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PHStat2 Version 2.

6 Users Guide

Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall, a division of Pearson Education.

Table of Contents
PHStat2...............................................................................................................................1 Version 2.6..........................................................................................................................1 Users Guide........................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents...............................................................................................................2 Introduction........................................................................................................................5 What is PHStat2?...........................................................................................................5 What PHStat2 is not......................................................................................................5 How PHStat2 Presents Its Results...............................................................................6 Preparing Data for Analysis.........................................................................................6 PHStat2 Commands..........................................................................................................7 Data Preparation Menu................................................................................................7 Stack Data....................................................................................................................7 UnStack Data...............................................................................................................7 Descriptive Statistics Menu...........................................................................................8 Box-and-Whisker Plot.................................................................................................8 Dot Scale Diagram.......................................................................................................9 Frequency Distribution................................................................................................9 Histogram & Polygons...............................................................................................10 Stem-and-Leaf Display..............................................................................................11 One-Way Tables & Charts.........................................................................................12 Two-Way Tables & Charts........................................................................................13 Decision-Making Menu...............................................................................................13 Covariance and Portfolio Analysis............................................................................13 Expected Monetary Value..........................................................................................14 Expected Opportunity Loss........................................................................................14 Opportunity Loss.......................................................................................................15 Probability & Prob. Distributions Menu...................................................................15 Simple & Joint Probabilities......................................................................................15 Normal.......................................................................................................................15 Normal Probability Plot.............................................................................................16 Binomial Probabilities...............................................................................................16 Exponential................................................................................................................17

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 3 Hypergeometric..........................................................................................................17 Poisson.......................................................................................................................18 Sampling Menu............................................................................................................18 Random Sample Generator........................................................................................18 Sampling Distributions Simulation............................................................................19 Confidence Intervals Menu.........................................................................................20 Estimate for the Mean, sigma known........................................................................20 Estimate for the Mean, sigma unknown....................................................................20 Estimate for the Population Variance........................................................................21 Estimate for the Proportion........................................................................................21 Estimate for the Population Total..............................................................................22 Estimate for the Total Difference..............................................................................23 Sample Size Menu........................................................................................................23 Determination for the Mean.......................................................................................23 Determination for the Proportion...............................................................................24 One-Sample Tests Menu.............................................................................................24 Z Test for the Mean, sigma known............................................................................24 t Test for the Mean, sigma unknown.........................................................................25 Chi-Square Test for the Variance..............................................................................26 Z Test for the Proportion............................................................................................27 Two-Sample Tests Menu.............................................................................................28 t Test for Differences in Two Means.........................................................................28 Z Test for Differences in Two Means........................................................................28 F Test for Differences in Two Variances...................................................................29 Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test..........................................................................................30 Chi-Square Test for the Differences In Two Proportions..........................................31 Z Test for Differences in Two Proportions................................................................32 McNemar Test...........................................................................................................32 Multiple-Sample Tests.................................................................................................33 Chi-Square Test.........................................................................................................33 Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test..........................................................................................34 Levene Test................................................................................................................34 Tukey-Kramer Procedure...........................................................................................34

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 4 Control Charts Menu..................................................................................................35 p Chart........................................................................................................................35 R and XBar Chart.......................................................................................................35 Regression Menu..........................................................................................................36 Simple Linear Regression..........................................................................................36 Multiple Regression...................................................................................................37 Best Subsets...............................................................................................................38 Stepwise Regression..................................................................................................39 Utilities Menu...............................................................................................................40 Fix Up Chart..............................................................................................................40 Remove Worksheet Cell Tints...................................................................................40

Introduction
This guide describes all PHStat2 commands, in order of their appearance in the PHStat menu in Microsoft Excel. For each command, this guide explains how to select the command, provides a summary of what the command does, and presents a sample dialog box. For more detailed information about a PHStat2 command, open the PHStat2 help file (PHStatHelp.hlp) directly on the Windows desktop or by clicking the Help button in the dialog box for the command. (You can also choose Help for PHStat for the PHStat menu, as is explained in the beginning of the PHStat2 Commands section.) You should also review the PHStat2 readme file on the PHStat2 CD for technical requirements and security considerations of this software and consider visiting the PHStat2 version 2.6 web page on PHStat Web site (www.prenhall.com/phstat) for any late-breaking information about the software or for further technical assistance. What is PHStat2? PHStat2 is software that makes operating Microsoft Excel as distraction-free as possible. As a student studying statistics, you can focus solely on mastering statistics now and not worry about having to become an expert user of Excel at the same time. When combined with the Data Analysis ToolPak add-in included with Microsoft Excel, just about all statistical methods taught in an introductory statistics course can be illustrated in Microsoft Excel. What PHStat2 is not PHStat2 is not designed as a commercial statistical package and should not be used as a replacement for packages such as SAS or SPSS. Because PHStat2 emphasizes learning, PHStat2 tries to use the methods of calculation that a learner could easily follow and would find presented in a textbook that discusses manual calculation. In other cases, PHStat2 uses pre-existing Microsoft Excel methods to produce results that are too complex to manually calculate or present to the learner. These choices will occasionally produce results that are not as precise as those produced by commercial packages that

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 6 rely on methods of calculation which are fine-tuned to the limitations of computing technology. While these differences are not significant for most sets of data, real-world data sets with unusual numerical properties or with extreme values could produce significant anomalies when used with PHStat2 and Microsoft Excel. How PHStat2 Presents Its Results PHStat2 produces new worksheets and chart sheets inserted into the currently active workbook. Cells containing important values and results are highlighted by a light yellow tint and boldface text. These cells and the cells that hold intermediate calculations are usually only minimally numerically formatted. For some procedures, the values in these cells will have an excessive number of seemingly significant digits and you may want to change the numeric formatting for such cells for presentation purposes. Worksheets that contain cells tinted in light turquoise are designed to be interactive and you can change the numeric values of those cells to produce different results without reselecting the PHStat2 command Preparing Data for Analysis Place your data for analysis by PHStat2 in columns. If you are selecting only part of a column if a pre-existing worksheet, copy that partial column range to a blank column or worksheet. Generally, you should place your data starting in row 1, using the row 1 cell for a heading label, if desired (this is recommended). No cells inside a column range should be left blank. Due to the limitations of Microsoft Excel, select the worksheet (make it the currently active sheet) containing the data to be analyzed before selecting the PHStat2 procedure that will use the data in order to proper operation. If you forget to do this, you may encounter an error message that refers to an unexpected error or an error in handling a cell range, although PHStat2 procedures that do not use the Data Analysis ToolPak are more forgiving of this than others. For procedures that require two or more cell ranges, such as all of the regression procedures, make sure that all your cell ranges are from the same worksheet.

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PHStat2 Commands
When properly installed, PHStat2 displays the PHStat menu shown at right as part of the Microsoft Excel menu bar. Use the Help for PHStat choice at the bottom of the menu to display the PHStat2 help system inside Microsoft Excel. Use the About PHStat choice to determine the actual version of your software (this will be useful when using the PHStat2 web site or seeking technical assistance.) All other menu choices lead to a submenu that contains commands associated with the choice. The rest of this section of the users guide presents those (submenu) commands in order of appearance in the menu. Data Preparation Menu Stack Data Takes group data that has been arranged in columns and stacks it into two new columns, the first one of which contains the group labels, on a new worksheet. The Unstacked Data Cell Range must be a consecutive multiple-column cell range arranged one column per group. Use: Select PHStat Data Preparation Stack Data.

UnStack Data Takes grouped data that has been placed in two columns, one of which contains group labels, and unstacks it into a series of columns, one for each group, on a new worksheet.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 8 The Grouping Variable Cell Range must be single column cell range containing the group labels and the Stacked Data Cell Range must be a single-column cell range containing the data. Use: Select PHStat Data Preparation Unstack Data.

Descriptive Statistics Menu Box-and-Whisker Plot Generates box-and-whisker plots on a new chart sheet from one or more groups of numerical data. Optionally generates a five-number summary on a separate worksheet. This command invisibly uses the Chart Wizard to construct a plot from a hidden worksheet that PHStat2 creates. Use: Select PHStat Descriptive Statistics Box-and-Whisker Plot.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 9 Dot Scale Diagram Generates a dot scale diagram as a chart object on a new worksheet that also contains the numerical data plotted and a summary table of statistics. Use: Select PHStat Descriptive Statistics Dot Scale Diagram.

Frequency Distribution Generates a table that contains frequency counts and percentage frequency values on a new worksheet. When used with a multiple group option, the frequency table for each group is placed on a separate worksheet. Use: Select PHStat Descriptive Statistics Frequency Distribution.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 10 Histogram & Polygons Generates a frequency table and a histogram on a new worksheet and optionally generates polygons on separate chart sheets. When used with a multiple group option, the frequency table and histogram for each group is placed on a separate worksheet and the multiple group data are plotted together on the same polygons. Because the command invisibly uses the Data Analysis Histogram procedure, the command uses bins and not class groupings to create a frequency table. A bin is a number that specify the maximum value for a class. Bins are entered as an ordered, ascending list of values in a contiguous cell range (the Bins Cell Range). A bin range containing values 0, 10, 20 would correspond to these three classes: all values less than or equal to 0, values greater than 0 but less than or equal to 10, values greater than 10 but less than or equal to 20. Because the first class will be always open-ended towards negative infinity, this class will never have a true midpoint. Therefore, this command expects that your Midpoints Cell Range will be one cell smaller than your Bins Cell Range and will assign the first midpoint to the second class. Use: Select PHStat Descriptive Statistics Histogram & Polygons.

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Stem-and-Leaf Display Generates a stem-and-leaf display using the rounding method on a new worksheet from a set of numerical data and optionally generates a summary statistics table on the same worksheet. Letting PHStat2 autocalculate the stem unit is recommended but if used, the Set stem unit as value must be a power of ten. Due to the limitations of Microsoft Excel, this command may produce a plot with inaccurate leaves if the range of the data set is very large or if many significant digits are needed to convey the largest and smallest value. Use: Select PHStat Descriptive Statistics Stem-and-Leaf Display.

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One-Way Tables & Charts Generates a one-way summary table (in the form of a Microsoft Excel PivotTable) on a new worksheet for a set of categorical data and optionally generates a bar chart, a pie chart, and a Pareto diagram on separate chart sheets. This command accepts either unsummarized data (Raw Categorical Data option) or a Table of Frequencies in which categories have already been tallied. Use: Select PHStat Descriptive Statistics One-Way Tables & Chart.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 13 Two-Way Tables & Charts Generates a two-way summary table (in the form of a Microsoft Excel PivotTable) on a new worksheet for bivariate categorical data and optionally generates a side-by-side bar chart on a separate chart sheet. Use: Select PHStat Descriptive Statistics Two-Way Tables & Chart.

Decision-Making Menu Covariance and Portfolio Analysis Generates a new worksheet that calculates the covariance of two variables. The new worksheet contains an empty probabilities & outcomes table into which you enter probability and outcome data for each variable to complete the analysis. Command optionally generates a portfolio management analysis of two investments using a weightassigned-to-X value that you can change interactively in the worksheet. Use: Select PHStat Decision-Making Covariance and Portfolio Analysis.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 14 Expected Monetary Value Generates a new worksheet that calculates expected monetary value from probability and payoff data for the events associated with a set of alternative courses of action. The new worksheet contains an empty probabilities & payoffs table into which you enter probability and payoff data for each combination of event and alternative course of action to complete the analysis. Use: Select PHStat Decision-Making Expected Monetary Value.

Expected Opportunity Loss Generates a new worksheet that calculates expected opportunity losses from probability and opportunity loss data for the events associated with a set of alternative courses of action. The new worksheet contains an empty probabilities & opportunity losses table into which you enter probability and opportunity loss data for each combination of event and alternative course of action to complete the analysis. Use: Select PHStat Decision-Making Expected Opportunity Loss.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 15 Opportunity Loss Generates a new worksheet that calculates opportunity losses from payoff data for the events associated with a set of alternative courses of action. The new worksheet contains an empty payoff table into which you enter payoff data for each combination of event and alternative course of action to complete the analysis. Use: Select PHStat Decision-Making Opportunity Loss.

Probability & Prob. Distributions Menu Simple & Joint Probabilities Generates a new worksheet that calculates probabilities from a 2 x 2 cross-classification, or contingency, table of outcomes. The new worksheet contains an empty table of outcomes into which you enter data for each event to complete the analysis. Use: Select PHStat Probability & Prob. Distributions Simple & Joint Probabilities. (This command does not use a dialog box.) Normal Generates a new worksheet that calculates normal probabilities. The new worksheet uses the STANDARDIZE, NORMDIST, NORMSINV, and NORMINV Functions to calculate normal probabilities and related values. Use: Select PHStat Probability & Prob. Distributions Normal.

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Normal Probability Plot Generates a normal probability plot on a new chart sheet. This command also generates a worksheet that calculates the Z values for each value plotted. Use: Select PHStat Probability & Prob. Distributions Normal Probability Plot.

Binomial Probabilities Generates a table of binomial probabilities on a new worksheet. If you select Cumulative Probabilities, the binomial table will include additional columns for P(<=X), P(<X), P(>X), and P(>=X). The new worksheet uses the BINOMDIST Function to calculate binomial probabilities. Given the limitations of this function, the values in the table should be considered as fair approximations of the actual probability values. Use: Select PHStat Probability & Prob. Distributions Binomial.

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Exponential Calculates the exponential probability for values less than or equal to a given X value on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the EXPONDIST Function to calculate the exponential probability. Use: Select PHStat Probability & Prob. Distributions Exponential.

Hypergeometric Generates a table of hypergeometric probabilities on a new worksheet.. If you select Cumulative Probabilities, the hypergeometric table will include additional columns for P(<=X), P(<X), P(>X), and P(>=X). The new worksheet uses the HYPGEOMDIST Function to calculate hypergeometric probabilities. Use: Select PHStat Probability & Prob. Distributions Hypergeometric.

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Poisson Generates a table of Poisson probabilities for 0 to 20 successes per unit (X) on a new worksheet. If you select Cumulative Probabilities, the binomial table will include additional columns for P(<=X), P(<X), P(>X), and P(>=X). The new worksheet the POISSON Function to calculate Poisson probabilities. Use: Select PHStat Probability & Prob. Distributions Poisson.

Sampling Menu Random Sample Generator Generates a random sample without replacement on a new worksheet. Use: Select PHStat Sampling Random Sample Generator.

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Sampling Distributions Simulation Generates a simulated sampling distribution of the mean on a new worksheet. Use: Select PHStat Sampling Sampling Distributions Simulation.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 20 Confidence Intervals Menu Estimate for the Mean, sigma k nown Calculates the confidence interval estimate for the mean when sigma is known on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV and CONFIDENCE Functions to determine the Z value and calculate the interval half width, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Confidence Intervals Estimate for the Mean, sigma known.

Estimate for the Mean, sigma unknown Calculates the confidence interval estimate for the mean when sigma is unknown on a new worksheet. The new worksheet created uses the TINV Function to determine the critical value of the t distribution. Use: Select PHStat Confidence Intervals Estimate for the Mean, sigma unknown.

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Estimate for the Population Variance Calculates the confidence interval estimate for the population variance and standard deviation on a new worksheet. Use: Select PHStat Confidence Intervals Estimate for the Population Variance.

Estimate for the Proportion Calculates the confidence interval estimate for the population proportion on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV Function to determine the Z value.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 22 Use: Select PHStat Confidence Intervals Estimate for the Proportion.

Estimate for the Population Total Calculates the confidence interval estimate for the population total on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the TINV Function to determine the critical value from the t distribution. Use: Select PHStat Confidence Intervals Estimate for the Population Total.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 23 Estimate for the Total Difference Calculates the confidence estimate for the total difference on a new worksheet. Use: Select PHStat Confidence Intervals Estimate for the Total Difference.

Sample Size Menu Determination for the Mean Calculates the sample size needed for estimating the population mean on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV Function to determine the Z value and uses the ROUNDUP function to round the result of the sample size calculation up to the next integer. Use: Select PHStat Sample Size Determination for the Mean.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 24 Determination for the Proportion Calculates the sample size needed for estimating the population proportion on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV Function to determine the Z value and uses the ROUNDUP function to round the result of the sample size calculation up to the next integer. Use: Select PHStat Sample Size Determination for the Proportion.

One-Sample Tests Menu Z Test for the Mean, sigma known Performs the Z test of hypothesis for the mean when sigma is known on a new worksheet.. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV and NORMSDIST Functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat One-Sample Tests Z Test for the Mean, sigma known.

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t Test for the Mean, sigma unknown Performs the t test of hypothesis for the mean when sigma is unknown on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the TINV and TDIST Functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat One-Sample Tests t Test for the Mean, sigma unknown.

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Chi-Square Test for the Variance Performs the Chi-Square test for the variance on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the CHIINV and CHIDIST functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat One-Sample Tests Chi-Square Test for the Variance.

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Z Test for the Proportion Performs the Z test of hypothesis for the proportion on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV and NORMSDIST functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat One-Sample Tests Z Test for the Proportion.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 28 Two-Sample Tests Menu t Test for Differences in Two Means Performs the t test of hypothesis for differences between two means on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the TINV and TDIST functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Two-Sample Tests t Test for Differences in Two Means.

Z Test for Differences in Two Means Performs the Z test of hypothesis for differences between two means on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV and NORMSDIST functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Two-Sample Tests Z Test for Differences in Two Means.

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F Test for Differences in Two Variances Performs the F test of hypothesis for differences between two variances on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the FINV and FDIST functions to determine the critical values and to calculate the p-value, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Two-Sample Tests F Test for the Differences in Two Variances.

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Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test Performs the Wilcoxon rank sum test for differences between two medians on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the COUNTIF and SUMIF functions to determine the sample size and sum of ranks for each population sample and uses the NORMSINV and NORMSDIST functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Two-Sample Tests Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test.

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Chi-Square Test for the Differences In Two Proportions Generates a new worksheet that performs the Chi-square test of hypothesis for differences between two proportions. The new worksheet contains an empty observed frequencies table into which you enter the observed frequencies to complete the analysis and uses the CHIINV and CHIDIST functions to determine the critical values and pvalue, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Two-Sample Tests Chi-Square Test for Differences in Two Proportions.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 32 Z Test for Differences in Two Proportions Performs the Z test of hypothesis for differences between two proportions on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the NORMSINV and NORMSDIST functions to determine the critical values and to calculate the p-value, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Two-Sample Tests Z Test for the Difference in Two Proportions.

McNemar Test Generates a new worksheet that performs the McNemar test of hypothesis for differences between two proportions (related samples). The worksheet generated contains an empty observed frequencies table into which you enter the observed frequencies to complete the analysis. Use: Select PHStat Two-Sample Tests McNemar Test.

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Multiple-Sample Tests Chi-Square Test Generates a new worksheet that performs the Chi-square test of hypothesis for differences in the proportions among multiple independent populations. The new worksheet contains an empty cross-classification, or contingency, table into which you the observed frequencies to complete the analysis. The worksheet created uses the CHIINV and CHIDIST functions to determine the critical values and p-value, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Multiple-Sample Tests Chi-Square Test.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 34 Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test Performs the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test of hypothesis for differences between medians from multiple independent sample groups on a new worksheet. The new worksheet uses the CHIINV and CHIDIST functions to determine the critical values and p-values, respectively. Use: Select PHStat Multiple-Sample Tests Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test.

Levene Test Performs the Levene Test for homogeneity of variance for multiple independent sample groups on a new worksheet. Use: Select PHStat Multiple-Sample Tests Levene Test.

Tukey-Kramer Procedure Generates a new worksheet that performs the Tukey-Kramer procedure to determine which means from multiple independent groups are significantly different. In the new worksheet, you enter a Q statistic value to complete the analysis.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 35 Use: Select PHStat Multiple-Sample Tests Tukey-Kramer Procedure.

Control Charts Menu p Chart Generates a p chart on a new chart sheet. This commands also generates two worksheets that contain calculations for the control limits and data for the p chart. Use: Select PHStat Control Charts p Chart.

R and XBar Chart Generates an R chart on a new chart sheet and optionally generates an X chart on a separate chart sheet. This command also generates two worksheets that calculations for the control limits and data for the chart(s).

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 36 Use: Select PHStat Control Charts R and XBar Chart.

Regression Menu Simple Linear Regression Generates a simple linear regression analysis on a new worksheet. This command enhances and extends the results generated by the Data Analysis Regression tool and will generate four additional sheets if all options are selected.. Use: Select PHStat Regression Simple Linear Regression.

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Multiple Regression Generates a simple linear regression analysis on a new worksheet. This command enhances and extends the results generated by the Data Analysis Regression tool. This command can generate many additional sheets, depending on the number of X variables and the options selected. Use: Select PHStat Regression Multiple Regression.

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Best Subsets Generates a best subsets multiple regression analysis on a new worksheet. This command also procedure generates additional worksheets, each one containing the results of one of the regression analyses considered. Use: Select PHStat Regression Best Subsets.

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Stepwise Regression Generates a stepwise regression analysis on a new worksheet. This command also generates a separate worksheet that contains the multiple regression analysis that uses all of the X variables.. Use: Select PHStat Regression Stepwise Regression.

PHStat2 Users Guide. Page 40 Utilities Menu Fix Up Chart Modifies a chart, eliminating common errors made by Microsoft Excel in generating the chart. Use: Select PHStat Utilities Fix Up Chart. (This command does not use a dialog box.) Remove Worksheet Cell Tints Removes the light turquoise and light yellow cell tints in worksheets generated by PHStat2. Use: Select PHStat Utilities Remove Worksheet Cell Tints. (This command does not use a dialog box.)