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SAP Assignment Research methods and Report preparation

Submitted to: Dr. Anita Kumar

Submitted by Abhishek Tyagi AIBS MBA-IB A1802011116 Section - G

Research is a process of finding answers to a question, to a phenomena, to explain a phenomena both scientific and social phenomena. It is a process of finding facts in any field of life. This essay will try to explain the importance of research and research methodology employed in research both for public administration and private companies. Let of us first talk about the significance of research. Research helps both government and private companies to make their operations more efficient. Governments have many responsibilities in running the country. These responsibilities include social responsibility to look after the people who need governments support to live their life with dignity, to meet their daily needs. Government also formulates economic policies that are very crucial for any country. Government formulate budget of the country which describes its revenues and spending for the coming year. Government estimates her spending after carrying out research every year. It allocates spending on health care after carrying out research that determine how many people will need government support for meeting their medical needs, it carry out research to determine the amount of subsidies government have to dole out to economically weak people be it on fuel, food, health care, housing etc. Government also carries out social research. Social research is carried out to determine population structure in a country. To determine the percentage of people in different age profile to know the amount of labor force in the country, number of people between 0-15years and number of people in old age categories and thereby formulating policy on number of jobs will be needed to be created for its workforce, to determine the amount of public and private investment will be required to achieve such goals, to formulate policy for the old age people to whom government has to provide social benefits like pensions, subsidized health care etc. Government carries out research to determine the human development parameters in a country to know how much development has been achieved and how much needs to be done. Governments also carry out research in manufacturing sector and industrial sector to find out the growth in these sectors and future prospect in these sectors. It helps administration to formulate the energy needs of the country like how many power plants will be required to match the energy needs of the country, to determine investment that will be required in infrastructure like building roads, ports, railway line Government carries out research to get an estimate of how much revenue it can generate, what are the different ways in which it can generate revenues, how to increase its revenue, how it can plug the loop holes in its revenue generation, how it can make its revenue generation process more efficient and thereby allocate its resources in its spending. Public administrations also carry out research to find out the amount of natural resources in the country and how to maximize the usage of its natural resources in a sustainable manner.

Now let us talk about private companies and business. Research has special significance for private companies. The two important type of research that private companies carry out are operational research and market research. Market research finds answers about the structure of the market, the development of the market, growth of the market, preferences of the customers in the market. Through market research private companies can get an estimate of the demand in the market and can forecast the future demand in the market, which helps them to prepare for the future demand in the market like optimal purchase of raw materials and production of goods. Through market research they can also determine the needs and preferences of the customers and then they could align their product according to customer needs and preferences. By forecasting the future demand in the market, growth of the market and their market share, they can estimate how much investment will be required in coming years. The operational research deals with finding solutions to the business problems by applying mathematical, logical and analytical tools. This type of research helps companies to make their operations more efficient, that is to reduce their operation cost while still maintaining their product quality or improving the quality of their product. In this type of research the main objective is to find solution of how the cost of production can be reduced or profit maximization can be achieved. In the above paragraph we have discussed the importance of research both for private companies and public administration. Now we will discuss the importance research methods and research methodology in the research. Let us first distinguish research methods and research methodology. Research methods are all the methods, tools and technique which are used during the conduction of the research. Research methodology is the way of systematically solving research problem. Research methodology involves various steps that are taken during the course of the research and the why the following steps are taken. The researcher should not only know the various research methods, tools and techniques but should also know when these methods are to be employed, in what order these methods are to be used. Basically research methodology involves preparation of the research design which involves the various steps, various research methods, along with explanation on why particular research method was used. As discussed above we know that research methods are the techniques, tools which are used during the conduction of the research. The research method include techniques and tools which are used during collection of data, statistical techniques and tools used for analyses of data and forming relationship between the data and other variables, various test which are used to determine the validity of the results, accuracy of the results. The research methods that are used during the research are critical for the accuracy of the report.

Collection of data is the important step during the conduction of the research as no research can progress unless there is a relevant data. The primary data which is collected by the researcher is the important part of the research. First the researcher has to determine what will be appropriate sample size so that research is applicable to all population. Then researcher has to decide how the data will be collected. There are different ways of collecting the data like surveys, questionnaire, observations, and interviews. The researcher must know which technique he or she should use as different type of research requires different tools to collect data. Researcher must decide which method he is going to employ to collect data according to the accuracy desired, available time and financial resources. After the data has been collected it must be analyzed. The raw data which is collected is tabulated by different methods. After tabulation data is analyzed. There are different methods of analyzing the data like mean, median, mode, variance and standard deviation. Standard deviation is the important tool in analyses of data. Now that the data is analyzed it is subjected to various tests like t-test, z-test, F-test etc. these test determine the accuracy of the research. The results of these tests tell the researcher whether the hypothesis he made during the starting of research should be accepted or rejected thereby enabling the researcher to interpret the findings of the research. From the above paragraphs it is clear that research methods helps researcher to collect the data, analyze the data and test the accuracy of the data. Hence it is quite significant for the researcher to decide which tools and methods they want to use during their research. They must weigh the pros and cons of the research methods they are using in their research as these methods will determine the accuracy of their data, their analyses of data and also the accuracy of their research. By using different research methods findings of the research will vary, hence researcher must explain why a particular method was employed during the research.