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20 th century British literature - lecture The earlier period: 2nd half of the 19th century Victorian Period (1857

-1901) The 2nd half in the 19th century, Queen Victoria was a very dominant figure all over the world, the British Empire covered a very large area in the world. It reached its golden age. Literary output of Victorian Age diversity: the classical literary forms gave way to diversity new literary outputs were born (travel literature, children’s literature) in fiction we can see diversification a period of transition

The Victorian age is economically the age of industrialization. Towards the end of the Victorian era is the age of industrialization and urbanization. Very important developments were taking place, the urban and industrial Britain was developing. We can see the developing of new social groups: working class and middle class were becoming more and more important. New reading public appeared, it was not so educated, had different taste, needed different literary works, more popular literature - era of the popular literature . High culture / elite culture for intellectuals, for those who were well educated more refined and low or popular culture was born for those who still needed some literature but less elite. Social reforms: working conditions have to be improved. Legislation needed for women’s employment, children’s employment, family issues (women left alone). Victoria tried to solve all these problems with legislations. This is the area of social reforms and education. Education: new law in 1870 - Fosters Education Act = elementary education is compulsory for everyone enormous change, practically everyone could read and write, increased the number of the reading public, gave rise to simple short literary works. In the Realm of Fiction


the 19th century novel was changed as a result of this changes (Thackeray, Dickens) the novel was getting shorter and shorter, the normal length was cut, language was simplified, more colloquial style was introduced, the role of the narrator changed:

o the 19th century narrator knows everything, everybody, has a higher position than the reader,
explanatory style,

o the 20th century modern narrator is uncertain, hesitant, share these hesitancy with the reader. 1


Genre of the novel underwent some change, literary experimentation took place; new experimenter forms were formed, maybe because the authors were uncertain, they don’t know how to speak with the reader and they began to experiment. This is the period of the rise/birth of the experimental novel.

20 th century


Victorian era came to an end in 1901 Before her death there were some signs that something new is going to happen, there were some signs of changes in literature In culture it is always very hard to tell when a period starts and when a new one begins, it is different from history. The end of the 19 th century can be seen as pre-modern era, which prepared modernism, while the end of 20 th century post-modern era.

Modern: 1st meaning-is contemporary, something what exists when we are living, 2nd meaning –something new, a contrast/opposed to traditional, something called avant-garde, experimental. (We use this meaning of the term) Period of Pre-modern


At the end of the 19th century, prepared the modernism declining role of Britain in the world, Queen Victoria’s huge empire was beginning to fall apart, weakening of the British empire, social changes, growth of the middle, working classes, education, reading public, general increase in society Academic and scientific background birth of new areas of science and research; birth of modern psychology (1890 American William James, the brother of the writer Henry James, a psychologist, published ‘ Principles of Psychology ’, the first book of modern psychology)



1900 Freud - The Interpretation of Dreams


1901 Freud - Psychopathology of Everyday Life Karl Jung developed a new technique, the technique of free association, and this technique was taken over by writers. 1905 Einstein - Special Theory of Relativity, he questioned everything the science had stated, a new period of doubt; changed physics and had tremendous effort on people’s thinking.


Early 20 th century A period of technological development, technological inventions - 1892 – Ford’s Model T (car, mass production of automobiles born, significant for mobility in the modern world. - 1903 the Wright brothers in America, Orwell and Wilburn Wright from Ohio, had their first successful flight (gliders – vitorlázógép), they travelled to Kitty Hawk in North Carolina to perform the 1st flight; mankind learnt to flight - technology can be used for the benefit of mankind at that time, after 10 years in WW I, the airplanes were used for military purpose, people realized that technique can be used for killing people, not only for the best of the mankind (use and misuse) Changes in Art


modern way of thinking appeared in art, e.g.: in painting 1890s Art Nouveau (French-German) was the major and most fashionable trend on the continent and Britain. (Britain from 1893) 1906 – the birth of modern Art: Picasso painted his 1st cubic picture, Damoiselles D’ Avignon, we can see the women from various perspectives, made up from geometrical shapes. He uses perspectives in a very new way - birth of cubism.


Cubic technique = influence on literature; cubists based their work on reality, Picasso broke up the reality into smaller pieces, we had a reality shattered, from those broken fragments Picasso created a new reality, arranged according to a new order. This is the analytical cubism: from old reality arranged a new reality. (Braque)


Writers do the same: break up reality. They broke up time lines, chronology, etc in the novels Fauvism: the Wilds in France (Matise, 1912 – exhibition in England) 1909 – birth of Futurism in Italy: Marinetti –Futurist Manifesto. Artists admired new technology; the speed, dynamism


1923 – the concept of Ready Made Art: Marcell Duchamp had a brand new concept of art: the role of the artist. He was French, lived in New York. Reformed the role of the artist. The traditional view: artists’ task is creation, the artist is the creator (since the Renaissance). According to Duchamp: the artist has a new role, not to create but to find art; the whole world is an art work, anything can be an artwork: a glass. a cup. The artist’s role is not creation but selection. Ready made art works are around us, ready madepiece of branch, glass, stone, cup. The artist has to rearrange them, select them to create an artwork-role is selection (*snow Shovel, The Fountain (a toilet bowl).


His followers: Dadaist Movement


all theses shaped writers’ thinking. the possibility that the world. It was filmed . if you see something more shocking. Shocked how cheap human life was. wanted to enjoy life as much as possible because they have learned that life is short .led to WWII. strikes. Summary: 1920s writers wanted to escape reality IN A DREAM WORLD THEY CREATED FOR THEMSELVES. many civilian casualties in the war (the number of civilian casualties outnumbered that of the professional soldiers). a literary expression of the WWI emptiness).endless parties. political and social consciousness in literature - WWII .era of the film.Stock exchange crash in New York City and a new era began in history in the early 1930s. BUT COMMON IS THAT THEY DON’T FACE REALITY. they felt general aimlessness. mass unemployment. 1930s . Max Ernst. chemical gas/warfare was used. nuclear bomb developed and used. - 1929 . war was brought into ordinary people’s life. because there are so many social and economical problems.- 1930s . drinking. all the horrors could be watched. but they think about universal issues of mankind. possibilities that little wars could escalate into a nuclear or new world war. possibility for survival. Cold war.Surrealist movement in Art ( Salvador Dali.WWI experience. - After WWI – period of emptiness. children. Writers responded to the shock of the WWI. 4 . very first which was very devastating. Korea. Writers escaped from reality into a dream world. called the Jazz Age (1920s) in American literature .first war fought world-wide. elderly women. constant nuclear stress . airplanes used for bombing the civil towns. There are tremendous problems all over the world. OR ALCOHOLISM. Dreams inspired many writers. They did not think too much about social everyday problems like poverty. Example: T. Writers developed a kind of sensibility toward social problems. Historical Events that shaped the 20th century - WWI . They wanted to enjoy life (it is so short The other group of writers mainly in America then in Britain. they write about poverty. It was a shock for many people. poverty. depression. In this period writers are forced to face reality. rationing of food. special creation of dreams was in literature. Eliot: ‘ The waste Land ‘ (A puszta ország). S. alcoholism. it was the first war in which modern technology was used. Vietnam. strikes. Magritte) Dream-like quality.period of Great Depression .another shock for writers. the whole mankind could easily be destroyed - After WWII – 1960s-1970s: period of small local wars. The whole period is called “the Waste Land period”.

After that the writers realized that they cannot solve the problems of the mankind. led to the birth of the existential novel and dystopic novel (opposite of utopia) which questions the possibility of a good world and a good society. 1941 – James Joyce + V. They began to write about smaller issues.George VI (1940 – German aeroplanes bombed London. children. Wallis Simpson. they could not save the world. Monarchs 1901 – Queen Victoria . long period on the throne Major problems: WWI.Edwardian England (1901-1914). Woolf + (suicide) 1952 .1910 .Queen Elisabeth II 5 . Depression. home politics was more important at that time.George V. 1910 – 1936 . This is fiction literature of the late 60s and 70s. there was a shift toward the left.emphasized foreign politics.Edward VII . WWI caused disillusionment. not very much.Edward VIII. 1901 . He followed the politics of Victoria. broken family. like family problems.The survival of mankind become major problems for writers. Georgian Era. 1936 . strictness of Victorian morality was breaking up. but we can see that it became easier. the rigidity. he concentrated more on home problems. New problems in literature: divorce. The Labour Party was becoming stronger. abdicated from the throne (very short period) 1936-52 . no major problems abroad.

devices will be the major change in modern literature. his escape. West Indies. tells about Captain Lord Jim. discoveries. born in the Ukraine. - Settled down in England and begun to write. Stevenson. how he is going to suffer from what he has done. The consequences of his escape. he escapes. how this past will ruin him and destroy him. spoke French in his childhood. Africa. he does not face the problem. He tells us a story of a shipwreck. he does not face the trouble. Latin America. of his weakness are the focus of the novel. who has problem. his native language is Polish. drive him into madness. His words are very carefully chosen. The sea experiences were the major experiences for him. 6 . sea novel – this is the English literary tradition the writers chose to write about sea experiences. the use of psychological characters. the focus is very new. The focus of the writer is different. he doesn’t stay on the ship to supervise everything while the ship is going down. - But Conrad wrote about sea experience from a different point of view. a Polish man. His birth name was Korzeniowski.The birth of the modern NOVEL Joseph Conrad: - first modern novelist in the 20th century English literature. He does not deal with the traditional strong man. travelled a lot all over the world. He was already 32 years old when he wrote his first novel. - The writer has a new psychological focus: the consequences of his weakness. His language and style praised by the critics perhaps the best language and the best literary styles say the critics. but he escapes. Not an England-born. he learnt English as a second language as an adult. sentences put carefully together. became a sailor. Lord Jim is a weak man. 1889 – ‘ Almayers Folly’ 1897 – ‘ The Nigger of the Narcissus’ 1900 – ‘ Lord Jim’ used his own sea experiences. went to India. - psychology has become the major issue. and adventures: Defoe. He will see what happens to Lord Jim afterwards.

African tribes. poets. he has language problems. Conrad’s novels are very long but this one is short -this is a new form – this is his masterpiece. it is the elegant part of London. They did not care about the outside word. He wants to describe the ultimate evil. Old values are not example of modern multiplicity in literature. adventure novel. - a new type of narrator: immature. The journey into the heart of Africa will be an allegorical journey into the human soul. but characters’ psychology. - Because of this isolations/carelessness. Bloomsbury is a district around the British Museum. He focuses on the characters’ psychology.Heart of Darkness - The novel is short now and very focused. There are all the ingredients of an adventure novel but he is not interested in adventure novel.psychological level . ultimate evil. critics. novelist. They wrote about elite culture. This is an allegorical journey we take in this novel. the knowledge and the language to describe what is happening. the darkest side of the humans. Congo River. cruelty. intellectual way of writing. clever.1902 . exotic wild life. historians.philosophical novel. young black boy. - This novel can be interpreted on various levels: . - The leaders of the group: Virgina and Leonard Woolf (Virginia: critic. wildest parts of the human mind and soul. tells a story of a voyage into the heart of Africa. short story writer. they were accused of being insensitive. He does not understand.adventure novel. An uncertain narrator who does not have the understanding. 1904 Nostromo 1906 The Secret Agent 1910 Under Western Eyes Lord Jim and ‘Heart of Darkness’ changed literature Early 20 th century literature Bloomsbury group a group of intellectuals lived and worked together in London. . terrors) that there is nothing valuable except friendship and culture in this world. and painters. suffered from negative criticism. The world is so terrible (wars. writer. In this group were writers. his husband: critic) 7 . maybe for themselves. no word exists to elicit the complexity of the world. . they got criticism and suffered from accusation and negative criticism. They established and used a very elite. homosexuality. cannibals. and cruelty.

a 19th century American writer. went there 2 times.Vanessa Bell. in his early novels he criticized the Victorian age. The Passage to India (1924) - his major work is Walt Whitman. he was a professor at Cambridge University where he had a young Indian student. there is a house and a lady who lives there.Edward Morgan Forster Edward Morgan Forster . His attitude was different from Forster’s attitude. slow agony.Lytton Strachey was a critic. egoistic nations.- Members of the group: . very negative thoughts about living peacefully together. - 8 . criticized the Victorian Age and its authors in his work: Eminent Victorians . First visit took place in 1912 and 10 years later in 1922. he was very sceptical about the coexistence of different cultures. extremely well educated. criticism of the Victorian age. has a long poem with the same title. - Foster has personal experiences in India. Whitman’s attitude to other countries was very different from Foster’s attitude. Earlier works: - Where Angels Fear to Tread (1905) The Longest Journey (1907) A Room with a View (1908) A critical approach to the Victorian Age. they were friends and he invited him to India.Douglas Grant (painter) . and weakness of Victorian values. - Foster had negative thoughts of other cultures. . appreciations of other cultures. Whitman showed up very positive values. he was a European. His personal experiences inspired him. symbolic use of the house to criticise the Victorian Age. He took the title from Whitman but the view is very different. Howard’s End (1910) - a symbolical novel. Whitman wrote about the wonderfulness of multicultural existence. Isolated life.professor at Cambridge University. symbolizes Victorianism. had darker.

- 9 .Hindu Cave – British Each concentrated on one man from different culture. he wants to find out who is more powerful in a relationship. This element will always be with him. general cultural issues. published in the 1980s. He was from a mining village. it was impossible to publish in Britain. After this novel for a long time he did not publish any novel. - Foster says no to an intercultural relationship between a man and a woman at the beginning . the possibility for a friendship is left open but at the end of the novel that possibility disappears. His father was a miner. who belong to different religions and different cultures. - major symbols and allegories: The novel structurally consists of three parts: - Mosque – Muslim population Temple . He was also under the impressions of Freud’s teaching. his mother was more educated. she was a teacher. So Foster’s answer to this possibility is negative at the end. The wife of his university professor Frieda von Richthofen translated Freud for him. rainy weather. not his personal experiences. India as a colony. a place where different people have to live together . He could see. the physically strong man or the intellectually strong woman. Deals with religion. Lawrence influence of Freudian thoughts. Also the time is treating interestingly by Foster because each section. of conflict will appear in almost all his writings. multicultural issues that are a major issue today. They eloped. relationship.what remains is the possibility for friendship between two men in the novel. He was interested in how different cultures could coexist. in his own home experience the fight between the parents. representing one ethnic group and religion. Man – woman relationship: NO Man – man friendship: failure - The novel has very deep philosophical. In his works there are biographical elements. Muslims. philosophical. This kind of fighting. goes away. spiritual content. here the writer concentrates on the issue of culture. There are 3 seasons in India. MIDDLE ENGLAND. hot. Maurice explicit homosexual content. the cold. after they got married. He could read Freud before he was well known and translated in England. each part is equivalent with one season. - D . He looks at the possibility of intercultural friendship. from the so called BLACK COUNTRY.Christians.H.- But it is not about adventures. Hindis. strict censorship.

it is under the Freudian influence. mining father. The possibility of a new life is there for him. they go together to school. intellectual depth. what kind of food they ate. what problems they had. There are two love relationships. The girl is a reminder of the mother and because of this it is not a satisfactory relationship.Sons and Lovers - one of the famous. First part: follows the childhood and the adolescence of Paul Morel. He wrote short fiction. Novels 1913 . had a heavy autobiographical influence. Mother is sick. wrote literary criticism. life in a mining village – also a topic in the first part. suffers a lot. stories and novels. including the sexual instinct had a very important influence on his work. it is about pure sexualism. emotional growth. 10 . The first part continues the English literary tradition. with the death of his brother. But he also writes about the life of the minors. he wrote a lot. He also concentrates on the region. Not long ago they collected his paintings and there was an exhibition at the Barbican Centre in London. intellectual. The end of the novel is about this liberation in which he leaves the village and goes towards the town. partly autobiographical novel.a married women . The tradition of English regional novel pops up. he had grown up. One of them is a girl from a neighbouring farm. more intellectual mother. The power of the instinct is a very important motto of his literary work. neither of the two is satisfactory for the young man. has cancer. life in the Black Country. because it lacks the sexual aspect. and the lights of the town invite him. After the mother’s death he has new challenges to face in life. Miriam is similar to Paul’s mother. it is fail as a sexual relationship. here he followed the tradition of the English realistic novel (Dickens). in a small mining village. she is an intellectual girl. The novel takes place in the region where he lived as a boy and man. he also wrote poetry. The other relationship . in the black country.- Freud’s teaching. his love relationship is focused on. - Second part: young man. his love poetry written to his wife is very important. his well known work is The history of American Literature . Paul is very close to his own mother because of the constant fight between mother and father. overdose of painkiller. the family resembles his own family. we can see him on the road. growing up as a man from adolescence into a man is the topic of the second part. Lawrence leaves the end of the novel open. He is said to be a talented painter. the power of instinct. son helps her die. he always took the mother’s side. - The novel consists of two parts. what kind of houses they lived in. The traditional English Bildungsroman follows the physical. spiritual. concentrating on miners life. He was a very diverse author. According to Lawrence he fails in his relationship because the mother’s influence was too strong. it follows the process of growing up of a young boy from childhood to adolescence. loves nature.

The Kangaroo The Plumed Serpent . he meant the flow of inner experiences. and endless flow of the stream of consciousness of its one or several characters not a literary term. South France . He was influenced by mysticism in the second period of his life. Greece. the power of instinct is present on every page of the book. E. Mediterranean Italy. Died in France.: Richardson . they travelled to hot places. Stream of consciousness novel - grew out of modern psychology its subject matter is the uninterrupted. it was used in psychology first.(tollas kígyó) South America. belonged to early modernism.- This is a new type of the novel. Mexico. search for warm places. Lawrence travelled a lot in his life in the Mediterranean. inner thoughts are concentrated on. symbolical meaning. the theory of association was applied to the human mind. for the inner experience.g. Locke freed the human mind from strict logic. The novel has some symbolical power. Dickens. WWI broke out and his tuberculosis). ideas of Freud. The idea of John Locke was used. Great Expectations) as a conscious literary technique. an American psychologist used it for the first time. 11 . at the end of his life.not published because its very explicit sexual scenes. Stern – Tristan Shandy (an early example). Earlier literary trends already had some elements of this techniques. Australia. James Joyce used it first in literature. but there were some beginnings in the literature of sentimentalism. they concentrated on the inner personality.epistolary novel. inner thoughts.g. uneven. thoughts. the prototype of the Freudian Oedipus complex. emotions of the characters. emotions. Stern. Very clearly the Freudian influence is here. He had personal reasons (moral. It was published posthumously in the 1960s. Australia. south-Africa. Travelling influenced his life. Lawrence has a sanatorium.: sentimentalism: used the emotions of characters. Richardson. William James. it was born in the early 20th century by Joyce. South America. 1915 The Rainbow 1921 Women in Love 1927 Lady Chatterley’s Lovers . In 19th century English literature are some novels by Charles Dickens that concentrate on the inner conception of the human being (David Copperfield. Sentimentalism. E. He wrote very spontaneously.

all the characters. various nation. a place where modern psychology and psychiatry was practiced. He wanted to forget about Ireland. – This novel remain unnoticed. international were of great influence on him. major seaport. Freud lived there. not suitable for artists. settled in Europe. received only some attention in 1935 when it was made to a part of a ‘ Pilgrimage ’. above national culture. various culture. a lot of restrictions. Also lived in Zurich. He is Irish. with a lot of international characteristic features. - He lived in three different places in Europe afterwards.very rigid. . – she has a female character in this novel. after that he left Ireland. the freedom of the mind. in which she used the stream of consciousness for the first time. Jung practiced there. she is in the centre of the novel. - - He attended a Jesuit boarding school . thus became very directly influenced by modern psychology. he remains Irish whatever you read from him. He wanted to write universal books for the whole world.Mediterranean. busy life. events of the outside world are seen through the consciousness of a woman. it is a very religious country. very strict orders. Irishness had major influence on him because he has looked at his own country as a major obstacle for him.Pointed Roof (1915) – novel. the famous Trinity College. from the first to the last word. It was another important place for him. Switzerland. That is a paradox of James Joyce’s life that although he wanted to be free of his Irishness and to be a universal writer. intellectual milieu was not possible to achieve there. above nation. another literary work. creativity.Dorothy Richardson . all his work take place in Ireland. wanted to be a free writer. He attended the university in Dublin. James Joyce made the technique famous and available. He lived in Trieste . All his characters are Irish. intercultural. from Dublin. and he had daily contact with them. Negative experience of religion. 12 . lots of people. the freedom of the intellectuals is not possible to achieve in such a rigid country as Ireland. He went back to Ireland only once in his life for three days when his mother was dying. and there is no plot. James Joyce Irish. – The whole world is seen through the eyes of the woman.

Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) - autobiographical novel. and the impossibility for self-realization. Ambitions. at the end objectivity. Joyce’s Works Chamber Music (1907) . subjectively written childhood memory pop up. relates to Joyce himself. Daedalus wants to escape. building the wigs .cosmopolitan features of life was also significant. childlike language. Bildungsroman. Dubliners (1914) - collection of short stories 15 short stories represent different types of failure. he sees the world more objectively. Stephen was the first saint of Christianity =1st Irish tradition.Ireland. limited vocabulary. greatest novel. The centre character is Dublin. - Main character: Stephen Daedalus. an artist but was kept as a prisoner. too. 13 . - Style is changing. Young hero in the Jesuit boarding school.His first book is a book of Poetry . motive of the escape. personal to objective.After that he turned to short stories. - Daedalus: refers to mythology. mostly failures of self-realization. was a creator.- Paris . varied from the lyrical through the dramatic to the epic style. flying high. Why is he called so: relating to religion. the milieu. centre of the avant-garde literature and it was an ideal place for him to work.David Copperfield. Jane Eyre. Language becomes more and more mature. Great expectations Covers the period of 1885-1902. Joyce was descending himself from Dublin.tragedy. Stephen Daedalus appears in Ullysses. he wants too much. aspiration. a prisoner. built a labyrinth.a park in Dublin Joyce loved very much. also: (Goethe uses for the first time) . Ulysses (1922) his major. Idea of imprisonment . He is distant from Dublin at the end. Stephen’s Green . The stories can be enjoyed individually At the beginning first person narrative but it will shift to third person narration. starts out subjectively. He does escape. Can be related to Ireland and his personality.

he invited him into his house. Ulysses Penelope Faithful. the universe is shrink into 1 town. Rewrites Homer’s great epic. son. Daedalus is in search of a father figure. they never talk about it.Bloom goes to a pub. loyal. He is a middle aged. Modern version of Homer’s epic. here Leopold Bloom’s adventure during one day. He is looked upon by his country man - One day to be followed: June 16th 1904 .- major achievement in epic tradition continuation of the story of Stephen Daedalus. Story related to the modern world. lives in Dublin. she is ready to sleep with her impresario - Deedalus: Leopold Bloom sees his son in him. - Main character: Leopold Bloom. He works. fat. 14 . Wife: - The work can be compared to Everyman. This day is called in literature Bloom’s day. Daedalus is a student there who goes back to Ireland to visit Plot and characters are built on ancient epic novel Ulysses written by Homer. not exists. he is not at home even in his country. This day is called Blooms day We can find the modern equivalent of the classical heroes in the book Homer = adventures.the whole universe we get acquainted with is squeezed into one town. - Penelope: faithful to her husband for many years. they have no baby (it died) but they don’t talk about this painful topic. they suffer from it. but son-father relationship fails. Molly – a parody of Penelope. little. with his wife. it is too painful. they used to have a baby who died. a weak man. Modern equivalent of the classical heroes. and he is lonely. ready to sleep with her impresario not existent in this novel. S. He is a stranger. they suffer from it. he is abandoned from everyone. finds his wife inelegantly. He is not even an Irishman but a Jew (Hungarian) whose ancestors lived in Szombathely. L. abandoned by everyone. Molly want a singer career easily. bold. It is too painful. Modern example of great deeds and heroism. wife. he went to Europe to study there. Leopold Bloom’s journey from life to death. meets Stephen Daedalus. Daedalus is in search of a father figure and Bloom of a son. Modern allegory of human life. but it fails. one day. for many years Son: loyal Leopold Bloom Molly A parody of Wants a singer carrier easily. There is no place in the world were he could feel home.

lives in London. Not yet stream of consciousness but the fragmentation Mrs Dalloway ( 1925) stream of consciousness - two main characters : a man and a woman Mrs Dalloway is an English lady.1941 died Joyce and V. we are placed in her mind. father: Leslie Steven (Victorian critic. a very ordinary man.- Style: stream of consciousness. end of the great period of the English novel. a doctor. lonely. - she is a prolific writer. . a failure. who is invited for the birthday party but he is late because of the suicide The 2 characters shares a lot of things: . commits suicide at the end. one character but the 2 sides of it. she is lonely . belongs to each other with many links.Mrs Dalloway also committed suicide . Poor. soldiers and the death of a soldier The young character: lyrical. Woolf (committed suicide) Major period of English literature was over. they had unhappy affairs. 15 . Virginia Woolf - representative of the Bloomsbury group decent of a literary family. 2 sides of 1 person.they are very unhappy events. they never met only linked by a 3rd person. the Times literary supplement. Does the shopping. and everybody is seen through her mind. she worked for the Times’ Sunday edition. impressionistic.homosexual affairs .their life is the same. Orlando. she is rich. Very different and very same. and this is her main problem: list of guests. They don’t know each other.although married. mosaic like. after that: vacuum. To the light house Political novels: - Lawrence died 1930. She wrote many novels: To The waves. - Septimus Smith is a I WW veteran. she is occupied with organizing a birthday party. - Jacob’s Room ( 1920) first novel deals with WWI. editor of the Literary Biography series) Another representative of stream of Consciousness technique. Virginia started her career as a literary critic.

short novel: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner - features a young working class boy sentenced to a juvenile prison. The young criminals are normal. it was important for him. only diagnosed the problem but did not see the way out Angry young men period - the Angry Young Man movement comes from a play by John Osborne: Look Back in Anger this play features young working class hero. discontent but tries to suppress the problems as he did not see the way out from his problems. Working class background. The whole novel takes place in it.features a working class hero.On Saturday. working class hero. angry with his life. comes from Nottingham region. angry. Allan Sillitoe . self-educated man Experience in the WW2. sleeps with different women. - 16 . violent. John Wayne: Hurry on Down. a working class background. disillusioned. he could read literature 1950s he started to write. 1959 . John Brain: Room at the Top. he is unable to offer solution to his problems.- The writers of the new generation turned to new topic. . This was the prototype for writers. rebellious. started out as a regional writer. .uneducated. The normal world is abnormal. Sunday Morning . On Sunday morning sobering. he realizes that it is not a happy life.Anger is not Enough Young Man! emerged in the 1950s He could develop further – found the solution – anger is not enough young man. 1950s the angry decade in England Kingsley Amiss: Lucky Jim = cultural disillusionment. They wrote about similar characters. not knowing what to do with his own life. Arthur Seaton. drinks. he fought in it in Royal Air Force After was he spent some time in a sanatorium. .it’s a typical example for angry young man novel. gets drunken. Sunday he goes out. uneducated. where there is no solution from the situation. lonely. unhappy. - Saturday Night. outside: normal/honest world is represented by the management of the prison. Inner life: young criminals.Consists of 2 parts: growing wild and sobering. not a nice experience.

kind of autobiography Seaton family invents a younger brother. Brighton learns – education is the key being educated one can help oneself - Later writings: short stories about family issues. Women. When he runs his mind is free. marriage. abandoned children Men. Brighton Seaton like himself. marriage comes as a solution offered by 19th century authors. Life outside the prison is even worse than the young people inside. writers it is not a new issue 19th century women authors female writers. will gain symbolical significance (running) He uses photographic techniques.Key to the Door . Finally decides on losing. Children: collection of stories. problems of the broken family. several autobiographical similarities provide the key to the door. what he doesn’t like.- Running is freedom for him. If he loses. Smith has the dilemma if he wins the race he will confirm to the world outside. Feminist Writers Women as novelists. They can achieve social advancement - marriage and love are solution. enjoyable. it was always marriage. single find self-realisation. love. its a path for women through which they can achieve social position. female characters They considered female problems. he found a solution – anger is not enough 1961 . happiness 20th century women writers are different 17 . divorce. - Prototype of everyday young man Flashback: looking back on his life Places much emphasis on everyday objects (tv). he will confirm to the “normal” world. family issue they tried to find solution for female problems.

motives. and also travelled on the continent died young. no plot but some minor elements. she travelled back and forth in time. according to how radical issues they deal with and how radical answers they come up with Moderate group: . does not keep to chronology. details are repeated so often than they gave importance lack of the conversional plot there are minor objects.Doris Lessing Margaret Drabble We think about the feminist literature from the 1920’s Kathryn Mansfield originally a New Zealander her literary career is a very typical. in relationship it is not the end in their writing but the beginning.from the colonies talented. starting point is women’s social roles the role of women in marriage. and returned to England again and came over to stay. young people went over to England to study 1903 Prince College. also experimented with time. she comes from the Australian elite . in 1923 from tuberculosis get married and travelled through Europe remarkable her trips to Germany. during her stay she began to write her specialty is short fiction story.Kathryn Mansfield Ivy Compton -Burnett Radical group: . seemingly insignificant characters special style: uses everyday language. the same story is told from different point of view - - - 18 . after having completed her studies 1905 continuously lived in England. 20th century author takes up the issue as a beginning point They can be classified into two major groups. famous for it her short stories are perhaps the closest to the Russian author Chekhov she is the author of small details seemingly uneventful. the use of multiple point of view. and they carry it further this is were they continue 19 century story ends with a marriage as the happy they take up the issue of women and women writers where the 19th century women writers dropped it. after that she returned to New Zealand only briefly. she came to England to study comes to London to study .

steps back. the characterization. description of places.time - The period she focuses on is the period of Edwardian England. not the everyday language of the period but she adopted a stylised language. women. the family itself is violent - - - - many of her novels are about tyrannical people within a family. she did not provide longer prose text. all these features are developed through the dialogues in the novel. they are moving these dialogues are not very naturalistic dialogues. men more but sometimes women too 19 . the reign of king Edward (Edwardian England.characters - focuses on women of the upper-middle class she did not consider the description of setting. published in: 1922 “ The Garden Party and Other Stories” 1923 The Dove’s Nest 1924 Something Childish and other stories (posthumous too) Ivy Compton-Burnett - she was a remarkable novelist she had a very narrow focus in her novels steps back a little in time. given in the dialogue - - the dialogue gives a special dramatic feature to her novels. all other information is revealed through dialogues anything else which is important like characterization or description of places.Her first successful short story volume published posthumously is: “In a German Pension” “Bliss and other stories” perhaps the most famous one. what things might happen in the county house characters are members of family. the world inside the family home is something violent. focus on the family life very special view of the family. she focuses on women representing upper-middle class) 1st . but consistent novel usually take place in the countryside. she creates a fictional world which is far from the world of naturalism but it is very consistent and very powerful a natural fictional world is created. in country homes she looks in this country home as a kind of laboratory. looks back in time 2nd . considers the dialogue the most important part of the novel. not a protective environment. writes about the period of post Victorian time. but her novels are entirely built on dialogues. the family has a protective function but in her novels it is disruptive.

but that was the time when her works became widely known. was an activist. married several times. she became known as an author by his name. and although her marriage failed and she got divorced she kept her name published under this name - - She wrote novels. she experienced a lot. she published by her married name. revolted against oppressions. and the innocents will lose. incest her novels are dark. non-fiction (criticism and essays) 1st novel : The Grass is Singing o o o autobiographical novel set in South Africa concentrates on a marriage o to explore the mind of a poor woman 20 . there is no force inside or outside which can help. moved. murder. various kind of rape. which made her very active in political movements. she was a restless character as a woman and as a writer. encountered with different kinds of oppression. Family in negative term In the Victorian era family appeared as something positive. too Lessing the name of her second husband. parents served the British crown. there is often a crime within the family. divorced several times. and the post Victorian world is dark and very cruel - She is also a member of the moderate group Published:  A House and its Head Parents and Children Daughters and Sons Elders and Betters    Doris Lessing - belongs to the more radical group of the feminist authors born in Persia (Iran). short stories. as Doris Taylor they were typical colonial people. revolted against oppression was a kind of revolutionary character. travelled a lot in her childhood.- family is described as very cruel. also lived in South Africa for a wile - all these experiences were important for her. cruelty will always win. Victorian morality is the morality of the past. but the Victorian family is falling apart. was interested in politic issues.

they are very popular.Pandora. she explores the life of single women in England experiments with the technique: several different notebooks appear.o the novel follows those events that cause her distraction (in a marriage which are called the distraction of a women) o story similar to Room 19 o concentrates on the role of women in modern society Children of Violence here she explored the role of women in the modern society Her most unique and experimental work was the: Golden Notebook the most rebellious novel. Short stories: Room 19 Margaret Drabble Narrowed down her focus Deals with the problem of intelligent women. different version of the same story several different notebooks appear. good jobs Often characters are university professors who have a dilemma of starting a family or carrier - Most famous novel: The Millstone explores a single mother and her problems inability to cope with life and love. there are publishers who specified in publishing feminist literature . who have degrees. they sell well. Virago Feminist criticism 21 . each has her point of view - - She is known as a very good short story writer. Women’s Press. the baby will teach her how to love and adopt - The Waterfall There are many more feminist writers. and several version of the same story will pop up in the novel 4 characters argue.

William Hazzlitt Thomas de Quincy: On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth - It offers new analysis of Shakespeare’s work. The Nature + classics Informal is new and more modern in action born in the Victorian period e. 19 century essayists: e. 22 .: . Biography or Autobiography: new literary forms were born in the Victorian period. Not only the criticism of literary work written by women Offers new view as far as traditional literary works are. Charles Lamb.g. R. new approach to Shakespeare’s plays. essays) writing can be divided into fiction and non fiction Non-fiction prose is as important as the fiction part. in restorations time Shakespeare’s works were not really appreciated. non-fiction prose is as much part of literature as novels. literary reviews belong here . he was considered too messy.Today we can speak about feminist criticism.W. etc - The kinds of non-fiction prose 1. Emerson: The American Scholar.divided into subgroups: - formal essay informal (familiar) essay Formal essay: the most traditional one. essay: one of the most important forms.g.the 19th century essay rediscovered Shakespeare as a major author 2. new analyses. too . stories. can be analyses from the feminist point of view Famous essays in feminist criticism Juliet Mitchell: Psychoanalysis and Feminism Patricia Spacks: The Female Imagination Mary Jacobs: Women Writing and Writing about Women Linda Kaufmann: Gender and Theory –offers very important pieces of feminist literary critics - - Place of literary criticism within the literary world - Literary criticism is part of non-fiction prose (reviews.

Reports: shorter thesis of non-fiction prose Churchill: Dunkirk 5. Milton was involved about the execution of the king If the people have the right to execute the king and whether or not the king’s power is a divine power or not 7. Coopers Literary Offences because he was very unhappy about his Indian stories Literary Criticism = the evaluation of the literary works - Is devoted to the comparison. purpose very powerful piece of writing often political Thomas Paine: Common Sense Swift: A Modern Proposal War of Pamphlets.- biography autobiography is also important Samuel Johnson 18th century major figure in the English literature and editor of the 1st English dictionary-said: “who is tired of London is tired of life” - Macauley: (Victorian biographer) The Life of Samuel Johnson 3. Declarations / Manifesto Jefferson: Declaration of Independence 6. analysis. the interpretation and the evaluation of literary works Development of literary criticism: 23 . Preface it is a prose text which introduces other literary works Wordsworth + Coleridge = Preface to Lyrical Ballads-it is the program for the English Romanticism Johnson’s Preface to the English Dictionary - - 8. Pamphlet: short essays concentrates on one topic. Speeches / orations: Milton: Aeropagitica 4. Review Essay / critical essay in literature Mark Twain: James F.

Giambattista Vico. they followed classical rules 16th century the first work Sir Philip Sidney: Apology for Poetry (1595) a detailed analysis of the art of poetry.18th century = interested in new approach. philosopher. use of nature in literature (1819) - Alexander Pope: Essay on Criticism (1711) Major change. only fragments Ancient Rome . each historical period has its own rules 3. he revolted against neo-classicism 1798: Preface to Lyrical Ballades = Vico’s effect on English literary criticism 24 . no absolute rules in literature 4. He changed completely literary criticism. very little survived Aristotle’s Poetics: dealing with literary theory.Horace: Ars Poetica (deals with poetry) Cicero In English literature - it was born in the Renaissance period.major dilemma after Cromwell’s empty time for dramatic arts Dryden’s essay deals with this. comedy Plato: does not form coherent work.Dryden: Of Dramatic Poesie 1668 (playwright) which model the new English theatre would follow/ should use --.- begins with ancient Greeks.the classical period’s rules used by classical writers are not god for the new age 2. turning point in literary criticism occurred in Italy. essayist. very important work. Developed the historical approach Historicism in criticism revealed to people that there is no internal rules in literary works. critic. critical methods. which direction to follow Written in a form of dialogue 4 people are engaged in the discussion each person represents one specific point of view Dryden wrote several other works French or ancient English? = dialogue from this essay Classical period . defined tragedy. 1. discussion of 16th century literary works - In the 17th century: Restoration Period .witnessed a new approach (18th century). going closer to Nature .

- 25 . Her husband was a critic too Started her criticism as a reviewer for the Times and the Sunday Times. emotions The most important writers are the most important critics Wrote the first concise history of literature history - Virginia Wolf as a critic Most important character in 20th century literary criticism Hereditary in her family. Bestsellers enormous influence of mass media on people’s taste great amount of reviewing but very few good critics - D. new concepts rise in literature confusion of standards: new concepts e.point of view of the readers (not deals with writers) 2.collected in a volume: The Common Reader = several critical essays In it two important essays 1. How to read a book .Romantic Period: early 19th century 1817 . Appreciations He had a profound interest in literary thinking His idea influenced the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. H.Shelley: Defence of Poetry 1820 the essay changed the informal essay was born in the period toward the end of Victorian Period: major critic general in art Victorian age: rediscovery of Shakespeare Walter Pater. Her father Leslie Steven was one of the most important critic in Victorian era. Modern Fiction – (more traditional) she criticizes Victorian as a critic there Later her works were published .g. chaotic.Coleridge: Biographia Literaria 1820 . Lawrence was a critic and literary historian Criticism is not a science. Decadeism ) - - - 20th century literary criticism - became more diverse. critic in art: The Renaissance. Literary Supplement . English symbolist poets and Oscar Wilde Contributed to the Philosophy of Aestheticism (L’art pour L’art.

opposed the start-system. audience. performers. encourages writers to experiment. folklore built into the play and perform them to Irish audiences Yeats was the president 1904 Theatrical Company: The Abbey Theatre Company - opened in Dublin in Abbey street. the community theatre was the major concept of the company. played to Irish audience. to have Irish plays written. The Gaelic League was founded in 1901. they were against the well-made drama. to promote the use of Gaelic language - Irish National Theatre Society 1901 was found-aim to establish a community. to be honest Kinds of non-fiction prose: Irish Theatre - Cannot be separated from the Irish Renaissance which occurred at the very end of the 19th century Irish people wanted to save Irish language + Irish culture Poetry + Drama can save the language Drama is a kind of community art = art of the spoken world To save the Irish culture and the Irish language the drama played a very significant role Within the movement of the Irish Renaissances The Irish Theatrical Revival played a central role The language played a role. acting style. small theatre building very important.- What are the values in literature? She says: No set values in literature. each member is a contributor to the success. community of writers. each member of the company had a role wanted to perform unique plays wanted to perform plays by Irish authors. the performances were simple. they introduced a new theatrical system a theatrical product as a product of a community . designers believed in theatrical realism wanted to get rid of fashionable 19 th century over-emotional (melo)drama. simplicity of the theatre (theatrical purity and simplicity) Irish playwrights wrote for the Abbey Theatre Two generations of Abbey playwrights: 1 st generation: Yeats: Lady Gregory Synge - - 26 . believed in the purity. design. realistic in scenery. an organization which wanted to revive the languages. try out new things There is only one value to be true.

combination of songs music and dance. Cathleen in Houlihan Countess Cathleen - - This beautiful young woman appears in his plays . concept changed. very patriotic. met simple Irish people. quiet simple Irish people. no traditional plot. the historical events were important for him. Shaw .the Abby theatre in 1904 was opened with this play Early plays. symbolizes Ireland Land of Heart’s Desire: another early play On Bailey’s Strand . he rather belongs to the English Theatrical Tradition William Butler Yeats: 1 st period: Poetry period - Lived in London. time when Ireland wanted to fight his independence (Easter Uprising. Irish Civil War) he worked for the free Irish State as an MP. uses Irish folklore. Irish topic. lived an isolated life as an older man on the estate of his friend Lady Gregory. it become more abstract Influenced by the Japanese oriental theatre.B. no text.2 nd generation: O’ Casey G. spent a lot of time in rural Ireland.abstract From 1910 his theatrical view. Abandoned Irish topic Language + masque + song + dance are combined in this period - 27 . represented Irish culture and folklore for him (modernism – rural Irish folklore) his Irishness. passionate Irish plays. left the political scene. stands for.although he is Irish. performers wear big masques and costumes. no words. he was disappointed. very enthusiastic 2 nd period from 1910. by the Japanese Noh play Japanese Noh Play influenced him. very patriotic . modern literary trend influenced him – symbolism Other influence: childhood. in small villages. who was a rich woman and during this period he wrote his lyrical poetry 1899-1909 this period is called his theatrical period - first period: wrote plays based on Irish folklore at this time his theatrical activity was more dominant than his poetry worked for the National Theatre Society and as a playwright at Abbey theatre wrote plays based on Irish folklore . after few years in politics.

intellectual author Wide range of interests Adopted a special style. ridicules the Irish characteristic features (Irish nationalism was at its peak. a tragedy a remote island at the Irish coast tragedy. the police had to make peace Riders to the Sea - a short tragic story. takes place in a very remote fishing village - 28 . to test wife’s fidelity he fakes death-comic situation Makes an ironic tragic-comedy from it to depict the tragedy of these people’s lives Ironic tragic comedy backwardness of thinking.- Wrote 4 plays in the 2d period. wants to test fidelity. played for a very narrow group of audience lost popularity J. traveller speaks elegant language known for theatrical scandal Play In The Shadow of the Glen 1903 - - - - The Playboy of the Western World - ironical play. loneliness this people suffer from Comic situation in order to explore the tragedy Combination of the language couple speak Irish dialect.isolation. very elevated Elizabethan English language combined with Irish dialect simple people used = mixture Dramatic style Combined tragedy + comedy Motif: an old man takes a young wife. he tests his wife’s fidelity. very often the topic of comedy. dreaming characteristics they recognized themselves.Synge Contemporary of Yeats Very scholarly. they live in a very distant isolated place. the old man is jealous. there was a riot in the theatre) when the audience saw these negative characteristic qualities of Irish people. they are collected into a group with the title “ Four Plays for Dancers” played not for the general Irish audience.W. broke the furniture. they were upset so here was a riot in the theatre the audience revolted against they saw in the play. their inability to act. travellers come.

his father was English suffered a lot from double identity he chose to be Irish as an adult. there is war going on in Europe (WWI). lack of education. he changed his name . backwardness Sean O’Casey - 2 nd generation Abbey Theatre playwright. a Dubliner. brought up in the slum of Dublin he educated himself he had to work as a boy to support his family. isolation. many children in the family. period of Uprising and Civil War motifs (on the flag)-best play. later he almost went blind probably because of it. set in slum of Dublin. the time is wartime. in Ireland (Eastern Uprising) + internal war in people - War is a universal experience 29 .wanted much bigger audience but failed Abbey period: Irish topic Eastern uprising + issue of independence The Shadow of a Gunman Juno and the Peacock The Plough and the Stars (1916) - Written on the issue of Irish independence. was born into a protestant family. loneliness. the worst scenario. Gaelised his name he was born in a very poor family. they are all the inhabitants of the slum.topic. Irish plays 2 nd group = English period. hunger. Eastern Uprising. his name was John Casey. He went to London at his second period of life . self educated man - his background is important especially in his early/1st period wrote plays for the Abbey theatre 2 groups: - 1 st group = Irish period. symbols Year 1916.- the fishermen’s wives’ lives are depicted wives are waiting for their husbands to come home and the play ends with a tragedy because there is a storm. fighting the British He concentrates on women and children instead of men. Fishermen die tragic. but he read books from the public library at night. are more appreciated by critics. English plays his Irish plays are much better.

fight against poverty. she doesn’t want to live in a dirty place. Nora is a young.Expressionism in the novel . - - Bessie: dirty old women at the beginning = will rise.The Drums of Father Ned 30 .Inclusion of songs. lives in a mess.Language is not easy. radio speeches. her husband was English but has died. tape recorded announcements about war events. ruins her.tragic heroine falls. the only one who will take care for her and is with her . hard to see who is the main character.these are the early plays . weak. she is suspicious. The others does not like her - Bessie. Nora in her madness will go near the window because she will hear the song from the street. Whole play is written in slang. from his childhood . her baby will die.the author was familiar with . she becomes mad --. doesn’t have a job. they don’t like her too 2 women in the community fall and rise in the play. There are 2 women (Nora and Bessie) concentrated on. they are usually coward. doesn’t give up fight. she wants to have a nice life. too.Large cast . she is pregnant. peak of the play is a dark scene: when the Easter Uprising put down by British.characters are not very individualized .worked for London theatre . revolutionists of the time . people hide in their homes. spoken by the Irish in the slums of Dublin . and he was hurt. others look at her suspiciously. more intelligent.many characters in the play .snipers who are hiding behind the windows in their houses and they want to shoot Nora and Betsy the old women who is with her.after 1927 . 1 rises Experimental characteristic of the play: . intelligent woman. she saves Nora’s life and sacrifices herself 1 falls. exact words of Irish patriots.Includes documentary materials in the play. the rest of the women hardly like her. and decided to leave Dublin. Nora falls. will jump in front of her and is accidentally shoot by the British - Betsy will become a real hero. definitely not he men. she cleans. absent - women are more important. very organic part of the play .The Abby theatre rejected one of his plays. she doesn’t understand that the British shoot people. an outsider from the community.Within the Gates . speaks a dirty language she is a protestant.- Features many characters. others look suspiciously at her. she is an outcast.British soldiers marching singing songs. leave everything behind and he moved to London 2 nd period. her counterpart is an old woman. she is very poor. because she is more educated. her husband leaves her.

Autobiography: I Knock at the Door 31 .Red Roses for Me .He rejected his earlier naturalism..Cock-a-Doodle-Dandy – comedy . used most complicated allegories . issues like war. religion are addressed (pacifism). a period of depression . poverty.more universal.