, a kind of deformation which is not possible in the case of the polyhedron. Let us suppose
that in some
surface,
part of the
and the the edge of the surface. the of form original plane of the in this reflexion the dimpled part Then the length of any line drawn on the surface will remain unchanged.
so
that
is
a plane
closed
curve,
Now
changes
let
its
the
dimple
be
its
edge continually
position.
Every
still
is
possible in the
an inextensible surface. In this way such a surface may be gradually turned outside in, and since the dimple may be formed from a mere point, a pressure applied at a single point on the outside of an inextensible surface will not be surface resisted, but will form a dimple which will increase till one part of the
comes in contact with another.
In the case of closed surfaces doubly connected,
faces
p=
^6, that
stress,
is,
such sur
are
not
forces,
only
rigid,
but
are
capable
of
this
of
internal
independent of
six
external
variables.
and the
expression
stress
depends on
independent
This has been shewn by Professor Jellett, Trans. R.I. A., Vol. xxii. p. 377. On the Equilibrium of a Spherical Envelope, by J. C. Maxwell. Quarterly Journal of Mathe[Vol.
II.
matics, 1867.
p. 86.]
174
In a polyliedron with triangular faces, if a number of the edges be taken away so as to form a hole with e^ sides, the number of degrees of freedom is
Hence,
stress,
in
order
to
make an
will
n\j
we may
cut out
the edges
we have formed
stress,
a hole having
if
6n3
edges.
The system
but
the
limiting
case
of
the smallest
hole
number of sides, the smallest hole made may be regarded as having an to any degree will destroy its rigidity. connected surface inextensible in a closed
infinite
Its
flexibility,
however,
may
limits.
In the case of a plane frame of s points, we have 2s data required to but since 3 determine the points with reference to a given origin and axes number of the axis, arbitrary data are involved in the choice of origin and
;
points in a plane
pairs
is
253.
of e lines
joining certain
of
these points,
p = 2se.S.
however, in any partial system of s points connected by e lines, the quantity p' = 2s'eS be negative, or in other words, if a part of the frame be selfstrained, this partial system will contribute only 2s S equations indeIf,
pendent of each other to the complete system, and the whole frame will have
pp'
degrees of freedom.
In a plane frame, consisting of a single sheet, every element of which is triangular, and in which the pieces form three systems of continuous lines, as at p. 173, if the frame contains e pieces connecting s points, s of which are
s^
3ss' =
+ 3.
s^,
Hence
a
negative
are
_p
=  (s  s') = is
quantity,
in
or
such
of
a frame
necessarily
stiff";
and
if
any of the
degrees of
points
the
interior
many
AND DIAGRAMS OF
functions of
s^
FORCES.
175
the frame without
variables,
and
5,
pieces
rendering
If
it
loose.
there
are
holes
in the
frame,
that
s'
5,
points
lie lie
on the circumin
ference of the
points
the interior,
p = s^ + 3n.
If a
plane frame
be a projection of a polyhedron of
faces,
each of
sides,
e5/=2n4,
2se=p{3,
whence
If all
p = 5 4)1 + 1
je.
= 4 and p = 5in, or a plane frame which the faces are quadrilaterals the projection of a closed polyhedron with quadrilateral faces, has one degree of freedom if the polyhedron is simply connected, as in the case of the projection of the solid bounded by six quadrilaterals, but if the polyhedron be
is
doubly
connected,
stiffness.
the
frame
formed by
its
plane
projection
will
have three
degrees of
Theorem. If every one of a system of points in a plane is in equiUbrium under the action of tensions and pressures acting along the lines joining the points, then if we substitute for each point a small smooth ring through which
smooth thin rods of indefinite length corresponding to the
lines
are compelled
moment to pass, then, if to each rod be applied a couple in the plane, whose multiplied points the between rod the is equal to the product of the length of by the tension or pressure in the former case, and tends to turn the rod
the For a pressure, then every one of the system of rings will be in equilibrium. and preseach ring is acted on by a system of forces equal to the tensions
sures
in
positive
or
the negative
direction,
undisturbed.
Theorem.
action
In
in
equilibrium
in
of repulsions
sum
176
multiplied
by
the distance
the
sum
For
of the
of the points between which it acts, is equal to products of the repulsions multiplied each by the distance of
it acts.
is
each
point
in
of a
system of
if
attractions,
and repulsions
is
in
one plane,
will
remain in equilibrium
the
system of forces
this operation
is
turned through a right angle in the positive direction. If performed on the systems of forces acting on all the points,
of
then
forces
at
at
the
extremities
each
line joining
right
angles to
forming
and
whose direction
positive
if
negative
be attractive.
are
in
Now
in equilibrium
these two
is
systems
of
couples
equilibrium,
the
sum
of
In a plane frame, loaded with weights in any manner, and supported by weight must be regarded as attracted towards a horizontal
base Une,
as
Hne.
Hence
tension
Multiply each load by the height of the point at which it acts, and each by the length of the piece on which it acts, and add all these
pressures on the supports of the frame each by and each pressure by the length of the piece on
products together.
vertical
acts,
which
it
acts,
This
sum
will be
equal to the
former sum.
If
the
their horizontal
by the earth
of
this
itself.
The importance
that
if
arises
from the
circum
proportional to the
stress
which
it
has
the stress multipHed to bear, its weight will be proportional to the product of give an estimate of products of sums these Hence piece. the of the length
by
AND DIAGRAMS OF
The following method of demonstrating
consideration of couples, and
is
FORCES.
this
177
to
Let the system of points be caused to contract, always remaining similar its original form, and with its pieces similarly situated, and let the same
continue to act upon it during this operation, so that every point is always in equilibrium under the same system of forces, and therefore no work
forces
is
forces as a whole.
till
the system
is
reduced to a point.
Then
the work done by each tension is equal to the product of that tension by the distance through which it has acted, namely, the original distance between the
points.
Also
the
work spent
in
is
the
product of
that pressure by the original distance of the points between which it acts; and since no work is gained or lost on the whole, the sum of the first set of
sum
of the
second
set.
In this demonstration
This demonstration
is
all
in one plane.
Let
the
coordinates
of
the
different
points
of
the
system be
x^.z^,
&c., and let the force between p, q, Xpi/pZp, and their distance r^, and let it be reckoned positive when it is a pressure, and negative when it is a tension, then the equation of equilibrium of any
x^^
be P^,,
point
a:
is
all
values from
to n,
2;{(^px,)^j=o.
Multiply this equation by
multiplied
Xp.
if
each
is
by
its
sum
taken,
we get
Ill
and adding the corresponding equations
in
^Pt)
y and
z,
we get
tptt(P^,r,,)
1
=
'
which
is
VOL.
23
178
in
Three Dimensions.
a Body.
Method of Representing
diagram of stress
of internal
in
is
Stress in
Definition.
body
be
under
the
is
action
forces,
if
a surface A, limited by a
closed curve,
drawn
drawn
in
forces
in
j>
the body
is
to
Let
X,
y,
f,
t],
those of
^ are ftmctions of
we have
to
ascertain,
so
in
the body
may
be in equiUbrium.
forces,
such as gravity,
We
shall consider
Theorem
1.
If any closed
surface
is
is
if
the stress
corresponding element of surface in the diagram of stress, then the resultant stress
for
diagram
pressure
It
of
and the resultant of a uniform normal on every element of a closed surface is zero by hydrostatics.
stress
is
a closed
surface,
does
surface
not,
is
however,
foUow
for
that
the
portion
its
of
closed
in
equilibrium,
the stress on
surface
may have
re
sultant
moment.
2.
Theorem
To
it
is
neces
^_dF
^~dx'
where
_dF
'^~dy'
and
z.
dF
^~ dz*
The
stress acting
is
any function of
x, y,
on this area will be a force equal and parallel to the resultant of a pressure
acting on the corresponding element of area in the diagram of stress.
Eesolving
AND
this
DIAGR^\3IS
OF FORCES.
179
pressure
in
we
com
which we may
call
p^dydz,
projection
p^ydijdz,
and
pxzdijdz,
multiplied
of the corresponding
planes.
element
coordinate
Now, the
dr) dt,
dydz.
dz
dz dy^
stress in the direction of
dr} dt,
Hence we
component of
drj dl,
^''~^\dydz
which we may write
for brevity at present
dzdyj'
Similarly,
I>xy=pJ(l ^;
In
the
y, z),
p=pJ{i,
rf,
y,
z).
same
way,
we may
find
Py,=pJ{v,
C;
i'y
Z,
^), y)'
Pyy
= pJ{l
^;
^'
Pyz=pJ{l V
'>
^>
^l
Pzx=pJ{%
Now,
to the
^.
Pzy=pJ{'^' t'
^' y)>
Pzz=vJ{^' V'
^' y)
consider
with respect
moment
dzdxpy^ dy dxdyp.y
.
dz.
x,
we must have
obtain
Similarly,
for
the
of y
and
z,
we
the
equa
tions
Pxy=iV
Now,
let
us assume
232
'
180
2'^y^^P^y
'{ dz dx
or
dxdz)
^ \dx dy
dy dxj
(A 
(B,
foUows that
C,
= 0,
a = 0,
d^_dl dx~dz'
(73
= 0.
^^^^
and ^dx + rjdy^Cdz
is
dT)_dC
dl_dri^
dz'dy'
it
dy'dx*
x,
y and
z,
whence
follows that
dF
^~dx'
_dF
"^'dy'
stress,
dF
^
dz'
F
of
may
the
because
when
it
is
of stress
may be
formed,
function
is
limited
of stress calculated.
The form
at
fulfilled
the
The
six
components of
stress expressed in
terms of
are
fd'FV}
d'F d'F\
daf dydz)
^^
'
U'Fd'F
/d'FV\ ^
d'F d'F\
(d'FdF^
/^'^M
P^'P
[dzdx dxdy
df
dzdxj
/
^^ ~^
If
[dydz dzdx
'
dz
^z,
d'F
d'F
d'F
of stress
in
not,
AND DIAGRAMS OF
FORCES.
181
be easily seen by taking
may
all
p and
p^,
are
in
both zero at
points.
no tangential action
jj^
and
p^
in
^
as
f^
The complete
is,
we have
seen,
_d^ ^'^'df
where
every
dy
"^^^~
_df
^^
dj?'
of which
dxdy'
the form
is
y,
may
as
be different for
different
y,
so
that
we may regard
a perfectly general
function of x,
and
z.
Again,
lines
if
we
to
consider
z,
its
generating
z
parallel
we
shall
between
in
this
Hence the
length,
longitudinal stress
is
this cylinder
and
independent of
Hence
where ^
is
!/).
but
may
But
= 0, we
^ = 0,
j
and 7j = 0.
dydz
whence
it
follows
that
j
ax
and
ay
are
functions
of
x and y
only,
and that
dF 7
is
a function of
z only.
Hence
F=G + Z,
when
(x
is
a function
of
x and y
only,
and
Z
_
a function of
only,
and the
components of
stress are
d'Gd'Z
d'Gd^Z
UWd'G
d'G d:Z
d'G X]
p^ = 0,
P^=Pdxdydz^
182
xy
is
Now,
this
function
is
not
is
sufficiently
general,
for
instead
of
being any
function of x, y,
and
z.
z,
it
by a function of
is,
as
it
ought to
for it
be,
a function of x
and
only,
it
is
not of the
depends on G, the
function which
jL)
may be
entirely independent
determines the stresses p^, p^, and 'Pyy, whereas the value of In fact, the of the values of these stresses.
equations give
dz' iz'l'
stress
in
On
tively
Let us consider figures in two portions of space, which we shall call respecLet the coordinates of any point in the first and the second diagrams.
diagram be denoted by
^,
q,
the the
first
x, y, z,
in
second by
^,
measured in directions
to
;
to
x,
y,
respectively.
figure
F^,
Let i^
first
in
any
continuous
values of
of
F._
manner;
that
is
say,
if
A,
are
two
points,
and
limit,
(^,
F^ the
at
those points
then,
approaches
without
those
the value
q,
of a
corre
point in
of
the
by the equations
^=^'
This
is
dF
dF
'^
= ^'
dF ^
of
,,.
^^^'
equivalent to the
any point
in
the
the
first
diagram.
AND DIAGRAMS OF
Next,
let
FORCES.
183
</>,
+ zC=F+cf>
x,
<f>,
as
thus determined,
in
^
will
be a function of
But,
for
$,
and
z,
since
<^
^,
77,
are
known
of
of
i,
is
a function
z
V>
with respect to
and
functions
i,
V,
i
d(f>_
^dx
t],
dy
dz
dF di~ d^
^,
from (l)
d^_
dFdx
dFdy
dFd^_dF
d^
d^'^'^dxdi'^ dy
d^'^ dz d^
dF_dF
'"^^d^ = x.
Differentiating
<f>
di
rj
with respect to
and
C,
we get the
three equations
d^
d^
^~dr)'
first
d^
'c/4
^
^'
""dr
or
the vector
(r)
at
Hence the
each with
its
first
diagram
may
from the
first,
own
tions
(2) between the functions expresses that the sum of the functwo corresponding points is equal to the product of the distances of these points from the origin multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the
The
relation
for
linear
Both these functions must be of two dimensions in space. Let i*^ be a function of xyz, which has the same value and rate of variation as F
/
(4).
The value
found by putting
x, y,
and
=
(5),
F = F,x,^y,r)zX=<f>
184
or the value
origin
is
to
the value of
at
the point
^,
If the
rate
of variation of
is
nowhere
infinite,
the coordinates
vice versa.
^,
r),
{,
of the
limits
be
impossible,
and
therefore
the
limits
of the
point,
every
Beyond the values of x, y, z, in terms of ^, iq, t must value of <^ is also impossible. Within the function ^ has an even number of values at even number of points in the first diagram,
finite,
and
in the second.
first
To
for
find
these points
in
the
and
let
let
be drawn in the
first
diagram
one or
which
is
constant,
and
is
perpendicular to
more
curves
curves,
infinite,
correspond
the
p.
points
If
in
the
second
diagram
in
the
first
those points
Now,
since
this point
less
of p both greater
and
and therefore r
is
neither an
absolute
maximum
nor an absolute
minimum
value.
Hence there
are in general
an
number of points on the curve Some of these points may given point. must be different, unless the given point is
even
or curves which
coincide,
correspond to the
Let us now consider the two reciprocal diagrams with their functions, and
ascertain in
(1)
Let
diagram
be
at which
F=Fi, then
<f>
= ^r^+y^l+^XF^
to
(6),
or
is
reciprocal
function
is
AND DIAGRAMS OF
(2)
FORCES.
(jc^,
185
y^,
z.),
Let the
first
at
which
= x,^+y.j) + zXF,
(7),
whence eliminating
<^,
{x,x:^^\{y,y.)'n
If
r,
+ {z,zH = F.F,.
first
is
P,;
and
if li^m^.n^^
F F
'13
or the reciprocal
line joining
of the two points P, and P is a plane, perpendicular to the them, and such that the perpendicular from the origin on the plane
is
(3)
are
a;,,
Let there be a third point P, in the first diagram, whose coordinates z, and for which F=F^', then we must combine with equations (6)
4>=^.^+y.n+^JiF^
and
(7)
(8).
The
dicular
this
reciprocal
of
the
three
is
a straight line
perpen
to
the plane of the three points, and such that the perpendicular on
line
from
in
direction
(4)
for
is
which F=F^.
a single point,
The
of
the
four
points
and the
line
drawn
its
is
from the origin to this point represents, in direction and magnitude, the rate
of greatest increase of F,
supposing
values
at
given.
The value of ^
at
this
point
that of
F
(f>
is
continuous,
that
is,
that
quantity
when
bounded by
definite surfaces.
VOL.
II.
24
186
The bounding
For
let
must be composed of
planes.
(a,a,)aj+(AA)r+(y.r.)2=<^x<A,
and
this
is
(9),
Hence the portion of space in which any particular form of the value of F must be a polyhedron or cell bounded by plane faces, and therefore having straight edges meeting in a number of points or summits.
holds good
Every
face
is
cells,
more
cells,
and to two
cell,
Every summit belongs to at least four and to two edges of each face.
cells,
diagram
it
is
ways,
so
belongs
two
different
cells,
and
and
its derivatives.
The
reciprocal
reciprocity of the
in
:
and the
1.
Every summit
radius
diagram corresponds to a
cell in
the other.
of increase of the
The
vector
cell,
of the
rate
The value
same
of
the
the summit
is
to
the
if it
Every
which
is
edge
in
the
one
diagram corresponds
cells
to a
plane
fexje
in
the
other,
The edge
in the one
diagram
is
of increase
AND DIAGRAMS OF
3.
FORCES.
187
Every
cells
face
in
the
many
face
must
meet as there are angles in the face, that is, at least three. Every belong to two, and only two cells, because the edge to which it
Every
face
cell
in
cell
the
Every
of the
corresponds and
Since every
cell
must have
there.
four or
more
faces,
every
four or
cell
every
cell
has at
least
edges,
cell
cell
each of
areas
in
portional to the
in
the reciprocal
cell,
may
is
be proved by hydrostatics.
If the
sect
itself,
of the
cell
is
meant by the
it
is
inside
and outside
bounded
of
the
cell
but
itself,
better to
speak of the
cell,
positive
and negative
closed
cell.
cell,
or portion of a
is
by
surface,
of
inward,
may
be called a
positive
If
the
surface intersects
space with
If
cell
its
sheets with
their
negative side
times.
its
In passing to a contiguous
with the
first
we must suppose
surface
that
face
in contact
cell
has
its
positive
188
the
first
cell.
tinuous
cell,
throughout each
settle
and by changing
it
when we
we may
sign of
the
considered
for the
moment
If
we now suppose
edge of
in the
corre
diagram, so that the force on each extremity of the edge direction of the positive normal to the corresponding face of the
the
first
cell
face,
then these
will
in equilibrium.
Another
the
first
way
is
of
diagram,
as follows
no
other
edge.
which meet in
of the first diagram draw a closed curve, embracing it However small the curve is, it will enter each of the Hence the reciprocal of this closed curve will the edge.
cells
taken
The area
edge.
If,
and magnitude,
along
travel
the
in
therefore,
in
curve,
the
along
the
if
is
This
cases
certain
is
method
of
expressing
stresses
in
three
dimensions comprehends
all
in
which Rankine's
reciprocal
figures are
it is
possible,
and
is
applicable to
cases
of continuous stress.
That
(189).
not applicable to
all
such
cases
easily seen
by the example
of
On
If
we make
for figures
deduced
in three
AKD DIAGRAMS OF
and cC
for
(f>.
FORCES.
relation
189
Vjetween
We
have then
for
the equations of
the two
diagrams
i=
.(10).
190
that the lines, which correspond to the edges of such a polygon, nate in several points, and not in one, as is necessary for reciprocity.
Let
a,
be any two
consecutive
points
in
the
first
diagram,
if
distant
5,
and a, /8 the corresponding points in the second, distant cr, then tion cosines of the line ah are I, m, n and those of a/3, X, ^, v
d_l
the direc
dp
dz
dr) j^
dx
di)
afJi.^
dy
dr}
V" + sm r+sn dz dy dx
(12).
, dl av = si J
dx
^
sm y ^ sn
dC dy
dt, ^j
dz
Hence
cr
^(a.,,..)=4^....+..(.)..(i4f)
\dy
(13).
dx^
ZX
+ m/xf
7ij/
= cos6,
of
where
I,
e is
and
cr,
and
if
sets
of values
m,
n,
corresponding to three
directions
at
we
find
Hence
this
and not
on the directions of s
s^
or of x, y,
z,
let
us
call
it
A'i^.
Now,
let
us take an element
of area perpendicular to
is
and a tension
parallel to
a and
equal to
AND DIAGRAMS OF
FORCES.
191
By
the
rules
for
we have
for
the
components
X = Zp + mp^ + np^ =p
^^
lA'F X
(15).
(T 
di\
,^
d^F\
(d'F
d'F\^
[d'F
d'F\
Id'F
d'F\
Id'F
d'F\
.(16).
d'F
d'F
d'F
Pxy=P dxdy
By
substituting these values in the equations of equilibrium
^ ^ ^
ax
ay
dz
= 0, &c
(17).
it
is
is
contained
^^~
P^~
generahty,
d'B
dz"
d'C
^ df
'
d'C
d'A
'
d'A
^1
dC
(18).
dz'
d'A dydz
^~
d'B dzdx'
^'^~
dxdy
though restricted
stress.
By making A = B = C=pF we
has
in its
We
(16),
consistent
with
itself,
and
will
keep
body
in
equilibrium.
Since
the
stress
can be compounded
first
method
by
areas.
of
stress
is
represented in this
way
in
the
192
Since
at
in
each
it.
cell
is
a linear function of
h
x, y,
z,
two contiguous
cells,
will
finite
are reciprocal,
If
infinite
when ah
a and
vanishes.
coincide.
a and
is
bounding the
cells,
fi
Hence
is
there
all directions
surface,
drawn on the
surface
proportional to
cells
the distance between the points which are reciprocal to the two
bounded by the
and
this stress is
as the
two
cells.
The kind
system
of
is
therefore
that of a
bubble,
liquid
each
having
fluid
tension
it
like
is
that of a soap
of which
composed.
equal,
fluid,
their tensions
equal.
must be
and
all
the edges
must be
On
Mr
Airy,
in a
paper "
On
the
of internal stress
any
two rectangular
elasticity,
or
on the mode
which
stress
arises
in
by
internal stress
^i'+;P = 0,
whence
it
and
^^^+p =
d'F
(19),
follows that
d'F
P^=J^y^
^^^
^=S
,^.. (^^^'
AND DIAGRAMS OF
where
point
FORCES.
(as
193
is
F
is
is
function
of
and
y,
far as
these
equations
are
concerned)
perfectly
arbitrary,
independent of the choice of axes of coordinates. Since the stresses on the second derivatives of F, any linear function of x and y may be depend without affecting the value of the stresses deduced from F. Also, added to
since the
of F, any
two systems of
stress
may
be
The importance of Airy's function in the theory of stress becomes even more manifest when we deduce from it the diagram of stress, the coordinates
of whose points are
f=f
For
if s
^"f
<r
(^
that of the
and
if
Xds,
Yds
are
the com
ponents of the whole stress acting on the element ds towards the right hand
of the curve s
and
dx
d'F dx
dyidxj
dr)
Hence the
curve
is
stress
on
the right
hand
side
of the element cb of
the
original
represented,
both
in
element
resultant
da
of
the
curve in
finite
and magnitude, by the corresponding the diagram of stress, and, by composition, the
direction
is
stress
on any
represented in direction
to
the
end of
P P,
are
and
if
P,
is
inclined a
component
stresses are

p = P, cos' a + P, sin' a
p^=(P,P,)sinaco8a
Pj^
(23).
= P, sin' a + P, cos'a
25
VOL.
II.
194
Hence
tan 2a =
i>
Pry
dxdy
d^_d^
dar'
df
d'F
(24).
P. + P.
P^+Pyy = :^+^
d'F
,_^'Pd'P r,i,p^Pyy _ p^ 
PP
/d'F\
\dxdyl
^^ ^^
s,
and
let
sum
The
integral
is
(25).
By
when once
integrated.
dFdx_dFdy\,
/( dy
ds
dx dsj
(26),
(27).
These
s.
If
we take
origin
<r as origin in the diagram of stress, then ^ and ly are the components of the whole stress on the right hand of the curve from the origin to
a given point.
^, then
o.
stress
on the arc
The
force
line
integral
may now
direction
and
Is
everywhere acted on by a
and
magnitude by
p.
We
may
express
this
quantity
of the
it
becomes,
(28),
AND DIAGRAMS OF
or
if
FORCES.
195
radius
if
Rds
is
the
actual
stress
c,
on
ds,
and r
is
the
vector of
ds,
and
we
therefore,
stress
acting
on
is
sum
of the principal
If there
integral vanishes.
theorem, given at
176, that
sum
it
of
all
is
each
by the
the
length
of
the
which
acts
a system
in
equilibrium.
longitudinal,
and
stress
whole pressure or tension of the piece is equal to the longitudinal multiphed by the section, so that the integral l\{P,\Pi)dxdy for each
Jts
piece
is
a small
circle,
cr
will
be
an
ellipse,
and the
stress
be represented in
and magnitude by the corresponding diameter of the ellipse. Hence, the principal axes of the ellipse represent in direction and magnitude the prindirection
cipal stresses at the centre of
the
circle.
Let us next consider the surface integral of the product of the principal taken over the area within the closed curve s.
//..P,...=//(f3)...,
_(((dldr}_didri\
(30),
}]\dxdy
or
dydx)'^'''^^'
by transformation of variables
=mdr].
Hence the
the curve
stress,
is
surface
integral
of the product
corresponding curve
in the
diagram of
depends entirely on the external stress on the curve s. This is seen from the construction of the curve a in the diagram of stress. of since each element d<r represents the stress on the corresponding element ds
and
252
196
If p
the curve s from the origin to a point which moves round the curve, then the
area traced out by p
is
If
and
s,
is
Y {'Xds.ds,
or
Tx
Yds.ds.
is
entirely
longitudinal,
is
so
that the
zero,
contributed to
the surfaceintegral except at the points where the pieces meet or cross each
other.
To
find
the
value of the
it
integral for
points,
draw a
all
closed curve
pieces
surrounding
and no other
point,
the
the
which
of
meet
stress
in
will
that
point in order.
The corresponding
in
diagram
direction
The area
of this
polygon, therefore, represents the value of jjP^P^dxdy for the point of concourse,
and
is
to
be
it
considered
positive
or negative,
travels
round
in the positive or
concourse
drawing in succession
point
cyclical
lines parallel
in
the
several
pieces
or of intersection construct a polygon, by and proportional to the forces acting on the which meet in that point, taking the pieces in
The area of
on the
this polygon
is
to be taken positive
or negative, according as
If,
lies
left or
then,
a closed curve be
drawn surrounding
in succession
lines
polygon
all
be
drawn by drawing
parallel
the
external
lines
of direction
forces which act on the frame in meet the closed curve, then the area of
polygon
is
equal
to the algebraic
sum
of the
areas
In
lines
this
theorem a polygon
is
to
of the frame meet or intersect, whether they are really jointed together.
AND DIAGRAMS OF
or
FORCES.
197
whether two pieces simply cross each other without mechanical connection. is a parallelogram, whose sides are parallel and
the stresses in the two pieces, and
it
is
positive
or
negative
more pieces
intersect,
it
is
we have the
are
The area of a polygon of an even number of sides, whose opposite sides equal and parallel, is equal to the sum of the areas of all the different parallelograms which can be formed with their sides parallel and equal to those
of the polygon.
This
grams.
is
easily
into
the
different
parallelo
On
Let
stress,
the
PQR
be
the
longitudinal,
and
STU
511,
stresses
and
strains,
taken from
Thomson and
Natural Philosophy,
p.
669:
Components
of the
198
of an element of the
body
are,
by
697
dP
dx
dU dT
.
dy dy
dy
dz
(!)
dx
dz
dx
dz
If
we assume
d'A
dydz'
r=
rr,
d'B dzdx
..
d'C
dxdy
and put
X dV dx
^_dV
'
dy'
z= dV dz
is
(2).
given by
^~
p_d^,d^ y ^
dz'^ df
daf
d^^d^_^
(3).
dz^
^^^Jd^_y
dif
dctf
am
to
not aware of any method of finding other relations between the com
make
stress
is
that
the
stress
arises
from
elasticity
the body.
it
shall
confine
can be deprived
In this
case,
if
of
a,
all
y8,
forces.
are
coefficient
of rigidity,
by equation
(6),
Thomson and
Tait,
^^dfi
dz
dy^l^^
dy n
d'A
(4).
n dydz
'
AND DIAGRAMS OF
with
similar
is
FORCES.
general
solution
199
of these
equations
for
and
c.
sufficiently
equations
given by putting
(5).
form given
in 693,
p=(*+f");7^+(ii) dy
where
k
is
dz
similar
their
(6).
the coefficient of
for
cubical
fi
elasticity,
with
equations for
values from
Q
(3)
and and
R
(5),
Substitutmg
P,
a,
and y
in equation
(6)
/d'B
d'C
^,
,,
[d'A
d'B
d'CX
+ 1^3^)
If
[dy^
dy'
dy"
"^
dz'
dz'
d^l
we put
d'A
d'B
d'C
d'
c^
5^'
d^
this equation
d^^d^'^P^ ^^^ 5^ + 5^ +
= ^'
becomes
()t}n)
.(7).
"We
and
have
also
differing
instead of
side.
hand
we
find
say,
(8),
A'A=A'B = A'C=D',
(9),
and
These
equations
P+Q+R=
are
useful
9kD'2V_^j^p3V
6k
2
3itln
dk + 2n
to determine
coefficients
(10).
when we wish
if
the
of
stress
rather
k
body.
For instance,
the
elasticity,
200
n, are increased in the same ratio to any extent, the displacements of the body are proportionally diminished, but the stresses remain the same, and, though their distribution depends essentially on the elasticity of the various
and
parts
of the
body,
co
may
be treated as functions of
two
variables.
The
of
z,
first
is
when
there
is
no
stress,
as in the case of a
tion
of
z,
the
thickness
The second
the
direction direction
is
z,
when
very
there
is
no
strain,
of
z
is
as in the
great,
case
of a
forces
of
the
on the
sides
being functions of x
and y
only.
of these cases
In both
5=0
and T=0,
so that
we may
write
first
given
shall
We
it
Two
Dimensions.
G
*
j^^
then by Thomson pnd Tait,
d'G
^^
is
dxdy
v=^^ dxdy
(12) ''
^
694, if a
2n(<T+l)^ = P<r(Q + R)
Case
I.
If
72
this
becomes
a;
we
AND DIAGRAMS OF
where
FORCES.
201
displacement
in
Is
function
of
only.
fi
the
direction of y,
where
is
a function of x only.
Now
depends on the
^="(S
(14),
(^)
Multiplying both sides of this equation by 2((r+l) and substituting from (11),
and
(15),
(..3'..g.f=(i.)(...)
an equation which must be
strain.
fulfilled
m
is
by
originally without
of
In
is
no strain
in the
direction
^=i2o(P + g) =
Substituting for
(19).
In (13),
for
/S.
we
find
W
This
the
+ dfj^^li + 'd^i^Ad^'^'dy')^
with that of the
to
first
'
equation
coefiicient
is
identical
case,
of
the
part due
tr,
H,
value of
Hence,
if
the external forces are given in the two cases of no stress and
z,
and
if
26
202
of the force acting on
substance
will
is
in
the ratio of
a
to
(lo)'
in
the
two
cases,
the
internal
forces
be
the
same
in
independent of the actual values of the coefficients of elasticity, provided the The solutions of the cases treated by Mr Airy, as given in strains are small.
his
paper,
do
In
not
fact,
exactly
fulfil
the
elasticity.
into
the
investigation.
are
and
As an
illustration of the
F=^r^co32p0
In this case
(22).
we have
for
corre
ponding to (xy)
7'*^ sin
(2^91)^
(23),
and
for
_dr)
d^
(24).
we make
and
P
'
H =p
t''
sin
p0
.(25),
then
dGr\
(26).
(^^)e
/^
,v
dG dG
I
principal stress,
respectively are constant will be lines' of Hence the curves for which G and and the stress at any point will be inversely as the square of the distance between the consecutive curves G or H.
If
we make
^=pcos<j> and
T7
p = 7^'
and
1
<f>
(27).
we put
q for
2p
then 
+ =2
l,
AND DIAGRAMS OF
80
FORCES.
203
G,
that
if f,
g,
in
the diagram of
stress
correspond to F,
in
the
original figure,
we have
f=p^cos2q<\>,
g=
p''
cos
q(f),
=  p"^ sm q<l>
(28).
Cctse
of a
As an example
of the
application
must
initial
beam
of indefinite length
its
a load
=^
placed on
upper
surface,
but
us
consider
to the
only
the
middle
portion
of
the
applicable
effect.
no shearing
force,
and
let
no moment of bending be at distances a, from Let y be reckoned from the lower edge of the beam, and let h the origin. dF be the depth of the beam. Then, if /"=  jj is the shearing stress, the total
where there
is
is
j!^''^
=,.../
+ ^x.
<f>(h)<f>{0)
and
from
this
to X,
must be which
equal
is
evidently (h
Hence,
'^=
we
=l
(29).
From
this
^=rfl'+55'=(A+i)'#'{y)+fyThe
of the
vertical stress
is
therefore
function of y only.
It
must vanish
at
beam,
where y = b.
<f>'{y)
where y = 0, and it must be ^ on the upper side The shearing stress U must vanish at both sides
of the beam, or
262
204
<l>{y)
which
Hence we
by integrating
P='^{'^){3hfW+r
where a
in
is
(30),
on the manner
which
beam
is
supported.
From
this
we
vertical, horizontal,
and shearing
stresses,
= ^l'+f^ = t2'T^W22^)
(31).
^=f='F'("'^)(*2^)+f
(32).
^=Say = ^^^(^2')
Jc,
(33)
The values of Q and of U, the vertical and the shearing stresses, as given by these equations, are perfectly definite in terms of h and the load and the weight of the beam per unit of length. The value of F, the horizontal
stress,
Y,
which we propose to
beam was
(13),
originally unstrained.
We
therefore
{x, y),
determine a and
/S,
1n(,7+\)a
^{(3a'xx')(62j,),Tx(35y22/')}<7ja^ +
x^+r
(34),
2(o+l)y8=^{(5yi/) + 3o(a'af)(62/3f')}+jy<r^+X'
where
(35),
X'
U,
is
Y' of y only. Deducing from these and comparing it with the value of the shearing
we
*+^{6a'x2af+12x(6y2^)} + ,.x=x^ +
Hence
^' + ^'
(36).
^= ^i [hyf)
12
(37),
= 2^+^
(3a'.
 2^) + <.x,
^' =0
(38).
AND DIAGRAMS OF
If the
total longitudinal
stress across
FORCES.
section of the
205
any
vertical
beam
is
zero,
the
value
of
7
and when y = h.
From
this
condition
we
by equation
(32)
(39).
^ = 5^{3K^) + 2y'2?>y6'}(62y)
The moment of bending
at
any
beam
is
(40).
= a'F
finite
(41)
If
we wish
at
to
length sup
we must make the moment of bending zero at the supports, and the length of the beam between the supports must therefore be 2ao Substituting a^ for a in the value of P, we find
ported
both
and
loaded
uniformly,
(42).
we
series.
may
be
to
the
on either
side,
and the
forces
in
to
be applied by means
so
of frames
stresses
Diagram Va,
that
the
arising from
part of the
Mr
in
when no force is applied, the beam is a maximum when ?/= '127886, and is then equal to (h + k) 'Sli, or less than a third of the pressure of the beam and its load on a flat horizontal surface when laid upon it so as to produce a uniform vertical pressure ^4^
order
to
fulfil
the
condition that,
unstrained.
The
effect
of these
is
206
(Plates
I.
II.
III.).
a.
and
if
6.
illustrate
must be a
side of two,
Diagram
I a. is a skeleton of
the force along any one piece be given, the force along any other piece
piece
may be
if
it
But the
In
so that
N would
H,
I, J,
and
are each
Diagrams II a. and 116. illustrate the case of a frame consisting of thirtytwo pieces, meeting four and four in sixteen points, and forming sixteen quadrilaterals. Diagram II a. may be considered as a plane projection of a polyhedron of double continuity, which we may describe as a quadrilateral frame consisting
of four quadrilateial rods, of which the ends are bevelled so as to
fit
exactly.
The
projection of this
frame, considered
degrees of
stiffness,
may be
arbitrarily assumed.
lines are
drawn by the method given at p. 168, so that each line figiire. To make the corresponding lines parallel
we have
Diagrams III
Jenkin.
series.
and III
6.
on the upper
series of joints,
and B^
Ji^,
fec.,
gives the stresses due to both sets of loads, the vertical lines of loads being
Diagrams
IV a.
and
IV 6.
illustrate the
application of Airy's
Function to the
construction
of
diagrams of continuous
stress.
IV a.
tension in
represents a cylinder exposed to pressure in a vertical and horizontal direction, and to The lines marked a, b, c, <fec., are lines of pressure, and directions inclined 45* to these.
o,
those
marked
hyperbolas,
the pressure
In this case the lines of pressure and tension are rectangular always equal to the tension, and varies inversely as the square of the
what
is
IV 6.
stress
on any
The represents the reciprocal diagram corresponding to the upper quadiant of the former one. line in the first diagram is represented in magnitude and direction by the corresponding line
and
o, p, q,
ifec.
in the second diagram, the correspondence being ascertained by that of the corresponding systems of lines
o, 6,
c, tfcc.
,
We
a, 6, c,
may
also consider
IV
o,
6.
p, q, the
magnitude of the
r'K
The upper
becomes
quadrant of
strained
IV a.
is
in this case
body
to be ruptured at a reentering angle, for it is plain that at the angle the stress
indefinitely gi'eat.
VOL.
11.
PLATE XIL
(i)
6'^
s5
e.
&
g
&
VOL.
11.
PLATE XIIL
(ii)
ivt.
pq
">
rt
'^
rrt
; I
I
!
44!
I
I
n
an
<s1
VOL,
11.
PLATE
XIV. (m)
pT
AND DIAGRAMS OF
In diagram
FORCES.
207
IV a.
In diagram
IV 6.:
/=
Diagrams
Jp^ cos 5
.^,
9=
p' C08 I
<^,
h = Ip^
beams.
sin <^
V a.
and
V b.
V o.
at
is
the
beam supported
at
and
beam
from
C and
and
is
free
A and
B.
The beam
is
marked
1,
2,
3, 4, 5, 6,
vertical slices
by vertical
lines
marked
kc.
The corresponding
stress across
lines in the
diagram
V
it
b.
are
is
figures
and
letters.
The
any
line joining
is
V a.
V 6., joining
in direction.
These illustrations of the application of the graphic method to cases of continuous stress, are intended rather to show the mathematical meaning of the method, than as practical aids to the engineer.
is really useful, and is less liable to accidental In cases of continuous stress, however, the method of trigonometrical calculation. symbolical method of calculation is still the best, although, as I have endeavoured to show in this paper, analytical methods may be explained, illustrated, and extended by considerations derived from
errors than
Society's Proceedings.
Vol. in.]
XL.
In most
On
the Displacement in
we consider the velocity at any by its magnitude and direction, as a function of the coordinates of the point and of the time. We are supposed to be able to take a momentary glance at the system at any time, and to observe the veloinvestigations
of fluid motion,
cities;
but are not required to be able to keep our eye on a particular molecule
its
during
motion.
all its parts, in which we measure the velocity by the volume which passes through unit of area rather than by the distance travelled by a molecule in unit of time. It is also the only method appUcable to the
case of a fluid, the motions of the individual molecules of which are not expressible
diffiision.
When
tricity,
we
we cannot even
electricity.
what
is
The molecular
any assigned time.
resources
results.
theory, as
it
its
identity,
of each molecule at
As
it
is
can effect
this, I
infinite length and of radius a move with its axis parallel and always passing through the axis of x, with a velocity V, uniform or variable, in the direction of x, through an infinite, homogeneous, incompressible, perfect fluid. Let r be the distance of any point in the fluid from the axis
Let a cylinder of
to
z,
209
it
is
if
x,
is
and
<f>
= ^{^^o), and
rp
= (lyjy,
and
F/
V<f>
will
satisfy
that
of
the
stream function*
its
and,
since
i//
motion.
we
x}/,
consider the
position
t/
z,
r,
and
then
and
will
of a particle as determined by the values of remain constant during the motion, and we have
For
this purpose
we
observe that,
if
we
put
xp
in polar coordinates, it
becomes
'/'
= (l^)^'si sin^,
Expressing cos
in
terms of r and
i/>,
this
becomes
If
we make
/8
y(4cr
^,
= c,
cylinder
is
then
will
be the value of y
when the
axis of the
abreast
of the
particle,
and
and
if
we now use
instead of r a
new angular
2r
its
variable
x ^^^^ *^^*
^
* the
The
velocitypotential
is
rate of variation
is
equal
is
to
velocity of
the
fluid
Whenever
the motion of
the fluid
irro
and
is
unit of
time,
is
equal to the difi*erence of the values of the stream function at the extremities of the cun.e.
VOL.
II.
27
210
terms of
elliptic
functions of the
first
and
where the position of the axis of the position of a molecule with respect to
cylinder
it.
is
expressed
in
terms of the
us take a molecule originally on the axis of y, at a distance rj from the origin, and let the cylinder begin to move from an infinite distance
Now
let
^=
7),
and
2/3
a"
Qi
= c',
infinity in
and when the cylinder has passed from negative infinity to positive the direction of x, then the coordinates of the molecule will be
2a,
rf
7^\
a(lc)
It appears from this expression, that after the passage of the cylinder every
particle
is
is
carried
is
which
at the same distance as at first from the plane of xz, but that it forward in the direction of the motion of the cylinder by a quantity infinite when y = 0, but finite for all other values of y.
The motion
X
at
of a particle at
inclination
any instant
the
line
till
is
double
the
of
drawn
the
of this line is 45", Hence it is in the The forward motion 45 afterwards. again 135", forward and to backward from and it appears time, longer lasts for a motion, but backward the than slower is
forward
direction
inclination
that the
final
displacement of
every particle
is
in
the forward
fluid at
direction.
It
by the
an
infinite
distance
not that of being contained in a fixed vessel; for in that case there would have been, on the whole, a displacement backwards equal to that of the cylinder
forwards.
of an
The problem
actually solved
difiers
infinitely
mass of
fluid
such as to
generate a finite
momentum.
In drawing the accompanying figures, I began by tracing the streamlines by means of the intersections of a system of straight lines equidistant and parallel to the axis, with a system of circles touching the axis at
in Fig. 1, p. 211,
211
Fig.
1.
272
212
the
reciprocals
of the
natural numbers.
The cylinder
apart.
is
x and
is
y,
straight line
for values
of c
corresponding to every
left
The
result
of Fig.
I
2,
p.
213.
then traced the path of a particle in contact with the cylinder from the
equation
tan^^=e
where
cc
"
cCo
+ a cos ^
and y = a9>md.
is
the
3.
The dots
The paths of
particles not in
from Legendre's tables for incomplete functions, which I have not got.
I
ditions
eye so
as
to
fulfil
the
following
con
is
l
^ a'siii'0
r.^
.
which,
y'
when y
is
large
compared
becomes nearly  2y
^
The paths of
nearly
circles.
To draw the paths of intermediate particles, I observed that their two must lie at the same distance from the axis of a; as the asymptote of a certain streamline, and the middle point of the path at a distance equal to that of the same streamline when abreast of the cylinder; and, finally, that the distance between the extremities is the same as that given in Fig. 2.
extremities
paths of different
particles
in
Fig.
3.
then
to
Fig. 2, to
and
213
then
laid
Fig.
on
Fig.
of
2,
intersections of the
streamlines
Fig.
2.
fluid
when a
cylinder
moves through
it
OO'
Fio.
3.
Paths of particles at different distances from the cylinder: radius of yt cylii cylinder, f vt 6 difltances {fi) the jath is a circle of radius ^, and in this circle tan
/3
inch.
At
(jreat
214
at
rest,
straight as
flows
past
line
the
cylinder.
the
crosses
the axis of
therefore
calculated
this
= r + ^log^,
by ^
inch.
differing
The curves thus drawn appear to be without a much greater amount of labour.
If a straight
as
near
the
"
of
cylindrical
ruler
1,
p.
[From the
XLI.
Address
to
the
[Liverpool,
SepUmber
15,
1870.]
At
and
several
of
the
Association the
varied
important
business
of
the
IVIathematical
to
the selection
subject
the
President
Section
at
as
us,
it
were,
very working
of
the
not the
array of symbols and brackets which form the armoury of the mathematician,
or
the
dry
results
his
conquests,
but the
his
human
and
all
faculties directed
by
his professional
ideal
all
the
pursuit,
apprehension,
exhibition
of
that
harmony
pleasure,
which he
feels
to be
the root of
all
and
the
condition of
action.
The mathematician
his
above
all
things,
an
own
but has
:
pointed
the
following
characteristic note
"
Mr
an attempted
faint
Science
the abstract.
What
wanting
(like
216
on three others in contact) to build up the Ideal Pyramid is a discourse on the Relation of the two branches (Mathematics and Physics) to, their action and reaction upon, one another, a magnificent theme, with which it is to be
hoped that some future President of Section A will crown the the Tetralogy (symbolizable by A + A\ A, A\ AA') complete."
edifice
and make
distinctly laid
one,
far
down
too
by our
late President
indeed
I
magnificent
eflforts
of mine to
realize.
Mr
ledge of which
is
still
by
into that the sanctuary of minuteness and of power where molecules obey the laws of their existence, clash together in fierce collision, or grapple in yet more fierce embrace,
penetrating
insight
and
forcible
expression
of
Dr Tyndall
building
up
in
by
Prof.
"Where never creeps a cloud, or moves a wind. Nor ever falls the least white star of snow. Nor ever lowest roll of thunder moans, Nor sound of human sorrow mounts to mar
Their sacred everlasting calm."
But who will lead me into that still more hidden and dimmer region where Thought weds Fact, where the mental operation of the mathematician and the physical action 'of the molecules are seen in their true relation? Does not the
to it pass through the very den of the metaphysician, strewed with the remains of former explorers, and abhorred by every man of science? It would indeed be a foolhardy adventure for me to take up the valuable time of the
way
Section
by leading you
into
those
speculations
which
require,
as
we know,
thousands of years even to shape themselves But we are met as cultivators of mathematics and physics.
intelligibly.
In our daily
work we are led up to questions the same in kind with those of metaphysics; and we approach them, not trusting to the native penetrating power of our own minds, but trained by a long continued adjustment of our modes of thought
to the facts of external nature.
As mathematicians, we perform
number
or of quantity,
symbols of
and,
by proceeding step by step from more simple to we are enabled to express the same thing in many
; ;
217
forms,
forms.
different
though a necessary
selfevident
consequence of selfevident
but
the
not always,
to
our minds,
mathematician,
many
of these forms,
long practice has acquired a familiarity with and "has become expert in the processes which lea^I from
who by
one to another,
explains
its
meaning
more
intelligible language.
As students
is,
of Physics
varied circumstances,
our
minds,
set
the
result
of
is
an
to
is
infinitely
What we
the
ourselves to do
in
phenomenon
its
way which
partial
and imperfect,
out
features
one by one,
and
how
phenomenon
so as to
obtain
may
not be
that which
most fundamental by the experienced man of science for the success of any physical investigation depends on the judicious selection of what is to be observed as of primary importance, combined with a voluntary
is
considered
abstraction
of
the
mind
from
of this
those
features
which,
appear,
we
Intellectual
processes
for
No
and most
forcibly
it,
in
any phenomenon,
which
after
accompanies
it.
and
our
words
It
and
phrases,
and
in
is
opinions.
science
that,
in order
to
understand the nature of things, they must begin by asking, not whether
thing
but of
what kind
first
is
it ?
and
how much
As
there of
it
recognized as
has
been
developed, the
till
the process of
seems to have
become simply the measurement and registration of quantities, combined with It is this scientific a mathematical discussion of the numbers thus obtained.
VOL.
II.
28
218
method of directing our attention to those features of phenomena which maybe regai'ded as quantities which brings physical research under the influence of In the work of the Section we shall have abundant mathematical reasoning.
examples of the successful application of this method to the most recent conquests of science; but I wish at present to direct your attention to some of
the reciprocal effects of the progress of science on those elementary conceptions
which are sometimes thought to be beyond the reach of change. If the skill of the mathematician has enabled the experimentaHst to see
that the quantities which he has measured are connected by necessary relations, discoveries of physics have revealed to the mathematician new forms of
quantities which he could never have imagined for himself.
the
his
labours
most
the
is
at
portant
in
The quantities which we study in mathematics and physics may be classified two different ways. The student who wishes to master any particular science must make himself
with the various kinds of quantities which belong to that science. When all the relations between these quantities, he regards them as
familiar
he understands
forming a connected system, and he classes the whole system of quantities together This classification is the most natural as belonging to that particular science.
it is
generally the
first
in order of time.
he finds that the mathematical processes and trains of reasoning in one science resemble those in another so much that his knowledge of the one science may
be made a most useful help in the study of the other.
sciences
he examines into the reason of this, he finds that in the two which the mathehe has been dealing with systems of quantities, matical forms of the relations of the quantities are the same in both systems,
When
different.
He
is
classification
of quantities on a
new
principle,
according to
which the physical nature of the quantity is subordinated to its This is the point of view which is characteristic of the mathematical form.
mathematician;
because the
but
it
human mind,
to it
by nature.
210
such,
are
fact
that
all
quantities, as
subject
to
the rules
many
minds,
their
only
highest functions,
The human mind is seldom satisfied, and is certainly never exercising its when it is doing the work of a calculating machine. What
the
man
of
is,
science,
whether
he
is
a mathematician or a physical
clear
inquirer,
aims at
to
acquire
is
and develope
willing to
ideas
of
the
things
he deals with.
for
enter on long
calcidations,
and to be
if he can he finds that clear ideas are not to be obtained by means of processes the steps of which he is sure to forget before he has reached the conclusion, it is much better that he should turn to another method, and try
only at last
make
But
if
to
understand
the
subject
is
by means of wellchosen
familiar.
illustrations
derived from
more
We
is
all
found,
Now
in
the
two
sciences,
leaving
out
of
account
for
between
phenomena.
The
of ideas
in
two systems
whether,
in
form, or
same
mathematical
When
convenient for teaching science in a pleasant and easy manner, but the recoga nition of the formal analogy between the two systems of ideas leads to
knowledge
of
both,
by studying each
is
system separately.
There are
before
or
law,
its
however complex,
full
put
them
symbolical
form,
can
grasp
meaning
with
as
a relation
the
this
among
further
abstract
quantities.
Such
men sometimes
actually
exist
treat
in
indifference
fulfil
statement
that
quantities
nature
which
220
relation.
The
the
to
mental
image
of
than to
But
training,
great
retain
in
matician, so that, if
it
of mankind are utterly unable, without long minds the unembodied symbols of the pure mathescience is ever to become popular, and yet remain scientific,
majority
their
principles
of the mathematical
of quantities which,
as
we have
seen, lie
at
There
satisfaction
in
are, as I
have
said,
feel
more enjoyment
in
which they draw on paper, or build up in the empty space before them. Others, again, are not content unless they can project their whole physical energies into the scene which they conjure up. They learn at what a rate the
planets rush
ration.
through space, and they experience a delightful feeling of exhilaThey calculate the forces with which the heavenly bodies pull at one another, and they feel their own muscles straining with the effort. To such men momentum, energy, ma^s are not mere abstract expressions They are words of power, which stir their of the results of scientific inquiry.
souls like the
memories of childhood.
different types, scientific truth should be
scientific,
whether
appears in the robust form and the vivid colouring of a physical illustration,
or in the tenuity
Time
scientific
would
me
if
were to attempt to
illustrate
by examples the
mention the name
I shall only
when
it
shall
understood by
and clothed by them with physical imagery, will become, perhaps under some new name, a most powerful method of communicating truly scientific knowledge to persons apparently devoid of the
of the illustrative type,
men
calculating spirit.
The mutual
thought
is
action
different
departments of
human
so
221
I
further
shall say
few words on a branch of physics which not very long ago would have been I mean the atomic theory, or, as considered rather a branch of metaphysics.
it
now called, the molecular theory of the constitution of bodies. Not many years ago if we had been asked in what regions of physical pointed science the advance of discovery was least apparent, we should have
is
the hopelessly distant fixed stars on the one hand, and to the inscrutable delicacy of the texture of material bodies on the other.
to
Indeed,
scientific
if
we
of
are
his
to
regard
Comte
as
in
own
the research into what takes place beyond our solar system seemed then to be exceedingly unpromising, if not altogether
opinion
time,
illusory.
see
set
in motion or leave at rest, composed of smaller bodies which we cannot see or handle, which are always nor in any in motion, and which can neither be stopped nor broken in pieces, way destroyed or deprived of the least of their properties, was known by the
name
of the
Epicurus,
was associated with the names of Democritus, was commonly supposed to admit the existence to the exclusion of any other basis of things from the
It
In
to
many
as
we
are accustomed
argue
such substances as
air,
water,
or metal,
senses
uniform
and
that
continuous,
were
strictly
continuous.
We
portions,
know
each
we can
is
divide
fully
a pint
water
all
into
many
millions
of
of which
as
it
endowed with
the
properties
of water
was; and
seems only natural to conclude that we might just as we can never come to a limit
it
is
which
contained.
We
divided a gi'ain
of gold
into an inconceivable
number
we may
see
suspicion
is
nitrite
of
butyle
an immense cloud, the minute visible portion of which fore must contain many molecules of nitrite of butyle.
cloud,
and there
But evidence from different and independent sources is now crowding in upon compels us to admit that if we could push the process of subdivision which us
222
still
we should come
indivisible, unalterable
by any
power
in nature.
in
Even
that the
we
find
beginning to lose the properties which it exhibits when in a large mass, and that efiects depending on the individual action of molesubstance
cules are beginning to
become prominent. The study of these phenomena is at present the path which
science.
leads to the
development of molecular
That
of
these
which
is
is
one
phenomena. Another important class of phenomena are those which are due to that motion of agitation by which the molecules of a liquid or gas are continually working their way from one place to another, and continually
changing their course, like people hustled in a crowd.
On
other,
this
depends
to
the
unwearied inquirer
arduous labour.
nature's
secrets,
The
influenced
rate
of
electrolytic
conduction
;
is,
according to
Wiedemann's theorj^
and the conduction of heat in fluids depends by the same cause probably on the same kind of action. In the case of gases, a molecular theory has been developed by Clausius and others, capable of mathematical treatment, and subjected to experimental investigation; and by this theory nearly every
that
the
properties
of
individual gaseous
molecules are
in
fair
way
to
become objects of scientific research. Now Mr Stoney has pointed out""' that the numerical
on
gases
results of experiments
particles
render
it
mean
distance
of their
at
the
and
in
themselves
bubbles,
the
electrification
of
metals
by
contact,
the tension of
soap
and the
friction
of
air,
distance
less
March
31,
1870.
223
These, of course, are exceedingly rough estimates, for they are derived from measurements some of which are still confessedly very rough; but if, at the
present
kind,
time, we can form even a rough plan for arriving at results of this we may hope that, as our means of experimental inquiry become more
accurate and more varied, our conception of a molecule will become more definite, so that we may be able at no distant period to estimate its weight with a
greater degree of precision.
theory,
which Sir
theorems,
W. Thomson
seeks
for
has
founded
of
on Helmholtz's splendid
hydrodynamical
molecules in the nngSuch whirling rings may be seen when an experienced smoker sends out a dexterous puff of smoke into the still air, but a more evanescent phenomenon it is difficult to conceive. This evanescence is owing to the viscosity of the air; but Helmholtz has shewn
the
properties
incompressible
fluid.
that
in a perfect fluid such a whirling ring, if once generated, would go on whirling for ever, would always consist of the very same portion of the fluid which was first set whirling, and could never be cut in two by any natural cause.
is
of course
of
has the properties of individuality, permanence in quantity, and indestructibility. It is also the recipient of impulse and of energy, which is all we can affirm of matter; and these ring vortices
natural
but
once generated,
it
are
capable
of
such varied
connexions
properties
and knotted selfinvolutions, that the must be as different as those of diffeconquering the enormous
in
be found,
to
after
mathematical
properties
difficulties
the subject,
will stand in
represent
of molecules,
a very different
position from
those theories of molecular action which are formed by investing the molecule with an arbitrary system of central forces invented expressly to account for the
observed phenomena.
we have nothing
We
its
the
vortex
once started
arbitrary, no central forces or occult have nothing but matter and motion, and when properties are all determined from the original
Even
of
in
the
of
the theory,
the contemplation
in
the
individuality
and
indestructibility
of
a ringvortex
a perfect fluid
ADDRESS TO THE MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SECTIONS
fail
224
cannot
to
disturb the
molecule, in order
to be permanent,
In
parently,
fact
must be a very hard body. one of the first conditions which a molecule must
its
fulfil
is,
ap
inconsistent with
We
know from
those
spectroscopic researches
of
science,
it
much
light
on difierent branches
in
that
which
light,
medium
and
that
of
definite
wavelength
definite
period
of vibration.
The
fact
that
all
the
we can
experiments,
vibrate
their
when
in
by heat
or
precisely
vibrations
are
is
must leave
brought
attention
it
others
to
of spectroscopic
discoveries
been your
within
to
the range of
fact
human
not
inquiry.
the
that,
vibration,
examination of the light of the sun and stars shews that, in regions we can only feebly imagine, there are molecules vibrating
as
to solar time.
all
Now
this absolute
is
The dimensions
as
in
of individual
planets,
the
case
of
stones,
&c.,
or
Ihnits,
eggs, &c.
tative
are
met
with
which
do
not
interfere
with
the essential
properties
of the body.
crystals,
Even
Avhich
are
so
with
Among
There
the works of
is
man we sometimes
among the
which are cast in the same mould, and the different copies of a book printed from the same type. If we examine the coins, or the weights and measures, of a civilized country, we find a uniformity, which is produced by careful adjustment to
a uniformity
different bullets
225
of these
state.
them.
take a
This
interest;
subject
is
one
in
scientific
body,
warm
and you are all aware of the vast amount of scientific work which has been expended, and profitably expended, in providing weights and measures for commercial and scientific purposes.
The
length,
earth
has
been
measured
as
basis
for
a permanent standard of
and every property of metals has been investigated to guard against any alteration of the material standards when made. To weigh or measure any thing with modern accuracy, requires a course of experiment and calculation
in
which
almost
every
branch
of
physics
and mathematics
its
is
brought into
requisition.
Yet, after
relatively
all,
to our present
necessity.
any physical
means of comparison, very permanent, are not so by The earth might contract by cooling, or it might be
it,
would continue
to be as
much a
planet as before.
But a molecule, say of hydrogen, if either its mass or its time of vibration were to be altered in the least, would no longer be a molecule of hydrogen.
If,
then,
we wish
to
time,
shall
be absolutely permanent,
or the
we must
of
the motion,
vibration,
and
the
mass
these
When we
multitudes of
to the grain,
in
and
and vibrating
a second,
and when we
many, and no more, same time, so many times, and no more, that no power in nature can now alter in
mass,
so
we seem to have advanced along the path of natural knowledge to one of those points at which we must accept the guidance of that faith by which we understand that
the least either the mass or the period of any one of them,
" that
which
of
light
is
made
of things which do
appear."
science
One
is
the
is,
of irreversible
processes
processes,
29
that
which always tend towards and never away from a certain limiting
II.
VOL.
226
state.
Thus, if two gases be put into the same vessel, they become mixed, and the mixture tends continually to become more uniform. If two unequally heated portions of the same gas are put into the vessel, something of the kind takes place, and the whole tends to become of the same temperature. If two unequally heated solid bodies be placed in contact, a continual approxi
mation of both to an intermediate temperature takes place. In the case of the two gases, a separation may be effected by chemical means but in the other two cases the former state of things cannot be restored by
any natural
process.
In the case of the conduction or diffusion of heat the process is not only ineversible, but it involves the irreversible diminution of that part of the whole
stock of thermal energy which
is
Thomson's theory of the irreversible dissipation of energy, and equivalent to the doctrine of Clausius concerning the growth of what he
This
is
calls
Entropy.
The
embodied
in Fourier's
theory of the conduction of heat, where the formulae themselves indicate, for all positive values of the time, a possible solution which continually tends to
the form of a uniform diffusion of heat.
But
the
if
we attempt
diminishing
to
continually
values,
is
we
a
are
led
formula
has
what
called
critical
its symbol up to a state of things in which and if we inquire into the value
;
we
find
We
conceived
the
physical
result
of a previous
of things,
in
that
this
critical
condition
actually
existed
at
an epoch not
depths of a past eternity, but separated from the present time by a finite interval. This idea of a beginning is one which the physical researches of recent
times
scientific
brought home to us, more than any observer of the course of thought in former times would have had reason to expect. But the mind of man is not, like Fourier's heated body, continually settling down into an ultimate state of quiet uniformity, the character of which we
have
it
is
new
among the strange strata of the earth into which they To us who breathe only the spirit of our own age, and know only the
OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION.
characteristics of
227
contemporary thought,
it
it
is
is
which
it will
make.
research
is
Physical
processes,
continually
revealing
to
to
us
for
and
we
are
thus
compelled
search
of
natural
of thought
which the ideas derived from one department of physics may be safely used forming ideas to be employed in a new department.
The
ideas
figure
of speech or of thought
to
by which we
and
be
of a familiar science
we
are
acquainted
may
called Scientific
Metaphor.
Thus the words Velocity, Momentum, Force, &c. have acquired certain precise They are also employed in the Dynamics of a Connected System in a sense which, though perfectly analogous to the elementary sense, is wider and more general.
meanings in Elementary Dynamics.
These
of
generalized
forms
of
elementary ideas
may
is
be called metaphorical
metaphorical.
is
The characits
truly
scientific
all
system
the
of
metaphors
relations
metaphorical
use
it
retains
formal
to the
is
system which
that
is,
had
a
The method
then truly
not
only
legitimate
electrical
by
relations
of
phenomena.
To apply
visional
to these the
is
reservations
a legitimate metaphor
those
Suppose, then,
to
that
we have
an
of phenomena.
question to determine in
what
degree
the
applicability
of
the
old
ideas
to
the
new
subject
may
be
new phenomena
for
The
best
instances
the
determination of
which two different explanations have been given of the same thing.
292
228
case
of this
kind
is
Up
;
to
by both
beyond
them
fails.
To understand the true relation of these theories in that part of the field where they seem equally applicable we must look at them in the light which
Hamilton has thrown upon them by his discovery that to every brachistochrone problem there corresponds a problem of free motion, involving different velocities and times, but resulting in the same geometrical path. Professor Tait has
\\'ritten
According
a theory
of
electricity
which
one
is
in
Germany,
two
electrical
particles
act
on
but with a force which, according to Weber, depends on their relative velocity, and according to a theory hinted at by Gauss, and developed by Riemann,
Lorenz,
and Neumann, acts not instantaneously, but after a time depending The power with which this theory, in the hands of these on the distance. eminent men, explains every kind of electrical phenomena must be studied in
Another theory of
electricity,
order to be appreciated.
which I
prefer,
and attributes
and pressures
an allpervading medium,
these stresses being the same in kind with those familiar to engineers, and the medium being identical with that in which light is supposed to be propagated. Both these theories are found to explain not only the phenomena by the
aid
of which they were originally constructed, but other phenomena, which were not thought of or perhaps not known at the time; and both have independently arrived at the same numerical result, which gives the absolute
velocity of light in terms of electrical quantities.
That
a
field of
theories
apparently
so
is
truth
common
to both
till
fundamentally opposed should have so large a fact the philosophical importance of which
reached a
scientific altitude
we cannot
fully appreciate
we have
from which
the true relation between hypotheses so different can be seen. I shall only make one more remark on the relation between Mathematics and Physics. In themselves, one is an operation of the mind, the other is a
dance of molecules.
select
The molecules have laws of their own, some of which we We to us and most amenable to our calculation. form a theory from these partial data, and we ascribe any deviation of the At the same time we actual phenomena from this theory to disturbing causes.
as
most
intelligible
229
that what
circumstances which
we call disturbing causes are simply those parts of the true we do not know or have neglected, and we endeavour in
of them.
We
turbance
is
no disturbance.
But
the
this
is
way
in
mental
operation
may
be
disturbed.
subject to
many
and
not
disturbing causes,
it
is
such as fatigue,
conclusions;
make
I
ours,
mistakes.
am
each of these errors might be traced to the regular operation of the laws thinking;
in
of
actual
fact
we
ourselves
errors.
often
This,
calculation,
and another process wrong. One of the most profound mathematicians and thinkers of our time, the when reflecting on the precise and almost mathematical late George Boole, character of the laws of right thinking as compared with the exceedingly perplexing though perhaps equally determinate laws of actual and fallible thinking,
was led to another of those points of view from which Science seems to look out into a region beyond her own domain.
"
We
must admit," he
their
says,
exist
laws
"
(of thought)
" which
even
the rigour of
We
must
ascribe
to
them an
in power,
world in no
way
assists us to
comprehend."
XLII.
It
On
long been known that near that point of the retina where it is by the axis of the eye there is a yellowish spot, the existence of which can be shewn not only by the ophthalmoscope, but by its effect on vision. At the Cheltenham Meeting in 1856 the author pointed out a method of seeing this spot by looking at that part of a very narrow spectrum which Since that time the spot has been described by Helmholtz lies near the line F. and others and the author has made a number of experiments, not yet pub
has
intersected
lished, in order to
determine
simplest
its effects
on colourvision.
seeing
methods
It
of
the
Stokes.
chromium made
so
weak that
appears of a bluishgreen
colour.
If
what he sees before him before his eyes have got accustomed to the new tone of he sees a pinkish spot like a wafer on a bluishgreen ground; and this The solution transmits the red spot is always at the place he is looking at.
colour,
also
line F.
The
latter
portion
is
partially
the preponderance.
of which
is
it
is
described in
though
it
up
in
It
of two parts,
side
by
to
side.
In the
first
part,
white light
is
dis
selected
are
by being allowed
pass through
in a screen.
These selected
portions
made
to
231
of
beam
of light,
in
the instrument consists of an arrangement by which a beam of light from the very same source is weakened by two reflections from glass surfaces, and enters
the eye alongside of the
beam
of
compound
colours.
The
length
instrument
is
formed
feet.
of three rectangular
It contains
in
being
about
nine
tubes,
the whole
mirrors,
and
six
spite
which the two portions of a beam of light are subjected, they shall enter the eye so as to form exactly equal and coincident images of the source of light. In fact, by looking through the instrument a man's face may be distinctly seen by means of the red, the green, or the blue light which it emits, or by
any combination of these at pleasure. The arrangement of the three slits is made by means of six brass slides, which can be worked with screws outside the instrument and the breadth of the slits can be read off with a gauge very accurately. In each observation three colours of the spectrum are mixed and so adjusted
;
is
so
it,
that
cases,
when
this
adjustment
is
made
so
as
to
satisfy one person, a second will find the mixed colour of a green hue, while to a third it will appear of a reddish colour, compared with the white beam.
I
found that the mixed colour may be so adjusted it appears red, while if we direct the eye away
it
is
we
look directly at
it,
from
is
and cast a sidelong glance at it, we see it green. The cause of this the yellow spot, w^hich acts somewhat as a piece of yellow glass would do, absorbing certain kinds of light more than others; and the difference between
different
It
is
found in
plexion.
The degree
of
intensity
does
on
tlie
232
colour
of
the
iris
of the
individual,
as
to
independent of outward complexion. The same difference is found between different colourblind persons; so that in the comparison of their vision with that of the normal eye, persons should
be selected for comparison
to '
is
seen decidedly
by the central part of the retina than by the surrounding parts. Near F this is reversed, and the central part gives a sensation of about half the Beyond G the central part is again the most sensitive, intensity of the rest. and
it is
decidedly so near
I
H.
to
direct
Before
conclude I wish
to
who wish
to
study
colour
the
exceedingly
in his
simple
and
beautiful
series
of
experiments
described by
at
Mr W. Benson
of
works on
colour.
By
true
colour
for
December, 1870.]
XLIII.
On
Hills
and
Dales.
To
Gentlemen,
I
FIND
that
in
the
greater
part
of
the substance of
the following
paper I have been anticipated by Professor Cayley, in a memoir " On Contour and Slope Lines," published in the Philosophical Magazine in 1859 (S. 4. Vol.
xvin.
p.
264).
is
An
first
however,
so
important,
hesitation
if
and
in
loose
notions on the
prevalent,
that I have
scruple
in
no
sending
it
rejecting
you think
what you, I hope, will have no superfluous after what has been done by
you
am. Gentlemen,
Professor Cayley.
I
CLERK MAXWELL.
Glenlair, Dalbeattie,
Octoher 12, 1870.
1.
On
The
results
exhibited by means of a
map on which
of a level
of
the
earth,
and
being
it
distinguished
by
numeral
which
the
level
surface
to
which
belongs.
When
VOL.
II.
is
234
with
sea;
sufficient
HILLS
AND DALES.
feet
the force of but when the survey is of the new definition a must adopt we account, into taken gravity must be If we could deterheight of a place in order to be mathematically accurate.
so extensive that the variation of
mine
its
position
the exact form of the surface of equilibrium of the sea, so as to know in the interior of a continent, we might draw a normal to this
surface from
call
this
This
is
would
be
perfectly
definite
in
the case
of
when the
height
of
equilibrium
everywhere
convex;
but
the
lines
equal
would
not
be
level
surfaces.
Level surfaces are surfaces of equilibrium, and they are not equidistant. The only thing which is constant is the amount of work required to rise from Hence the only consistent definition of a level surface is one to another. obtained by assuming a standard station, say, at the mean level of the sea at a particular place, and defining every other level surface by the work
required to raise unit of mass from the standard station to that level surface. This work must, of course, be expressed in absolute measure, not in local foot
pounds.
At every
places,
step,
therefore,
in
ascertaining
the
of
difference
the
surveyor
should
ascertain
the
force
gravity,
by the numerical value of the force of gi'avity. The height of a place, according to this system, will be defined by a number which represents, not a lineal quantity, but the half square of the velocity which an unresisted body would acquire in sliding along any path from
that place to the standard station.
consistent with
This is the only definition of the height that places of equal height should be condition the of a place If by any means we can ascertain the mean value of on the same level. gravity along the line of force drawn from the place to the standard level surface, then, if we divide the number already found by this mean value, we
shall
of this line
of
force,
On
Let
earth,
the
Forms of
Contourlines.
us
begin
and
let
with a level surface entirely wdthin the solid part of the us suppose it to ascend till it reaches the bottom of the deepest
HILLS
AND DALES.
if it
235
continues
sea.
At
that
point
it
will
to
it
ascend,
is
a contourline will be formed surrounding this bottom (or Immit, as As the called by Professor Cayley) and enclosing a region of depression.
continues to ascend,
it ascends it will
level
surface
it
will reach
form another contourline, surrounding this point, sea; and as and enclosing another region of depression below the level surface. As the level surface rises these regions of depression will continually expand, and new ones
will
be
formed
corresponding
to
the
different
lowest
points
of
the
earth's
surface.
but one region of depression, the whole of the rest of The number the earth's surface forming a region of elevation surrounding it. of regions of elevation and depression can be altered in two ways.
At
fiist
there
is
1st.
Two
regions
of depression
may expand
till
If a contourline be drawn through the point where they meet, it into one. This contourline forms a closed curve having a double point at this place. shall call the point where these two encloses two regions of depression.
We
may happen
singular,
and we
shall
reserve
them
region of depression
may
may meet
each
a region of elevation in the midst of the region of depression, which thus becomes a cyclic region, while a new region of elevation The contourline through the point of meeting cuts off two introduced. is
other
and
thus
cut
off
itself
is
called
a Pass.
There
may
two regions
of elevation.
3rdly.
last are
As the
level
surface
rises,
reduced to points.
and
Passes.
At
of
first
is
a region of elevation.
for
elevation
a Pass,
and
every
region
of elevation
point
there
Summit.
And
at
last
302
236
region
HILLS
of depression.
Passes.
AND DALES.
number of
If
Hence the number of Summits is one more than the is the number of Summits and P the number of passes,
S = P + l.
Relation between the
Number
of BottoTus
there
is
is
and Bars.
a Bottom,
For
of
every
new
region
of
depression
a Bar.
If
Bottoms is one more than the number of Bars. Bottoms or Immits and B the number of Bars, then
1 = B+1.
From
reckon
a
this
it
is
plain that
if,
and
bars,
we
pass
as
single,
double,
or
wple,
or
n+l
regions of elevation
as
meet at that
point,
and a bar as
double, or nple,
point,
two,
three,
or
n+l
regions
of depression
meet at that
its
then the
census
If
may
proper number.
one
region
depression
The whole
of
of this of
function
two
which
is
everywhere
finite,
and
The summits correspond to maxima and the bottoms to minima. If there are p maxima and q minima, there must be p + q 2 cases of stationary If we regard those points in values which are neither maxima nor minima. but if we consider themselves, we cannot make any distinction among them
continuous.
;
we may
p1
of
them
false
maxima and ^
of
them
false
minima.
On
If
we suppose
and the regions where the function called the positive and the negative
for
every
negative
positive
dif
periphraxy.
will
HILLS
AND
DALES.
237
if
\sill
have a diminution of
\)e
its
peripLraxy.
Hence
there are
true
minima
there will
q\
false
minima.
There are different orders of these stationary points according to the number
of regions
which meet
In
tliem.
The
first
order
is
meet
the
surrounded
by a positive
on.
region,
regions meet,
third
for
and so
three,
and
in
this
relation
at
last
In like manner, when a negative region expands round a hollow part and surrounds it, thus cutting off a new positive region, the negative region
acquires perlphraxy, a
there
is
a false
new maximum.
positive region
is
When
region
loses
any
positive region
is
a true
maximum.
stationary
Hence
points
if
there are
maxima there are p \ false maxima. But these are not the only forma
region
of
for
a negative
may
may meet
in a stationary point.
The negative
and the positive region both become cyclic. Again, a cyclic region may close in so as to become acyclic, forming another kind of stationary point where the If there are r points at which cyclosis is gained and r ring first fills up.
points at which
it
is
lost,
but we cannot determine any relation between the number of these points and that of either the true or the false maxima and minima.
If the
function
of stable
of three variables
is
maxima
is
are
in in
points
every direction,
On
Line's
of
Slojoe.
and
downward
At every point of such a line there is an upward If we follow the upward direction we shall in a summit, and if we follow the downward direction we shall in In particular cases, however, we may reach a pass or a bottom.
of slope.
direction.
a bar.
238
HILLS
AND
DALES.
On
Hills
and Dales.
at
Hence each point of the earth's surface has a line of slope, which begins Districts whose lines of and ends in a certain bottom. Those whose lines slope run to the same bottom are called Basins or Dales. of slope come from the same summit may be called, for want of a better name,
a certain summit
HiUs.
also,
to
Hence the whole earth may be naturally divided into Basins or Dales, and by an independent division, into hills, each point of the surface belonging a certain dale and also to a certain hill.
On Watersheds and
Watercourses.
Dales are divided from each other by Watersheds, and Hills by Watercourses.
To draw these
so that
lines,
we cannot
curve
but
and lowest points, the and each one more than the index number of the pass or bar. From each maximum point draw a line of slope upwards till it reaches a summit. This will be a line of WaterFrom each minimum point draw a line of slope downwards till it reaches shed. Lines of Watershed are the This will be a line of Watercourse. a bottom. only lines of slope which do not reach a bottom, and lines of Watercourse All other lines of are the only lines of slope which do not reach a summit. slope diverge from some summit and converge to some bottom, remaining throughout their course in the district belonging to that summit and that
closed
round
point,
it
will
have
highest
bottom, which
is
no method of determining a
first
line
watershed
or
line
of
watercourse,
except by
finding a pass
or
a bar and
drawing the
of slope
of
slope,
down the
increase
in
lines
watercourses,
though
quantity,
and these
so
actually
and
cut
out
which,
whether
full
or
empty, forms a
visible
mark on the
HILLS
earth's
surface.
AND
DALES.
place
at
239
a watershed,
No
such
action
takes
which therefore
There is another difficulty in the application of the mathematical theory, on account of the principal regions of depression being covered with water, so that very little is known about the positions of the singular points from which
the lines of watershed must be drawn to the summits of
hills
complete
divi'^'on
of
the
districts,
therefore,
lakes.
some
and of
On
Let
pi
Z>2,
the
Number of Natural
Distiicts.
Let
Z>
&c.
be the number of single passes, jh that of double passes, and so on. Then the number be the numbers of single, double, &c. bars.
will be
The number
of watersheds will be
W= 2
The number
{h, \2\)
+3
{k +}),)
+ &c.
Now,
to find the
number
of faces,
we have by
Listing's rule
where
P
72
is
the number of
points,
that of
lines,
that
of
faces,
and
that of regions,
instance
;
of cyclosis
or
periphraxy.
Here
= 2,
viz.
hence
F=LP+2.
If
we put L
equal to the
number
of watersheds,
and
equal to that of
is
F
F
is
evidently
number
of bottoms.
we put L
bars,
for
the number of
is
watercourses,
and
for
the number of
is
which
evidently
equal to the
number
of summits.
240
If
HILLS
AND DALES.
number
of
we put
number
or
L
of
hill
whole
sheds
we
to
find
named from a
and a dale
or
2.
watercourses,
lines, and P equal to the number of natural districts together, is equal to W, the number of waterthe whole number of summits, bottoms, passes,
that F,
the
/,,
/S',,
7^,
/j,
/,.
S^,
S^, S^.
7,
aS',
B^
7j,
he.
(fee.
Pj S^
Dotted
line.
XLIV.
The
by
phases
ita
evolution,
which,
of
maintaining
it
the
strictest
itself
continuity
history,
adapts has
with more or
instituted
promptness to the
of
requirements
Physics.
of
the
times,
lately
it
course
Experimental
all
This course of
study, while
analysis
requires
us to maintain in action
those powers
of attention and
calls
the University,
in manipulation.
The familiar apparatus of pen, ink, and paper will no longer be sufficient for us, and we shall require more room than that afforded by a seat at a desk, and a wider area than that of the black board. We owe it to the
munificence
of the
for
of our
experiments w^hich
full
we hope
will
hereafter to conduct,
the material
facilities
their
development
feature,
surpassed.
The main
Devonshire
occasion,
therefore,
is
the
desirable
before
we
we should
con
by what means we, the University of Cambridge, may, as a living body, appropriate and vitalise this new organ, the outward shell of which we expect soon to rise before us. The course of study at this University has always included Natural Philosophy, as well as Pure Mathematics. To diffuse a sound knowledge of Physics, and to imbue the minds of our students with correct
sider
dynamical principles, have been long regarded as among our highest functions,
in the
even such philosophers as the great Descartes were involved in the days before Newton had announced the true laws of the motion of bodies. Indeed the
cultivation
and diffusion of sound dynamical ideas has already effected a great change in the language and thoughts even of those who make no pretensions
VOL.
II.
31
242
to
science,
fresh
proofs
scientific
doctrines
society as the
material applications
outward
life.
Such indeed
recals
is
may
become current, provided they are expressed in language, the sound of which some wellknown scientific phrase. If society is thus prepared to receive all kinds of scientific doctrines, it is our part to provide for the diffusion and
cultivation,
criticism,
not
only
of
true
scientific
principles,
but
of
a spirit of sound
statements
founded
scientific
on
an
be
the
examination
of
the
evidences
on which
apparently
depend.
able
to
"When
trained
we
shall
employ
in
scientific
education,
attention
of
student,
and
his
familiarity
with symbols,
but the
keenness of his eye, the quickness of his ear, the delicacy of his touch, and the adroitness of his fingers, we shall not only extend our influence over a
class
all
of
men who
are
not fond of
cold abstractions,
but,
by opening
at
once
we
of the doctrines
our conscious thoughts, and which lend a vividness and relief to ideas, which, when presented as mere abstract terms, are apt to fade entirely from
of
all
the memory.
In a course of Experimental
or the
Physics
feature.
ments
the
phenomena of
we may consider either the Physics We may either employ the experia particular branch of Physics, or we
a course of lectures on
tration,
we should begin, in the Lecture Room, with some branch of Physics aided by experiments of illus
and conclude, in the Laboratory, with a course of experiments of research. me say a few words on these two classes of experiments, Experiments The aim of an experiment of of Illustration and Experiments of Research. illustration is to throw light upon some scientific idea so that the student may
Let
The circumstances of the experiment are so arranged it. we wish to observe or to exhibit is brought into which phenomenon that the prominence, instead of being obscured and entangled among other phenomena, as To exhibit illustrative it is when it occurs in the ordinary course of nature. experiments, to encourage others to make them, and to cultivate in every
be
enabled to grasp
way the
throw
light,
243
The simpler the materials of an illustrative experiment, and the more familiar they are to the student, the more thoroughly is he likely to acquire the idea which it is meant to illustrate. The educational value of such experiments is
often
inversely proportional
to
the
complexity
is
of
the apparatus.
The
student
who
uses
than one who has the use of carefully adjusted instruments, to which he
to trust,
It
flicts
apt
pieces.
is
very necessary that those who are trying to learn from books the
should be enabled by the help of a few illustrative
of
experiments to recognise these facts when they meet with them out of doors.
Science
appears
is
to
us
aspect after
that
it
not in lecture rooms only, and by means of the electric light pro
we may
of the
travelling
games and gymnastics, storms of the air and of the sea, and
wherever there
matter in motion.
This habit of recognising principles amid the endless variety of their action can never degrade our sense of the sublimity of nature, or mar our enjoyment On the contrary, it tends to rescue our scientific ideas from of its beauty.
that
vague
condition
in
which
we
too
often
leave them,
buried
among the
all
them
into their
proper position
among the
is
so assured, that
we
are
ready at
Experiments of
illustration
may be
of very
difierent
life,
kinds.
Some may be
be carefully
adaptations of the commonest operations of ordinary arranged exhibitions of some phenomenon which
conditions.
others
may
occurs
They
to
all,
however, agree in
this,
to present
some
the
phenomenon
with
it
way
that he
may
associate
idea,
the
appropriate
idea.
When
its
has served
purpose.
In an experiment of research, on the other hand, this is not the principal aim. It is true that an experiment, in which the principal aim is to see what happens under certain conditions, may be regarded as an experiment of research
by
those
who
are
not
yet
familiar
with
the
is
result,
but
in
experimental
researches,
strictly so
called, the
ultimate object
we have
already seen
to
312
244
which measurement of some kind is In every experiment involved, are the proper work of a Physical Laboratory. but we must phenomenon, the with famihar senses we have first to make our of measurecapable are features its of which out find must we not stop here,
in
those
ment,
and
what
of
measurements
phenomenon.
result
are
required
in
order
to
make a complete
specification
the
We
which we require to find. This characteristic of modem experimentsthat they consist principally of measurements, is so prominent, that the opinion seems to have got abroad, approxithat in a few years all the great physical constants will have been men mately estimated, and that the only occupation which will then be left to
place of decimals. of science will be to carry on these measurements to another approaching, our are we which to things If this is really the state of labour conscientious of place a as celebrated become perhaps Laboratory may
and consummate
skill,
but
it
will
rather to be classed with the other great workshops of our country, where equal
ability is directed to
But we have no
or
of
the
untried
of
those
fi:esh
continue to be poured.
It
may
possibly be
minds into which these riches will true that, in some of those fields
of discovery which He open to such rough observations as can be made without artificial methods, the great explorers of former times have appropriated most
of
what
is
valuable,
and that
after,
than
the
their
intrinsic
worth.
But the
history
of
science
shews
to
that even
during
devotes
herself
improving
the
numerical measurement of
is
which would have remained unknown if she had been contented with the rough methods of her early pioneers. I might bring forward instances gathered from every branch of science, shewing how the labour of careful measurement has been rewarded by the discovery of new
the
subjugation
of
new
regions,
fields
of
research,
and
scientific
ideas.
But the
history of
the science of terrestrial magnetism affords us a sufficient example of what may be done by Experiments in Concert, such as we hope some day
to perform in our Laboratory.
That
celebrated
traveller,
Humboldt,
245
all
made by the
his
observers of
nations,
to
it
mainly
to
his
enthusiasm
for
science,
spread influence,
that not
only private
most
take
of
the
civilised
nations,
our
men of science, but the governments own among the number, were induced
actual
of to
part in
the enterprise.
But the
we owe
the
magnetic
observatory
of
Gottingen,
and
aided
by
the
skill
of
the
instrumentmaker Leyser.
of scientific
men
ments and the new methods of reducing the observations; and in every of Europe you might see them, at certain stated times, sitting, each in
wooden shed, with his eye clock, and his pencil recording
cold
Bacon's
conception
of
of
" Experiments
in
concert
"
was thus
realised,
the
scattered forces
into
and jealousy became out of place, for the results obtained by any one observer were of no value till they were combined with those of the others. The increase in the accuracy and completeness of magnetic observ^ations which was obtained by the new method, opened up fields of research which
were
hardly suspected
to
exist
which
Others
the
magnetism
are
of
our
planet
found to be subject.
Some
of
these
disturbances
are
periodic,
of the sun
and moon.
last
sudden,
and
of
atmosphere,
they
have
their
known
frequency.
The
and
the
most
the
mysterious
these
magnetic
changes
by
which
their
earth, as
a great magnet,
being
slowly
modified,
while
magnetic
poles
creep
on,
We
influences
have
of
thus
learned
that
the interior of
is
the
a constantly
246
progressive
entirely
unknown.
is
In each
at work,
by means
the earth
preted,
magnet
directs
sheet of paper
is
clockwork.
in
On
and its flutterings, as well as of that slow but mighty working which warns us that we must not suppose that the inner
a record of
pulsations history of our planet
is
ended.
research
But
lasting or
this
great
experimental
on
Terrestrial
I
Magnetism produced
effects
two
instances.
forces
by Weber to the numerical determination of all the phenomena of electricity, and very soon afterw^ards the electric telegraph, by conferring a commercial value on exact numerical measurements, contributed largely to the advancement,
as well as to the diffusion of scientific knowledge.
But
influence
it
is
is
modern branches of
to
science
felt.
to
Gauss,
observers
in
general, that
we owe our
Gauss who
method
of
among
men
of
science.
It
w^as
first
magnetic
force
(and therefore of
principles, w^hich, though they are embodied in every dynamical equation, have been so generally set aside, that these very equations, though correctly given
in our
in addition
to
standard of
mass.
Such, then, were some of the scientific results which followed in this case
to direct
desire, for
and
our
If
therefore
we
it
that
the
Devonshire
in
Laboratory should
be successful,
the
we must endeavour
in
to
maintain
body.
living union
We
shall
therefore
consider
relation
which we stand to
us,
among
which deal
difler
mode
in
247
into
no
more
powerful
it
method
in
for
introducing
different
knowledge
as
the
as
many
ways
we
can.
When
entering through different gateways, effect a junction in the mind, the position they occupy becomes impregnable. Opticians obtain tell us that the mental combination of the views of an object which we in produce sufficient to is from stations no further apart than our two eyes
ideas,
after
citadel
of the
and we find that our minds an impression of the solidity of the object seen are really looking we that aware are we when even produced is impression this
;
at
two
flat
It
is
the knowledge of physical science obtained by the combined use of mathematical analysis and experimental research will be of a more solid, available, and enduring
kind than that possessed by the mere mathematician or the mere experimenter. But \vhat will be the effect on the University, if men pursuing that course
of readino
work
experiments?
which has produced so many distinguished Wranglers, turn aside to Will not their attendance at the Laboratory count not
merely as time withdrawn from their more legitimate studies, but as the introduction of a disturbing element, tainting their mathematical conceptions with
material
imagery,
faith
in
the formulae of
the textbooks'?
Besides this,
studies,
we have already heard complaints of the undue extension of our of the strain put upon our questionists by the weight of learning
them
into
the
SenateHouse.
If
we now ask
same
them
time
up
by books and
will
The
are
Laboratory,
we
are
going out in Natural Science, attempt to combine both kinds of study during the time of residence at the University is more than one mind can bear. No doubt there is some reason for this feeling. Many of us have already
may perhaps be useful to those who and who do not take in Mathematics, but to
told,
overcome the
initial
difficulties of
feel
mathematical training.
requires exertion
When we now
fatigue,
go on
that
it
and involves
but we
of
Some
routine of
focus
of us,
we only work hard our progress will be certain. the other hand, may have had some experience experimental work. As soon as we can read scales, observe
on
the
times,
telescopes,
effort.
and
so
on,
this
kind
of
work
ceases
to
require
mental
We
may
perhaps
tire
any great we do
248
It
is
we attempt
"mental
objects
we begin
us,
to
experience the
full
effect
of
what
have
This
Faraday has
called
inertia"
not
the
only
the
difficulty
of
recognising,
among the
the symbols
concrete
before
abstract
relation
which
we
the
objects,
however
the
is
the price
we have
to
is not a mere piece of knowledge that we have obtained: we have acquired the rudiment of a permanent mental endowment. When, by a repetition of efforts of this kind, we have
But when we have overcome these difficulties, and gulph between the abstract and the concrete, it
more
fully developed the scientific faculty, the exercise of this faculty in detecting
scientific
principles
irksome, but
often,
in nature, and in directing practice by theory, is no longer becomes an unfailing source of enjoyment, to which we return so
last
that
at
even our
careless
thoughts
begin to
run
in
scientific
know
that
many
zealous
students
good
is
for
them.
But the
question
quantity.
experimental study
Some
distributions of energy,
we know,
of
study,
are
others, because
they are
more available
Now
from
efforts
in
the
case
not
efforts
subject,
;
but
which
attention
are
spent
and these
would be much
the
disturbing force of
the
reason
why
man whose
is
soul
is
in
his
mind from
for
There
their
is
may
sake.
own
chief use
of mathematics
Now
man who
studies
a piece of
mathematics
order
to
understand
some
natural
249
or to
is
calculate
likely to
to
make,
meet with far less distraction of mind tlian if his sole his mind for the successful practice of the Law, or to
have known men, who when they were at school, never could see the
but
good of mathematics,
life
made
considerable progress
If our experimental
it
course should
help
will relieve us of
much
it
anxiety,
it
will
make
much
to
University
may
some
give to science,
when men
to carry out
At
this the
first
it
is
probable
illustration
we go on we must add
to
study of
by
its
We
objects
might even imagine a course of experimental study the arrangement of classification of methods, and not on that of the
me
better
and while we take every opportunity of studying methods, we shall take care not to dissociate the method from the scientific research to which it is applied, and to which it owes its value.
than
either,
We
principal natural
will
phenomena, such as heat, electricity, magnetism and so on. In the laboratory, on the other hand, the place of the difierent instruments be determined by a classification according to methods, such as weighing
optical
and
electrical
methods of observa
and so on. The determination of the experiments to be performed at a particular time must often depend upon the means we have at command, and in the case of the more elaborate experiments, this may imply a long time of preparation, during
VOL. n.
32
250
fitted
for
their
work.
When we
for
have
thus brought
together
it
the
both
material
desirable
and
that
intellectual,
a particular experiment,
may
sometimes
be
before
the
instruments are
observers dispersed,
method, nomena.
phe
Our
selves
principal
all
with
work, however, in the Laboratory must be to acquaint ourkinds of scientific methods, to compare them, and to estimate
I
their value.
likely
It vnll,
think, be
and more
free
to
by the
and
full
of the relative
value
of different
scientific
procedures,
we
ment of the doctrine of method. But admitting that a practical acquaintance with the methods of Physical Science is an essential part of a mathematical and scientific education, we may
be asked whether
we
there
much importance
to science
alto
be a place of
for
education,
or
should devote
itself
to
preparing
I hope,
lives,
it
young men
see
reason
to
Hence though some of us may, make the pursuit of science the main business of our
particular
professions.
must be one of our most constant aims to maintain a living connexion between our work and the other liberal studies of Cambridge, whether literary, philological,
historical or philosophical.
There
science,
is
a narrow professional
as
it
spirit
just
does
any other
special
business.
But surely a University is the very come this tendency of men to become, which are all the more worldly for
vantage of having
their
very smallness.
We
lose
the ad
men
we do not
different
himself to geometry,
application,
misanthrope,
human
interests,
and betaken
251
action that himself to abstractions so far removed from the world of life and the claims to and pleasure of attractions the to alike he has become insensible
of duty.
men
of science
are
not looked
awe
or with the
material spirit
supposed to be in league with the among of the age, and to form a kind of advanced Radical party
same
suspicion.
They
are
men
the
of learning.
We
are not
proper
study
admit that here to defend literary and historical studies. But is the student of science to be of mankind is man.
off
We
feeling,
so long
men who
have impressed themthe discovery of truth, and the results of whose enquiries who never heard men of thinking of way selves on the ordinary speech and from his conomit to man of and history of student names? Or is the
their sideration
which have the history of the origin and diffusion of those ideas between one age of the world and another? from the science of true that the history of science is very different working of those the study We are not studying or attempting to
which,
blind
forces
we
are told,
are
operating on
men
to bring events
order laid
down by
philosophers.
in
of a crowd, to be reasoned
upon only
in masses.
We
more
of
free
them as men like ourselves, and their actions and thoughts, being from the influence of passion, and recorded more accurately than those
men, are aU the better materials
nature.
for
of other
human
But the
history
It
of science
is
ful investigations.
has to
tell
explain
why
failed
of
others
has
only
which they
of
or
abnormal, of ideas
is
subjects that
in
interest.
stage, But when the action of the mind passes out of the intellectual violently emotional truth and error are the alternatives, into the more
in
which
states of
322
252
anger and passion, malice and envy, fiiry and madness; the student of science, though he is obliged to recognise the powerful influence which these wild forces have exercised on mankind, is perhaps in some measure disqualified from pursuing
the study of this part of
human
nature.
such studies.
sympathy with these lower phases of our nature without losing some of that antipathy to them which is our surest safeguard against a reversion to a meaner type, and we gladly return to the company of those illustrious men who by aspiring to noble ends, whether intellectual or practical, have risen above the region of storms into a clearer atmosphere, where there is no misrepresentation of opinion, nor ambiguity of expressiwi, but where
cannot enter into
We
one mind
comes into
closest
contact
with
another
at
science, rather
We
to
shall begin
Calorimetry,
or the
with Thermometry, or the registration of temperatures, and measurement of quantities of heat. We shall then go on
perties of bodies
Thermodynamics, which investigates the relations between the thermal proand their other dynamical properties, in so far as these relations
be traced without any assumption as to the particular constitution of these
may
bodies.
The
have
principles
of
is
light
on
all
the phenomena
of nature,
and
it
probable that
;
many
but we shall have to point out the limits of this to be made and to shew that many problems in nature, especially those in which the Dissipation of Energy comes into play, are not capable of solution by the principles of Thermodynamics alone, but that in order to understand them, we
yet
science,
are obliged to form some more definite theory of the constitution of bodies.
Two
theories
one
is
the
theory of a
The theory
of
the
plenum
its
associated
with
the
doctrine
of
of
mathe
matical continuity,
and
the Difierential
253
of
which
is
the
appropriate
expression
of
the
relations
continuous
quantity.
The theory of atoms and void leads us to attach more importance to the numbers and definite proportions but, in applying dynamical principles to the motion of immense numbers of atoms, the limitation of our
doctrines of integral
;
faculties forces us
to
which
may
is
call
knowledge
involves an
abandonment of
strict
mathematical
methods belonging
to
probable
that important results will be obtained by the application of this method, which
known and is not familiar to our minds. If the actual history had been different, and if the scientific doctrines most familiar to us had been those which must be expressed in this way, it is possible that we might have considered the existence of a certain kind of contingency a selfevident truth, and treated the doctrine of philosophical necessity as a mere
is
as
yet
little
of
Science
sophism.
About the beginning of this century, the properties of bodies were investiby several distinguished French mathematicians on the hypothesis that they are systems of molecules in equilibrium. The somewhat unsatisfactory nature
gated
of
the
results
in
of
these
investigations
produced,
especially
in
this
if
country,
reaction
favour of
they were,
This method,
does not at
of bodies.
result
of the
that
it
furnishes us with
by which we can ascertain, by experiments on a real body, to what degree of tenuity it must be reduced before it begins to give evidence that its properties are no longer the same as those of the body in mass. Investigations of this kind, combined with a study of various phenomena of diffusion and of
dissipation
of energy, have
254
I
the
evidence
the
existence
of
molecules,
as
considered
it
is
as
individual bodies
having
definite
is
properties.
The molecule,
imagination,
has hitherto
made us
first
In
the
place
mass,
and
the
other
constants
which define
its
properties,
are
absolutely
invariable;
may form
a constituent.
it
is
its
are
innumerable other molecules, whose constants are not approximately, but absolutely
identical
with those
of
the
first
molecule,
stars.
and
this
By what
to
attempt
account
of
for
each
others
them unchangeable in magnitude, and some of them separated from by distances which Astronomy attempts in vain to measure, I cannot conjecture. My mind is limited in its power of speculation, and I am forced
to believe
that
these
molecules
also
conclude
that since
varied action on
ages,
different individual
the slightest difference between the properties of one molecule and those
history of
of another, the
whose combinations
we cannot
we
our
true
then
that
scientific
speculations
have
really
penetrated
to gene
and corruption, and reached the entrance of that world of order and perfection, which continues this day as it was created, perfect in number and
measure and weight
"?
We
may
be mistaken.
No
by some
new theory
of the
constitution
of
existence of
unnumbered individual things, all alike and enter the human mind and remain without
unchangeable,
is
fruit.
255
But what if these molecules, indestructible as they are, turn out to be not substances themselves, but mere affections of some other substance ? According to Sir W. Thomson's theory of Vortex Atoms, the substance of
which the molecule consists
are those of a
perfect
is
fluid,
a uniformly dense plenum, the properties of which the molecule itself being nothing but a certain
fluid,
motion
and
this
motion
is
shewn, by a
a
portion
of
as
we
believe
If a theory
of this kind
is
true, or
even
if
it
is
conceivable,
our idea of
matter may have been introduced into our minds through our experience of those systems of vortices which we call bodies, but which are not substances, but motions of a substance; and yet the idea which we have thus axxjuired of
matter,
as
a substance possessing
inertia,
may
our
motion
of
some
of
its
parts,
experience
us
no
evidence
whatever.
It
is
The
existence, however, does not appear to be in danger of coming to an end our time, and the exercise of speculation continues as fascinating to every fresh
mind
as
it
was
in the
days of Thales.
the
Cambridge Philosophical
Society^ Vol.
ii.]
XLV.
On
Problems hy
the Transformation
of Conjugate Functions'^.
The general problem in electricity is to determine a function which shall have given values at the various surfaces which bound a region of space, and which shall satisfy Laplace's partial differential equation at every point within
this
region.
is
The
solution
of this problem,
when the
conditions are
arbitrarily
beyond the power of any known method, but it is easy to find any number of functions which satisfy Laplace's equation, and from any one of these we may find the form of a system of conductors for which the function is a
given,
for transforming
involving only
may
The
of x and y
may be
may
dx
If a denotes the
dy
'
dy
dx~
/8 is
'
"potential function,"
the
" function
of induction."
As examples
of
screen,
were
illustrated
by drawings
of
full
be found in
the
chapter on Conjugate
Functions
on Electricity and
Magnetism.]
the
London Mathematical
XLVL
The
first
On
the
to depend.
is
the
discovery
of
After
this,
may
is
be treated as a matheefiected
and the
the
verification
of
the
laws
by a
theoretical
investigation
of
conditions
under
which
certain
quantities
can be most
accurately measured,
science
in
we have
classifi
large a
number of
them
very
is
desirable.
classification
One
sciences in
obvious
of quantities
is
founded
on
that
of the
Thus temperature,
latent heat,
bodies.
are
quantities
But the
or
classification
which
now
refer to
is
formal analogy of the diiferent quantities, and not on the matter to which
they belong.
are
quantities,
Thus a
differing
finite
straight
line,
a force, a
&c.,
in
their
physical nature,
but
matical form.
We
may
distinguish
the
first
A
both
of quantities
is
of great use
to
The
most
VOL.
that
in
quantities
new
science
stand to
which we learn that a certain system of one another in the same mathematical
33
258
relations
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
as a certain
certain
was enabled to make use of the mathematical investigation of Poisson relative to magnetic induction, merely translating it from the magnetic language into the electric, and from French into Italian. Another example, by no means so obvious, is that which was originally pointed out by Sir William Thomson, of the analogy between problems in
attractions
and problems
of heat,
we
are able to
make
use of
many
all
electrical distributions,
and of
problems in heat.
But
it
is
evident that
;
all
and
we had a
we should be
able
at once to
any
system of quantities presented to us and other systems of quantities in known sciences, so that we should lose no time in availing ourselves of the mathematical labours of those
All quantities
who had
factoi's,
may
of
that they
may be
defined
by means
is
two
of which
the second
a standard quantity of the same kind with that to be defined. said to rule the whole world of quantity, and the
arithmetic
of
may
be regarded as the
complete equipment
of the
mathematician.
Position
possession
and
foim,
of
which were formerly supposed to be in the exclusive Descartes to submit to the rules of
scaffolding
arithmetic by
of coordinate axes
which he
have been
made the
quantities
symbols
which
as
denote
and presented to the mind by means of numbers, or numbers, so that as soon as any science has been
supposed
(at
a mental process,
is
least
to
be
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
I
259
is
physical
much
At
the same time, I think that the progress of science, both in the
way
of
discovery,
and
in the
were paid
in a direct
way way
of diflfusion,
if
more attention
most important distinction was drawn by Hamilton when he divided the quantities with which he had to do into Scalar quantities, which are completely
represented by one numerical quantity, and Vectors, which require three numerical
quantities to define them.
calculus of Quaternions
is
space
triple
its
impor
coordinates
calculus,
distinguished from
all
parts of science.
We
invention
may
of
imagine
As our
for
conceptions
are
Hamiltonian
still
mathematics,
so
if
is
in
higher development
to dynamics as Hamilton's
that
it
four
rules
of arithmetic.
We
know
that
In certain
we may multiply
It has
or
is
divide
of no intellectual value.
called
Energy
Work
many
different ways.
The dimensions of
this
MU
,
where L, M, and
represent
If
we
on the other
itself is
The energy
332
260
Thus,
as
is
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
if
done in the ordinary definitions of visviva or kinetic energy, both factors are scalar, though one of them, the square of the velocity, has no distinct physical
meaning.
Another
division
into
apparently
here
scalar
factors
is
not in itself, but as a quantity subject to increase and diminution, and this change of volume can only occur at the surface, and is due to a variation of the surface in the
direction of the normal, so that
also,
it is not a scalar but a vector quantity. The pressure though the abstract conception of a hydrostatic pressure is scalar, must be
we must
consider
the volume,
conceived as applied at a surface, and thus becomes a directed quantity or vector. The division of the energy into vector factors affords results always capable
of satisfactory interpretation. Of the two factors, one ia conceived as a tendency towards a certain change, and the other as that change itself. Thus the elementary definition of Work regards it as the product of a force
into
its
direction
may be
regarded
for
as
many
other
pairs
of vectors,
the products
of which have
their
scalar part
Thus, instead of dividing kinetic energy into the factors " mass " and " square of velocity," the latter of which has no meaning, we may divide it into "mo
mentum" and
in the
tions,
"velocity,"
in the
dynamics of a
particle, are
same
direction,
but,
generalized dynamics,
may
be in different direcrule
for
so that
in taking
it.
their
product
finding
But
two
its
it
is
when we have
clearly seen.
to
deal with
and quantities
distributed in space,
factors is
most
When we
intensity
scalar quantity.
we may measure
is,
unit of volume.
This
of course, a
Of the
among
which compose
it,
one
is
and the
vector quantities.
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
Vectors which are referred to unit of length I shall
call
261
Forces, using the
word
the
in
we
shall see.
in
The operation
of taking
integral
the
resolved
line,
is
part
of
force
of
the integration
independent of the
extremities.
The
result
is
Fluxes.
The operaIn
of
surface
certain
cases
certain
within
restrictions,
of
the
position
of
the
surface.
The
then
expresses the Quantity of some kind of matter, either existing within the surface,
or flowing out of
it,
In
many
physical
the
force
direction,
and proportional
together.
to
each
other.
and the flux are always in the same The one is therefore used as the
results of the
measure of the other, their symbols degenerate into one, and their ideas become
confounded
One
of the
flux,
by
letting
may be
different.
fluids,
in
that which
we can
directly perceive,
we may
it
in
two
different ways.
We
to
may
unit
in
define
or
we may
way,
it
with
reference
of area,
as
the volume
of
passes
unit of time.
;
If defined in
the
to
first
if
the category
But
shall
if
we endeavour
into
to
fluids,
which
take
account the
of diff'usion,
if
where one
fluid
has a different
same place; or
of the
we
molecules of a
agitation
;
fluid,
in
virtue
then though we
may
we cannot do
fluid
way we have
and measuring
by considering
as a flux,
area.
262
This distinction
is
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
still
more necessary when we come to heat and electricity. even thought of in any way except as the quantity which flows through a given area in a given time. To form a conception of the velocity, properly so called, of either agent, would require
The
us to conceive
density.
substance
having a known
We
must
therefore
are, in
consider
The
forces
corre
sponding to them
I have said
forces
and
fluxes.
and the
flux
is
In
potential,
magnetism
the
resultant
is
force
is
also
calls
the
rate
of
variation
of the
is
and
the flux
what Faraday
measured, as Thomson has shewn, by the force on a unit pole placed in a narrow
crevasse cut perpendicular to the direction of magnetization of the magnet.
shall
not
detain
the
Society
must
form.
most general
first
When
the
one vector
is,
is
to
second
in
general,
which
is
function
of the
second
vector.
When,
proportional
case
if
first
is
always
to
in direction,
The
first
y8,
vector
then said to be a
linear
If a,
nents of the
and
a,
6,
then
r are constants.
is
When
be
corresponding
the
function as
said to
relation
selfconjugate.
may
then be
geometrically
the
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
263
We may
purer
line,
air,
essentially
all
while
defined as
the other
is
two
classes
of vectors
is
well
them
is
possible to contem
between
electricity
and magnetism.
how
to construct
in
an
analogy
between electromagnetic
is
which
meignetic force
a species of translation,
fluid.
He
does not
is
propose this
an explanation of electromagnetism
for
though
the analogy
two systems
are different.
According
Ampere and
to
all
his
followers,
am
constrained
agree
with
this
view,
because
the
electric
current
is
translation,
whUe
magnetism
which, as
is
associated with
it
I shall conclude
by proposing
the
results
phrases
greatly
feel
to
express
of
Hamiltonian operator A.
should be
as
I
obliged to
me
suggestions on
this
it
subject,
can be success
,,
V
where
IS
the operation
j,
^.
. "^
d
1~
d
'J"^
d
Tfy'
'^^
i,
are
unit
vectors
parallel
to x, y, z respectively.
The
result
of
The
subject of linear
264
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
is
the well
known
operation
(of
The discovery
but most
of
of
is
due to Hamilton
development of the
theory of this operation, are due to Prof. Tait, and are given in several papers,
which
28,
the
first
is
in
April
that on
Theorems," Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1869 70. (Laplace's operation with the And, first, I propose to call the result of
it
is
applied.
be a quantity, either scalar or vector, which is a function of the position of a point; and if we find the integral of Q taken throughout the volume of a sphere whose radius is r; then, if we divide this by the volume
For
if
of the sphere,
Qa
\b
we
shall
obtain Q,
If
the value of
when r
or
the value of
at the centre
of the
mean value
of
within the sphere by a quantity depending on the radius, and on V^*^. Since, therefore, V=Q indicates the excess of the value of Q at the centre above its
mean value
If
if
it
the concentration of Q.
is,
^
an
is
a scalar quantity,
electric potential,
its
concentration
is
Thus,
is
V'^
the potential.
^ is a vector quantity, then both ^o and Q are vectors, and V^ is a vector, indicating the excess of the uniform force ^o applied to the whole substance of the sphere above the resultant of the actual force Q acting on all
If
also
The quantity VP is a vector, indicating the direction in which P function P. I venture, with decreases most rapidly, and measuring the rate of that decrease.
much
the
"
diffidence^,
first
to call
this
the slope of P.
"
Lamd
calls
the magnitude of
VP
differential
parameter
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
conception.
265
We require a vector word, which shall indicate both direction and magnitude, and one not already employed in another mathematical sense. I have taken the liberty of extending the ordinary sense of the word slope from topography,
where
only
two
a
independent
variables
are
used,
to
space
of
three
dimensions.
If
represents
vector
function,
Vtr
may
FVo.
contain
both a
scalar
and a
may
call
propose to
cr,
because,
cr,
if
a closed
surface
which expresses
is
considered as an
of SVo
integral
think,
its
But
function.
in
general,
this
also
vector portion,
and
propose, but
with
great diffidence,
to
call
It
represents
the
direction
cr.
and magnitude of the rotation of the subject I have sought for a word which shall neither,
is
N
CONVERGENCE.
CITRLb
If
cTo
we
of the
cr
vector function
will,
cr
its
is
value
at the
point P,
a^
pure
when
it
there
pure
tan
convergence,
gentially
in
point
towards
P.
When
is
there
is
curl,
will
it
point
curl,
will point
a spiral manner.
are true
The
VOL.
34
266
its
concentration.
its
vector
function
is
the slope of
convergence,
its curl.
The quaternion
were given by Prof. Tait, in his paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, April 28th, 1862; but for the more complete mathematical treat
v,
see
Tait,
"On
Green's
Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1870), and another paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh,
187071,
p.
318.
the
vi.]
XLVII.
On
it
is
Colour Vision.
that
All we
It
vision
is
distinguish the
forms of
objects.
include differences
of
brightness
or shade
among
in
differences of colour.
was
of
distinct
of
:
the
colours
which I propose to
different
We
and
may
it
state
it
thus
We
are
excites
proportions,
by the
different
all
are
produced.
is
we must
this
far
ele
our attention.
is
That word
sensation
;
Sensation.
It
and yet Young, by honestly recognising So mentary truth, established the first consistent theory of colour. know, Thomas Young was the first who, starting from the wellknown
that colour a
there
are
fact that
three
fact,
not in
Even
of those
who have
written on colour since the time of Young, some have supposed that they ought to study the properties of pigments, and others that they ought to analyse
for
something
out of themselves.
Now, if the sensation which we call colour has any laws, it must be something in our own nature which determines the form of these laws and I need not tell you that the only evidence we can obtain respecting ourselves
;
is
The
science
of
colour
as
essentially
a mental
342
268
science.
COLOUR
It
differs
VISION.
is
called
mental science in
in
sciences,
it
and
particular
of
and anatomy.
illustrations
But
is
numerous
physical
coveries
which
In this place
science.
we always
I
shall
therefore
of
Newton
to
all
known
have
the
purest.
When
light
appears
coloured,
it
was supposed
to
become contaminated by coming into contact with gross bodies. We may still think white light the emblem of purity, though Newton has taught us that
its
We
a great
the prismatic spectrum on the screen [exhibited]. These are can distinguish which white light is always made up.
We
in
it
is
when
those
ourselves
of
the
labours
of
of
that
we become aware
the
immense
multitude of different kinds of light, every one of which has been the object Every increase of the power of our instruments increases in of special study.
the same proportion the number of lines visible in the spectrum. All light, as Newton proved, is composed of these rays taken in different
proportions.
Objects which
of
we
call
make a
selection
these rays,
falls
coloured when illuminated by white light, and our eyes receive from them only a part
on them. But if they receive only the pure rays of I they can appear only of that colour. spectrum a single colour of the the in paper, green and red of quadrants alternate containing disk, place this
of the light which
K
it
red rays, it appears all red, but the red quadrants brightest. the green rays both papers appear green, but the red paper is This, then, is the optical explanation of the colours of bodies
If I place
in
with white
They separate the white light into its component parts, others. scattering and absorbing some One appears yellow, it Here are two transparent solutions [exhibited].
light.
contains bichromate
copper.
If I
of potash; the other appears blue, it contains sulphate of transmit the light of the electric lamp through the two solutions By means of the spectrum we at once, the spot on the screen appears green.
COLOUR
shall
VISION.
269
cuts off
be able to explain
this.
The yellow
solution
the blue
end
of
the spectrum, leaving only the red, orange, yellow, and green.
cuts
off
which can get through both is the green Ught, as most blue and yellow paints, when mixed, appear green. on the mixture is so beaten about between the yellow
that the only light which survives
green,
as
is
The blue solution and violet. The only light you see. In the same way The
light
which
falls
particles
the green.
will
you
see
if
the same part of the screen together. a striking illustration of our mental processes that
many
persons have
not only gone on believing, on the evidence of the mixture of pigments, that
blue and yellow
make
green,
but that
they have
of
even
persuaded
themselves
sensations
blueness
and of yellowness
light
We
of
the
analysis
of
by coloured
substances.
We
must now
return,
still
prismatic spectrum.
it
it
together again.
We
allow
have here a
it
pure
spectrun),
on a screen we
the coloured
optics, to
to
pass
through
lens
enough to receive
all
rays.
wellknown principles
the result
in
This image
formed by rays of
only
all
colours,
and you
image
is
see
is
white.
But
;
if
and
let
through
rays
of
portions
light
me
a perfect conunand
and
shade of colour by adjusting the breadth and the position of the sUts through
passes.
can
also,
by interposing a
slits,
lens
in
the
passage
will
of
by which you
see the
The
colours
are
at
270
three colours
is,
COLOUR VISION.
as
you
see,
nearly
white.
effect
of
Tiniying
two of these
colours.
Red and
known.
No
The
painter, wishing to
result
would be a
He
is
When he mixes red and green paint, the these. paint is robbed of nearly all its brightness by red the by red getting among particles of green, and the green light fares no better, for it But when the pencil with which is sure to fall in with particles of red paint. we paint is composed of the rays of light, the effect of two coats of colour
and he takes advantage of
light
scattered
is
The red and the green form a yeUow of great splendour, very different. which may be shewn to be as intense as the purest yellow of the spectrum.
I
the
slits
to
transmit
the
yellow of the
spectrum.
You
see
point of
as
it
view.
The prism,
result
is
as
you
see,
spectrum.
The
of a
we may make
pink
if
our
yeUow
is
warm
hue, but
we
choose a greenish
a good white.
seen the most remarkable of the combinations of colours from them in degree, not in kind. I must now ask you to think no more of the physical arrangements by which you were enabled to see
differ
the others
these colours, and to concentrate your attention upon the colours you saw, that are here is to say on certain sensations of which you were conscious.
We
surrounded by
difficulties
of a kind which
all feel
in
purely
physical inquiries.
We
can
incommunicable.
We
for
sensations,
but not
When we
look
at
broad
field
of
uniform
colour,
whether
it
is
really
that the sensation of colour appears to our concannot directly recognise the elementary sciousness as one and indivisible. sensations of which it is composed, as we can distinguish the component notes
simple or compound,
we
find
We
COLOUR VISION.
of a musical
chord.
271
aa
A
is
colour,
therefore,
must be regarded
a single
thing,
capable of variation.
To bring a
as
quality within
we must
of of
conceive
it
the
first
step
our
scientific
progress
is
to
determine
the
number
these
variables
sufficient
colour.
We
do not require any elaborate experiments to prove that the quality of colour
can vary in three and only in three independent ways.
One way
of
expressing this
tint,
is
painters,
that
colour
may
itself.
vary in hue,
and shade.
series
The
finest
example of a
is
the spectrum
A
in
difference in
hue may be
illustrated
by the
in the
difference
between adjoining
is
colours
for,
the spectrum.
The
series
of hues
spectrum
not complete
we must blend
Tint
may
Thus,
bright
yellow, buff,
but varying in
The
tints,
beginning with the most pronounced colour, and ending with a perfectly neutral
tint.
defined
tint of
as
the greater
or
less
defect
of
illumination.
If
and
this
any hue, we can form a gradation from that colour gradation is a series of shades of that colour. Thus we
is
may
The quality
of a colour
may vary
In
tint,
in three different
fact,
if
We
80
we
to
agree in hue,
in
and
in
shade,
indistinguishable.
anything
which may be
scientific
experiment,
in
we may
determine the number of quantities upon which the variation of colour depends
by means of our ordinary experience alone. Here is a point in this room if I wish to specify its position, I may do namely, the height above the so by giving the measurements of three distances
:
floor,
the
left
distance
from the wall behind me, and the distance from the wall
at
my
hand.
272
This
it
COLOUR
is
VISION.
only one of
many ways
of
stating the
position
of
a point, but
three things.
is
Now,
If
we
and
if
we
are able in
intensities,
we may
consider
Hence the
specification of
a colour agrees with the specification of a point in the room in depending on three measurements.
some
Let us go a step farther and suppose the colour sensations measured on scale of intensity, and a point found for which the three distances, or
contain the same
number of feet as the sensations contain degrees by a useful geometrical convention, that the colour is represented, to our mathematical imagination, by the point so found in the room; and if there are several colours, represented by several points, the chromatic relations of the colours will be represented by the geometrical relaThis method of expressing the relations of colours is a tions of the points.
coordinates,
of intensity.
Then we may
say,
You
in
will find
stated
of the
exceedingly clear
manner
Mr
Benson's
very few books on colour in which the statements are founded on legitimate
experiments.
still more convenient method of representing the relations of is a by means of Young's triangle of colours. It is impossible to represent on a plane piece of paper every conceivable colour, to do this requires space of If, however, we consider only colours of the same shade three dimensions.
There
colours
that
is,
colours
in
intensities of the
all
three sensations
is
such colours
may be
plane
by points on a
For
this
purpose
we must draw a
cutting off equal lengths from the three lines representing the primary sensations.
The part
we have been
distributing our
colours will be
an equilateral
triangle.
three angles, white or gray will be in the middle, the tint or degree of purity
its
and
its
hue
will
which joins
it
with the
middle point.
Thus the ideas of tint and hue can be expressed geometrically on Young's To understand what is meant by shade we have only to suppose the illumination of the whole triangle increased or diminished, so that by means of
triangle.
COLOUR
this
VISION.
273
may
variety
them
I
we now take any two colours any proportions, we shall find the resultant
colour
what
the
particular
relations
have said nothing about the nature of the three primary sensations, or colours they most resemble. In order to lay down on paper
between actual
are.
colours,
it
is
not
necessary
colours,
to
know what
the
primary
angles
colours
We
may
take
any three
provisionally,
as the
of a triangle,
Of
prismatic
either
all
colours
those excited
scientific
by the
different
rays
of the
consists
spectrum
have
the
greatest
importance.
All light
of
rays, or of some combination of them. The compounded of the colours of the spectrum. If
therefore
we can form
the
colours
between
different portions,
all
natural
bodies will
be found
also
help
us to
Since
every sensation
essentially
every compound coloursensation must be within the triangle of In particular, the chart of the specif
trum must be
in
entirely
is
any colour
the spectrum
identical
in
spectrum
must be
the form of
have
how we
three
can
make a mixture
If
of
any three of
the
the
colours
intensity
any
of
the
components.
we
place
this
by altering compound
colour side
till
by
side
it
exactness
when the
resultant colour
I
is
nearly white.
colourbox,
an
instrument
which
may
so
I
call
for
purpose
of
making
It
is
colours.
It can
and
it
requires
daylight,
with
me
tonight.
35
274
in
COLOUR
his
VISION.
Lectiones
it
Optica,
separate
into its
where he shews how to take a beam of light, to components, to deal with these components as we please by
means of
looks
sisting
left
slits,
into
and afterwards to unite them into a beam again. The observer He sees a round field of light conslit.
divided by a vertical diameter.
of
two
semicircles
The
semicircle on the
consists
of light
That on the right is a mixture of colours of the spectrum, the positions and intensities of which are regulated by a system of slits. The observer forms a judgment respecting the colours of the two semicircles. Suppose he finds the one on the right hand redder than the other, he says so,
of glass.
breadth of and the operator, by means of screws outside the box, alters the the right till on, so and red less mixture one of the slits, so as to make the hne of the and left, the as appearance same the of semicircle is made exactly
;
When
the operator and the observer have worked together for some time, and the colours are adjusted much more
perfect, the positions of the slits, as indicated
When
the match
is
pronounced
are registered,
and the breadth of each slit is carefully measured by The registered result of an observation is called a "colour
that a mixture of three colours
given),
is,
asserts
in
observer (whose
which we
shall call
colour
specified
by the
position of the
slit
on the
which
is
in the
which
a measure of
its intensity.
In order to
purposes
of
make
survey
of the
call
spectrum
we
select
three
points
for
comparison,
and
we
Standard Colours.
The
standard colours are selected on the same principles as those which guide the They must be conspicuous and enoineer in selecting stations for a survey.
invariable
and not
in the
same straight
line.
In the chart
colours
of
may
see
the relations of
the various
spectrum to the three standard colours, and to each other. It be one of the is manifest that the standard green which I have chosen cannot the triangle within lie true primary colours, for the other colours do not all
of the
of the spectrum
may
be described as con
two
COLOUR
auout a
fifth
VISION.
275
This green
lias
a wave length
This green
to
it
either
or at
least
it
is
which
we can
the spectrum,
line.
we
find
any two colours on opposite sides of it, and in the same straight line. The extreme red is considerably beyond the standard red, but it is in the same straight line, and therefore we might, if we had no other evidence, assume the
extreme
red
as
is
the
true
primary
red.
We
but
shall see,
primary red
It
lies
in the
same straight
equations
is
line.
On
accurate.
of
primary
lie
green
in a
the
line
colour
are
seldom so
I
The
colours,
however,
which
nearly straight.
have
not been able to detect any measurable chromatic difference between the extreme
indigo and the violet. The colours by a number of points very close
of this
to
each other.
We
may
primary blue
is
a sensation differing
little
spectrum near G,
Now, the
first
is
Between the red and the green we have a series of colours apparently very different from either, and having such marked characteristics that two of them, orange and yellow, have
the division of the spectrum
fair
by no means a
one.
received
separate
names.
The
colours between
other hand, have an obvious resemblance to one or both of the extreme colours,
and no
I
distinct
names
experience.
to
it
is
impossible
by a mere act
is
of introspection
make
Consciousness
worthy
I
results.
have here, through the kindness of Professor Huxley, a picture of the There is a minute structure upon which the light falls at the back of the eye.
structure of bodies
like rods
and cones
particular
or pegs,
and
it
is
conceivable that
is
the
mode
which
in
differs
352
276
faUg, just as the pattern
COLOUR
VISION.
mode
in which the perforated cards act on the system of moveable rods in that
we have on the one hand light falling on this wonderful and on the other hand we have the sensation of sight. We cannot compare these two things they belong to opposite categories. The whole of
machine.
In the eye
structure,
Metaphysics
lies like
It
is
in physiology
may
"Up
but this would make us no wiser than we are about those coloursensations which we can only know by feeling them ourselves. Still, though it is impossible to become acquainted with a sensation by the anatomical study of the organ
with which
it
is
connected,
of the
sensation as a means of
the deduction of
Helmholtz's
theory of
Young with
Young
for
asserts
the
retina,
each
function,
when acted on by
light or
No
only
But it is admitted in physiology that the which the sensation excited by a particular nerve can vary is by The intensity of the sensation may vary from the faintest degrees of intensity. impression up to an insupportable pain but whatever be the exciting cause,
way
in
when
it
If
this
may
that
these three modes of variation arise from the independent action of three differ
Some very remarkable observations on the sensation of colour have been made by M. Sigmund Exner in Professor Helmholtz's physiological laboratory at Heidelberg. While looking at an intense light of a brilliant colour, he exposed his eye to rapid alternations of light and darkness by waving his fingers before Under these circumstances a peculiar minute structure made its his eyes.
appearance in the
field
of view, which
many
of us
may have
casually observed.
COLOUB VISION.
M. Exner states that the character of
the colour of the light employed.
is
277
is
this
structure
is
different
according to
When
spots
red light
seen
when the
light
is
green, the
is
field
dots,
blue,
are
of
a larger
size
than
the
Whether
they have
nerves of
sure
for
these
their
appearances
physical
present
themselves
in
to
all
eyes,
and whether
of
I
is
the
arrangement
say,
the
Helmholtz's
theory I
cannot
but
am
more
that
these
Colour Blindnesn.
The most valuable evidence which we possess with respect to colour vision by the colourblind. A considerable number of persons in every large community are unable to distinguish between certain pairs of colours
is
furnished to us
Dr
first
Dalton,
his
the founder
case.
an account of
own
this
peculiarity
of vision
was
in
a letter written
to
Dr Henry.
The
defect consists
Colourblind
of
three.
vision
instead
The best
In
of
colourblind
vision
is
that
own
1859.
sufi&cient
care,
cases
which have
been
examined with
the absent
sensation
we
call
red.
The point
absent
on
the
the
chart of
sensation to
box furnished
by Professor
If
chart,
it
it
Pole.
would be
invisible,
absolutely black,
to
Professor
Pole.
As
it
does
it
not
lie
we cannot
exhibit
which we
call
red,
though
it
appears to them
the intensities of the three sensations excited by different parts of the spectrum,
278
the upper
figure,
COLOUR marked P,
is
VISION.
The only
the red curve
difference
is
is
the
are
upper
one
absent.
nearly the
same
colour
for
both observers.
the
result
We
my
sensations which
is
have great reason therefore to conclude that the are what we call green and blue.
but Professor Pole
in
This
of
agrees
is
with every
one
of his
whom
know
are always
The
tainly blue and yellow, and they persist in saying that yellow, and not green,
is
see.
To explain this discrepancy we must remember that colourblind persons They are told learn the names of colours by the same method as ourselves. that the sky is blue, that grass is green, that gold is yellow, and that soldiers' They observe difference in the colours of these objects, and they coats are red. But often suppose that they see the same colours as we do, only not so well.
if
we
we
shall
is
see
example
of
their
we
call
yellow,
yellow.
The
figure
of
the
would see in the spectrum. I hardly dare to draw your you were to think that any painted picture would enable you to see with other people's vision I should certainly have lectured in vain.
what a
colourblind person
it,
attention to
for if
On
Experiments on
vision
for
the
Yelloiv Spot.
colour
indicate
all
very considerable
are
differences
between
the
of different persons,
of
whom
colour,
instance,
which one
person
on comparing
with
white
will
pronounce
pinkish,
not arise from any diversity in the nature of the colour sensations in different
persons.
It
is
observed
if
one of the
In
fact,
the retina a yellow spot through which the rays must pass before they reach
the sensitive organ
:
this
COLOUR
the line F,
VISION.
colour.
27!)
Some
of
us
strongly developed.
of very
little
My own
on this
are
for
value
am
indebted to Professor
Stokes
has
the knowledge of
a method by
consists
in
whether
through
a
he
this
yellow spot.
chloride
this
It
looking at a
solution
of
solution
thrown
is
[exhibited].
This light
is
when
it
falls
on
nerve,
and we
see a red
Very few persons are unable to detect the yellow spot in this way. The observer K, whose colour equations have been used in preparing the chart of
the spectrum,
is
who do not
see everything as
in
if
through
yellow spectacles.
the spectrum
parts
is
As
the chart of
of the
as
is
on the yellow side of true white even when I use the outer retina; but as soon as I look direct at it, it becomes much
yellower,
WC.
we do not
yellow.
in
But
if
we wear
spectacles
a room lighted by windows all white paper as white. This shews that
place in our sensations, that
and that we do not think white objects of any colour for some time, or if we live of one colour, we soon come to recognize
it
is
only
when some
alteration takes
we
is
can
One
nearly
you hold a red flower and a blue flower in your hand flower, as far back as you can see your hand, you will lose sight of the red diminished is light the when that is, Another while you still see the blue one. The third is, red objects become darkened more in proportion than blue ones.
If
in
which blue
of Santonine.
is
produced
is
artificially
by taking doses
Rose,
described by
Dr Edmund
of Berlin.
It
than headaches. not appear to be followed by any more serious this medicine, of course a undergone I must ask your pardon for not having hand about firat at information give you able to becoming even for the sake of
consequences
colour blindness.
the
Vol. xxvi.]
XLVIII. On
the Geometrical
Mean
There
the
sum
find
given
point.
The
calculation
is
in
to
that in which
we
adding the reciprocals of the distances of the particles from the given point. There is this difference, however, that whereas the reciprocal of a line is completely defined
meaning
till
of logarithms.
In both
cases,
may
ment of the result by dividing, by the number of wires in the first case, and by the number of particles in the second. The result in the first case is the
logarithm of a distance, and in the second
it
is
and
in
is
such that,
if
centrated
this
distance
potential as
actually does.
since the logarithm of the resultant distance is the arith
In the
metical
first case,
mean of the logarithms of the distances of the various components the system, we may call the resultant distance the geometrical mean distance
the system from the given point.
of of
In the second
arithmetical
case,
since
is
the
mean
we may
THE GEOMETRICAL MEAN DISTANCE OF TWO FIGURES ON A PLANE.
call
281
the harmonic
mean
distance
of the
given point.
The
of
practical
use
of these
mean
distances
may
Dynamics
to
as the radius
so
on.
gyration,
the
length
of
The
form
ele
result
of a
process
and presented
us in
in
which
we cannot
misunderstand,
those
If
we have anv
coefficients,
we may
the mean distance by taking the point at a great distance from the system,
which case the mean distance must approximate to the distance of the centre
of gravity.
Thus
of which
it is is
well
known
mean
the harmonic
encloses it
I
is
mean
distance
of
any
shell.
shall
mean
distance,
because
the
calculations
it.
which lead to
I
shall,
to
shew
me
to
be rendered both easier to follow and more secure against error by a free use of this imaginary line.
If the coordinates of a point in the first of
two plane
of
figures be
x and
figures,
y,
in the second
^ and
rj,
and
if
then R,
the
geometrical
mean
distance
two
is
The
(1)
Let
the
AB
line,
he
2i
a point
not
in
and
OP
be the perpendicular
if
from
if
O
is
necessary, then
mean
distance of
from the
line
AB,
AB
VOL.
II.
(\ogR+l) = PB
log
36
282
(2)
is
from
AB
AB{\ogR + l) = PB\ogPBPA\ogPA.
When P
lies
between
and B,
PA
mean
line,
must be taken
logarithm of
(3)
PA
we
regard
PA
If
is
the geometric
distance between
two
finite
lines
AB
and
AB.CD(2\ogR +
(4)
2>)
= ADnogAD + BCnogBCACnogACBDno^BD.
with
If
AB
coincides
CD, we
find
for
the geometric
mean
distance
of
all
the points oi
AB
the
R = ABeK
(5)
If
72
is
geometric
point
mean
in
distance of the
its
rectangle
ABCD
QOS
from the
are
plane,
and
the
POR
and
parallel
to
the
sides
of
rectangle through 0,
ABCD
+ 20R. OS log 0C+20S.0P log CD +0Q" .a6b + op'.d6a + OS' COD + OR^ BOC
.
.
(6)
If
is
the
of
geometric the
mean
of
the
distances
of
all
the
points
rectangle
ABCD
from
each
other,
logi2
= log^(7ig^log^i^^logg^
When
the rectangle
is
= a,
logi2 = loga
+ ilog2 + ^f
= log a 08050866,
i2
= 044705o.
283
of
radius
,
The
its
geometric
mean
distance
of a circular
is
line
from a
point in
if
the
circle,
and a
circle.
(8)
figure
from a
circle
which 'com
pletely
The geometric mean from the annular space between two concentric circles,
of
the
circle.
it,
is
R, where
 a/)
(log
a,
and
a,
mean
any
the
figure
figure
from a
circle
an annular space
concentric
circles,
the geometric
(9)
mean
The geometric mean distance of all the points of the annular space between two concentric circles from ^ach other is R, where
(,'
 clJ
(log
When
a,,
vanishes,
we
find
R = aei.
When
outer
a^,
circle,
circle,
R=
coil
As an example of the application of this method, let us take the case of a of wire, in which the wires are arranged so that the transverse section of
coil
the
exhibits the sections of the wires arranged in square order, the distance
Avire d.
be
of dimensions
pared with the radius of curvature of the wires, and let the geometrical mean distance of the section from itself
be R.
Let
it
coefficient
of induction
n.
fill
of this coil on
1st.
If
we
up
the
whole
section
the
if
coil,
insulating
matter,
then
is
3C
284
tion
coil
on a similar
parallel cir
2nd.
The
current, however,
is
It is confined
to
the wires.
is
Now
length of a conductor
C2logjR,
where
is
is
the
mean geometric
for
Now
a square of side D,
diameter d
log Ri = log
d log ^ i
Hence
and the
coefficient
log;^'
= log^ + f log2l^,
of
of selfinduction
square wire by
2 {log
^f 01380606}
3rd.
We
must
also
cylindric
cylindric
and
the
neighbouring
is
square
The
mean
distance
of
two
is
of gravity as
0*99401
to
comer
is
to
TOO 11
is
to unity.
is
Hence the
2
X (001971).
285
less
The
is
than onethousandth
The
is
therefore
7r3f+2/log^ + 011835},
wliere n
is
the
number
coil
of windings,
and
For a circular
of radius
= a,
2),
is
the geometrical
mean
the
Royal
Society,
XLIX.
On
the Induction
Uniform Conductivity.
"When, on account of the motion or the change of strength 1. magnet or electromagnet, a change takes place in the magnetic field,
motive forces are called into play, and,
conductor, electric currents are produced.
tion of electric currents, discovered
if
of
any
a
electrois
the
This
by Faraday.
I propose to investigate the case in which the conducting substance is in the form of a thin stratum or sheet, bounded by parallel planes, and of indefi
nite extent. system of magnets or electromagnets is supposed to exist on the positive side of this sheet, and to vary in any way by changing its position
or its intensity.
We
their
the
sheet,
and
have to determine the nature of the currents induced in magnetic effect at any point, and, in particular, their
reaction on the electromagnetic system which gave rise to them. The induced currents are due, partly to the direct action of the external system, and partly
to
their
mutual
inductive
action;
so
appears,
at
first
sight,
somewhat
2.
difficult.
The
result
of
the
investigation,
however,
principle
may be
by
Sir
presented in a re
by the
aid
of the
of images
which was
Thomson.
first
W.
The
part
of this principle
certain
is,
that
we
conceive the
surface
positive side of a
closed
or
infinite
(which
to
if it
existed,
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
surface
287
actual state
were
abolished,
would give
rise
to
the
of things in
the
The
state
state
of things on
is
expressed by a
different in
of things on the negative side, but which is identical with that which would be due to the existence, on the negative side, of a certain system which
called the Image.
is
The image,
the
therefore, is
what we should
far
arrive at
by producing,
as,
as
it
were,
mathematical function as
as
it
will
go; just
in
optics,
the
\'irtual
image is found by producing the rays, in straight lines, backwards from the place where their direction has been altered by reflexion or refraction.
The position of the image of a point in a plane surface is found by 3. drawing a perpendicular from the point to the surface and producing it to an If the image is of the same equal distance on the other side of the surface.
sign as the point, as
is
it
is
in hydrokinetics
when the
surface
is
a rigid plane,
it
If
it
is
of the
is
electricity,
when the
surface
is
is
a conductor,
it
The image of a
in
conducting circuit
reckoned
positive
when the
electric
current flows
the
The image
is
reversed.
In the case of the plane conducting sheet, the imaginary system on the
not the simple image, positive or negative, of the of a mo\nng real magnet or electromagnet on the positive side, but consists define. to proceed now we which of train of images, the nature
negative side of the sheet
is
4.
Let
is
the
electric
whose
length
a,
2na, be E.
R
[If
is
to
measured
on the electromagnetic
is
system, and
is
therefore
line
a
a.
velocity,
independent
of
of
the
magnitude of the
of
p denotes
resistance
the
material
cube
and
if
then
R = ^/,
and
if cr
denotes
the specific resistance of the sheet for a unit (or any other) square,
^ = ^]
288
5.
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
The smaller
^
.
we take
definition
describe.
6.
of images
which we
shall
now
At
or
a given time
t,
let a positive
image of the
the
negative
magnet
electromagnet be formed
on
: i
let
this
image begin to
direction
in
its
the
of
the
with
the
velocity
R,
form
as
and intensity
which
the the
remaining
constantly
the
t.
same
that
that
magnet had
After
at the time
an
interval
Bt,
is
to
say,
at
time
+ Bt,
let
a negative
image, equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to this positive image, be formed
in the original position of the positive image,
and
let it
The
Bt,
interval of time
between the
arrival of these
be RBt.
let
Leaving
this
pair
of
or
us
at the time
+ Bt.
its
instant
let
new
positive
image be
an
in
At new
position,
and
E,
let this
image
velocity
and be followed
Let these
after
interval
time
Bt
by a corresponding
negative image.
operations
will
be a train or
trail
of
images,
beginning with a single positive image, and followed by an endless succession of This trail, when once formed, continues unchangeable in form pairs of images.
and
intensity,
and moves
as
whole away
from
the
conducting
sheet
with
If
we now suppose
Bt
to
be diminished without
limit, and the train to be extended without limit in the negative direction, so as to include all the images which have been formed in all past time, the magnetic effect of this imaginary train at any point on the positive side of the
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
conducting
sheet
will
28l>
be identical
with
that
of
the
electric
currents
which
let
which
it
assumes in certain
cases.
real
10.
its
intensity,
this
suddenly becomes
At
the
instant
positive
image
is
formed,
which
ht
along
is
After an interval
formed;
but at the same instant a second negative image is formed at the same place, which exactly neutralizes its effect. Hence the result is, that a single positive image travels by itself along the normal with velocity R. The magnetic effect of
this
is
of induction actually existing in the sheet, and the diminution of this effect, as
accurately
represents
the
effect
of the
the image
is
so
no
on the positive side of the sheet. If the current of the electrolonger magnet be now broken, there will be no more images but the last negative image of the train will be left unneutralized, and will move away from the sheet
;
with
velocity
R.
The currents
in
therefore
be
of
the
same
in
It
it
appears
will
is
from
this
that,
is
increasing in
intensity,
its
intensity
It
also
be acted on by a repulsive force from the sheet, diminishing, it will be attracted towards the sheet.
if
and when
sheet
appears that
is
produced
in the
and then left to itself, the effect of the decay of the currents, as observed at a point on the positive side of the sheet, will be the same as if the sheet, with its currents remaining constant, had been carried away in the negative direction
w^ith velocity
12.
R.
If a
is
brought from an
velocity v
infinite
distance
it
with a force
4?
where
z is
R^'
37
VOL.
II.
290
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
This formula will not apply to the case of the pole moving away from the because in that case we must take account of the currents which are
sheet,
excited
13.
when the
If the
it
does
when near
the sheet.
to
parallel
the
sheet,
it
will be acted
and equal to
7)v
V
42^
jR + ^ + Rv
'
{^E'+'if+Ey
it is
it
from the
42=
E+
v'
+ EjE + v''
helix,
If the pole moves uniformly in a circle, the trail is in the form of a and the calculation of its effect is more difficult it is easy, however, to see that, besides the retarding force and the repelling force, there is also a force
14.
;
circle.
It
is
shewn,
in
my
treatise
0)i
Electricity
and Magnetism
(Vol.
n.
any system are the same, whether the conducting system or the inducing system be in motion, provided the relative motion is the same. Hence the results already given are directly applicable to the case
Art. 600), tliat the currents in
of Arago's rotating disk, provided the induced currents are not sensibly affected
by the
These
sets of images,
which we
shall not
now
investigate.
16.
resistance
of the
sheet,
whether from
is
its
thinness or
its
material,
the greater
the velocity E.
Hence
is
trail of
little
images is nearly normal to the sheet, and from those which arise from the direct action
1).
17.
or its
resistance
zero,
would be
zero.
The images, once formed, would remain stationary, and all Hence the trail formed positive image would be neutralized.
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
291
would be reduced to a
sive force I
~, on the
pole,
motion or at
in
rest.
nature as
interior
we know
it.
supposed
to
exist
in
the
of molecules in
Mathematical Investigation.
18.
thickness be
Let the conducting sheet coincide with the plane of xy, and let its so small that we may neglect the variation of magnetic force at
its
substance,
and
same
reason,
the only currents which can produce sensible effects are those which are
Currentfunction.
19.
We
j).
shall
define
function of time,
This
unit
crosses from
the point P.
This quantity will be the same for any two curves drawn from this point
P, provided no electricity enters or leaves the sheet at any point between Hence <^ is a singlevalued function of the position of the point P. these curves.
to
left is
ds
By drawing
to
ds
first
x,
the axis of
y,
we
directions of
x and of y respectively
=#, ay
The curves
20.
<^
,=
_# ax
lines.
(I).
for
which
</>
is
and
is
372
292
S<j>
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
flowing in
Is
Is
the
positive
its
direction,
that
is,
from
x towards
shell
y.
Such a
B(j>,
circuit
equivalent In
magnetic
effects
to a magnetic
of strength
its
edge*.
electric currents
in
valent to a complex magnetic shell, consisting of all the simple shells, defined The strength of the equivalent complex as above, into which it can be divided.
shell at
any point
will
be
<^.
We
^ on the
21.
may
suppose
this
shell
to
consist
of
two
c,
parallel
plane
sheets
of
and

To
find the
its
C)
<f>,
density
is
this complex plane shell at by finding P, the potential at the due to a plane sheet of imaginary magnetic matter whose surfaceand which coincides with the plane of xy. The potential due to
the positive sheet whose surfacedensity the positive side of the plane of
xij,
is
, and which
is
at a distance
on
is
l(p4of..c.).
That due to the negative plane of xy is
sheet,
at a distance
is
^'i
This,
therefore, is
(^)
any
given
point
the value of the magnetic potential of the currentsheet at on the positive side of it. Within the sheet there is no
magnetic
sheet the
potential,
and at
is
any point
(^,
rj,
Q
potential
side.
Cj
on the positive
'
W.
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
22.
293
is
At the
K=g = 2..^
At the negative
surface
(3).
f=M
The normal component
;
Wis
dV
In the case of the magnetic
the surface
;
d'P
/x
^^dC^W
shell,
^^'
discontinuous at
is
but in the case of the currentsheet this expression gives the value
itself,
23.
any point
of
Let F, G, II be the components of the electromagnetic momentum at in the sheet, due to external electromagnetic action as well as to
that of the currents in the sheet, then the electromotive force in the direction
is
_dF_d^
dt
dx'
where where
xft
is is
the
electric
potential'^;
and by
Ohm's law
this
is
equal to
au,
cr
Hence
Similarly,
dF dxP] ^''=dt~di
(6).
cru=
dG_dxp
dt
dy
its
magnetic potential
is
represented
by
dP ~
r=(P.+P)
and
(7),
F=^{P. + P),
"Dynamical Theory
(8).
294
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
Hence equations
(6)
<j>
from
(1),
dy
dtdy^
'
'
dx
(9).
dx
dtdx^
is
"
'
dy
o<^=^(P + P),
Substituting the value of
<}>
i/,
= constant
(10).
2^f=l(^+^)
The quantity
call it
(")
is
R, then
ff^f24.
()
Let Po' be the value of P^ at the time tT, and at a point on the y, (z Rt), and let
=\>
At the upper limit when t is infinite P^ when T = and P^ = P^, we must have
vanishes.
(13).
Hence
at the
lower limit,
dQ
but by equation (12)
dQ
^^o^_dPj,dP
dt
dt
dz
will be satisfied if
we make
(^)
^=f=y>^^
25.
differ
This,
then,
is
a solution
of the
problem.
Any
state
of the sheet,
not due to any external cause, and which therefore must decay
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
rapidly.
295
past time,
this
is
Hence,
since
we assume an
eternity
of
tlie
only
This
solution
expresses P,
of P/,
function due to
this of P,
the action
of
the induced
current, in terms
and through
By
differentiating
we we
between
by equation (10), the currentfunction. Hence the and P,, as expressed by equation (16), is similar to the
its trail
first
part of this
paper
6,
7,
8,
9),
which
with
is
simply
an explanation of the
meaning of equation
(16)
combined
the
At
the time
when
this paper
was written,
to refer to
two
solid homogeneous conductors and two papers by E. Jochmann in Crelle's Journal for 1864, and one in Poggendorff's Annalen for 1864, on the currents induced in a rotating conductor by a magnet.
to
Neither of these writers have attempted to take into account the inductive
action of the currents on each other, though both have recognised the existence
of such an action,
case
it.
M.
Felici
considers
disk.
the
E.
of
magnetic
solves
placed
rotating distance
Jochmann
plane
at
finite
from the
of the
disk.
He
lines,
the
equipotential
the
case
of a single pole,
and
in
poles of opposite
name
it,
at equal
distances
but on
not,
opposite
sides
of
first
as
Matteucci at
which he
traced experimentally.
I am not aware that the principle of images, as described in the paper presented to the Royal Society, has been previously applied to the phenomena
of induced
currents,
or
that the
problem of the
induction
of
currents
in
an
29 G
infinite
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
plane sheet has been solved,
of these currents, so as to
of conductivity.
make the
any degree
The statement
does not produce
in
equation
(10),
that the
motion
be
of
a magnetic system
what
strange,
since
we know
that
currents
may
collected
lies
so arranged as not
dif
to
interfere
ference
of potential in
circuit.
This
is
pointed out by
Felici,
who shews
that
when the
tion of a magnet, these currents are not accompanied with differences of potential
in different parts of
the sheet.
is itself
When
0)1
the sheet
in motion, it appears,
my
treatise
and Magnetism, that the electric potential measured by means of the electrodes of a fixed circuit, is
Electricity
any
point,
as
where
^ ^
are
applied.
z,
this
becomes
dP
dx
Note
thickness
cities
2. is
dP} dy
1
The
velocity
for
millimetre in
of
Hence it is only for very small velothe apparatus that we can obtain any approximation to the true result
about 25 metres per second.
currents.
Feb.
13.
the
London Mathematical
L.
0)1
the
Coordinates in
equal
to the
[Read
May
9th, 1872.]
in
is
x + >r:^ly=f{^+J^lr))
where
x,
(1).
t^
,
in the other.
more
restricted.
be functions of $,7), C, then the point in the system x, y, z, a series for which f is constant, will be in a certain surface, and by giving ^ of series other two There will be of values we obtain a series of such surfaces. rj, system second the in C If ^, surfaces, corresponding to t) and ^ respectively.
Let
X,
y,
are rectangular
coordinates,
the surfaces
corresponding to
this
^,
is
t;,
in
the
first
system
The condition of
dx dx
with two other equations in
If
dy dy
d^dC'^d^dl
C
dzdz^_ dr)dC~
rj.
(2).
and
^,
and ^ and
we now
WTite
^
VOL.
II.
dyy
dn.
dzV /
dn.
(3);
^*{i)'*(f
298
and d^
the
intercept
of the line
(7^
= const.,
= const.)
surfaces ^
and ^+d^.
2^
line
The angle e, at which a line whose coordinates are functions of whose coordinates are functions of q, is found from the equation dx dx dy dij dz dz dp dq dp dq dp dq
cuts
mh&<PMm<i)*m
Expressing this in terms of
$,
rj,
(4).
and
C,
it
becomes
^.dldl_^ dp dq
drjdrj
dp dq
'
dCdC dp dq
= cose
In
{x,
f(f^(i)^(i)}'{'*'''^r^
that
order
z),
the angle
e,
system
y,
at which the
corresponding
lines in
the system
intersect, it is necessary
c^
and
sufficient that
(6).
=^=7
(4)
for
these
are
and
(5)
form.
Now
the
7}
consider
the quadrilateral
A BCD,
$,
surface
(^ = const.) by
the surfaces
^+d^,
and
+ drj.
AB = adl AD = ^drj,
OD=[a^%d,)dl
BC=[^^^f^di^dyj.
Since the three sets of surfaces are orthogonal, their intersections are lines
of curvature,
by Dupin's Theorem.
Hence
AB
is
a line of
curvature
of the
299
will
drawn
then
parallel to a.
some point 0.
a,
/*,,
Let us
call
intersect
in the xdanc
of
AB
Hence
DC
::
7^
J^,^
+ '^D.
^"^^^''^^^^^
^^"^^Zl'
cIt)
^^'^"^
dr]
for
we
find
or the
principal
radii
r)
are
Hence the
surfaces
t]
must be spherical.
 and
C
= y8 = 7,
the other
flimilies of surfaces
must
also
be spherical.
take one of the points where three spherical surfaces meet at right These spheres when inverted angles for the origin, and invert the system. and the other spheres become angles, right at intersecting planes three become
Now
spheres,
each
lie
intersecting
at
right
angles two
of
these
planes.
Hence
their
centres
Let
a, b,
c be the distances,
from
the
planes,
of the
let
centres
radii
of spheres
three
systems, and
their
be
p,
q,
are
?'
= 6 + r,
p'
r+p
= c + (r, = h,
r^
_2)'
+ 2' = ' + ^^
whence
or
all
= a,
q
= c;
system has a common
the
spheres
pass
if
through
tangent plane.
write
Hence
we take
x"
+ 7f{z = r,
we have rp = R\
a constant quantity,
?/
382
300
&C.
whence
X
[From Nature,
Vol. vii.]
LI.
By
Sir
W. Thomson,
(London:
Glasgow.
W.
Thomson's.
It
is
work has been done, chiefly by the Germans, both in analytical calculation and in experimental researches, by methods which are independent of, or at least different from, those developed in these papers, and it is the glory of true science that all legitimate methods must lead, to the same final But if we are to count the gain to science by the number and value results.
of the ideas developed in the course of the inquiry, which preserve the results
of former
we must
One
is
W.
on
level.
subject
of
the
first
paper
in
this
collection.
Two
scientific
difficulty,
considered
from
quite
points
of
view.
the particles of electricity exert on each other forces which vary inversely as
On
the
other
investigated the laws of the steady conduction of heat on the hypothesis that
the flow of
are
colder
is
the
rate
at
which
the
temperature
varies
from
The physical
two problems
302
ELECTROSTATICS
quite
dift'erent.
AND MAGNETISM.
are
at
a distance,
in
The methods of
given
particle
investigation
electricity
were also
has
to
different.
on a
the
of
be
determined
the
resultant
of
attraction of all
partial
In the other
a
we have
to solve a certain
differential
which
expresses
relation
between
out
the
rates
of
variation
tions
of temperature
throuoh
so
a point.
different,
Thomson, in
both
in
paper,
points
ideas
that
their
these
two
of
problems,
their
elementary
that,
and
analytical
methods, are
electrical for
by a proper
substitution
thermal terms in the original statement, any of Fourier's wonderful methods of solution may be applied to electrical problems. The electrician has only to substitute an electrified surface for the surface through which heat is supplied, and to translate temperature into electric potential, and he may at
once take possession of
flow of heat.
all
Fourier's solutions
of
To render the
available
but
another is an important service done to science, more important to introduce into a science a new set of ideas, belonoino as in this case, to what was, till then, considered an entirely unconnected science. This paper of Thomson's, published in February 1842, when he
to
the students of
it
is
still
first
introduced
into
mathematical
a
continuous
that
idea
of
electrical
it
action
earned
on
by means
of
had been announced by Faraday, and used by him researches, had never been appreciated by other men
and was supposed by mathematicians to be inconsistent with the action, as established by Coulomb, and built on by Poisson. laws It was Thomson who pointed out that the ideas employed by Faraday under the names of Induction, Lines of Force, &c., and implying an action transmitted
of electrical
of
medium
to
another,
were not
only consistent
in
with
a
the
obtained by the
mathe
new results. One of these new results, which we have reason to believe, obtained by this method, though demonstrated by Thomson by a very elegant adaptation of Newton's method in the theory of attraction, is the "Method of Electrical Images," leading to the "Method
matical form so as to lead to
was,
of Electrical Inversion."
ELECTROSTATICS
Poisson had already,
harmonics,
electricity
AND MAGNETISM.
303
by means of Laplace's powerful method of spherical the form of an infinite series, the distribution of on a sphere acted on by an electrified system. No one, however,
determined,
in
seems to liave observed that when the external electrified system is reduced to a point, the resultant external action is equivalent to that of this point, together with an imaginary electrified point within the sphere, which Thomson
calls
if in an infinite conducting solid heat is flowing outwards uniformly from a very small spherical source, and part of this heat is absorbed at another
Now
small
all
spherical
surface,
which we may
infinite
call
it
directions
through the
solid,
easy,
in
is
by
a
Fourier's
solid,
methods, to
calculate
the
and
if,
to
in
draw
the problem, this sphere becomes a conducting surface in connection with the earth, and the external source of heat is transformed into an electrified
electrical
One
of
these
surfaces
sphere,
and
point, the
flow
of heat at any point outside the sphere will become the electric potential
and resultant force. Thus Thomson obtained the rigorous solution of electrical problems relating to spheres by the introduction of an imaginary electrified system within the sphere. But this imaginary system itself next became the subject of examination, as
solution of
already solved.
in
beautiful
Liouville,
example of
this
8,
method
suggested by Thomson
Liouville's
a letter to M.
dated October
by any
the
mathematician,
till
Thomson
himself,
in
most
remarkable problem of electrostatics hitherto solved, relates to the distribution of electricity on a segment of spherical surface, or a houi, as Thomson calls
it,
electrical
forces.
The
solution
flat
includes
a very
important case of a
circular
dish,
and of an
infinite
screen
with
method
304
idea
of inversion
ELECTROSTATICS
AND MAGNETISM.
is
by
reciprocal
now
well
known
to all
geometers,
having
been,
we
suppose,
discovered
and
rediscovered
later
repeatedly,
though, unless
we
are mistaken,
than 1845,
But
earlier
trified
to
return to physical
we have
in
No.
vii.
a paper of even
Thomson shews how the force acting on an elecbody can be exactly accounted for by the diminution of the atmospheric
date (1843), in which
pressure
to
on
its
electrified
everywhere proportional
Now
this
diminution of
pressure
only another
in
name
for that
by means of which,
bodies
of that
takes place.
course
of speculation
to
science,
"We have dwelt, perhaps at too great length, on these youthful contributions in order to shew how early in his career, Thomson laid a soHd
for
foundation
theories
his
future
labours,
both
in
the
development
xni.,
if
of
mathematical
and
to
in
various branches
of science will
furnish
them,
they be dihgent,
We
must
mathematical
electrician,
the
next
part
as
of
this
volume,
in
which
the
his
established
attention to the
In such work
the mathematician,
he succeeds at
man
of science.
And
first
then a
of
improving species
a
and
lastly,
many
so
years'
experience
are
given
in
most
instructive
and
scientific form.
but
classified,
new instrument
permanence
of
own
wants.
He may
also
study,
in
the recorded
the
retention
of
rudimentary organs
in
manufactured
ELECTROSTATICS
articles,
AND MAGNETISM.
305
control.
A
to
ELCCount
W.
Thomson's practical
electrical
work
is
not referred
in this volume.
to be
hoped that he
of his
coils,
many
sushis
pended
this
by
papers on
electrolysis,
measurement
of
resistance,
electric
qualities
of
metals,
thermoelectricity,
and electro magnetism in generar'\ The second division of the book contains the theory of magnetism. The first paper, communicated to the Royal Society in 1849 and 1850, is The the best introduction to the theory of magnetism that we know of. discussion of particular distributions of magnetisation is altogether original, and
prepares the
way
for
is
This paper
on electromagnets
years, during
which time a great deal has been done both at home and abroad
trenching
Though
in these papers
we
equations bristling with old English capitals, the reader will do well to obser^*e
often
obtained
without
the
use
of
this
scientific English.
As regards the most interesting of all subjects, the ment of scientific ideas we know of few statements so
of
as
note at
electric
p.
419
relating
to
Ampere's
circuits
theory of magnetism,
molecules
of
currents,
:
flowing in
"
within the
the
magnet
he
goes on to say
From twenty
when the
materials
of the present compilation were worked out, I had no belief in the reality of
this theory
;
is
At
to
Oxford, I learned from Joule the dynamical theory of heat, and was forced abandon at once many, and gradually from year to year all other, statical preconceptions regarding the ultimate causes of apparently statical phenomena."
After a short, but sufficient, proof that the magnetic rotation of the plane
of
polarised
light
discovered by Faraday
is
implies an actual
of the
rotatory motion
of
part
phenomenon of magnetism, he
L,
W.
Thomson, Vol.
Cambridge University
Press, 1882.]
VOL. XL
39
30G
adds:
ELECTROSTATICS
AND MAGNETISM.
electro magnetic
"The
explanation
of
all
phenomena of
attraction
or
repulsion,
inertia this
and of electromagnetic induction, is to be looked for simply in the and pressure of the matter of which the motions constitute heat. Whether
is
matter
or
is
it
is
is
a continuous
itself
fluid
interper
or
molecularly grouped
whether
all
matter
or
is
finite
vortical
contiguous parts of
a body
it
is
impossible
science."
to
decide,
and perhaps
is
in vain
The date
of these remarks
1856.
"theory of molecular vortices applied to magnetism, electricity, &c." which may be considered as a development of Thomson's idea in a form which, though
rough and clumsy compared with the
turn as a provisional hypothesis.
realities
of nature,
may have
served
its
The concluding
of magnetic
force
sections
a perfect
for
They
forces
are
not
of
in
fact
the
are
They belong more properly to that remarkable extension of the science of hydrokinetics which was begun by Helmholtz and so ably followed up by Thomson himself.
kind to those of magnets.
Tlie
is
of pure geometry.
illustrations
It
true
of ordinary
fluids
are
very imperfect
of those
of the
But
it
is
circle
for
The
perfect circle
truly continuous
fluid is truly
homogeneous.
the portion
all
It follows, however,
if
fluid,
of the
its
is
wanderings through the fluid mass, the character of the motion thus impressed
it.
on
calls
it,
be
it
ELECTROSTATICS
character
molecule,
AND MAGNETISM.
which we
attribute
to
307
a
its
of
permanence
at
and
individuality
it
is
material
essential
while
capable,
while
retaining
characteristics
unchanged both
its
form in an
infinite variety of
of the
spectrum by which the species of the molecule may be discovered. It would puzzle one of the oldfashioned little round hard molecules to execute There was no music in those spheres. vibrations at all.
But
new conception
of the
to be
complete
his
papers on
But why
the same
field
?
Has the
multiplication of symbols
the
Cambridge Philosophical
Society, Vol.
ii.,
1876.]
LII.
On
the
Proof
of the
it
The
when the
difficult
not so imporscience.
method of physical
in
The expressions
the
forces
first
given
by Lagrange
Lagrange's investigation
may
be
namical equations, of which there are originally three for every particle of the
system, to a
In other words
number equal to that of the degrees of freedom of the system. it is a method of eliminating certain quantities called reactions
as
he
tells
the power of the calculus, and therefore he had to express dynamical relations in
teiTQS of the corresponding relations of numerical quantities.
it is
may
sciences.
We
must
certain
The nomenclature of dynamics has been greatly developed by those who in the doctrine of the Conservation of Energy, and will be seen that most of the following statement is suggested by the investi
309
of
Thomson and
Tait's
Xatuml
Philosophy,
especially
the
method
*I have applied this method in such a way as to get rid of the explicit consideration of the motion of any part of the system except the coordinates or It is important to the variables on which the motion of the whole depends.
student to
be
able
to
trace
the
way
in
is
That
this
can be done
is
evident from the fact that the symbols by which the dependence of the motion of the parts on that of the variables was expressed, are not found in the final
equations.
of motion
is
It
ought to be
to
so,
for it is
application
matter.
depend on their being useful in solving problems in dynamics. A higher function which they must discharge is that of presenting to the mind in the clearest and most general form the fundamental principles of dynamical reasoning. In forming dynamical theories of the physical sciences, it has been a too
frequent practice to invent a particular dynamical hypothesis and then by means The agreement of these of the equations of motion to deduce certain results.
results
to
deduce the
The true method of physical reasoning is to begin with the phenomena and forces from them by a direct application of the equations of
motion.
The
the
difficulty
of doing so
of the
we
arrive,
at
least
during
that
first
stages
investigation,
which are so
indefinite
we have no terms
It
is
sufficiently general to
express
strictly deducible
men
of statement by which ideas, precise so far as they go, may be conveyed to the mind, and yet sufficiently general to avoid the introduction of unwarrantable
details.
For
instance,
such a method
is
of statement
is
greatly
needed
of light.
in
order
to
and Magnetism, Vol. il. Part iv. Chap, from the point of view advocated in the text.]
v.,
the reader
the
Cambridge Philosophical
Society, "Vol.
ii.,
1876.]
LIII.
On a Problem
discontinuous.
The
January
1^ to
a problem in
in
an example of discontinuity introduced into a way somewhat different, I think, from any of those discussed
4,
was
set
as
Mr
In some of
Mr
was involved or
a curve
its
is
possibility
impUed
when
curvature
sidered as
must not be negative. In the case of figures of revolution congenerated by a plane curve revolving about a line in its plane, this
lie,
and therefore
and
it
is
efiicients
of a certain equation as
we
At a
certain point
coalesce
minimum
condition
with each other and with a maximum root. Beyond this point the root which formerly indicated a maximum indicates a minimum, and the other two roots
become impossible.
* Hesearclies in the Calculus of Variations,
<L'C.
:
If the velocity of a carriage along [The question referred to was set in 1873, and is as follows a road is proportional to the cube of the cosine of the inclination of the road to the horizon, determine the path of quickest ascent from the bottom to the top of a hemispherical hill, and shew that it consists of the spherical curve described by a point of a great circle which rolls on a small circle described about
circle.
How
is
problem?]
the
Royal
LIV.
I
On
Action at a Distance.
bring before you this evening.
attention
to
HAVE no new
discovery to
must ask
a
question
you to go
which has been raised again and again ever since men began to think.
The question
Does
this
is
We
see that
two bodies
at a distance from
medium
or
do the
?
bodies act on each other immediately, without the intervention of anything else
The mode
kind
difiers
in
this
my
special
aim
will
When we
assume that
is
observe
action
is direct and immediate, we generally inquire whether any material connection between the two bodies and if we find strings, or rods, or mechanism of any kind, capable of accounting for the observed action between the bodies, we prefer to explain the action by means of these
this
there
intermediate
distance.
to
Thus,
when we
first
ring
at last the
rung at
taken
ways,
part
as
one
after the
air
other.
We
is
may
to
by
with
forcing
into
which
bell.
is
cylinder
piston
which
made
fly
We
312
ACTION AT
also
DISTANCE.
it,
may
we may
connect
it
at one end
with a voltaic battery, and at the other with an electromagnet, and thus ring
the bell by electricity.
different
ways of ringing a
every
is
bell.
They
all
agree,
is
however,
the circumstance that between the ringer and the bell there
of
an unbroken
communication,
and that at
is
point
of this line
some physical
is
process
of time after the impulse has been given to one extremity of the
of communication,
is
on
its
way,
clear,
therefore,
that in
many
cases
distance
may
and it is asked, pair of a series of bodies which occupy the intermediate space we cannot which in cases those in whether, action, mediate of advocates by the perceive the intermediate agency, it is not more philosophical to admit the
existence of a
at present perceive,
not.
To a person ignorant of the properties of air, the transmission of force by means of that invisible medium would appear as unaccountable as any other example of action at a distance, and yet in this case we can explain the whole
process,
is
passed
on from one
Why then should we not admit that the familiar mode of communicating motion by pushing and pulling with our hands is the type and exemplification of all action between bodies, even in cases in which we can observe nothing
between the bodies which appears to take part in the action? Here for instance is a kind of attraction with which Professor Outhrie has made us familiar. A disk is set in vibration, and is then brought near a
light
if
drawn towards
by an
invisible cord.
What
is
this cord
Sir
W.
Thomson
has pointed out that in a moving fluid the pressure is least where the velocity The velocity of the vibratory motion of the air is greatest nearest is greatest.
the disk.
air
is
less
on the
side nearest
pressure,
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
313
not.
The
in
disk,
therefore,
it,
it
is
it
motion by pushing
of
portions
conse
of
the
excess
of
pressure.
The
force
therefore
a case of vis a tcnjo a shove from behind. The advocates of the doctrine of action at a distance, however, have not Wliat right, say they, have we to been put to silence by such arguments. Do we not see an instance of assert that a body cannot act where it is not ? action at a distance in the case of a magnet, which acts on another magnet not only at a distance, but with the most complete indifference to the nature of
the
matter which
occupies
the
intervening
space
If the
it
action
depends on
or whether
cannot surely be a
or not,
space
is
filled
with
air
wood,
glass, or copper,
asserts
act
on
one
another
the
across
immense
intervals
but that
the interior
two
of
portions
of
matter,
the earth,
sun,
act on
which
each
any medium takes part in must surely make some difference whether the space
If
this medium, or whether it is occupied by the dense matter of the earth or of the sun. But the advocates of dbect action at a distance are not content with
instances
phenomena, even at
first
sight,
appear to
maintain
that
They push their operations into the enemy's camp, and even when the action is apparently the pressure of contiguous
the contiguity
is
portions of matter,
only apparent
that
They
it
is
far
terrjo
to
prove that
it
does not
is
II.
to
glass lenses,
VOL.
40
314
one of which
of the electric
is
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
pressed against the
By means
Hght we may obtain on the screen an image of the place where A series of coloured rings is formed on the one lens presses against the other. These rings were first observed and first explained by Newton. the screen.
The
particular colour of
of the pieces
different
table,
of glass.
so
Newton formed a
corresponding to
distances,
we may
are
ascertain
in
The
colours
arranged
are
spherical,
and therefore
the place
the interval between the surfaces depends on the distance from the line joining
The
4000th
central
spot
of the rings
indicates
where the lenses are nearest together, and each successive ring corresponds to
an increase of about the
surfaces.
The
an ounce
place
lenses
;
are
now
is
but there
even at the
where
this,
they
I
are
nearest together.
prove
spot,
apply a greater
all
weight.
They are not in optical contact. To A new colour appears at the central
This shews that the surfaces
for
if
are
now
to
nearer than at
first,
therefore
increase the
weights,
But what we
cates
contact
is
much
than a wave
To shew that the surfaces are not in real contact, I remove the weights. The rings contract, and several of them vanish at the centre. Now it is possible to bring two pieces of glass so close together, that they will not tend to separate at all, but adhere together so firmly, that when torn asunder the glass will break, not at the surface of contact, but at some other place. The glasses must then be many degrees nearer than when in mere optical
length of light.
contact.
Thus we have shewn that bodies begin to press against each other whilst at a measurable distance, and that even when pressed together with great force they are not in absolute contact, but may be brought nearer still, and
still
that by
the
advocates
of
direct
action,
should
we
continue to
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
maintain the doctrine,
age,
facts
315
prescientiiic
all
not,
the
that contact
essential to action
were
in
reality
of
action
at a distance,
we
are
we must do
so
by obtaining
the
of nature,
of
up
philosophical language
the
loose
opinions
men
laws.
And
as
for
those
who
introduce cetherial,
or
other media,
to
account for
these
actions,
without
any direct evidence of the existence of such media, or any clear understanding of how the media do their work, and who fill all space three and four times over with aethers of different sorts, why the less these men talk about their
philosophical scruples about admitting action at a distance the better.
If the
it
progress
of science
first
law of motion,
ago
years
and by
the
we should
obtain
The progress of
celestial
science
in
rid
of the
heavens,
off
Magnets were surrounded by effluvia, and electrified bodies by atmospheres, the properties of which resembled in no respect those of ordinary effluvia and atmospheres.
still
Though the planets had already got rid of swimming in the vortices of Descartes.
they were
When Newton
heavenly
l)odies,
demonstrated that
the
force
which
with
acts
on
each
to
of
the
bodies
depends
on
its
relative
position
respect
the
other
the
phers
of the
new theory met with violent opposition from the advanced philosoday, who described the doctrine of gravitation as a return to the
causes,
attractive
viitues,
and the
like.
Newton
speculations,
l)y
which
is
in
which their mutual action depends on their relative position was a great step
:316
ACTION AT
science,
DISTANCE.
and this step Newton asserted that he had made. To explain the by which this action is effected was a quite distinct step, and this step Newton, in his Pnncipia, does not attempt to make. But so far was Newton from asserting that bodies really do act on one
in
process
another
at
distance,
independently
of
anything
between
them,
that
:
in
letter to Bentley,
in this place,
he says
"It
tion of
is
something
which
is
upon and
in
affect
other
must do
it
if
gravitation,
the sense of
in
That gravity
should
be
innate,
and
essential
to
matter,
so
upon another at
else,
by and
me
so
may be conveyed from one to another, is believe no man who has in philosophical
fall
into
in
it."
we
find
in his
Optical
Queries,
and
to
his
letters
to
Boyle,
by means of the pressure of a medium, and that the reason he did not publish these investigations "proceeded from hence only, that he found he was not
early
account for
gravitation
able,
satisfactory
account
of
this
phenomena of
The doctiine
discoverer
his to
of
to
universal
was
first
asserted by
Roger Cotes, in
life.
preface
According
Cotes,
it
is
not learn in
tation,
by experience that we learn that all bodies gravitate. any other way that they are extended, movable, or solid.
has as
We
do
Gravi
therefore,
much
right
to
And when
at
last
it
was the
till
prevalent,
power of attracting
is
the
Discoveries.
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
impossible.
inertia.
317
is
with
thought that
He did not forget, however, to endow his mathematical points In this some of the modern representatives of his school have he "had not quite got so far a^ the strict modern view of
'^'."
'
matter' as being but an expression for modes or manifestations of force But if we leave out of account for the present the development of
the
ideas of science, and confine our attention to the extension of its boundaries,
shall
we
see
that
it
was most
essential
to
was applicable
transmitted.
first
that
of
we should
first
investi
place, before
No men
the
could
be better
to apply
part
problem,
than
those
who
Accordingly Cavendish, Coulomb, and Poisson, the founders of the exact sciences of electricity and magnetism, paid no regard to those old notions of
"magnetic effluvia" and "electric atmospheres," which had been put forth in the previous century, but turned their undivided attention to the determination attract of the law of force, according to which electrified and magnetized bodies
or
In this way the true laws of these actions were distook covered, and this was done by men who never doubted that the action would who and medium, any of intervention the without distance, place at a have regarded the discovery of such a medium as complicating rather than as
repel
each other.
explaining the undoubted phenomena of attraction. have now arrived at the great discovery by Orsted of the connection
We
between
electricity
and magnetism.
it
electric
it,
current acts
neither attracts
nor repels
but causes
it
He
"the
electric
a revolving manner."
fact
The most obvious deduction from this new current on the magnet is not a pushandpull
accordingly
was that the action of the force, but a rotatory force, and
set aspeculating
ingenuity, first
Ampere, by a combination of mathematical skill with experimental proved that two electric currents act on one another, and then analysed this action into the resultant of a system of pushandpull forces
But
Revietc, Feb.
13, 1869.
318
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
is
of
extreme complexity, as
compared
to resolve
employed by Faraday
netism which have made this Institution one of the most venerable shrines of
science.
No man
all
his
powers
scientific
sisted in
mind than did Faraday from the very beginning of his But whereas the general course of scientific method then conthe application of the ideas of mathematics and astronomy to each new
career.
investigation in
turn,
a technical
Faraday seems to have had no opportunity of acquiring his knowledge of astronomy was
mainly derived firom books. Hence, though he had a profound respect for the great discovery of Newton,
mystery, which,
to
right
to
gainsay or
it
doubt,
his
in
Such a dead
faith
was not
to
lead
him
to
means of
form,
duect attractions.
Besides this,
the treatises of
Poisson
and Ampere are of so technical a them the student must have been
is
very doubtful
if
such a training
his
penetrating intellect,
his
opportunities for
experiments,
the
course
of
achievements
symbolism
been
the
had
hitherto
new symbolism
consisted
mind's eye saw as distinctly as the solid bodies from which they emanated.
The idea
of
lines
of
force
iron
filings
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
matically
himself, as
319
as
But let us hear Faraday an interesting curiosity of science. he introduces to his reader the method which in his hands became
so powerful^'.
aid
if
"It would be a voluntary and unnecessary abandonment of most valuable an experimentalist, who chooses to consider magnetic power as represented
of magnetic
force,
by
were to deny himself the use of iron filings. By their employment he may make many conditions of the power, even in comlines
plicated
cases,
visible
to
may
trace
relative
polarity,
may
is
observe
in
which
the power
is
increasing or diminishing,
points,
and
there
in
complex systems
neither
polarity
may
nor
determine
the
neutral
or
places
where
power, even
probable
results
when may be
By
their use
filing
becomes a
little
magnet.
The
poles of oppo
names belonging to different filings attract each other and stick together, and more filings attach themselves to the exposed poles, that is, to the ends In this way the filings, instead of forming a confused of the row of filings. system of dots over the paper, draw together, filing to filing, till long fibres of filinos are formed, which indicate by their direction the lines of force in
every part of the
field.
in this
ing at one view the direction in different places of the resultant of two forces, one directed to each pole of the magnet; a somewhat complicated result of
the simple law of force.
But
lines
Faraday, by
series
of
steps
as
remarkable
for
their
geometrical
of force a clearness and precision far in advance of that with which the mathematicians could then invest their own formulae. In the first place, Faraday's lines of force are not to be considered merely
as
individuals,
320
\
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
SO that the
inch,
lines
number of the
lines
area, say of
one square
indicates
of force become
in
lines
In the second
space
each
individual
continuous
existence
in
and time.
place,
When
when an
electric
own
new
lines
are
developed within
the magnet or current, and gradually grow outwards, so that the whole system
like
Thus every
its
of
force
its
preserves its
course
of
existence,
though
I
may
to
in conducting circuits,
force.
may
By means
the
of
this
new
symbolism,
whole
theory of
electromagnetism,
cable to
He went
force
of force
physical lines
electric
He
which
to
the
magnetic or
tends
to
produce
invariably
such
as
shorten
the lines of force and to allow them to spread out laterally from each other.
He
like
medium a
state
of
stress,
consisting
force,
of
a tension,
a rope,
in
the direction of
the lines
of
combined with a
to
pressure in
This
is
quite a
new
it
phenomenon of the same kind as that action at a distance which is exerted by means of the tension of ropes and the pressure of rods. When the muscles of our bodies are excited by that stimulus which we are able in some unknown way to apply to them, the fibres tend to shorten themselves and at the same time to expand laterally. A state of stress is produced in the muscle, and the limb moves. This explanation of muscular action is by no means complete.
It gives no account of the cause of the
stress,
nor
does
it
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
support this
action
stress.
321
that
substitutes a kind of
for
Nevertheless,
the simple
fact,
it
one of which
induces
at a
distance
the electromagnetic
field
as
transmission
how the
But
rotation
state of stress
is
produced.
one
of
of
Faraday's
light,
most
pregnant
simplest
discoveries,
that of
the
magnetic
polarised
enables us to
its
proceed
elements,
precisely
step
farther.
The phe:
nomenon,
when analysed
circularly
in
into
may
be described thup
Of two
rotating
polarised
opposite
in
directions,
ray
is
which
rotates
the
same
direction
as
of
the
magnetiziuL'
current.
It
follows
from
reasoning,
in
that the
of
this, as Sir W. Thomson has shewn by strict dynamical medium when under the action of magnetic force must be
state
rotation
call
that
is
to
say,
that small
rotating,
portions
of the medium,
which we
may
molecular vortices,
are
each on
its
own
axis,
tlie
Here, then,
netic
force
we have an explanation
magfrom
to
themselves.
It
arises
vortices
force acts in
is
the
of course
consistent
with
dynamical
principles.
We
done
have thus found that there are several different kinds of work to be
by the electromagnetic
medium
if
it
exists.
We
magnetism has an intimate relation to hght, and we know that there is a theory of light which supposes it to consist of the vibrations of a medium. How is
this
luminiferous
It
medium
medium
fortunately
from which
we can
is
by dynamical
medium.
according
41 to
This velocity
according
VOL.
to
II.
different
Now
the
velocity
of
light,
822
Foucault's experiments,
is
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
298 millions of metres per second.
In
fact,
the different
determinations of either velocity differ from each other more than the estimated
velocity of light does from the estimated velocity of propagation of small electro
magnetic disturbance.
But
if
media
occupy the same place, and transmit disturbances with the same velocity, what reason have we to distinguish the one from the other ? By considering them
as the
same,
we avoid
at
least
the reproach of
filling
space
twice
over with
medium
this
is
of propagation, agreeing in
respect with
all
disturbance which
we
call Hght.
Hence, for
we know,
nonconducting medium.
If
electromagnetic theory of hght will agree in every respect with the undulatory
theory,
firmer
will
be established on a
than
ever,
when
Coulomb by
great
Faraday's
fit
no longer be regarded
to
fill
waste places in the universe, which the Creator has not seen
with
to be
We
shall find
them
medium
so full, that no
from
the
smallest
portion of
space,
or
infinite continuity.
It extends
in
of hydrogen vibrates
vibrations
delivers
;
medium
its
and
in
after
carrying
them
in
immense
bosom
three
years,
them
full tale
of
Mr
Huggins, at Tulse
But the medium has other functions and operations besides bearing light from man to man, and from world to world, and giving evidence of the absolute
unity of the metric system of the universe.
as
Its minute parts may have rotatory and the axes of rotation form those lines of magnetic force which extend in unbroken continuity into regions which no eye has seen, and which, by their action on our magnets, are telling us in language not yet interpreted, what is going on in the hidden underworld from minute
well
as
vibratory motions,
to minute
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
323
absti^actions.
And
They
in
these
lines
are
medium is exerting a tension like that our own muscles. The tension of the medium
force
is
the direction
of
the
earth's
feet.
magnetic
in
this
country one
grain
In some of
lbs.
Dr
medium
is
in
same
able
elasticity
by which
it
able
also
to
act
as
a spring.
When
through
to
properly
wound
up,
it
which
the
it
draws oppositely
telegraph
bodies
together,
sufficient
produces
effects
length of
wires,
and when of
intensity,
leads
the
of
the
already discovered
all.
properties
of
that
which
has
They enable us
is
to resolve several
kinds of action at a distance into actions between contiguous parts of a continuous substance.
complication, I
Whether
this
resolution
of the
nature of exj)lication
or
must leave
to the metaphysicians.
412
[From Nature,
Vol. vii.]
LY.
Elements of
P.
Xatuml
Philosophy.
By
Professors
Sir
W. Thomson and
1873.)
G.
Tait.
Natural Philosophy, which is the good old English name for what is now called Physical Science, has been long taught in two very different ways. One method is to begin by giving the student a thorough training in pure mathematics, so that when dynamical relations are afterwards presented to him
in
the form of mathematical equations, he at once appreciates the language, if new subject. The progress of science, according to this
method, consists in bringing the different branches of science in succession under the power of the calculus. When this has been done for any particular science,
it
like
explorers,
though
perhaps
some use, as furnishing occupation to professional guides. The other method of diffusing physical science is to render the senses familiar with physical phenomena, and the ear with the language of science, till the student becomes at length able both to perform and to describe experiments The investigator of this type is in no danger of having no more of his own.
worlds to conquer, for he can always go back to his former measurements, and
carry
them forward
of these
Each
still
types of
men
of science
is
work
of
accomplish the
work of strengthening their reason and developing new powers of The pure mathematician endeavours to transfer the actual effort of thought from the nat