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# Amplitude Modulation

Ref. Chapter 4
Baseband communication
No shift in range of frequencies
Carrier communication
Uses modulation to shift the frequency spectrum of a signal
Multiplexing (FDM) possible
Amplitude, frequency or phase of a sinusoidal carrier of high
frequency e
c
is varied in proportion to the baseband signal.
Amplitude modulation (AM)
Angle modulation : Frequency modulation (FM), Phase modulation (PM)
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Amplitude Modulation
Carrier signal, A cos(e
c
t+u
c
):
Modulating signal, m(t)
Modulated signal, m(t) cos(e
c
t): The amplitude of the carrier
signal is varied in proportion to the baseband (message) signal
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Spectrum of modulated signal
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1
( ) cos [ ( ) ( )]
2
c c c
m t t M M e e e e e + +
Double-sideband suppressed carrier
(DSB-SC) modulation
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Note:
1. The modulated signal does not contain a discrete
component of the carrier frequency.
2. The DSB-SC modulation translates (shifts) the
frequency spectrum to the left and right by e
c
3. If e
c
< 2tB, the spectra centered at e
c
and - e
c
overlap and the information of m(t) is lost in the
process of modulation.
Therefore, e
c
> 2tB
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Demodulation
Multiply the modulated signal by the carrier.
The resulting signal has a spectrum which contains the desired
baseband spectrum plus an unwanted spectrum at 2e
c
.
The unwanted part of the spectrum is suppressed by a low
pass filter.
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2
( ) ( ) cos
1
[ ( ) ( ) cos 2 ]
2
c
c
e t m t t
m t m t t
e
e
=
= +
1 1
( ) ( ) [ ( 2 ) ( 2 )]
2 4
c c
E M M M e e e e e e = + + +
demodulation
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For demodulation, we need to generate a local
carrier at the receiver in frequency and phase
coherence (synchronism) with the carrier used
at the modulator.
Synchronous detection or
Coherent detection.
It is also called as homodyne demodulator.
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In DSB-SC scheme,
Receiver must generate a carrier in frequency and phase
synchronism with the carrier at the transmitter
Calls for a sophisticated receiver and could be quite
costly
May be justified in point-to-point communication, but in a
broadcast system it is economical to have one expensive
high-power transmitter and simpler and less expensive
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Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Transmit a carrier along with the modulated signal so
that there is no need to generate a carrier at the
Has to transmit much larger power, which makes it rather
expensive
For a broadcast system, it is more economical to have one
expensive high-power transmitter and simpler, less
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( ) cos ( ) cos
[ ( )]cos
AM c c
c
t A t m t t
A m t t
e e
e
= +
= +
1
( ) [ ( ) ( )] [ ( ) ( )]
2
AM c c c c
t M M A e e e e t o e e o e e + + + + +
The AM signal is identical to the DSB-SC signal with A+m(t) as the modulating
To detect the desired signal m(t) from the modulated signal, we
can use envelope detection technique, if A+m(t) > 0 for all t.
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Envelope Detector
Condition for viability of envelope detection.
Let m
p
be the peak amplitude (positive or negative) of
m(t). i.e., m(t) > m
p
.
A+m(t) > 0 A > m
p
.
We define the modulation index,
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p
m
A
=
0 s s 1
Sideband and carrier power
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2
2
( ) cos ( ) cos
1
and ( )
2 2
The power efficiency,
useful power
total power
AM c c
c s
s
c s
t A t m t t
A
P P m t
P
P P
| e e
q
= +
= =
= =
+
Sideband and carrier power
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2
2
( ) cos ( ) cos
1
and ( )
2 2
The power efficiency,
useful power
total power
AM c c
c s
s
c s
t A t m t t
A
P P m t
P
P P
| e e
q
= +
= =
= =
+
2
2
max
For tone modulation,
( ) cos
2
33%
m
m t A t e

q
=
=
+
=
Amplitude modulation is a linear modulation.
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AM: Single Sideband (SSB)
Only one sideband is transmitted.
Requires only one-half the bandwidth of the
DSB signal.
SSB signal can be coherently (synchronously)
demodulated.
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demodulation
Note that these are suppressed carrier signals (SSB-SC)
Tone modulation: SSB
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Generation of SSB signals is rather difficult
Generation of DSB signals is much simpler, but requires
twice the signal bandwidth.
A Vestigial-sideband (VSB) system is a compromise
between DSB and SSB
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AM: Vestigial Sideband (VSB)
Instead of rejecting one sideband completely (as in SSB), a
gradual cutoff of one sideband is accepted.
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The baseband signal can be recovered exactly by a
synchronous detector in conjunction with an appropriate
equalizer filter at the receiver output.
If a large carrier is also transmitted, envelope detector can be
used.
Bandwidth of VSB signal is typically 25 to 33% higher than that
of SSB signals.
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