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Towards d IWRMand dRiver i Basin i Planning l i i inNepal: l TheBagmatiRiverBasinExperience

Shishir Shi hi Koirala, K i l SDE, SDE W Water t and dE EnergyC Commission i i S Secretariat t i t ArnaudCauchois,SeniorWaterResourcesSpecialist,ADB LanceGore,WaterResourcesSpecialist,ADB LaurentAnstett,Researcher,IWMI

TowardsIWRMandRiverBasinPlanninginNepal: TheBagmati RiverBasinExperience g p

BagmatiRiver,Guhyeshwori takenduringthefestivalof'Chhat'

BagmatiRiverBasin

1 Introduction 2 Keyissuesandchallenges 3 Opportunities O t iti 4 Way ayforward o a dfor o Bagmati ag at Basin

Introduction

Introductioncontd

Altitude (m) 1000 2000 3000 0 0


Sundarijal

Shiva apuri Range e

Kathmandu 30
Teku Dobhan Nakkhu Khola Con nfluence Damodarghat Ku ulekhani Khola Conf fluence

Upper Part

60 M Mahabharat Range R 90 (i) Distance (Km) 120 150 180


Badharwa Bramhapuri Kokhajor Kho ola Confluence

Middle part

Siwaliks S
Marin Khola Co onfluence Raigau

Introductioncontd

Lower Part

way Bridge Mahendra Highw

Chandi Khola Co onfluence

Tera ai

210

Introduction
The Bagmati Riverisatributaryof theKoshi River(GangesRiver) originatingfromthenorthofthe KathmanduvalleyintheShivapuri hills. hill Ithasacatchmentareaof3,710km2 inNepal. ItisveryimportantforNepal strategically,religiously,culturally, economically,sociallyand environmentally. environmentally Availablewaterisutilizedforwater supply,irrigation,hydropower, religious cultural religious, cultural,industrialand recreationalusewithinthebasin.

contd

BagmatiRiverBasin

1 Introduction 2 Keyissuesandchallenges 3 Opportunities 4 WayforwardforBagmati Basin

Keyissuesandchallenges UpperReach Pollution P ll ti and dE Ecosystem t degradation(Uncontrolleddisposalof


Enforcingcomplianceof thelawsandtheir effectiveimplementation Inadequateinfrastructural facilities(sewersystems, t t treatment t f facilities, iliti waste t disposalsites)needtobe addressed.

solidandliquidwaste;Morethanhalfof thefishspeciesintheriverhave disappeared;Biologicallydead)

Keyissuesandchallenges(contd.)

Unplannedgrowing urbanization (Migrationdue

tohigh t hi hlevel l lof finsecurity, i it lack l kof fjob j b opportunities,health&education facilities)

Proper p urbanp planning g Landusezoning& theirproperexecution fornewurbanization process Improvementofthe oldersettlementsfor waterandsanitation access.

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont)

demandofdrinkingwaterin Kathmanduvalleyisabout330 millionlitersperday.Onlyabout137 millionlitersperdayduringwet seasonand70millionlitersperday duringdryseasonissupplied.Only onethirdofdesignareairrigated duringdryseason.Waterconflicts)

WaterScarcity(Totalestimated

Augmentthedischargeof th Bagmati the B ti river i i in KathmanduValleyand downstream Regulatethegroundwater extraction

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont)

Degrading D di C Cultural lt land d heritagesites(Many


culturalandhistoricalheritage sites,eg Pashupatinath temple, alongBagmati riverbanksand othertributaries)

Immediateneedto protect,conserveand renovatetheimportant cultural,historical, religiousandheritage sitesfromfurther degradation.

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont)

(17squattersettlements;2,134 people,1985;Increasedto64;14,500 peoplein2003andmanyriversides havebeenencroachedupon permanentlyforprivateresidence, schools,offices,businesscentersroad constructionetc.)

Ri b River banks k encroachment h t

Demarcation of the river areas River side land use map p Law enforcement to protect the land from encroachment & effective implementation p of building codes.

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont)

Sandmining(river
deepening,narrowing, i impact tonriver i environment)

Findalternative livelihoodfor thepeoplewho d depend donth the incomefrom sandextraction.

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont)

Overextraction O t ti of f groundwater(Haphazard

extractionofgroundwaterand depletionofgroundwater table;5to6timesmorethan criticalrechargevolume)

Regulatingthe groundwater d extraction Protectionofthe recharge h area Findingsuitable alternativewater sources

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont) MiddleandLowerReach Watershed degradationand waterinduced disasters(Deforestation,


Integratedwatershed protection W t induced Water i d d disasterforecasting system Earlywarningsystems needtobeinplace

soilerosion,flooding, landslidesetc)

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont)
Othercommonissues Institutionaloverlap andlackofcoordination andintegratedplanning
(7Ministriesandnumerous departmentsdirectlyinvolvedin waterrelateddevelopmentand managementandhundredsof NGOs)

Centrallevelp planning g, coordinatingandregulating bodywithpropermandates Preparationof basinwide IntegratedWater ResourcesDevelopmentand Managementmasterplan. Establishment bli h of fRiver i Basinorganizations

Keyissuesandchallenges(Cont)

Lackoffinanceandinfrastructure development(Limitedfinancialresourcesand
inadequate q waterrelatedinfrastructures) )

Securingenoughinvestmentfunds& mechanismforinfrastructuredevelopment& theirsustainableoperation&maintenance. Privatesectorinvolvement ModalitiesforPublicPrivatePartnership

BagmatiRiverBasin

1 Introduction 2 Keyissuesandchallenges 3 Opportunities 4 WayforwardforBagmati Basin

Opportunities

Actsandregulations
WaterResourcesActin1993. WaterResourcesStrategy,2002andtheNationalWater Plan,2005. IntegratedWaterResourcePolicyandNepal'sLongTerm WaterResourcesandEnergySectorVision(2050)under formulation. Numerousothersectoral policies,acts,regulations(soiland
watershedconservationact,forestryact,environmentprotectionact, Irrigationpolicy policy,regulation;drinkingwatersupplypolicy, policy regulation; .....etcinplace)

Opportunities (cont)

Institutionsandmandates
NationalPlanningCommission,NationalWaterResources D l Development tCouncil C il. WaterandEnergyCommissionSecretariat:Centrallevelpolicyand
planninginstitutionfordevelopmentandmanagementofWaterResources andEnergysector.

HighPoweredCommitteeforIntegratedDevelopmentof Bagmati Civilization:Mandated M d t d t tok keepthe th Bagmati B tiRiver Ri and dits it


tributarieswithinKathmanduvalleycleanbypreventingthedirectdischarge ofsolidandliquidwastestotheriver.

S Sectoral l Ministries, Mi i i Departments, D Regional R i land dDi District i level l l officesforimplementationofprojects.

Opportunities (cont)

Tourism T i
Religious (Pashupatinath,
Budhanilkantha,Swoyambhu, Budhanilkantha Swoyambhu Boudhanath etc)

Historical (Kathmandu,
Lalitpur,Bhaktapur Durbar squares

Treaking (Shivapuri National


Park,Phulchowki ,Godavarietc)

Riverboating,sightseeing

Opportunities (cont)

PublicAwarenessBuilding
SupremeCourtrulingon Bagmati pollution 100sofNGOsforBagmati improvement protection improvement, protection, cleaningetc Publicdemandanddesireto improveBagmati Color Od Odor Filth

Opportunities (cont)

Past P tactivities ti iti


NumerousstudiesrelatedtoBagmati basinhavebeenconducted RelativelyBagmati basinhasmoredatabaseavailableascomparedtoother basins Manysectoral developmentactivitieshavebeenundertakeninthebasin, manyofwhichcouldbeintegratedintoIWRMconceptwithlittlebitof effort. ADBassistedTA7547:ImprovingwatersecurityinBagmati RiverBasin (20102012),outcomes:
Bagmati RiverBasinProfile IdentificationoffutureinvestmentprogramsforimprovingwatersecurityinBagmati basin

Opportunities (cont) Presentactivities


WECSactivities
WithDHM(DepartmentofHydrologyandMeteorology) ThreeRiver BasinOrganizations(Koshi,Gandaki,Karnali)beingestablished WithWWFNepalKoshi RiverBasinManagementProgram:Pilotingof IWRMactivitiesinDudhkoshi andIndrawati rivers(tributariesof Koshi) UnderWorldBankfundedIrrigationandWRMProject RiverBasin OrganizationsinBabai andWestRapti Riversbeingestablished

HPCIDBCworkingoninterceptordrainsconstructionalong Bagmati,WasteWaterTreatment,awarenessgeneration, riverareaimprovement Othersectoral organizatins withtheirmandatedworks

Opportunities (cont)
ADBPPTA8050:PreparingBagmati RiverBasinImprovementProject
IntegratedandparticipatoryRiverBasinManagement
SupportforRBOformation,legalandinstitutionalstrengthening Establishmentofcentralwaterresourcesinformationsystem PreparationofIntegratedRiverBasinDevelopmentandManagementPlan

UpperBagmati riverenvironmentimprovement
Dry yseasonflowaugmentation g (dam ( construction) ) Riverenvironmentimprovementandbeautification(checkdamsandriverright ofwayprotectionbeautificationworks) Watershedmanagement

Integratedrivertrainingandirrigationdevelopmentinmiddle/lower Bagmati area


Irrigationdevelopment Erosioncontrolandrivertrainingworks Waterinduceddisastermitigation(earlywarningsystem,floodforecastingetc)

Opportunities (cont) ADBPPTA:KathmanduValleyUrbanEnvironment ImprovementProject


BeingdevelopedasasisterprojectofBRBIP TosupportBRBIPrequirementsintermsofeffluent waterquality,interceptordrainsandwatertreatment facilities

BagmatiRiverBasin

1 Introduction 2 Keyissuesandchallenges 3 Opportunities 4 WayforwardforBagmati Basin

WayForward

Utilizetheopportunitiesavailabletomeetthe challenges
Proper p implementation p ofBagmati g RiverBasinImprovement p Project j (BRBIP)andKathmanduValleyUrbanEnvironmentImprovement Project(KVUEIP) TheWECStobegivenade facto centralleadingroleinplanning planning, guidingandpolicyformulationwithinthewaterresourcesandenergy sectors. FormationofaRBOfortheBRB(possibilityofHPCIDBC). HPCIDBC)

WayForward(cont)

WayForward(cont) PossiblestructureforBagmati RBO

WayForward(cont)
P fIWRM Progress of
G id li P t2 1 Guidelines Part2-1
The IWRM Spiral Conceptual Model

Ideal Goals (Add d V (Added Value) l )

Mature Stage

Environmental conservation

Developing Stage
1 Recognizing & 1. identifying 2. Conceptualizing

Re-allocation of water Renovation of facilities Water use Flood control Hydropower

From Scratch Stage 3. Coordinating &


planning 4. Implementing, monitoring & evaluating

1. Recognizing & identifying

IWRM Process

WayForward(cont)
P fIWRMfor f Bagmati B ti Basin B i Progress of
G id li P t2 1 Guidelines Part2-1
The IWRM Spiral Conceptual Model

Scratch Stage
Implementation of BRBWRD&MP Bath-able water quality at Pashupatinath No odor No N solid lid wastes t Implementation of BRBWRD&MP (2015)

Review & Updating of BRBWRD&MP (2018) BRBIP &KVUEIP Implementation (2013)

Bagmati RBO Formation (2014)

Int. BRB wat. Res. Dev. & Mngt. Plan Preparation (2015)

Monitoring &Evaluation HPCIDBC and Its activities (1996)

PPTA: BRBIP & Other sectoral acts and KVUEIP (2013) Regulations/projects Water Resources Act (1992) WECS (1981) TA 7547: Water security In Bagmati Basin (2012)

Water Resources Strategy (2002) Bagmati Action Plan (2009) National Water Plan (2005)

WayForward

DiverseIssues MultipleChallenges Keysfor f S Success


Committed and strong political backup Adequate Ad i i i institution, resource and d legal l l mandate d Stakeholder involvement / consultation from the very early stages of planning InternationalKnowledgeandExperienceSharing

Everybodyisracingwiththeirutmostcapacitytoreach futuretargets;wejustwanttogobackinthepast:just30 b k!! yearsback!!


Currentsituation Target(picturetaken30yearsago)

Pashupatinathtemple:theBagmatiriverbanks cremationsite

Th kyouf Thank foryourkind ki dattention tt ti !