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FAO-UN, Myanmar Publicaton 2011/04

The Atlas and Guidelines for


Mangrove Management in
Wunbaik Reserved Forest
Deiva Oswin Stanley
TCDC Consultant to FAO, Mangrove Management Specialist
Jeremy Broadhead
Backstopping Ofcer, RAPO, Bangkok
&
Aung Aung Myint
Forest Department
Forest Department, MOECAF
Union of Myanmar
Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons
Yangon, Myanmar
The designatons employed and the presentaton of the material in this publicaton do not imply
the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organizaton of
the United Natons concerning the delimitaton of its fronters or boundaries

The opinions expressed in this publicaton are those of the authors alone and do not imply any
opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO
First Editon: 2011
FAO-UN Myanmar
Cover Design & Photos : Dr. Deiva Oswin Stanley
Maps: Aung Aung Myint
For Copies of the Book, write to:
FAO Representaton Ofce
Seed Division Compound, Insein Road, Yangon, Myanmar
Email: FAO-MMR@fao.org
Phone: 95-1-641772, 641673
Fax: 95-1- 641561
In commemoration of the
International Year of Forests 2011
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The Atlas and Guidelines for Mangrove Management in
Wunbaik Reserved Forest
CONTENTS
Foreword
Acknowledgments
1 Introducton 1
2 General geographical descripton 2
3 Mangrove forest utlizaton patern 7
4 Biodiversity status of Wunbaik reserved mangrove forest 33
5 Mangrove forest structure 36
6 Mangrove management module of project TCP-MYA-3204 55
7 Guidelines for Wunbaik reserved mangrove forest management 72
8 Reference 85
Annexes 86

List of fgures, tables and boxes 131
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Foreword
Mangroves of the Wunbaik Reserved Forest, Rakhine state is the most valuable forests and posing
major anthropogenic threats due to forest area conversion and reclamaton. Food and Agriculture
Organizaton of the United Natons, Myanmar jointly with the Forest Department of Myanmar
atempted to understand the mangrove land use patern in the Wunbaik Reserved Forests to
evolve with an Integrated Mangrove Management plan through the project enttled Sustainable
Community-based Mangrove Management in Wunbaik Reserved Forest: TCP/MYA/3204. As
the mangroves ofer innumerable services to the local community and to the country in terms of
fshery, tmber and wood for charcoal and fuel it is inevitable to protect the forest intact and allow
ratonal utlity ofers for sustainable food security.
Integrated Mangrove Management Specialist from India, the TCDC Consultant to FAO-UN, Myanmar
and Natonal Consultant from the Forest Department worked together, studied the status of the
reserved forest using the RS - GIS maps; have brought out the facts and validated through data
generated during the ground truth analysis carried out in random 10 survey sites inside Wunbaik.
The study confrms that the wood cutngs, mangrove area reclamaton for paddy and shrimp farm
expansions are extremely beyond the carrying capacity of the forest. Out of 84 compartments, no
one compartment in the reserve remains un-degraded in some way; The reserved forest has lost
25 % of the mangroves for paddy and shrimp farming and another 17% for illicit commercial wood
extracton and remains degraded. The quality of the trees in the rest of the forest is also of feeble
quality as all the mature stands have been cut down. The secondary growth remains as dense
patch of mangroves in Wunbaik which needs immediate atenton from the government.
The Atlas and Guidelines for Mangrove Management in Wunbaik Reserved Forest would be a
useful publicaton for the administrators, policy planners and the natural resource management
personals. We are happy to appreciate the eforts of the team and especially Dr. Deiva Oswin
Stanley, Dr. Jeremy Broadhead and Mr. Aung Aung Myint, for bringing out such a valuable piece of
work into being.
Ms. Bui Thi Lan
FAO Representatve
Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United
Natons, Yangon, Myanmar
U Aye Myint Maung
Director General Forest Department
Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar
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Acknowledgements
Our honor and thanks are due to the Western Commander, Brigadier General U Soe Thein for
permission to study the mangroves in Wunbaik Reserved Forest, Rakhine State

We are pleased to express our heartelt thanks to His Excellency U Win Tun, Union Minister,
Ministry of Environment Conservaton and Forestry and His Excellency U Hla Maung Tin, State
Chief Minister, Government of Rakhine State.
Our special thanks are due to U Aye Myint Maung, Director General, Forest Department, U Sann
Lwin, Director General, Planning and Statstcs Department, Dr. Nyi Nyi Kyaw, Deputy Director
General, Forest Department U Zaw Win, Director, Planning and Statstcs Division, U Kyaw Soe Khine,
Director, Forest Department, Rakhine State, U Win Myint, Assistant Director, Forest Department,
KyaukPyu District and the senior level ofcers for rendering cooperaton and valuable suggestons
during project implementaton
Our thanks are due to Ms. Bui Thi Lan, FAO Resident Representatve in Myanmar and Dr. Shin Imai,
ex-FAO Representatve for constant support.
Our special thanks are due to Mr. Giuseppe Romalli, Chief Technical Advisor of ESFSP project, Dr.
Aung Swe, Assistant FAOR Programme, Ms. Tha Nwai Law, Assistant FAOR Administraton, Mr. Thu
Kha, Ms. Sanda Saing, Ms. Aye Aye Thet, Ms. Myat New, Ms. Aye Myint Khine, U. Than Htke Zin,
Ms. Phyo May Win, Ms. Thida Chaw Hlaing, Ms. Rachelle Yi Yi Wynn, U Maung Maung, Librarian
and Ms. Phyu Phyu Htwe for their ever smiling assistance.
Our special thanks are due to the ofcers from line departments and agencies including Myanmar
Agriculture Service, Department of Fisheries, Setlement and Land Record Department. We would
like to thank the responsible ofcers from all levels of The Peace and Development Councils
of Rakhine State, Kyauk Phyu and Thandwe Districts, and Kyauk Phyu, Yambye, and Thandwe
Townships. Thanks are due to the natonal consultants of the project: U Win Myint, U Khim Maung
Soe, Ms. Khin Hnin Myint, U San Win and U Than Htke Oo. We wish to express our thanks to the
Natonal Project Coordinators of the project: U Hla Maung Thein, U Aung Khin, U Myo Htun and
those who have contributed to the preparaton of the document.

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U Aung Aung Myint
Consultant to FAO
Forest Department
aamyintorest@gmail.com
Dr. Jeremy Broadhead
Backstopping Ofcer,
RAPO, Bangkok
jeremy.broadhead@fao.org
Dr. Deiva Oswin Stanley
TCDC Consultant to FAO
Mangrove Management Specialist
oswinbaby@redifmail.com
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The Atlas and Guidelines for Mangrove Management
in Wunbaik Reserved Forest
1. Introducton
Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest provides economical, ecological and social benefts for Rakhine
State and Myanmars economy. Wunbaik mangroves are indispensible to coastal communites in
the area, being the base for livelihood subsistence and cyclone protecton. Around eighty percent
of the rural populaton of Rakhine is involved in farming actvites, small-scale entrepreneurship
and collecton or harvest of forest products such as fsh, crabs, clams, tmber, fuelwood, honey,
bamboo, mangrove wood and bark. A considerable share of the forest products are derived from
the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest. The status of the Wunbaik mangroves as reserved
has not, however, provided sufcient protecton against resource degradaton and loss of forest
biodiversity. The current utlizaton of mangroves and coastal wetlands in the Wunbaik area is
irratonal and unsustainable and is endangering the survival of one of the most important mangrove
ecosystems in Myanmar.
This publicaton is an output of Sustainable Community-based Mangrove Management in
Wunbaik Reserved Forest: TCP/MYA/3204, a project inaugurated by the Government of Myanmar
and supported by the Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons and the Forest
Department of Myanmar to conserve the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest. The project aimed
to develop an integrated mangrove management plan by assessing the status of forest and fsheries
resources and trends in the socio-economic situaton of surrounding villages. Analysis of satellite
imagery confrmed detrimental paterns of land utlizaton in Wunbaik and the critcally endangered
situaton of the reserved mangroves. An overview of the causes and efects of mangrove degradaton
in Wunbaik and the strategy to achieve mangrove conservaton for development of sustainable
livelihoods are shown in Figure 1 and 2 respectvely.
It is hoped that this publicaton and the data generated during the project will be valuable to
government and other agencies involved in developing environmental management and resource
utlizaton plans for Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest and adjacent ecosystems.

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Problem
Causes
Effects
Wun Baik Reserved Forest :
Mangrove Habitat CONVERSION
for Agriculture & Aquaculture
Population
Growth
Damaging farming
practices & Poisoning
the ecosystem
Extensive Bund
Construction-
Hydrology disruption
Selective Mangrove
Tree Felling for
fuel & charcoal
Soil Acidification
Less productive
paddy & shrimp
Management
Difficulties &
Limited facilities
Lack of Law enforcement
for Forest protection
and Conservation
Irreversible
Natural Biodiversity
Loss
Fishery Resource
Depletion
(Present & Future)
Mangrove
Ecosystem
Destruction
Limited Livelihood
Options Known /
Practiced
Agriculture/Fishery
promotion Policies
Lack of Mangrove Ecosystem Awareness
among Stakeholders/
Attitude towards Resource Conservation
Permanent Loss
of Protective
Green Belt
Permanent Loss
of Ecological and
Economic Services
Figure 1. Cause and efects of mangrove degradaton in Wunbaik
Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Wunbaik Forest Reserve
Can Serve Global Livelihood Security
Problem Identification
in Wunbaik Reserved
Mangrove Forest
Sorting Solutions
for
Ecosystem Revival
Rectification and
Regulation of
Resource Utilization
Conservation Law
and Order
Enforcement
Responsible Management
of mangrove Ecosystem
Benefit the Productive
Ecosystem Services
Enjoy Local and
Global Livelihood
Security
Figure 2. Strategy for mangrove ecosystem conservaton to achieve sustainable livelihoods
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Note on the Atlas
The maps in the Atlas are displayed at a common scale of approximately 1: 80,000.
The demographic statstcs used in the maps are dated 2009, RS-GIS data are from 1990, 2000,
2009 and 2011 and the environment scan data from the feld is of 2009-2011. The climatc data
discussed is for the year 2011.
2. General geographical descripton
Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest lies between lattudes 19 08' 10" & 19 23' 40" North and
Longitudes 93 54' 35" & 94 02' 10" East; and is situated in Yambye Township, Kyauk Phyu District.
The total reserved area is about 56 633 acres (22 919 ha) divided into eighty four compartments
(Figure 3). It was declared a reserve by order No. 343 in February 15 1931 by the Britsh Government
with the basic objectve to supply frewood to salt factories and inland steam vessels. An adjacent
area (10 080 acres) has been notfed as Mingyaung Public Protected Forest by the Ministry of
Forestry in 16 June, 2009.
The topography of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest is almost fat except on the western
adjacent island of Kathaung Taung Kyun where a small hill rises. In the same area coral reefs are
found within the reserved forest boundary. Inland from Wunbaik the land is hilly and undulatng
with many water bodies. In Yambye Township, the highest point, Zikha Taung, is 1 311 feet in
elevaton while the lowest place is only 6 feet above sea level (Forest Management Plan, Kyauk
Phyu District from 2006-07 to 2015-2016, revised editon).
Broadly the climate is divided into summer, monsoon and winter seasons. In general the area
experiences torrental rains and humidity levels of up to 94% during the monsoon months from
May untl October. Annual rainfall recorded for 2011 was 5 362 mm. Maximum temperatures of
up to 34.5C were observed during April to October of 2011. Colder weather begins in November
and ends in February. January and February were the coldest months in 2011 with minimum
temperatures of around 15-16C.
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Table 1. Average rainfall, temperature and humidity recorded at Kyauk Phyu District in 2011
Months Average Rainfall Average Highest Lowest Humidity
(mm) Temp (C) Temp (C) Temp (C) (%)
January 93 22.2 30.5 15.0 76.0
February 0.5 23.7 30.5 16.0 77.0
March 9.9 25.8 32.0 18.5 79.0
April 68.1 28.3 34.0 22.3 81.0
May 409.4 28.9 34.5 23.5 83.0
June 1032.8 27.4 33.3 23.4 94.0
July 976.9 27.7 33.8 24.0 91.0
August 1265.2 28.2 32.3 24.5 92.0
September 1029.2 27.3 29.6 25.9 91.0
October 477.3 28.9 31.4 25.2 79.0
November - 25.8 29.5 22.5 73.5
December - - - - -
Source: Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Kyauk Phyu

Figure 3. Locaton of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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The soil in Wunbaik consists of very fne mud over a sub-soil of clay with varying proportons of
sand. In elevated areas where tdal inundaton is infrequent the soil is more saline and harder.
Paddy and shrimp farming has degraded around 25% of the forest land in Wunbaik and the soils
are acidifed, harder, less productve and generally barren. Yambye Township has mainly sandy soils
in the landward area while clay and sand is prevalent in the coastal belts. There are many privately
owned oil wells, where oil is extracted traditonal methods.
Neighboring Wunbaik mangroves are 30 712 households in Kyauk Phyu Township with a total
populaton of 195 420 and 21 256 households in Yambye Township with a populaton of 100 769.
The populaton of Kyauk Phyu Township grew from 185 550 in 2005; whereas, the populaton of
Yambye township declined from 139 850 in 2005. The overall populaton of Kyauk Phyu District
has declined in recent years due to migraton from Rakhine State to Yangon and other areas. The
developments in the new capital city, Nay Pyi Taw, have also atracted a considerable number of
migrants. The overall rural populaton in Kyauk Phyu District exceeds the rural populaton (Table 2).
Table 2. Populaton of Kyauk Phyu District in 2010-11
Township Household Male Female Total Urban Rural
Kyauk Phyu 30 712 94 770 100 650 195 420 31 282 164 138
Yambye 21 256 47 520 53 249 100 769 9 916 90 853
Manaung 14 015 47 608 51 622 99 230 7 132 92 098
Ann 22 056 52 565 52 158 104 723 6 298 98 425
District Total 88 039 242 463 257 679 500 142 54 628 445 514
Source: District Peace and Development Council, Kyauk Phyu
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3. Mangrove forest utlizaton patern
The Wunbaik mangrove forest was reserved for sustainable producton, conservaton and
protecton as per the reserved forest laws and regulatons. However, the mangroves of Wunbaik
have been heavily degraded for several reasons including thorough clearance for paddy and shrimp
farming. The loss of mangrove density, diversity and water holding capacity has been signifcant.
In some areas, the forest has been damaged to such an extent that recovery is only achievable
through concerted efort. The forest cover change matrix demonstrates the impact of destructve
and unsustainable practces within the reserved forest boundary (Table 3).
3.1 Status of mangroves in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest during 1990, 2000, 2009 & 2011
In 1990, dense mangroves covered 43 628 acres in Wunbaik while degraded mangrove covered
8 487 acres. Between 1990 and 2011, the area of dense mangroves fell to 30 670 acres while the
degraded area increased to 9 673 acres (Figure 4). The water area has reduced to 50% within the
past ten years and agriculture and aquaculture has expanded.
Table 3. Status and forest cover change in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
Status of forest during 1990-2011 (acres)
Mangrove Forest Cover change (acres)
10 years 9 years 2 years 20 years 10 years
1990 2000 2009 2011 1990-2000 2000-2009 2009-2011 1990-2011 2000-2011
Water 4000 3796 3518 2105 786 -277 -1413 -905 -1691
Mangroves 43628 35250 31326 30670 -8379 -3923 -657 -12959 -4580
Degraded
Mangroves
8487 8778 10533 9673 291 1755 -860 1186. 896
Agriculture 858 7196 8190 12314 6337 995 4124 11456 5119
Scrub jungle 0 81 0 0 81 -81 0 0 -81
Road 0 219 135 238 219 -84 103 238 19
Swamp 0 174 24 0 1734 -150 -24 0 -174
Aquaculture 650 1141 2907 1633 491 1765 -1274 983 491
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Figure 4 (i). Status of mangroves in Wunbaik Reserved Forest in 1990
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Figure 4 (ii). Status of mangroves in Wunbaik Reserved Forest in 2000
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Figure 4 (iii). Status of mangroves in Wunbaik Reserved Forest in 2009
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Figure 4 (iv). Status of mangroves in Wunbaik Reserved Forest in 2011
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3.2 Water holding areas inside the reserved forest boundary
Mangrove ecosystems are dependent on tdal fushing and the health of mangroves is therefore
directly linked to the water holding capacity of the ecosystem. Decrease in the area of water has
major implicatons for fsheries resources and related biota within the ecosystem. Mangrove waters
are nursery grounds for economically valuable fn and shell fsh and fsheries resources both with
in and outside mangrove areas are dependent on this functon. The 1691 acres reducton in the
area of water between 2000 and 2011 and the rapid reducton of 1413 acres between 2009 and
2011 have had severe impacts on the mangrove vegetaton and the functoning of Wunbaik as a
reserved forest (Figure 5). Almost 45 % of the water holding capacity has been lost during these
years due to bund constructon and creek blockage associated with illegal farming.
The increase in the area of water between 1990 and 2000 was possibly related to the major cyclone
from May 16-19, 1992 which hit the Rakhine mangroves directly. Cyclone Giri in 2010 did not a
impact upon Wunbaik mangroves, only on the upper areas of Kyauk Phyu District.
3.3. Anthropogenic pressures
Despite the fact that Wunbaik is a reserved forest, trespassing and restricted actvites inside the
reserved forest boundary are not restricted. Land encroachments for farming, tree felling and
human setlement are common while illegal fshing and crab exploitaton contnue unabated.
With agreement from Forest Department and other administratons, the Government of Myanmar
constructed a 20 mile long east-west geo-textle road from Kyauk Phyu to Ma-e which is serving
as part of the Kyauk Phyu to Yangon high way. It occupies 0.4 % (238 acres) of the total mangrove
area of Wunbaik. The bridges constructed along the road are well designed and cross the various
creeks and water ways without disruptng the tdal fow. Damage done to the mangroves during
constructon of the road such as loss of forest land and formaton of swamps and degraded patches
has mostly been rectfed through natural regeneraton. On a positve note, the Kyauk Phyu to Ma-e
road has provided an opportunity for the administraton to understand the illicit actvites taking
place inside the reserved forest boundary and has brought about measures to beter conserve the
forest.
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Figure 5(i). Water holding areas of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove forest in 2000
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Figure 5(ii). Water holding areas of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove forest in 2011
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3.3.1 Encroachment for paddy farming
Conversion of mangroves to agriculture began between 1979 and 1985 during which tme the
World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the Japanese Government provided funding for
reclamaton of land for paddy through constructon of earthen bunds in the country. This resulted
in channels inside the reserved forest being blocked and areas of mangroves being cleared.
Disrupton of natural hydrology contnues to destroy large expanses of mangroves in Wunbaik and
in Rakhine State. The major conversion of around 7 196 acres of mangroves to paddy took place
between 1990 and 2000 since when the total area has increased to 12 314 acres (Figure 6).
According to the Forest Law 1992, agriculture development within reserved forest is forbidden but
reluctance exists to enforce this law due to:
natonal and provincial level agricultural expansion targets;
alleged promoton of deforestaton to reduce the possibility of forests providing hideouts
for insurgents;
possible collecton of revenues from agricultural producton by various line agencies and
administratve levels within government;
reluctance to relocate farmers and disrupt local livelihood systems at a politcally sensitve
tme in Myanmar.
In the converted mangrove land, annual yields are commonly around 0.5 tonnes per acre (40
baskets/13 sacs). This fetches 208 000 Kyats or around US$200. In productve inland areas suitable
for paddy cultvaton, yields of 3-4 tonnes/ha can be achieved. In additon to low yields, converted
areas generally have to be abandoned afer three years due to soil acidifcaton and compacton.
3.3.2 Encroachment for shrimp farming
Intrusion into the reserved forest for shrimp farming was initated by the Department of Fisheries
in 1980 as part of a state shrimp farming expansion plan in spite of such expansion being illegal
as per the reserved forest law. There was major conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds during
the 1980s and up to 2009 with the total area reaching 2907 acres (Figure 7). As ponds were not
proftable due to the poor sluice systems, inadequate drainage, water acidifcaton and disease
outbreaks, converted areas were abandoned and contnued to obstruct the natural hydrology and
limit the health of adjacent mangrove formatons. Currently, 56 % (1274 acres) of shrimp farms
have been abandoned and further areas contnue to be abandoned.
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Figure 6(i). Mangrove forest area converted for agriculture in 1990
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Figure 6(ii). Mangrove forest area converted for agriculture in 2000
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Figure 6(iii). Mangrove forest area converted for agriculture in 2009
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Figure 6(iv). Mangrove forest area converted for agriculture in 2011
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Figure 7(i). Mangrove forest area converted for aquaculture in 2000
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Figure 7(ii). Mangrove forest area converted for aquaculture in 2009
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Figure 7(iii). Mangrove forest area converted for aquaculture in 2011
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3.3.3 Illegal human setlement inside the reserved forest boundary
Illegal setlements inside the reserved forest boundary are common. Setlements are constructed
for paddy farming, shrimp farming, wood cutng, bark peeling and fsheries resource collecton.
The paddy, fsh or crab collecton unit owners are businessmen who support villagers to setle inside
the forest. There are several permanent units with jetes allowing collecton and transportaton
of resources out of the reserved forest. These have, however, not atracted the atenton of the
administraton in relaton to possible law enforcement. The 22 major human setlement spots
observed by the project team between November 2009 and November 2011 are ploted on the
map shown in Figure 8. Many other smaller setlements are not shown on the map.
3.3.4 Illegal mangrove wood cutng for tmber and charcoal
Mangrove cutng is a proftable business and is conducted by community members in associaton
with or with the knowledge of the local administraton. Every stakeholder has the percepton
that mangroves can be felled freely as no informaton is disseminated in relaton to sustainable
management and protecton of the reserved forest. For charcoal producton, approximately 42
000 trees or around 30 feet in height are cut per kiln per annum to produce 22.5 tons of charcoal
and degrading approximately 104 acres of mangroves (42ha) per annum per kiln. The number of
both registered and unregistered charcoal kilns and the capacity of each kiln around Wunbaik is
unknown.
Fellings for tmber for commercial and household use account for around 250 000 trees of around
30 feet in height per annum. At site, each tree is worth less than US $ 4 and approximately 250
hectares of mangrove are degraded in this way per annum. Dealers from surrounding towns
generally send boats to Wunbaik to hide in narrow creeks for a month or so while smaller boats go
on forays for wood untl the mother boat is full. The smaller boats are manned by local villagers
who cut wood and collect bark. There are also several village groups involved in wood cutng who
sell wood or bark to dealers on the mother boats. The 12 hotspots observed by the project team
for tree felling and or hiding mother boats are marked on the map shown in Figure 9.
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Figure 8. Illegal human setlement inside the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 9. Hotspots of illegal wood cutng in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 10. Hotspots of debarking and tree cutng in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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3.3.5 Selectve tree felling for bark peeling
Bark peeling takes place between September and May. Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata are
the target species. Bark is mostly destned for Mandalay, Ma-ei and Taungok markets. The trees
are mostly peeled while standing and allowed to die and dry for fuel but are also at tmes felled
and peeled. Villagers in groups of three or four come in small canoes and generally collect bark for
15 days using canoes of 24 feet in length. The villagers sell the bark to merchants from Taungok
who generally bring a mothercraf with support canoes and workers for a period of one month. A
number of narrow creeks on the eastern side of the reserved forest are used for anchoring and as
hideouts. Trees of around 30 feet in height, and girth of 25 to 30 cm (i.e. the larger existng trees)
are targeted and peeled with axes. One tree provides 48 kg of bark and sale price is 100 kyats per
kilogram on site. Boats carry around 16 tonnes in total.
The bark is used to make natural dye for the Buddhist monks clothing and also exported to china.
Approximately 105 000 trees of around 30 feet trees are felled per annum for bark extracton inside
Wunbaik which degrades around 105 hectares of mangroves. The map shows the 14 hotspots for
selectve tree felling and debarking inside the reserved forest boundary (Figure 10).
3.4 Mangrove cover change between 1990, 2000, 2009 and 2011
The change detecton map shows reductons in mangrove cover between 1990 and 2011 (Figure
11). As the mangroves have been converted to diferent man-made ecosystems, mangrove diversity
had been lost and in many cases a great deal of efort will be required to reverse the situaton.
Unless checked immediately a proporton of the mangrove ecosystem in Wunbaik reserved forest
is likely to be lost forever. The maps shown in Figure 11 illustrate change detected in the Wunbaik
Reserved Mangrove Forest while Figure 12 shows percentage forest cover during in 2000 and 2011.
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Figure 11(i). Mangroves cover change in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest between
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Figure 11(ii). Mangroves cover change in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest between 1990,
2000 and 2009.
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Figure 11(iii). Mangroves cover change in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest between
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Figure 12. Land cover in 2000 and 2011
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Figure 13. Elevaton map of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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4. Biodiversity status of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
The Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest is endowed with a high level of biodiversity. Seventy
fowering plants species have been identfed inside the reserved forest boundary including thirty
four mangrove species and thirty six salt tolerant mangrove associates (Win Myint and Deiva Oswin
Stanley, 2011; Annex 1). Seventy two fsh and crustacean species and one-hundred and four bird
species have also been identfed (Khin Maung Soe and Deiva Oswin Stanley, 2011; Annex 2 and
Deiva Oswin Stanley, 2011, Personal communicaton; Annex 3).
4.1 Flora
The fora of Wunbaik includes mangroves and associated salt tolerant species. There are also
several non-mangrove species which are not included in the lists created by the project. The
number of terrestrial associate species has risen as a result of human actvites in the area, including
agriculture and shrimp farming. In areas around farmed land, mangroves are ofen degraded and
weeds associated with agriculture dominate. Larger trees are very rare and the majority of areas
comprise secondary growth vegetaton and immature forest stands. Single rows of tall, mature
trees of Sonnerata apetela exist in a few creeks, including Thazintan wa, Than Tha Ma She river,
mouth of Awele Byin river, Di Dok Bauk chaung, Daing Khun chaung, Kyauk Bok chaung, crossing
creek from Paung Daung chaung to Za Reik chaung, mouth of Ze Reik chaung and around Kathaung
Taung Kyun area but they are unlikely to be replaced as the areas behind these single tree rows are
occupied by paddy farming.
4.2 Fisheries
A total of 62 species of fn fsh, 5 species of crustacean and 5 species of mollusk have been identfed
in the reserved forest area and there are likely to be many others stll to be recorded. Surveys
conducted by the project revealed the small size of individual fsh and of fsh populatons in the
waterways surrounding the reserved forest. These characteristcs result from contnuing over-
fshing and numerous other impacts:
encroachment into mangrove areas for paddy and shrimp farming and related hydrological
disrupton from the constructon of embankments and bunds which block and reduce the
water holding capacity in the area;
use of chemicals and pestcides for farming purposes, resultng in the killing of juvenile fsh
populatons;
stagnaton, acidifcaton and putrefacton of enclosed areas of water due to poorly designed
sluices;
use of poison and explosives for fshing;
fence net fshing at river mouths;
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the use of fshing nets with very small mesh size;
catching of gravid fsh and crabs (brooders) and trapping of juvenile crabs.
These issues all need to be managed for fshery resources replenishment within the reserved forest
boundary.
4.3 Avifauna
Including both migrants and residents, one-hundred and four bird species were recorded in
Wunbaik during the project period. However, the area is not as well populated as beter protected
mangrove areas in the region. Thirty-seven shore birds were recorded and parakeets and doves are
abundant in the reserved forest, especially around the paddy felds. Destructon of mangroves and
huntng of arboreal and shore birds contnues, however, at a comparatvely high rate in Wunbaik
and this contributes to the low bird populaton. Bird shootng during the huntng season also
disrupts roostng, and many birds that are shot are not collected by hunters. Huntng of birds and
other animals is a regular actvity in Wunbaik.
4.4 Herpetofauna
Although no specifc study on the herpetofauna of Wunbaik was carried out, the populaton of
amphibians and reptles in the area is considerable. Snakes are common and prominent species
include Naja naja (Cobra), Naja hannah, (King Cobra), Elaphe radiata (copperhead rat snake),
Bungarus fasciatus (banded krait) and Boa constrictor (boa snake). Threats to snake populatons
include huntng and sale of meat in local markets and increasing local consumpton.
Other amphibians and reptles include Varanus spp (monitor lizard), which is common in open
mangrove areas and there are also many species of geckos, skinks, crested lizards, toads and frogs.
In recent years, Batagur baska (river terrapin) has become a rare species and Crocodylus porosus
(Crocodile) are extnct in the reserved area and in Rakhine state as a result of huntng for skin and
meat and associated trade.
4.5 Mammals
Mammals including Oters (Lutra lutra and Lutra spp) are common around the River Kadet and
crab-eatng macaque (Macaca fascicularis) were observed near Nganapyagyi River and the mouth
of River Dipataik. The Indian fying fox (Pteropus giganteus), short-nosed or common fruit bat
(Cynopterus brachyots) and bamboo bats (Tylonycteris pachypus and Tylonycteris robustula) occur
in a range of habitats from terrestrial primary and secondary forests to mangroves and cultvated
areas. Wild dog (Cuon apinus), sambar (Cervus unicolor), hog deer (Cervus porcinus), mouse deer
(Tragulus javanicus), barking deer (Muntacus muntjak), buck deer (Cervinae capreolinae), wild
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boar (Sus scrofa), fshing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), jungle cat (Felis chaus) and wild cat (Felis
silvestris) are rare in the reserve nowadays. Elephants (Elephas maximus), tger (Panthera tgris)
and leopard (Panthera pardus) were once common in the mangroves of Rakhine State but are now
extnct.
Under Myanmar's Protecton of Wild Life and Wild Plants and Conservaton of Natural Areas Law
(State Law and Order Restoraton Council Law No.583/94.1994) only fve of eight species of natve
wild cats are protected. In relaton, on the road to Wunbaik in Taungkok township, many restaurants
serve wild meat and an early morning daily public market sells wild meat from cats, jungle fowl,
deer, monkeys, langurs, wild boars and monitor lizards. There has been a drastc reducton in
mammal populatons and species diversity in the Wunbaik area and many species once known by
the community are now rare or extnct due to the high levels of huntng for meat. The remaining
mammal populatons are also severely threatened by habitat loss.
4.6 Insects
Insects perform a major role in the pollinaton of Wunbaiks mangrove species including Aegiceros
corniculatum, Sonerata apetala, Sonerata grifthii, Sonerata alba, Xylocarpus spp, Bruguiera
cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bruguiera parvifora, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora
mucronata, Avicennia alba and Avicennia ofcinalis, Heritera formes, Kandelia candel, Ceriops
tagal and many others. Honey produced has medicinal value and a high demand. The cost of one
litre of Aegiceros corniculatum honey is around US$ 3 4 in local villages but higher in city markets.
Honey collecton takes place from afer the monsoon untl cold weather begins. Species including
Apis dorsata, Apis forea and Apis indica play a major role in honey producton. In one of the feld
sites in the reserve (B2), large bee hives measuring 1 x 1.5 m are common. Weaver ants are common
inside the mangroves and ofen weave nests in Rhizophora spp and Bruguiera gymnorhiza trees.
Firefy (Pteroptyx sp.) is also common in Wunbaik. The Aedes aegypt mosquito is widespread in
coastal villages in the Wunbaik area and although they do not breed in estuarine habitats, monsoon
water collected in areas converted for paddy farming provides a suitable habitat.
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5. Mangrove forest structure
Mangroves are tropical species, occurring where annual temperature minimums exceed 66F
(19C) and not toleratng temperature fuctuatons greater than 18F (10C) or temperatures below
freezing for any length of tme. Temperature recorded in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
in 2011 was between 23.2C and 30.3C (Table 1). Tidal fuctuatons and related salinity levels play
an important role in maintaining mangrove zonaton paterns. In the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove
Forest area tdal inundaton was observed to be between 0.5 and 4 meters and water salinity levels
of between 0 parts per thousand (ppt) and 28 ppt were recorded (Table 4).
Table: 4. Ranges of salinity and tdal height observed at the feld survey sites in Wunbaik
Reserved Mangrove Forest
Survey site Range of salinity (ppt) Range of tdal height (m)
A1 5-10 0.3-1.5
A2 5-28 0.3-4.2
B1 5-18 0.3-3.6
B2 5-23 0.3-3.5
C1 5-15 0.3-3.2
C2 5-24 0.5- 4
D1 5-25 0.5-3.9
D2 5-26 0.5-3.5
E1 5-28 0.3-3.2
E2 5-15 0.3-3
A forest inventory was carried out to assess the structure and compositon of the Wunbaik mangroves
and the impact of anthropogenic actvites in the reserved area. Informaton on species name, tree
height, diameter at breast height, number of trees, and number of recruits and seedlings was
recorded during the inventory. Land elevaton was also recorded and a digital elevaton model
showing the elevaton of the mangroves in meters was created. (Figure 13).
5.1 Status of forest in the survey sites
Using topographic maps and satellite images, ten survey sites of 10 x 500m were chosen randomly
in diferent areas of the reserve (Figure 14). The sites were named as A1 (Compartment 69),
A2 (Compartment 81), B1 (Compartment 55), B2 (Compartment 19), C1 (Compartment 69),
C2 (Compartment 25), D1 (Compartment 8), D2 (Compartment 7), E1 (Compartment 48), E2
(Compartment 39).
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Figure 14. Field survey sites
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Table 5. Details of the feld survey sites
Survey site Coordinates Remarks
A1 N 19 11 02.5 E 93 58 03.4 Area encroched for paddy farming
A2 N 19 12 11.9 E 93 56 37.9
Degraded mangroves. Only the survey area has dense
mangroves with 15 species included, dominated by
Ceriops tagal.
B1 N 19 14 14.1 E 94 00 23.7
Degraded mangroves. Only the survey area has dense
mangroves with 15 species included, dominated by
Ceriops tagal.
B2 N 19 15 10.0 E 93 58 55.1
Dense mangrove area with 16 mangrove species
dominated by Ceriops tagal and Bruguiera
gymnorhiza
C1 N 19 18 28.5 E 94 00 21.2 Area encroched for paddy farming
C2 N 19 17 55.2 E 93 58 16.3
Degraded mangroves. Only the survey area has dense
mangroves with 15 species included, dominated by
Ceriops tagal and Aegialits rotandifolia.
D1 N 19 20 13.5 E 93 59 18.7
Survey area has dense mangroves while other areas
have been encroached for paddy and shrimp farming.
Mangrove area has 15 species dominated by Ceriops
tagal and Aegialits rotandifolia
D2 N 19 20 39.1 E 94 00 23.9
Survey plot area has dense mangroves with 14
species dominated by Ceriops tagal and Aegialits
rotandifolia
E1 N 19 17 50.2 E 93 55 56.6
Survey area has dense mangroves with 18 species
dominated by Bruguiera gymnorhiza and Rhizophora
apiculata
E2 N 19 14 20.4 E 93 57 36.0
Survey area has dense mangroves with 18 species
dominated by Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Nypa frutcans
and Rhizophora mucronata
Survey site descriptons:
Site A1
Site A1 is in compartment 69 and is an area which has been encroached upon for paddy
farming. The land is enclosed by earthen bunds and mangroves have been totally cleared.
Paddy farming is practced in most of the enclosed land area by Letpan and Yantheshe villagers.
The southern porton of forest compartment 69 has been totally deforested and converted
while in compartments 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79 around 50 to 90% of the land is
converted to paddy or shrimp farms.
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Site A2
Site A2 is in compartment 81 and the surveyed area is dense forest with 15 mangrove species
dominated by Ceriops tagal, however, the other portons of compartment 81 and compartments
82, 83, 84, 65, 66, 67 are highly degraded due to recent encroachments. More than 40 % of the
area of compartment 66 has been converted for paddy farming.
Site B1
Site B1 is in compartment 55 and is a degraded patch of mangroves. The survey plot contains
dense mangroves with 15 species present, dominated by Ceriops tagal. Compartments 52, 53,
54 and 56 though not encroached show impacts of illegal logging and minor degradaton and
compartments 55, 57, 58. 59, 60, 61, 62 and 63 are 15-95 % converted for paddy or shrimp
farming.
Site B2
Site B2 is in compartment 34 and is a dense mangrove area with 16 mangrove species dominated
by Ceriops tagal and Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Compartment 31 is comparitvely intact but
compartment 33 is being degraded due to logging. Compartments 32 and 40 are around 90%
degraded.
Site C1
Site C1 is in compartment 19 which has been completely encroched for paddy farming. In some
areas, mangroves have been cleared with earthen bunds created for initaton of paddy farming.
Site C2
Site C2 is in compartment 25 and the survey area alone contains dense mangroves while other
areas are degraded. In the dense mangroves, 15 species are present, dominated by Ceriops
tagal and Aegialits rotandifolia. Compartments 16, 17, 23, 24, 26, 27 are more than 50%
degraded due to logging and bark peeling.
Site D1
Site D1 is in compartment 8 and while the survey area contains dense mangroves; other
areas have been encroached upon for paddy and shrimp farming. Fifeen mangrove species
dominated by Ceriops tagal and Aegialits rotandifolia were recorded. Compartments 1, 2, 3,
4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 have been encroached upon for paddy and shrimp farming. In
partcular, around 50% of compartments 1, 2, 3, 10, 11, 12 have been encroached upon for
shrimp farming.
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Site D2
Site D2 is in compartment 7 and is a dense mangrove area with 14 mangrove species, dominated
by Ceriops tagal and Aegialits rotandifolia. Compartments 5, 6, 7, 18, 20 and 21 are partally
degraded and in compartment 5 around 40% is encroached for shrimp farming. In compartments
9 and 18 illegal logging is obvious and debarking was prominant in compartment 21.
Site E1
Site E1 is in compartment 48 and covers a dense mangrove area with 18 mangrove species
dominated by Bruguiera gymnorhiza and Rhizophora apiculata. Though the survey area has
dense crown cover, adjacent areas have been severely degraded with only 40% crown cover
remaining. Within compartment 18, larger trees have been felled and bushy secondary
vegetaton accounts for the compartment being included in the dense forest category.
Site E2
Site E2 is in compartment 39 and the survey plot contains a dense patch of mangroves while
other areas are considerably degraded. Eighteen mangrove species dominated by Bruguiera
gymnorhiza, Nypa frutcans and Rhizophora mucronata are represented. Compartments 35,
36, 37, 38, 65 are heavily degarded due to logging and bark peeling.
5.2 General forest structure in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
The mangrove forests of Wunbaik are undergoing contnual change, proceeding through a series of
successional stages of difering species compositon. The ground beneath the mangroves is seldom
blanketed with detritus due to the fooding and fushing of tdes. In places where the tdal fushing
is meagre, there is greater accumulaton of detritus such as decaying leaves, twigs, fallen trees,
animal scat and moss. In general the foor is spread with mangrove pneumatophores, knee roots,
planks and prop roots (Figure 15). Numerous species of fora and fauna subsist on the detritus and
thereby support the recycling of organic mater.
The herb layer in the mangroves is dominated by shade tolerant, sof-stemmed species, generally
herbaceous plants such as colonising salt tolerant grasses (Figure 16), mangrove associated ferns
such as Acrostchum spp., and others such as Sesuvium sp. Above the herb layer, a shrub layer
includes woody species such as Acanthus sp., Aegiceras sp., Dalbergia sp.
The under storey comprises immature trees including Aegialits sp., Aegiceras sp., Ceriops sp.,
Kandelia sp., Rhizophora spp., and other small trees (Figure 17). In canopy gaps, these species
generally grow to fll the space and may also act as colonizers in open and degraded areas of the
forest.
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Figure 15. Mangrove foor of Wunbaik Reserved Forest
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Figure 16. Herb and shrub layers in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 17. The under storey in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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The major canopy includes species such as Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Sonerata apetella
and S. alba in the mature stands and Ceriops tagal, Aegialits rotundifolia, Aegiceras corniculatum
in secondary formatons where the crowns meet and form a thick layer (Figure 18).
In some areas Sonerata apetella, Avicennia alba, Heritera spp and Bruguiera parvifora crowns
grow as emergent vegetaton, reaching heights greater than the surrounding canopy (Figure 19).
Mangrove species informaton from the feld assessment was used to identfy corresponding
colour bands on 2011 satellite imagery and delineate areas of dominant or single species stand in
the reserved forest. (Figure 20)
Tree densites in Wunbaik are generally between 1648 and 15 864 stems per hectare. The densest
populatons were found in areas where the species such as Ceriops tagal, Aegialits rotundifolia and
Aegiceros corniculatum colonized as mono-generic formatons. Such formatons are especially
common in areas disturbed by anthropogenic pressures or where mangroves are primary colonizers
(Figure 21 and Figure 22).
Diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured for major species with DBH above 6cm. Trees with
DBH above 50cm include Sonerata apetala, Xylocarpus spp, Sonerata alba, Bruguiera cylindrica,
Rhizophora apiculata followed by Sonerata grifthii, Avicennia alba and Avicennia ofcinalis
with DBH above 40cm and Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bruguiera parvifora, Rhizophora mucronata,
Heritera formes, Ceriops tagal and Aegiceros corniculatum with DBH below 40cm. The DBH range
of dominant species in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest is shown in Table as below:
Table 6: Maximum diameter at breast height (DBH) for major species found in Wunbaik Reserved
Mangrove Forest
Species Maximum DBH
Rhizophora mucronata 36
Rhizophora apiculata 51
Avicennia ofcinalis 43
Avicennia alba 44
Ceriops tagal 26
Heritera formes 34
Bruguiera gymnorhiza 37
Bruguiera parvifora 36
Bruguiera cylindrica 53
Xylocarpus spp 61
Sonerata alba 58
Sonerata grifthii 47
Sonerata apetala 72
Aegiceros corniculatum 20
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Figure 18. The major canopy in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 19. Emergent vegetaton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 20. Mangrove species compositon in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 21. Monogeneric vegetaton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 22. Relatve frequency and dominance of mangrove species in Wunbaik Reserved
Mangrove Forest
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With respect to crown size, Sonerata alba have the largest canopies of up to 15m diameter while
Rhizophora mucronata are up to 10m, Rhizophora apiculata up to 8m, Bruguiera spp. up to 7m,
Xylocarpus spp. up to 5m, Avicennia ofcianalis up to 5m, Heritera spp. up to 5m, Ceriops tagal up
to 5m.
5.3 Forest recovery capacity
The capacity of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest to recover from degradaton is extremely
good where the natural hydrology remains intact. Areas, in which the hydrology has been altered,
however, sufer contnued degradaton. Mangroves seed producton is abundant and seedlings
germinaton rates are high where the microclimatc conditons are appropriate (Table 8).
Table 7: Species wise seed producton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
Species Tree height (m) Canopy diameter (m)
Approximate seed
producton
per tree per season
Rhizophora mucronata 10 5 4 822
Rhizophora apiculata 7 5 4 273
Avicennia ofcinalis 6 5 184 536
Avicennia alba 5 3 152 341
Ceriops tagal 5 3 2 011
Heritera formes 5 3 1 522
Bruguiera gymnorhiza 5 5 6 501
Bruguiera parvifora 5 3 3 032
Bruguiera cylindrica 5 3 4 504
Xylocarpus spp 6 5 209
Sonerata alba 5 5 18 021
Sonerata grifthii 5 3 15 032
Sonerata apetala 10 8 20 041
Aegiceros corniculatum 5 3 150 112
Aegialits rotandifolia 3 2 10 032
In many areas the rato of seedlings reaching the recruitment stage is high. The number of recruits
reaching the tree stage has, however, been reduced by cutng and encroachment. Survey data
shows that the density of seedlings below 1 m in height reached 123 per square meter, while for
seedlings below 2 m densites reached a maximum of 7 per square meter and for seedling above 3
m in height there were up to 9 per square meter. The greater number of seedlings between 2-3 m
resulted from dense formatons of Ceriops taga, Aegiceros corniculatum and Aegialits rotandifolia.
Figure 23 shows the density of seedlings in the survey sites.
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Seedling density in survey sites : seedling height below 1 m
Seedling density in survey sites : seedling height below 2 m
Recruit stage plant density in survey sites : plant height below 3m
Figure 23. Density of seedlings in the feld survey sites in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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The Forest Department Working Plan 1958-70 states that yield from Wunbaik mangroves is 1.68
tons per acre per annum from annual coupes covering 33 280 acres. Producton was, however,
fxed conservatvely at 50 000 per tons per annum. In Ayeyarwady Delta, where an average density
of 11.7 trees per acre of above 2 inches diameter was recorded, yields were estmated at 4.42 tons
per acre. In the mangroves of Rakhine State, yields were lower due to tree densites of only 9.5
trees per acre.
Currently, the tree class compositon in Wunbaik follows an unhealthy declining exponental curve
rather than the bell shaped curve expected for a healthy forest. In all survey sites except E2, the
curves decline and exhibit dominance of size classes below 6 cm. In site E2 there are a considerable
number of mature trees of Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Xylocarpus granatum,
Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Bruguiera parvifora, Ceriops tagal and Aegiceros corniculatum. Figure 24
shows the size class distributon across all survey sites in Wunbaik.
There are 84 compartments in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest. As per the 0.5 meter
panchromatc (black and white) and 1.65 meter multspectral resoluton GeoEye-1 , the protecton,
conservaton and management of Wunbaik mangroves is severely threatened. For example, there
is no single compartment that can be categorized as dense mangrove vegetaton, or undegraded;
all compartments have either been encroached upon or are degraded. Of 84 compartments, 33
compartments (39%) are highly degraded, 13 compartments (16 %) are partally degraded and 38
compartments (45 %) are exclusively under farming or have been encroached upon (Figure 25).
Full mangrove recovery will only be possible if all human actvites cease or are signifcantly curtailed.
If routne encroachment prevails there will be no healthy mangroves remaining in Wunbaik in
10-15 years, similar to the current situaton in Ayeyarwady delta. Eradicaton of mangroves from
Wunbaik would expose Rakhine and its inhabitants to coastal disasters including annual cyclones
and storms, monsoonal fooding and possible tsunamis.
If the decision is taken to aid mangrove recovery, the appropriate soluton is to allow NATURAL
RECOVERY. Gardening approach of plantng seedlings raised in nurseries may not serve in
restoraton of degraded mangroves in Wunabik, ecological restoraton is the ratonal approach.
Some facilitaton may be required by demolishing embankments, bunds and creek blockages to
restore the natural hydrology. The tme required for natural recovery is likely to be in the order of
5 to 10 years.
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Survery Site A1 Survery Site A2
Survery Site B1 Survery Site B2
Survery Site C1 Survery Site C2
Survery Site D1 Survery Site D2
Survery Site E1 Survery Site E2
Figure 24. Tree size class distributon in the survey sites in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 25. Compartment wise mangrove degradaton and encroachment in Wunbaik Reserved
Mangrove Forest
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6. Mangrove management module of project TCP-MYA-3204
6.1 Baseline data assessment
Scientfc and partcipatory assessments were carried out to assess biodiversity, forest utlisaton
paterns, change in mangrove cover since 1900, alternatve livelihood optons for Wunbaik
users and alternatve optons for mangrove usage. Floral and fsheries diversity of Wunbaik was
documented in books enttled The Mangrove Vegetaton of Wunbaik Reserved Forest and The
Fishery Resources of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest (Figure 26). Partcipatory assessments
were conducted in the villages in the Wunbaik area and reports produced on their socio-economic
situaton and possible livelihood prototypes that could be adopted.
6.2 Awareness, training and skill development
Training courses covering many subjects were held by the project: forest surveying, mangrove
species identfcaton, mapping, remote sensing and GIS, fsheries management, rapid assessment
of mangrove vegetaton and forest structure, teak nursery management, partcipatory forest
management, community forestry, tree grafing and hybridizaton, triple and double rack home
gardening, tmber and fuel species tree nursery development, plantaton management, forest
management plans and monitoring, community organizaton and management, product marketng
and Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR). Partcipatory management skill development
programs were also run, covering topics including: awareness on linkages between livelihoods
and mangrove conservaton, management of Wunbaik mangroves, mangrove awareness for
the user communites and management of Wunbaik fsheries Resources. In additon, training
in entrepreneurship skill development training was provided to mangrove dependent local
communites and line departments on fuel efcient stoves and hygienic drier constructon and
commercial grafed seedling producton (Figure 27).
6.3 Livelihood support optons
7.3.1 Commercial community nurseries and market linkages
Two commercial community nurseries of 18 x 12 m were set up in Letpan and Yantheshe villages.
The gender compositon of the management commitee is 7:3 women to men and the women lead
nursery management and linking with markets. The nursery actvites form an alternatve income
source for the community groups and villagers (Figure 28).
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Figure 26(i). Mangrove vegetaton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 26(ii). Fishery resources in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 27. Awareness and skill development programs in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Figure 28. Commercial community nursery and the management commitee
from the benefciary village
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6.3.2 Fuel efcient stove producton
Following training conducted by the project, the community management groups and many
individual women are producing fuel efcient stoves in a variety of sizes to suit diferent family sizes,
and selling them in local markets. The moulds used for constructon of the stoves were provided by
the project. As stove producton was found to be economically benefcial for involved womenfolk, a
producton unit 3 x 12 m was established, adjacent to the community nursery to enable women to
gather in one place to produce, store and market products. The cost of stove producton is solely in
terms of labour requirements as raw material is available free of charge in the area. A single stove
unit is sold for 1500 kyats (nearly US$ 2) in local markets and 2000 kyats (nearly US$ 2.5) in Yambye
market. The stoves reduce daily fuel wood usage by 40 percent (Figure 29).
6.3.3 Village pond restoraton
Water is in high demand in the villages during summer. To help supply the village plantatons and
gardens, which provide an important alternatve income source for Wunbaik communites, the
project supported restoraton of the fresh water ponds in Letpan and Yantheshe villages (Figure
30).
6.3.4 Double rack backyard vegetable garden
To support the landless and those with limited income and land holdings, triple rack home gardens
were introduced and were well accepted by community members. Because of their greater
portability villagers preferred double racks and the triple rack model was therefore redesigned as
Double Rack Backyard Vegetable Garden. Around 40 families in Letpan village and 30 families in
Yantheshe village now own Double Rack Backyard Vegetable Gardens which provide considerable
income: monthly benefts from each unit are estmated at 15000-20000 Kyats (nearly US $ 25)
(Figure 31)
6.4 Mangrove utlity mitgaton
6.4.1 Fuel and tmber tree plantatons
The dependency on mangroves for fuel and tmber is high in the Wunbaik area and to reduce
demand and help conserve the mangrove resources, terrestrial trees were planted in the villages to
yield fuel and, preferably, tmber (Figure 32). The community groups manage the tree plantatons
but in some cases the project also supported tree plantng in private lands under the agreement
that benefts would be shared 75:25 between the land owner and the community. The village
heads, community management groups and the land owners have signed writen agreements in
relaton to beneft sharing.
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Figure 29. Fuel efcient stove producton at the benefciary village
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Figure 30. Pond restoraton actvites at the benefciary villages
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Figure 31. Double Rack Backyard Vegetable Garden in the benefciary villages
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Figure 32. Alternatve fuel and tmber plantaton in the benefciary villages
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6.4.2 Alternatve bio-energy optons
The major cause of mangrove degradaton in Wunbaik has been collecton of wood for energy
producton both for local communites and for the country as a whole. Establishing alternatve
energy sources for cooking, heatng and lightng in Myanmar is a key challenge. Myanmar has oil
and gas reserves but the extent to which these resources will be consumed and shared, if at all, at
the natonal level remains unclear. As a result, there is no clear alternatve and although efcient
stoves make a diference, pressure on mangroves is likely to remain and considerable efort will be
needed to prevent further degradaton.
To help address the high demand on mangrove resources for energy producton, a study on the
feasibility of establishing a gas producton system based on rice husks and providing gas through
pipelines to Letpan village was carried out (Figure 33). The costs of equipment for conversion and
laying pipelines were assessed but due to fund constraints, the project was not able to contnue
with the strategy of alternatve energy provision to mitgate mangrove wood cutng for fuel.
6.5 Mangrove management schemes and demonstratons
Various eforts were made by the project to assist management of mangrove in the Wunbaik area
including registraton of a community forest, demonstraton of Ecological Mangrove Restoraton
(EMR) and establishment of a Wunbaik users register.
6.5.1 Community forestry
As Wunbaik mangroves are in a reserved forest area that is distant from most setlements in the
district, community management is not considered appropriate. In spite of this fact, a community
forestry demonstraton site was initated in Hlang Kuang, which is situated in Mingyaung Public
Protected Forest, adjacent to Wunbaik, where the Forest Department allowed around 23 families
to setle. The status of mangroves near the setlement is very poor and most mangrove areas have
been converted to paddy farming (Figure 34). An area of 25 acres including degraded mangrove
areas has nonetheless been registered with the Forest Department as a community forest. The
community forest management commitee will initate re-greening of the degraded forest area and
also protect the mangroves from further encroachment (Figure 35).
6.5.2 Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR)
The area in Wunbaik in which mangroves have been cleared or are highly degraded amounts to 24
352 acres or 43 % of the total reserved mangrove forest. Restoraton of the ecosystem is unlikely
to be possible through direct plantng of mangroves in such highly degraded areas and on such a
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large scale. Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR) can, however, achieve excellent results in such
circumstances by facilitatng return of natural hydrological paterns though removal of disruptve
factors while addressing the reasons for damage done in the past.
Figure 33. Stove fueled by gas generated from rice husk
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Figure 34. Mangrove area converted for paddy in Mingyaung Public Protected Forest,
near Hlang Kuang setlement area
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Figure 35. Map showing the 25 acres registered as a community forest near Hlang Kuang
setlement in Mingyaung Public Protected Forest
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The Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR) technique was used by the project to restore 4 acres
of abandoned paddy felds that were previously covered with mangroves in an area adjacent
to Hlang Kuang setlement (Figure 36). The restoraton work principally involved facilitatng the
natural hydrology with litle need for re-grading of land. There was no need for a mangrove nursery
or for plantng of mangrove seedlings given the abundance of seedlings in the local waterways. The
natural regeneraton process assists long-term survival and replenishment of the forest ecosystem
by avoiding mistakes that are commonly made in selectng mangrove species for diferent heights
in the tdal range.
Abandoned degraded areas of land in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest require similar
acton to restore the mangrove vegetaton as detailed in the Integrated Mangrove Management
Plan.
6.5.3 Wunbaik user register
Use of Wunbaik mangroves for actvites including paddy or shrimp farming and commercial
exploitaton of trees and fshery resources is illegal. A Wunbaik User Register is suggested as a
means for the Forest Department to monitor and manage actvites in Wunbaik Reserved Forest.
All users, regardless of their intended mode of utlizaton should register to facilitate systematc
management of the area and to enable livelihood support to be provided as appropriate. As per
the Reserved Forest law, the Forest Department is not obliged to compensate the trespassing
partes. Indeed, as trespassers are in contraventon of the law, a penalty would more commonly be
applied. Line departments are, however, encouraging communites to encroach into the reserved
forest and are calling upon the local administraton to seek areas outside the reserved forest
for trespassing paddy and shrimp farmers to move to. The Forest Department is supportng the
process by identfying lands outside the reserved forest boundary for the trespassers. To receive
the opton of moving to a new area, it is recommended that the details of all farmers are added to
the Wunbaik User Register. A preliminary Wunbaik User Register was developed during the project
period, which should be extended to all villages surrounding Wunbaik and to villagers entering
Wunbaik for resource extracton (Annex 4).
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Figure 36(i). Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR) training.
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Figure 36(i). Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR) demonstraton in four acres.
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7. Guidelines for Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest management
Wunbaik Reserved Forest is one of the last great areas of mangroves in Myanmar and in all
Southeast Asia. The area has an extremely high potental productvity in terms of both forest
and fsheries resources and provides a home for a wide range of fauna and fora. The forest also
provides storm and cyclone protecton and exhibits high levels of carbon storage and sequestraton.
Through careful management, the Wunbaik Reserved Forest can become more productve in terms
of wood and non-wood forest products, including fsheries resources, and ecosystem services
including biodiversity conservaton and climate change mitgaton. In conserving and improving
the management of the area, local level benefts for current and future generatons will also be
increased.
To respond to current issues and address demands in a sustainable and equitable way, much more
actve forms of management are required than are currently being implemented. Greater atenton
to sustainable management of the natural resources in the reserve area will beneft both current
and future generatons and will also provide a model for efectve management of other mangrove
areas in Myanmar and the region as a whole.
To improve sustainable management of natural resources in and around the reserve, rights and
responsibilites must be distributed amongst stakeholders such that incentves are provided to
ofset tendencies for short-term degradaton. For this an enabling regulatory environment and
efectve law enforcement and governance are necessary. As such, the Forest, Fisheries and Land
Planning Departments as key partners in managing the reserved forest must act in coordinaton
and in partnership with the local communites. To support collaboraton between agencies and
communites, insttutonal strengthening at the local level will be partcularly important.
With respect to management and technical maters, educaton and awareness raising amongst
stakeholders at all levels is essental, especially in relaton to the importance of mangrove forests and
the technical measures necessary to raise the efciency with which producton and conservaton
objectves are achieved. Alternatve livelihood optons and income generatng actvites for
local communites must also be provided in additon to training on forest and fsheries resource
management.
The following sectons address the issues summarised in Secton 2 and provide a set of measures
necessary to sustainably manage Wunbaik Reserved Forest for the producton of wood and
non-wood forest products and conservaton of natural resource for the beneft of surrounding
communites and future generatons. The measures recommended have been derived from
community level visits surveys and discussions, feld level implementaton of pilot level actvites,
natonal and local level consultatons and expert input.
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7.1 Agree on a policy for future management of Wunbaik Reserved Forest
A key area for discussion and consultaton during the project implementaton period was the issue
of encroached land within the Wunbaik Reserved Forest. Table 3 shows that approximately 5 644
hectares (13 947 acres) of land have been encroached upon for paddy and shrimp farming. Secton
1.4 outlines current legislaton governing reserved forests and the lack of provision for encroached
land within reserved forests.
In managing the reserved forest, a key decision therefore concerns the future use of areas of
encroached land. According to the forest law, agricultural and aquaculture land uses should not
be present within the reserve area and because of the isolaton of the farmed areas and need for
families to relocate during the growing season, alternatve land closer to communites permanent
dwellings is preferred by many farmers and stakeholders as recorded during the IMMP consultaton
in Yambye (see Annex 7).
In the short-term, this objectve may be hindered by insttutonal and resource constraints,
especially in relaton to providing necessary inputs and implementng safeguards in transferring
encroached farmland to other areas. Under such circumstances, a more conservatve strategy may
be appropriate in which further encroachment is prohibited but current areas of agriculture and
aquaculture are lef in their current state. Under this opton encroached areas that have become
barren and are abandoned would be converted back to mangrove.
Table 7.1 shows the major land use and management changes aimed at under the two optons.
Under opton 1, compartments within the Wunbaik Reserved Forest where partally degraded and
highly degraded mangroves currently exist (see Figure 25) would be managed for conservaton
and protecton purposes. Areas in which agriculture and aquaculture are currently practced, and
abandoned agriculture and aquaculture areas, would be allocated to communites for Ecological
Mangrove Restoraton and sustainable producton of forest products. Provision of suitable and
productve alternatve farming land would be essental for this opton to be pursued. Preliminary
discussions between the project and government agencies suggested that appropriate land may
be available.
Under opton 2, compartments where partally degraded mangroves stll exist would be managed
for full conservaton and highly degraded areas would be allocated to communites for sustainable
producton of forest products. Mangroves would be restored in abandoned areas of encroached
land with paddy and shrimp farming actvites allowed to remain without further expansion.
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Table 7.1. Key optons for the future management of Wunbaik Reserved Forest
Current land use
Opton 1 Restore
encroached areas to full
mangrove cover
Opton 2 Improve
management of mangrove
resources and prohibit further
encroachment
Partally degraded
mangroves (12 412 ha)
Full conservaton Full conservaton
Highly degraded
mangroves (3 915 ha)
Full conservaton
Sustainable forest products
producton
Encroached areas
- agriculture and
aquaculture (5 644 ha)
Ecological Mangrove
Restoraton followed by
sustainable forest products
producton
No change
Abandoned encroached
areas (unknown area)
Ecological Mangrove
Restoraton followed by
sustainable forest products
producton
Ecological Mangrove
Restoraton followed by
sustainable forest products
producton
Both optons 1 and 2 could potentally be supported by REDD+ funding. Each opton has a diferent
potental to generate income as follows:
Opton 1 has potental to generate income through
(i) carbon sequestraton by regrowing mangroves in all currently encroached areas, including
abandoned areas, and
(ii) reduced rates of CO2 emission in partally degraded and highly degraded mangroves placed
under full conservaton. Opton 2 has potental to generate income through
(i) carbon sequestraton by partally degraded mangroves placed under full conservaton and by
regrowing mangroves in abandoned encroached areas, and
(ii) reduced rates of CO2 emission from highly degraded mangroves sustainably managed for
forest products producton.
The amounts of carbon sequestered under opton 1 would be considerably higher owing to the
restoraton of mangroves on deforested land. It is therefore recommended that encroached areas
within Wunbaik area be reclaimed and returned to their original state as mangrove forest through
Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR) techniques demonstrated by the project.
Under opton 1, carbon sequestraton from mangrove regrowth across the 5 644 hectares (13 947
acres) of encroached land would be considerable. Estmates from Broadhead (2011) suggest that
around 1 000 - 2 000 metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent per hectare (Mt CO2e ha-1) are contained in
mangrove soils and 1 000 Mt CO2e ha-1 in above ground biomass although stocks may he higher
on deep soils covered with un-degraded mangroves.
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Taking a range of 2 000 3 000 Mt CO2e ha-1 for total ecosystem carbon storage (above and below
ground) suggests that for an area of 5 644 hectares, between 11 288 547 and 16 932 821 Mt CO2e
could be sequestered as encroached areas regenerate to fully grown mangrove forest.
With a carbon price of $5 per tonne, the value of the carbon sequestered would be $56 442 736 -
$84 664 104 and assuming the mangroves were to take 30 years to reach carbon densites of 2 000
3 000 Mt CO2e ha-1, annual income would be $1 881 425 - $2 822 137 notwithstanding project
set up or management and administraton costs.
In additon to income from carbon sequestered in encroached areas, reduced rates of emissions
from mangroves sustainably managed for forest products producton would add to the total
potental income. Under opton 2, rates of sequestraton and reducton in emissions would be
considerably lower being associated only with expansion of carbon stocks in degraded mangrove
areas and regrowth of mangroves in abandoned areas.
REDD+ income could potentally be used to support the following actvites:
project set-up and administraton costs;
payments to farmers to undertake EMR;
relocaton of farmers to alternatve land;
technical inputs to set up productve agricultural systems and support development of
alternatve livelihood actvites.
Remaining income could be shared between stakeholders at diferent levels according to an
agreed beneft sharing formula. Monitoring of carbon sequestraton could be achieved through a
combinaton of high-resoluton satellite imagery (~$10 000 for an image of the whole of Wunbaik
Reserved Forest at 0.3m resoluton) and inventory techniques. Monitoring of management and
beneft distributon could be undertaken by an NGO or internatonal organisaton.
Once a decision is made on the opton to be adopted a detailed implementaton plan including
management structure, monitoring and evaluaton criteria a budget and a tmeframe could be
developed to support implementaton. Within the overall framework, guidelines provided in the
following sectons would form the basis of feld level management and livelihood support.
7.2 Address legislatve contradictons
To protect the mangrove forests in Myanmar, it will be important that the overlaps between the
Freshwater Fisheries Law and the Forest Law are addressed. The optons for addressing them
include a comprehensive and integrated natonal mangrove policy, legislatve amendments and
increased inter-agency cooperaton.
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7.3 Develop a Wunbaik User Register
To provide a foundaton for sustainable management of the Wunbaik Reserved Forest, a Wunbaik
User Register is essental. The register would contain the following informaton for all users of the
Wunbaik Reserved Forest including farmers, fshers, wood cuters, bark peelers, crab collectors and
others:
Name
Address
Natonal identty card number
Area farmed or area of operaton
Fishing gear owned
Wunbaik users would be issued with a photo identty card and a license to contnue designated
actvites in accordance with the overall Integrated Mangrove Management Plan.
7.4 Support sustainable producton of woodfuel and bark
The root cause of the overexploitaton of mangrove forests in the Wunbaik Reserved Forest is high
demand for fuelwood in Rakhine State and for charcoal, especially in urban areas including Sitwe,
Taungok, Mandalay, Yangon and other areas. Bark peeling has also adversely afected the forest
resources in Wunbaik.
Target felling of mangroves belonging to the genera Rhizophora, Heretera, Xylocarpus, Avicennia,
Nypa, Kandelia and Bruguiera has reduced the numbers of these trees considerably. Charcoal and
brick manufacturers and bark and lumber traders target specimens of 10 metres in height and
above.
Currently, approximately 25 percent of the reserved forest has been encroached upon and
another 20 percent is degraded through overexploitaton. To ensure that mangrove resources are
sustainably managed demand must be controlled. To achieve this outcome, the following actons
are recommended:
I. A reserve-wide fve year moratorium on wood cutng and bark peeling should be imposed to
allow recovery of the forest resources;
II. Following the wood cutng moratorium, laws should be strictly enforced by the Forest
Department to prevent wood extracton in the Wunbaik core conservaton zone.
III. Annual allowable cut should be estmated for the sustainable use zone and a coupe system
reinstated following the wood cutng moratorium;
IV. Establish state, private and community woodfuel plantatons to help meet current wood
demand;
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V. Bark collecton should with be integrated with wood extracton such that bark is removed
from felled trees rather than stripped from standing trees with the tree lef to die, later to be
collected for woodfuel.
a. Regulaton should be implemented to ban stripping of bark from live trees;
b. Awareness should be raised among wood and bark collectors of new rules.
VI. Provide training in producton of energy efcient stoves across Rakhine State;
VII. Investgate alternatve energy systems appropriate for Rakhine State such as rice husk
gasifcaton;
VIII. Divert a proporton of natural gas to Rakhine State from the new Kyauk Phyu oil and gas
terminals;
IX. Provide alternatve energy sources to urban areas including Sitwe, Taungok, Mandalay and
Yangon.
7.5 Management of encroached areas
The expanse and distributon of mangroves is determined by tdal inundaton. Since constructon
of embankments to convert wetlands for paddy and shrimp cultvaton began in the 1970s, natural
hydrological regimes have been signifcantly altered and rates of mangrove deforestaton and
degradaton have accelerated both due to habitat destructon and associated clear felling of
mangroves.

The natons food producton policy, Rakhine States 1980 plan for expansion of shrimp farming
in mangroves, and the governments 1998 Land Reclamaton Policy have all been interpreted as
justfcaton to encroach upon the reserved forest. The Department of Agriculture and Department
of Fisheries have justfed encroachment on the grounds of food security, disregarding the
Forest Law and laws concerning the sustainable management of natural resources for long-term
subsistence of human populatons. There is, however, no government policy that specifes that
food producton or setlement targets should be met through encroachment into reserved forest.
As per the Reserve Forest Law, encroachment of reserved forest for any development actvity or
for human setlement is illegal.
In 2011 approximately 25 % of the reserve forest had been encroached upon and converted to
land uses valued at US$115-200 per annum. The area of water within the reserved area has fallen
from 7 percent in 2000 to 3.7 percent in 2011 which has curtailed the productvity capacity of
the mangrove and fshery resources. Inputs of fertlizer and pestcides associated with paddy and
shrimp farming, including copper sulphate and other chemicals highly toxic to the environment
used to control snail and crab populatons, have also reduce water quality and wiped out juvenile
fsh populatons. In additon, poorly constructed shrimp pond sluices have resulted in stagnaton
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and putrefacton of water and acidifcaton of soil. Due to soil acidifcaton and compacton, paddy
felds have had to be abandoned afer four or fve years.
To control encroachment the following actons should be taken:
I. Implement strict controls on expansion of encroachment and dispatch legal notfcatons
and alerts to natonal departments and agencies encouraging encroachment, to local line
departments in charge of natural resource management and to local communites in the
Wunbaik area;
II. Ban use of copper sulphate and other toxic chemicals used to control snail and crab populatons,
and develop plans to prohibit kari paddy and shrimp farming inside Wunbaik Reserved Forest
and provide farmers with incentves to move to alternatve areas as per policy decision (see
Secton 3.1);
III. Design community based restoraton plans for encroached areas;
IV. Remove embankments as farmers move out and implement Ecological Mangrove Restoraton
in encroached areas;
V. Educate and train stakeholders including local Forest Department and line agency staf to
increase awareness of the need for forest protecton and conservaton.
7.6 Fisheries resource management
As per the reserved forest law, any biotc or abiotc goods collected within the boundary are
considered as forest produce. Forest produce cannot be harvested without prior permission and
fsheries resources from within the reserved area, as forest produce, also cannot be harvested
without prior permission.
Overfshing, capture of brooders at creek mouths on both tdes, use of small mesh sizes and use of
poisons, dynamite and electricity for fshing purposes has caused fsh populatons within Wunbaik
Reserved Forest waters to decline signifcantly. To improve management of fsheries resources, the
following recommendatons are made:
I. Strictly enforce forest laws and regulate utlizaton of Wunbaik Reserved Forest, including
water bodies, to protect fsheries resources within the reserve and adjoining sea areas;
II. Prohibit commercial fshing and implement quotas for subsistence use of fsheries resources;
III. Impose a three year period of restricted entry to Wunbaik Reserved Forest as an immediate
remedial measure to conserve and replenish fn and shell fsh resources in the area;
IV. Allocate exclusive fshing rights within the reserve to local communites for subsistence use of
fsheries;
V. Declare and strictly enforce Conservaton Holidays in Wunbaik Reserved Forest during the
fsh spawning season (three months post monsoon) to allow commercial fsh species that
depend on mangroves to proliferate;
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VI. Implement a rotatonal Prohibited Fishing Ground of the Year (PFGY) strategy (see Box 1);
VII. Specify types of fshing gear (net types and mesh sizes, etc.) and craf permited for use inside
Wunbaik Reserved Forest (only traditonal craf);
VIII. Include Wunbaik fshers in Wunbaik Reserved Forest User Register (see Secton 3.2) and
provide licenses for authorized fshing gear and craf (Forest Department and Fisheries
Department responsible);
IX. Forest Department should establish a system to monitor fsh catch from within the WBRF
waters (currently catch within and outside the reserve is monitored and managed by Fisheries
Department alone);
X. Immediately enforce prohibiton of destructve fshing practces within and adjacent to the
Wunbaik Reserved Forest, including use of poisons, dynamite, electric fshing gear, etc.
Box 1. Implementng the Prohibited Fishing Ground of the Year plan
This management model, suggested by villagers in the Wunbaik area, is aimed at maintaining
fsh stocks and has been practced in Wunbaik area the past. The strategy involves prohibitng
fshing in one creek per village tract per year with annual rotaton of the designated creek over
a fve year period. The Prohibited Fishing Ground of the Year (PFGY) programme should be
implemented through the following steps:
Step 1: Each and every person utlizing Wunbaik Reserved Forest will register with the Forest
Department, providing personal details and details of equipment owned and used in the
reserve. A photo identty card will then be issued to each user (see Secton 3.2).
Step 2: Support will be provided for registered fshers to organize themselves into a Wunbaik
used group which would liaise with the village tract Peoples Development Commitee (PDC)
and the Forest Department (FD).
Step 3: Creeks will be identfed for annual fshing prohibiton and conservaton and the list of
creeks to be protected over the fve year cycle and an associated map will be prepared by the
user group with help from the village tract PDC & FD.
Step 4: The list of creeks identfed for annual prohibiton and conservaton and associated
map will be submited by each village tract PDC & FD to the township level PDC & FD which
will, in turn, submit the plans to the District PDC and FD.
Step 5: The District PDC & FD will develop a Five year rotatonal creek conservaton plan for
Wunbaik Reserved Forest and return the plan to township and village tract level PDC & FD.
Step 6: The 5 year rotatonal creek conservaton plan will be disseminated throughout the
village tracts, e.g. by postng on village informaton boards and through announcements made
by PDC and FD at the village level.
Step 7: The village tract level PDC and FD will monitor actvites in relaton to the PFGY and
assist in implementaton and support including confict resoluton as necessary.
Step 8: Early in the ffh year of plan implementaton steps 1-7 will be repeated and a new list
of creeks will be developed and agreed upon as prohibited fshing grounds of the year.
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7.7 Crab trapping and management
In relaton to crab trapping, there are four major crab collecton centres and several other
permanent statons inside the reserve upon which Forest Department eforts should centre. The
following recommendatons are made:
I. Remove illegal crab collecton centres and merchants operatng inside Wunbaik Reserved
Forest.
II. Establish crab protected area within Wunbaik conservaton zone;
III. Enforce ban on collecton, breeding and fatening of crabs for export purposes and on
collecton of crabs for producton of sof shell crabs for commercial purposes.
IV. Establish crab breeding and fatening centres outside Wunbaik Reserved Forest and support
sustainable crab producton to provide the local community with a source of income and to
reduce pressure on, and illegal actvity within, the reserve;
V. Enforce ban on collecton of mud crab brooders and young crabs below 100 grams;
VI. Limit types of craf permited for crab catching and provide licences to crab catchers registered
in the Wunbaik Users Register;
VII. Strengthen law enforcement by Forest Department in collaboraton with Fisheries Department
and local authorites;
VIII. Raise awareness on responsible crabbing practces.
7.8 Biodiversity conservaton
Severe human pressure in the Wunbaik area and associated trading of animals for skin or meat has
caused loss of certain species from the reserve including marsh crocodile or migyaung (Crocodylus
porosus), deer (Cervidae sp.), wild boar (Sus scrofa), wild cat (Felis silvestris), crab eatng macaque
(Macaca fascicularis), monitor lizard (Varanus sp) and also egrets, herons, storks, spoon bills,
curlews, godwits, water hens, wild peasant, doves, pigeons and raptors. In partcular, marsh
crocodiles have been totally eradicated from the Wunbaik area despite having been a very common
species in the past. In relaton to these challenges the following recommendatons are made:
I. Forest Department and local administraton to restrict bird poaching and control local
marketng of wild birds and animals.
II. Develop plans for reintroducton of marsh crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) to improve the local
biodiversity and revive the ecological balance in the area.
III. Raise awareness of local people in biodiversity conservaton;
IV. Increase law enforcement actvites in the reserved forest including patrolling;
V. Provide fnancial and technical support for conservaton.etc.
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Box 2. Reintroducton of marsh crocodiles to the Wunbaik area.
A crocodile farm in Yangon run by the
Department of Fisheries is currently becoming
unproftable due to high maintenance costs and
a soluton is being sought to save the crocodiles.
One possibility is for the Forest Department to
reintroduce the crocodiles to the waters in the
Wunbaik area for the long term survival of the
species. Such a plan would require further study
and consultaton but could become a reality
with broad agreement and further assessment
of feasibility.
7.9 Livelihood support
Without local people livelihood support, conservaton of the Wunbaik Reserved Forest will not
be possible as pressures on the resources would remain unabated. Poverty is one of the main
drivers of conversion of forest to other land uses and creatng alternatve livelihoods that provide
alternatve sources of income and subsistence is essental. Following project implementaton in
Wunbaik and adjacent villages, the actvites detailed in the following sectons were determined to
be appropriate to the local context.
7.9.1 Producton of energy efcient stoves
Producton and utlizaton of energy efcient stoves proved a popular actvity among project
villages due to the savings in fuelwood use and, for village level stove manufacturers, income from
sale of stoves. The stove producton group in Letpan Village produced and sold around 2000 stoves
to surrounding villages. The sale price per stove varied between around $1.25 and $3 per unit.
Producton of the stoves is simple and requires very low inputs. Provision of further training in the
Wunbaik area would facilitate expanded producton and stoves could be exported to the Sitwe
area to support income generaton and reduced demand for fuelwood from the reserved forest. A
market assessment would be useful in determining the potental scale of producton and needs for
capacity building at the local level.
7.9.2 Establishment of private/community forest plantatons
Development of community forest plantatons has been supported by the Forest Department
since 1995. Community forest plantatons can yield income within fve years through pruning and
thinning operatons for the producton of fuelwood and wood for charcoal. Fuelwood and charcoal
demands are high in the Sitwe area and elsewhere in Rakhine State and if farmers can be persuaded
to plant trees for wood producton, there will be less impetus to enter the reserved forest.
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At the tme of selecton thinning, which usually takes place afer 7- 8 years, poles and posts can be
harvested for sale for the constructon of houses in rural area. Depending on the species planted,
fnal felling can take place afer 10 to 20 years. Small scantlings can be manufactured from the
logs harvested from plantatons. Compared to agriculture, income from forestry is initally low
and support in the form of credit may therefore be necessary in the early years before returns are
realized.
Fast-growing mangrove species like Sonnerata apetala, Avicennia ofcinalis, A. alba, A. marina,
Excoecaria agallocha, Bruguiera spp., and Rhizophora spp. are suitable for mangrove plantaton
from which income can be generated within a short period. Non mangrove species such as Acacia
spp:, Euclayptus spp: Melaleuca spp: and Casuarina equisetfolia can be established in coastal areas
for terrestrial plantatons and are similarly fast growing.
7.9.3 Bamboo plantaton establishment and manufacture of bamboo products
Bamboo plantng has practced on a small scale in rural areas of Myanmar for many years. Bamboo
has many traditonal uses including house constructon and manufacture of furniture and household
utensils. Demand for bamboo is currently increasing in Kyauk Phyu District.
Suitable bamboo species for the area include Dendrocalamus brandisii (Wabo), D. hamiltonii
(Wabo myet san gye), D. longispathus (Wanet), Oxytenanthera nigrociliata (Waya) and Bambusa
polymorpha (Kyathaung).
Capacity building would be of use in supportng producton of good quality bamboo handicrafs
and support in accessing markets would improve income generatng capacity.
7.9.4 Nursery establishment
Establishment of nurseries for the producton of seedlings of commercially important tree species
was demonstrated and piloted under the project and shows good potental for income generaton.
Teak nursery establishment and management were a partcular focus given the high demand for
teak (Tectona grandis) seedlings in Yambye, Kyauk Phyu and other areas surrounding Wunbaik.
The project also provided necessary seeds of Mezali (Cassia siamea), Bawzagaing (Leucaena
leucocephala), Pyinkado/Ironwood (Xylia xylocarpa), and Gmelina arborea and a variety of fruit
trees including mango, jack fruit, rambutan, lime, betel nut, coconut, banana and pomelo. In recent
years, rubber has become popular in Yambye and Kyauk Phyu and raising rubber seedlings presents
potental for income generaton.
7.9.5 Tree grafing
Grafing is a hortcultural technique whereby tssues from one plant are inserted into those of
another so that the two sets of vascular tssues join together. Grafing is ofen used for non-woody
and vegetable plants. The main advantage of grafing is for producing improved varietes using
disease-resistant rootstocks.
The project provided village level training on Tree Grafing and Hybridizaton Technique and
supported establishment of fruit tree nurseries to generate income. A total of 400 grafed fruit trees
were delivered to two project villages, Letpan and Yamtheshe. These trees will provide materials
for future grafing and villagers showed great willingness to grow the trees in their compounds and
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sow them in village nurseries. In additon, villagers can produce seedlings using techniques which
were learned from the training. Mango, lime, guava, jack fruit, rambutan and pomelo are high
potental species for grafing and income generaton.
7.9.6 Producton of Nypa thatch
People living in mangrove areas depend on Nypa for wall and roof constructon. Nypa thatch
producton is a key industry that provides job opportunites for both men and women. Nypa can
be harvested from natural source but is now increasingly being harvested from plantatons due
to the decline in natural forest stocks. Nypa plantatons are usually found along river banks and
are harvested once or twice per year. The harvestng period is usually from February to April
in the Wunbaik area. Nypa producton is supportve of both income generaton and mangrove
conservaton and Nypa plantatons also provide protecton from erosion in riverine and coastal
areas.
7.9.7 Double rack gardening
Double rack gardening is suitable for villagers who have limited land to grow vegetables for
household consumpton. Vegetables are a very important component of nutritonal inputs and
provide an important part of a healthy diet. The main advantages of the racks are that they are
portable and support producton in a very small area, they also provide freedom from termite and
ant atack, being above ground level. A double rack garden of a reasonable size can contribute
signifcantly to the nutritonal needs of family members with litle investment.
The double rack garden is constructed using bamboo which is available in the Wunbaik area. The
garden consists of four bamboo poles which support two bamboo racks. The rack has dimensions
of around 6 feet by 3 feet and stands 4.5 feet high. The space between the two racks is around
2 feet and the lower rack stands some 2 feet from the ground. Each rack is covered in a 6 inches
depth of a 3:1:1 combinaton of soil, dry cow dung and rice husk ash. Vegetable seeds are grown
on both layers of the rack. During the project period, rack home garden demonstratons were
given in Letpan and Yantheshe villages and support was provided to sow seasonal vegetables such
as chili, coriander, mustard, roselle and eggplant. Subsequent visits to the villages showed that
the racks were a success with many families growing healthy and succulent vegetables for home
consumpton.
7.9.8 Cage culture of crabs
Culture and fatening of mud crab in mangrove areas provides a way to produce food without
damaging the environment and returns can be quickly made. The use of net enclosures in mangroves
or tdal zones ofers a beter alternatve to pond culture and avoids clear-cutng of mangroves to
make way for ponds.
Raising crabs in cages to export to markets in China has great potental for income generaton given
high demand in the Wunbaik area. The crabs are kept in cages, artfcially fed and harvested when
they reach a marketable size. The cages can be built with locally available materials such as wood
and bamboo. This practce has been used for over a decade in Ayeyarwady delta.
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7.9.9 Honey producton
Honey is ofen collected from bee hives in Wunbaik. The amount of honey harvested has, however,
been falling due to forest loss. Honey is mostly used by local households with surplus sold to
outsiders. The price of one litre of Aegiceros corniculatum honey is around US$ 3 - 4 in local
villages but higher in urban markets. Honey collecton takes place from afer the monsoon untl
cold weather begins. Species including Apis dorsata, Apis forea and Apis indica play a major role
in honey producton. According to the Forest Working Plan for Kyauk Phyu district, a total of 91 kg
of honey were collected in 2008-09 fnancial year and villagers have shown interest in bee keeping
as an income generatng actvity. To facilitate expansion of bee keeping, materials and technical
support are necessary. Technical assistance is available from the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
as well as NGOs and private service providers.
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8. Reference
1. Burma Forest Act, 1902. Government of Burma
2. Forest Law, 1992, Ministry of Forestry, The Government of the Union of Myanmar.
3. Forestry in Myanmar, 2003, Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, The Government of
the Union of Myanmar.
4. Forestry Master Plan for the period of 2001/02 to 2030/31, 2001, Forest Department,
Ministry of Forestry, The Government of the Union of Myanmar.
5. Khin Maung Soe and Deiva Oswin Stanley, 2011. Fishery resources of Wunbaik reserved
mangrove forest, TCP/3204/MYA (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the
United Natons, Myanmar
6. Myanmar Agenda 21, 1997, Natonal Commission for Environmental Afairs, Ministry of
Forestry, The Government of the Union of Myanmar.
7. Myanmar Forest Policy, 1995, Ministry of Forestry, The Government of the Union of
Myanmar.
8. Protecton of Wildlife and Wild Plants and the Conservaton of Natural Areas Law, 1994,
Ministry of Forestry, The Government of the Union of Myanmar.
9. Win Myint and Deiva Oswin Stanley, 2011. The mangrove vegetaton of Wunbaik reserved
forest, TCP/3204/MYA (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United
Natons, Myanmar
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E

Annex : 1 Flora identfed in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest


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1. Family: Ambassidae
Ambassis gymnocephalus ( Lacepede, 1802 ) (i g;Zi fpyf?aMumi frpm;)
2. Family: Bagridae
Mystus vitatus ( Bloch, 1797 ) (i g;Zi fdki f;)
3. Family: Batrachoidae
Batrichythyes sp. (Smith, 1934 ) (i g;zm;?i g;t kwf)
4. Family: Belonidae
Strongylura leiura ( Bleeker, 1851 ) (i g;awmi fpdrf;?i g;azmi fdk;BuD;)
5. Family: Bothidae
Pseudorhombus arius ( Hamilton Buchanan, 1822 ) (i g;zuf&Guf)
6. Family Cynoglossidae
Cynoglossus lingua (i g;pyfpm?i g;acG;&Sm)
7. Family; Carangidae:
Selaroides leptolepis ( Cuvier, 1833 ) (rsufqHus, f?i g;l;)
8. Family: Centropomidae
Lates calcarifer ( Bloch,1790 ) (uuwpf?i g;o' dkuf)
9. Family: Chaetodontdae
Chaetodon descussatus, Cuvier, 1831 (i g;vdyfjym)
10. Family: Clupeidae
Anodontostoma chacunda ( Hamilton - Buchanan, 1822 ) (i g;0rf;yl?i g;0ufpyf)
Tenualosa illisha ( Hamilton - Buchanan, 1822 ) (i g;oavmuf)
11. Family: Drepanidae
Drepane punctata ( Linnaeus , 1758 ) (qi fem;&Guf?i g;ykvJ)
12. Family: Engraulididae
Coilia dussumieri, Valenciennes, 1848 (NrD;wHoG, f)
Coilia ramcarit ( Hamilton Buchanan,1822 ) (NrD;wHoG, f)
Setpinna wheeleri, Wongratana,1983 (i g;yg;&Sm;?i g;yg;)
Thryssa mystax ( Bloch and Schneider, 1801 ) (i g;yg;&Sm;)
13. Family: Gerreidae
Gerres abbreviates, Bleeker, 1850 (i g;qDt dk;)
Gerres flamentosus, Cuvier, 1829 (i g;qDt dk;)
14. Family: Gobiidae
Acentrogobius caninus ( Valenciennes, 1837 ) (i g;o0ufzdk)
Bathygobius fuscus ( Ruppell, 1828 ) (i g;&Sydk;?i g;, uf)
Boleopthalmus boddart ( Pallas 1770 ) (i g;a' gi f;aysmuf)
Glossogobius giuris ( Hamilton - Buchanan, 1822 ) (uoydk;?i &Sydk;)
Pseudapocryptes lamceolatus ( Bloch & Schmeider,1801 ) (i g;, ufjzL)
15. Family: Haemulidae
Pomadasys commersonni ( Lacepede , 1802 ) (i g;*Hk;)
Pomadasys olivaceum ( Day, 1875 ) (i g;*Hk;)
Annex : 2 Fishery resources identfed in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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16. Family: Hemiramphidae
Zenarchopterus sp ( Gill, 1864 ) (i g;azmi fdk;?i g;awmi fzkef;)
17. Family: Holocentridae
Sargocentron rubrum ( Forsskal, 1775 ) (i g;aMu;rm?
i g;eDaMu;Murf;)
18. Family: Labridae
Thalassoma lunare ( Linnaeus, 1758 ) (i g;oi facsm)
19. Family: Leiognathidae
Leiognathus equulus ( Forsskal,1775 ) (i g;' *Fg;?i g;0dki f;)
Leiognathus bidus ( Valenciennes , 1835 ) (i g;Zae;?i g;' *Fg;?i g;0dki f;)
Leiognathus fasciatus ( Lacepede , 1803 ) (i g;' *Fg;)
Secutor insidiator ( Bloch, 1787 ) (i g;' *Fg;?i g;0dki f;)
20. Family: Lobotdae
Datnioides quardrifaciatus ( Sevastanov, 1809 ) (ausmufi g;0uf)
21. Family: Lutjanidae
Lutjanus johnii ( Bloch, 1792 ) (i g;acG;reD?i rSwfxi f)
Lutjanus lutjanus ( Bloch, 1790 ) (a&Ti g;?i g;v0g)
22. Family: Mugilidae
Liza parsia ( Hamilton - Buchnan, 1822 ) (ubDvl;?i g;ui fni f;)
23. Family: Mullidae
Upeneus sulphureus, Cuvier, 1829 (BudK;0g?i g;rkwfqdwf)
Upeneus assymetricus ( Lachner, 1954 ) (i g;aMu;Murf;?BudK;0g)
24. Family: Muraenisocidae
Congresox talabon ( Cuvier, 1829 ) (i g;a&T?oi faygi f;xdk;)
25. Family: Nemipteridae
Nemipterus peronii ( Balenciennes, 1830 ) (a&Ti g;)
Scolopsis vosmeri ( Bloch, 1792 ) (a&Ti g;?ausmufi g;ajyr)
26. Family: Platycephalidae
Platycephalus indicus ( Linnaeus, 1758 ) (i g;qi fei f;?i g;acgi f;jym;)
27. Family: Plotosidae
Plotosus canius, Hamilton - Buchanan,1822 (yi fv, fi g;cl)
28. Family: Polynemidae
Eleuthronema tetradactylum ( Shaw, 1804 ) (i g;w&m;?i g;wa, m)
29. Family: Pomacanthidae
Pomacanthus annularis ( Bloch , 1787 ) (i g;vdyfjym)
30. Family: Pomacentridae
Abudefduf saxatlis (ausmufi g;?i g;Mum;r)
Abudeduf sp (ausmufi g;?i g;Mum;r)
31. Family: Pristgesteridae
Illisha megaloptera ( Swainson, 1839 ) (rsufqHus, f)
32. Family: Psetodidae
Psetodes erumei ( Bloch and Schneider, 1801 ) (i g;vufudkuf)
90
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33. Family: Scatophagidae
Scatophagus argus ( Linnaeus, 1766 ) (i g;yokef?i g;cuf)
34. Family: Sciaenidae
Chrysochir aureus ( Richardson, 1846 ) (i g;oi f0g)
Pennahia anea ( Bloch, 1793 ) (i g;acgi f;yG?i g;ykwfoi f)
35. Family: Serranidae
Cephalopholis formosa ( Shaw and Nodder, 1812 ) (ausmufi g;?
i g;awmufwlrD;jym)
Epinephalus erythrurus (ausmufi g;)
36. Family: Siganidae
Siganus javus ( Linnaeus , 1766 ) (i g;&ef&Sm?i g;ql;oef)
Siganus vermiculatus ( Valenciennes, 1835 ) (i g;&ef&Sm?i g;ql;oef)
37. Family: Sillaginidae
Sillago sihama ( Forsskal, 1775 ) (i g;Zefyl?i g;ykavG)
38. Family: Sphyraenidae
Sphyraena jello, Cuvier, 1829 (yi fv, fi g;arGxdk;)
39. Family: Synodontdae
Saurida tumbil ( Bloch, 1795 ) (i g;ykavG?i g;Zi fvdyf)
40. Family: Tetraodontdae
Chelonodon potoca ( Hamilton - Buchanan, 1822 ) (i g;ylwi f;?A*si f;)
41. Family: Teraponidae
Terapon jarbua ( Forsskal, 1775 ) (i *Hk;Mum;?i g;eHaMumi f)
42. Family: Toxotdae
Toxotes chatareus ( Hamilton - Buchanan, 1822 ) (i g;yi furf;?i g;aysmufr)
43. Family: Portunidae (Mangrove crab / Mud crab)
Scylla olivacea ( Herbst, 1796 ) (ysm;uP ef;?acsmi f;uP ef;)
44. Family: Penaeidae (Marine shrimps)
Penaeus indicus, H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (ykpGefjzL)
Penaeus japonecus, Bate, 1888 (oJykpGef)
Penaeus monodon, Fabricius, 1798 (usm;ykpGef)
45. Family: Squillidae (Ments shrimp)
Harpiosquilla sp. (ui f;ykpGef?awmufyqdyf)
46. Family: Arcidae (Cookles)
Anadara granosa ( Linnaeus, 1758 ) (*Hk;oGm;BuJ)
47. Family: Pannidae (Pen shell / Fan Shell)
Atrina pectnata ( Linnaeus, 1767 ) (*Hk;, yfawmi f)
48. Family: Potamididae (Telecopic snail)
Telescopium telescopium ( Linnaeus, 1758 ) (r&Gwfck)
49 . Family: Solnidae (Knife clam / Razor clam)
Solen lamarckii, Deshayes, 1839 (*Hk;a, mi f;r)
50. Family: Veneridae (Hard clam)
Meretrix casta (ysm;*Hk;ck)
91
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Annex : 3 Birds identfed in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
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Annex 4 : WUNBAIK MANGROVES USER REGISTER TCP/MYA/3204 (2009-2011)
1. Background
As per the projects additonal actvity 6.2: Identfy key stakeholders in the proposed community-
based mangrove management pilot and demonstraton sites through partcipatory approaches, a
preliminary survey was carried out to identfy the illegal users of Wunbaik Reserved Forest. The
data generated would form as a base for further extending to other villages, village tracts and
townships utlizing Wunbaik and patrol goings-on.
2. Objectve
Identfy the farmers who have encroached inside Wunbaik Reserved Forest for paddy
farming and Shrimp farming
Identfy the woodcuters and traders using Wunbaik Reserved Forest
Estmate area owned by each farmer for paddy or shrimp inside Wunbaik
Understand the market chain for paddy, shrimp, wood, crab, fshery etc.,
Initate the process of encroachers registering in the user register to get a photo Identty
Card from Forest Department
3. Villages Surveyed
Villages by name Letpan, Yantheshe, Hlang Kaung, Sitpyar, Marutshein from Yambye Township and
Pyin Wun from Ma-ei Township were surveyed for understanding the number of people involved
in illegal farming and the area owned for paddy and shrimp farming inside Wunbaik. The following
survey techniques were used:
Interviews
Informal Meetngs
Secondary data from Forest Department and Department of Fisheries
4. Result
Wunbaik user informaton was generated from fve village tracts namely Letpan, Yanthit-chae,
Yanthit-gyi, Marutshein, Yambye Township and Pyin Wun, Ma-ei Township.
The total populaton of the above fve village tracts is 10 959. Around 60% (6 615) of the populaton
illegally are carrying out paddy and 16% (1 752) shrimp farming in Wunbaik, apart from other village
tracts and townships. The area encroached by these fve village tracts alone for operatng paddy
farming and shrimp farming accounts around 10 334 acres and 1 900 acres respectvely.
On an average 40-45 basket of paddy per acre is harvested from Wunbaik farms. The individual
users register from fve villages predicts as follows: 39 farmers from Letpan ava, a porton of Letpan
village, owns 258 acres, 157 farmers from Yantheshe owns 1323 acres, 15 farmers owns 156 acres
from Hlang Kaung (setlement from Sitpyar village), 20 farmers owns 200 acres from Marutshein
99
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and 27 farmers owns 209 acres from Pyin Wun. The partcipatory interviews confrmed that 2 541
acres are under paddy farming inside Wunbaik by Letpan village (Letpan Awa and Letpan Anyar);
individual survey was not completed in any of the villages perfectly.
Around 31 % of the farmers from Letpan ava, 88% from Yantheshe, 100% from Marutshein and 59
% from Pyin Wun village do not have identty number.
Around 34% (3 689) of the total populaton from the fve village tracts operates creek or river
mouth fshing in Wunbaik forest, which has a major impact on the breeding and productvity of
Wunbaik fshery and in long term afectng the wild catch from the ocean and adjacent estuarine
water bodies.
Due to the tme constraint of the project, informaton on the wood cuters and trading mechanisms,
commercial fshery or crab trapping and market linkages, paddy cultvaton and market network
were not explored.
5. Inference
The number of users and area encroached for paddy and shrimp from fve villages itself proves
a negatve scenario of conservaton of Wunbaik. The details of all the users from other villages
if included may not predict a good status of protecton provided by the department with regard
to Wunbaik. It is imperatve for the Forest Department to develop a genuine register and issue
User Identty to the trespassers. It is high tme for the protecton and conservaton of mangroves.
Compromise in protecton would lead mangroves of Wunbaik to go extncton.
100
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Data Source: TCP/MYA/3204 (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons
Wunbaik users from Letpan ava village, Yambye Township
Sr.
No
Name
Father
name
ID number
Age Job
Land owned
(acre) inside
WB RF
11/RaVaNa(N)
1 U Aung Htun Thar - 5251 77
Paddy
Growing
7.26
2
Daw Aye Aye
Hlaing
U Htun
Myint
73338
Paddy
Growing
7.26
3 U Aung Chit Swe
U Aung
Htun
Thar
5157 45
Paddy
Growing
7.26
4
U Aung Kyaw
Khine
U Thet
Wai
20420 45
Paddy
Growing
3.63
5 U Aung Kyawt San - No ID 66
Paddy
Growing
7.26
6 U Aung Mauung U Ba Yin 4394 46
Paddy
growing
3.63
7 U Aung Mya Than
U Kyaw
Mya
4965 51
Paddy
Growing
7.26
8 U Aung Than Mya
U Kyaw
Mya
5590 48
Paddy
Growing
7.26
9 U Hla Win
U Ba
Thein
No ID 52
Paddy
Growing
NA
10 U Htun Aung
U Aung
Htun
Thar
48635 36
Paddy
Growing
3.63
11 U Htun Htun
U Hmet
Hla
Aung
No ID 35
Paddy
Growing
NA
12 U Htun Htun Nai
U Aye
Maung
No ID 35
Paddy
Growing
3.63
13 U Htun Tin
U Mg
Pha Luu
7232 62
Paddy
Growing
3.63
14 U Khin Mg Shwe
U Phyu
Thee
Aung
56158 35
Paddy
Growning
3.63
15 U Khin Mg Than
U Saw
Yee
56150
Paddy
Growing
3.63
16 U Kyaw Mya Than
U Aung
Kyaw
4423 55
Paddy
Growing
7.26
101
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17 U Kyaw Pu
U Mg
Sein
Phyu
4970 60
Paddy
Growing
7.26
18 U Kyaw Zin Nai
U Sein
Kyaw
Win
75888 30
Paddy
Growing
7.26
19 U Kyaw Thaung
U Mg
Nu
4208 55
Paddy
Growing
7.26
20 U Kyaw Tin Aung
U Mg
Sein
Phyu
4895 50
Paddy
growing
3.63
21 Daw Ma Sein Mya
U Sein
Pu
No ID 63
Paddy
Growing
10.89
22 U Mg Hann
U Kyaw
Zan Hla
5464 71
Paddy
Growing
3.63
23 U Mg Ko Myint
U Aung
Kyawt
San
4203 41
Paddy
Growing
3.63
24 U Mg Kyaw Phyu
U Htun
Mya Oo
5486
Paddy
Growing
7.26
25 U Mg Kyaw Sein
U Sein
Mya
5473 55
Paddy
Growing
7.26
26 U Mg Ohn Lwin
U Htein
Chyam
Oo
5490 40
Paddy
Growing
3.63
27 U Mg Win Tin
U San
Mya
No ID 37
Paddy
Growing
3.63
28 U Moe Thet Oo
U Phoe
Aung
7236 71
Paddy
Growing
7.26
29 U Myo Aung
U Aye
Sein
Aung
53389 50
Paddy
Growing
3.63
30 U Nay Win Aung
U Aung
Than
Mya
No ID 25
Paddy
Growing
3.63
31 Daw Nyo Chaw
U Mg
Mg
No ID 49
Paddy
Growing
7.26
32 U Nyo Hla
U Phyu
Hla
No ID 52
Paddy
Growing
3.63
33 U Phyu Chae
U Mg
Lone
No ID 58
Paddy
Growing
3.63
34 Daw Pu Ma
U Kyaw
Phyu
5057 39
Paddy
Growing
3.63
102
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35 U Shwe Than
U Mg
Tin
No ID 54
Paddy
Growing
58
36 U Thaung Nai
U Ba
Ngwe
53906 38
Paddy
Growing
7.26
37 U Tin Thein U Mg Ni 59948 46
Paddy
Growing
7.26
38 U Win Mg
U Mg
Hlaing
79690 40
Paddy
growing
7.26
39 U Zaw Myint
U Hmet
Ni Aung
No ID 35
Paddy
Growing
3.63
257.65
*No ID = (12)
Data Source: TCP/MYA/3204 (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons
Wunbaik users from Yantheshe village, Yambye Township
Sr. No
Name
ID number
Age Job
Land owned
(acre) inside
WB RF
(11/Ba Ra Na(N))
1 U Ar War chae No ID Paddy farm 9
2 U Aung Htun 6485 58 Paddy farm 5
3 U Aung Htun No ID Paddy farm 10
4 U Aung Htay Min 15559 Paddy farm 5
5 U Aung Kalar No ID Paddy farm 5
6 U Aung Kyaw Min No ID Paddy farm 10
7 U Aung Kyaw Min No ID Paddy farm 6
8
U Aung Kyaw
Than
No ID Paddy farm 8
9 U Aung Nai 15736 59 Paddy farm 8.5
103
T
h
e

A
t
l
a
s

a
n
d

G
u
i
d
e
l
i
n
e
s

f
o
r

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
10 U Aung Sein No ID Paddy farm 9
11 U Aung Thar Hla No ID Paddy farm 9
12 U Aung Thein No ID Paddy farm 8
13 U Aung Thein Tin 6346 41 Paddy farm 8
14
U Aung Thein
Win
No ID Paddy farm 5
15 U Aung Tin Shwe No ID Paddy farm 10
16 U Aung Win Nai 6487 52 Paddy farm 8.5
17 U Ba Tin Mg 6511 58 Paddy farm 10
18 U Ba Oo No ID Paddy farm 8
19 U Ba Saw Oo 15502 75 Paddy farm 12
20 U Ba Saw Oo No ID Paddy farm 10
21 UBa Sein Oo No ID Paddy farm 11
22 U Ba Shwe 15910 46 Paddy farm 8
23 U Ba Thaung No ID Paddy farm 5
24 U Ba Tin Mg No ID Paddy farm 15
25 U Chet Gyi No ID Paddy farm 9
26 U Chit Hlai No ID Paddy farm 10
27 U Chit Mg No ID Paddy farm 7
28 U Gaung Chun No ID Paddy farm 5
29 U Hla Phaw Thu No ID Paddy farm 5
104
S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

b
a
s
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

F
o
r
e
s
t

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
,

T
C
P
/
M
Y
A
/
3
2
0
4

(
2
0
0
9
-
2
0
1
1
)
30
U Hman Shwe
Thein
47729 32 Paddy farm 10
31 U Htay Win No ID Paddy farm 8
32 U Htun Htun No ID Paddy farm 9
33 U Htun Htun Nai No ID Paddy farm 8
34 U Htun Khin 70090 65 Paddy farm 5
35 U Htun Khin No ID Paddy farm 7
36 U Htun Tin No ID Paddy farm 7
37 U Htun Wae No ID 45 Paddy farm 7
38 U Kalargyi No ID Paddy farm 10
39 U Kaung Nyunt No ID Paddy farm 8
40 U Khin Htun No ID Paddy farm 10
41 U Khin Htun 76678 51 Paddy farm 6
42 U Khin Kyaw Nai 43682 35 Paddy farm 6
43 U Khin Mg No ID Paddy farm 8
44 U Khin Mg Cho No ID Paddy farm 5
45 U Khin Mg Cho No ID Paddy farm 10
46 U Khin Mg Win No ID Paddy farm 7
47 Daw Khin Phyu No ID Paddy farm 9
48 U Khin Shwe No ID Paddy farm 9
49 U Khin Thein No ID Paddy farm 10
50 U Khin Win No ID Paddy farm 10
51 U Kyan Khin No ID Paddy farm 8
105
T
h
e

A
t
l
a
s

a
n
d

G
u
i
d
e
l
i
n
e
s

f
o
r

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
52 U Kyan Yit No ID Paddy farm 7
53 U Kyaw Kyaw Nai No ID Paddy farm 8
54 U Kyaw Sein No ID Paddy farm 10
55 U Kyaw Than Sint No ID Paddy farm 8
56
U Kyaw Thar
Aung
No ID 9
57 U Kyaw Tin Aung 6399 42 Paddy farm 8
58 U La Pu 6554 39 Paddy farm 8.5
59 U Lu Pu No ID Paddy farm 5
60 Ma Thaung Shwe No ID Paddy farm 5
61 U Mg Hla Shwe No ID Paddy farm 7
62 U Mg Hla Win No ID 8.5
63 U Mg Htay No ID Paddy farm 7
64 U Mg Htay Kyi 62000 52 Paddy farm 8
65 U Mg Kyaw Myint No ID 10
66 U Mg Kyaw Sein 6554 39 Paddy farm 18
67 U Mg Mg No ID Paddy farm 8
68 U Mg Mg Nai No ID Paddy farm 8
69 U Mg Mg Nai-2 6498 51 Paddy farm 15
70 U Mg Nai No ID Paddy farm 10
71 U Mg Mg Sein No ID Paddy farm 12
106
S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

b
a
s
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

F
o
r
e
s
t

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
,

T
C
P
/
M
Y
A
/
3
2
0
4

(
2
0
0
9
-
2
0
1
1
)
72 U Mg Myint Lwin No ID Paddy farm 7
73 U Mg Phyu No ID 7
74 U Mg Phyu Htun No ID Paddy farm 8
75 U Mg San No ID Paddy farm 8
76 U Mg San Htun No ID Paddy farm 10
77 U Mg San Shwe No ID Paddy farm 8
78 U Mg Shwe No ID Paddy farm 10
79 U Mg Shwe Yi No ID Paddy farm 9
80 U Mg Than Oo No ID Paddy farm 7
81 U Mg Than Phae No ID Paddy farm 8
31 U Mg Than Shwe No ID Paddy farm 7
82 U Mg Tin Aye No ID Paddy farm 12
83 U Mg Thein Shwe No ID Paddy farm 8
84 U Mg Tin Shwe No ID Paddy farm 8
85 U Mg Hla Aung No ID Paddy farm 7
86 U Mg Htun Nu No ID Paddy farm 5
87 U Mg Si No ID Paddy farm 8
88 U Mg Soe Phae No ID Paddy farm 9
89 U Mg Than Myint No ID Paddy farm 5
107
T
h
e

A
t
l
a
s

a
n
d

G
u
i
d
e
l
i
n
e
s

f
o
r

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
90 U Mg Thein No ID Paddy farm 17
91 U Mg Tin Oo No ID Paddy farm 15
92
U Mg Tuu
No ID 8
93 U Mg Wae Nu No ID Paddy farm 6
94 U Mg Win 6498 51 Paddy farm 8
95 U Mg Win Kyi No ID Paddy farm 5
96 U Min Aung No ID Paddy farm 7
97 U Min Htet No ID Paddy farm 5
98 U Min Thein No ID Paddy farm 7
99 U Myint Lwin No ID Paddy farm 7
100 U Myint Shwe No ID Paddy farm 8
101 U Myint Than No ID Paddy farm 8
102 U Myo Lwin No ID Paddy farm 8
103 U Myo Win Htun No ID Paddy farm 7
104 U Ngalone Sein No ID Paddy farm 10
U Nann Oo No ID Paddy farm 5
105 U Nga Sai 15502 75 Paddy farm 8
106 U Nga Kyar Chae No ID Paddy farm 8
107 U Nga Si Chae No ID Paddy farm 5
108 U Nyi Chae No ID Paddy farm 9
109 U Nyi Pu Chae 6460 39 Paddy farm 6
108
S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

b
a
s
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

F
o
r
e
s
t

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
,

T
C
P
/
M
Y
A
/
3
2
0
4

(
2
0
0
9
-
2
0
1
1
)
108
U Nyunt Mg
Thein
No ID Paddy farm 6
109 U Phoe Kwa No ID Paddy farm 8
110 U Phoe Sein No ID Paddy farm 5
111 U Phoe Thar No ID Paddy farm 7
112 U Phoe Tin Shwe No ID Paddy farm 15
113 U Phyu Htun No ID Paddy farm 5
114 U Phyu Mg No ID Paddy farm 7
115 U Pu Maung No ID Paddy farm 5
116 U Pwa No ID Paddy farm 7
117 U San Htun No ID Paddy farm 8.5
118 U San Htun Oo No ID Paddy farm 8
119 U San Shwe No ID Paddy farm 8
120 U San Thar No ID Paddy farm 10
121 U San Thar Kyaw No ID Paddy farm 5
122 U San Wae No ID Paddy farm 5
123 U San Win No ID Paddy farm 6
124 U Saw Htun No ID Paddy farm 18
125 U Saw Phyu Aung No ID Paddy farm 8
126 U Sein Hla Aung No ID Paddy farm 7
127 U Sein Htun Phyu No ID Paddy farm 8
128 Daw Shwe Phyu No ID Paddy farm 10
109
T
h
e

A
t
l
a
s

a
n
d

G
u
i
d
e
l
i
n
e
s

f
o
r

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
129 U Shwe Tet Kay No ID Paddy farm 6
45 U Shwe Tin Aye No ID Paddy farm 8
130 U Shwe Yi No ID Paddy farm 7
131 U Si No ID Paddy farm 8
132 U Soe Htun No ID Paddy farm 10
133 U Soe Lwin 6484 50 Paddy farm 8
134 U Than Myint No ID Paddy farm 6
135 U Than Nai No ID Paddy farm 8
136 U Than Soe No ID Paddy farm 10
137 U Thein Htun No ID Paddy farm 8
138 U Thein Htun-2 No ID Paddy farm 10
139
U Thein Htun
Aung
No ID Paddy farm 6
140
U Mg Than
Nai(YNG 1)
15864 67 Paddy farm 7
141 U Thet Nai 48138 38 Paddy farm 8.5
142 U Thet Pyin 6555 52 Paddy farm 8
143 U Tin Aung No ID Paddy farm 5
144 U Tin Aye No ID Paddy farm 10
145 U Tin Hlaing No ID Paddy farm 8
146 U Tin Oo No ID Paddy farm 5
147 U Tin Phae No ID Paddy farm 8
148 U Tin Shwe No ID Paddy farm 8
110
S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

b
a
s
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

F
o
r
e
s
t

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
,

T
C
P
/
M
Y
A
/
3
2
0
4

(
2
0
0
9
-
2
0
1
1
)
149 U Tin Shwe-2 No ID Paddy farm 6
150 U Tint Khine Win No ID Paddy farm 9
151 U Wai Htun No ID Paddy farm 10
152 U Wai Htun Sein No ID Paddy farm 6
153 U Win Kyi No ID Paddy farm 8
154 U Win Mg No ID Paddy farm 10
155 U Win Myint No ID Paddy farm 7
156 U Win Nai No ID Paddy farm 18
157 U Ye Bo Than No ID Paddy farm 6
1323
*No ID = (138)
Data Source: TCP/MYA/3204 (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons
Wunbaik users from Sitpyar (Hlang Kuang setlement)
Sr.
No
Name
Father
name
ID number
Age Job
Land owned
(acre)
inside WB RF
(11/Ba Ra
Na(N)
1 U Aung Hein
U Khin
Htun Aye
62622 25
Farming/
Fisheries
10
2 U Aung Saw Thein
U Mg
Thein
Htun
No ID 28
Farming/
Fisheries
10
3 U Aung Shwe Sein -
11/Pa Ta
Na(N)061245
55
Farming/
Fisheries
10
4 U Mg Kyar Sein
U Maut
Gadu
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)046540
61
Farming/
Fisheries
10
5 U Mg Htun
U Aye
Lwum
6313 63
Farming/
Fisheries
16
6 U Mg Kyaw Hlaing - 4455 43
Farming/
Fisheries
10
111
T
h
e

A
t
l
a
s

a
n
d

G
u
i
d
e
l
i
n
e
s

f
o
r

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
7 U Mg Kyaw Lwin
U Aung
Bo
47687 36
Farming/
Fisheries
10
8 U Mg Kyaw Sein - 58676 47
Farming/
Fisheries
10
9 U Mg San Thein
U Phyu
Aung
5582 45
Farming/
Fisheries
10
10 U Mg San Tin
U Phyu
Aung
21136 43
Farming/
Fisheries
10
11 U Sein Tin Aung
U Wae
Phyu
Aung
21138 70
Farming/
Fisheries
10
12 U Shwe Man Thardu
U Kyaw
Than
58613 39
Farming/
Fisheries
10
13 U Phoe Hla Aung
U Phoe
Tin
56004 33
Farming/
Fisheries
10
14 U Than Wai Mg
U Mg Ba
Khin
107440 29
Farming/
Fisheries
10
15 U Than Mg Chae
U Mg
Shwe
Phyu
15722 43
Farming/
Fisheries
10
156
*No ID = 1
Data Source: TCP/MYA/3204 (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons
Wunbaik users from Marutshein village, Yambye Township
Sr. No Name
ID number
Job
Land owned (acre)
inside WB RF
(11/Ba Ra Na(N))
1 Daw Aye Than No ID Farmer 10
2 U Ba Shwe No ID Farmer 10
3 U Boe Han No ID Farmer 10
4 U Htun Myint Kyaw No ID Farmer 10
5 U Khin Mg Nyunt No ID Farmer 10
6 U Khin Mg San No ID Farmer 10
7 U Kyar Htee Aung No ID Farmer 10
112
S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

b
a
s
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

F
o
r
e
s
t

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
,

T
C
P
/
M
Y
A
/
3
2
0
4

(
2
0
0
9
-
2
0
1
1
)
8 U Kyaw Thu Soe No ID Farmer 10
9 U Mg Hla Htun No ID Farmer 10
10 U Mg Saw Hla No ID Farmer 10
11 U Mg Saw Phyu No ID Farmer 10
12 U Mg Tin Kyi No ID Farmer 10
13 U Mg Tin Thein No ID Farmer 10
14 Daw Mya Thein No ID Farmer 10
15 U Myo Thant No ID Farmer 10
16 U Phyu Sein Oo No ID Farmer 10
17 U San Hlai No ID Farmer 10
18 U San Htun No ID Farmer 10
19 U Than Phae No ID Farmer 10
20 U Thein Soe No ID Farmer 10
200
*No ID = 100
Data Source: TCP/MYA/3204 (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons
Wunbaik users from Pyin Wun village, No.4 Quarter, Ma-ei Township
Sr.
No
Name Father name
ID number
Job
Land owned
(acre)
inside WB RF
(11/Ba Ra
Na(N))
1 U Aung San Shwe U Kyaw Mya Oo
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)005145
Farmer 8.05
2
Daw Tote Ma
Phyu/ U Aung
Than Htun
U Moe Aung No ID Farmer 8.05
3 U Ba Kyi U Thar Pwint No ID Farmer 8.05
4 U Hla Kyi U Thar Pwint No ID Farmer 8.05
5 U Htay Win U Mg San Thein No ID Farmer 8.05
113
T
h
e

A
t
l
a
s

a
n
d

G
u
i
d
e
l
i
n
e
s

f
o
r

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
6 U Kalar Chae U Hla Mg Thar No ID Farmer 8.05
7 D Khin Thaung Yi U Thaung Htun No ID Farmer 8.05
8 U Kyaw Kyaw U Mg Aye Tin No ID Farmer 8.05
9 U Kyaw Khin U Wae Su No ID Farmer 8.05
10 U Kyaw Than U Mg Bwar No ID Farmer 8.05
11 U Kyaw Win U Mg Mg
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)030368
Farmer 8.05
12 Daw Kyi Kyi Win U Sa Nay
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)033841
Farmer 8.05
13 U Than Oo U Mg Zan Phyu No ID Farmer 8.05
14 U Mg Myint Soe U Kyaw Khin No ID Farmer 8.05
15 U Mg Phone Kyaw U Zaw Aye No ID Farmer 8.05
16 U Mg San U Htun Aung Kyaw
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)043735
Farmer 8.05
17 U Mg Than Soe U San Khin
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)004642
Farmer 8.05
18 U Mg Win Kyi U Htun Yi
No ID
Farmer 8.05
19 U Myint Nai U Mg Phyu
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)031463
Farmer 8.05
20 U Sein Than U Saw Hla Pho KPU 10621 Farmer 8.05
21
U Shwe Thein
Aung
U Phoe Than
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)033855
Farmer 8.05
22 U Than Mg U Mg Net
No ID
Farmer 8.05
23 U Tin Htun Oo U Mg Kyan Nu
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)029152
Farmer 8.05
24 U Tin Mg Than U Thaung Phay No ID Farmer 8.05
114
S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

b
a
s
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

F
o
r
e
s
t

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
,

T
C
P
/
M
Y
A
/
3
2
0
4

(
2
0
0
9
-
2
0
1
1
)
25 U Tin Than U San Aye
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)038173
8.05
26 U Mg Phyu Chae U Mg Wae Phu
11/Aa Ma
Na(N)000975
Farmer 8.05
27 U Zaw Zaw - No ID Farmer 8.05
209.3
*No ID = (16)
115
T
h
e

A
t
l
a
s

a
n
d

G
u
i
d
e
l
i
n
e
s

f
o
r

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

F
o
r
e
s
t
Data Source: TCP/MYA/3204 (2009-2011), Food and Agriculture Organizaton of the United Natons
Wunbaik Reserved Forest resource users in Yambye Township, Kyauk Phyu District.
116
S
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
t
y

b
a
s
e
d

M
a
n
g
r
o
v
e

M
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

W
u
n
b
a
i
k

F
o
r
e
s
t

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
,

T
C
P
/
M
Y
A
/
3
2
0
4

(
2
0
0
9
-
2
0
1
1
)
Kari Paddy farming in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
Data source: Forest Department, Yambye Township (2009-2010)
Sr. No Kari Leader Name Number of
Members
in each
group
Natve Village Township Area
(Acre)
1 U Thar Chan Phyu 31 Amawe Pon Ann 186
2 Daw Ma Hla Yee 1 Hlan Pyauk Ann 100
3 U Mya Win 16 Kyar Inntaung Ann 66
4 U Khin Win 6 Yanthit Chae Yambye 55
5 U Kalarr 6 Yanthit Chae Yambye 50
6 U Mg Phyu Htun 18 Yanthit Chae Yambye 100
7 U Kyaw Tin Aung 15 Yanthit Chae Yambye 120
8 U Ba Thaung 27 Yanthit Chae Yambye 120
9 U San Hlaing 14 Marutshein Yambye 80
10 U Ngwe Htun 6 Yanthit Chae Yambye 65
11 U Thein Aung 9 No.3 Qtr Yambye 59
12 U Htay Kyi 13 Yanthit Chae Yambye 100
13 U Mg San 4 Yanthit Chae Yambye 20
14 U Than Phae 21 Yanthit Chae Yambye 178.5
15 U Ba Saw Oo 3 Yanthit Chae Yambye 35
16 U Nann Oo 14 Yanthit Chae Yambye 70
17 U Mg Mg Sein 11 Yanthit Chae Yambye 126
U Thein Aye 13 Letpan Yambye 130
18 U Hlai Kyi 1 Letpan Yambye 30
19 U Wae Tin 22 Letpan Yambye 136
20 U Maug Kwa 14 Yanthit Chae Yambye 140
21 U Soe Hlaing 17 Phet Kyat Yambye 60
22 U Hmet Hla Aung 9 Letpan Yambye 90
23 U Aung Mauung 16 Phet Kyat Yambye 70
24 U Wae Thein Oo 20 Phet Kyat Yambye 70
25 U Kyaw Win 33 Phet Kyat Yambye 200
26 U Mg Hla Shwe 8 Phet Kyat Yambye 25
27 U Mg Aye 12 Phet Kyat Yambye 70
U Mg Kyal Chay 1 Phet Kyat Yambye 3
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U Khway Aung 5 Taungoke Yambye 50
28 U Thingyan Aung 33 Phet Kyat Yambye 200
29 U Hmet Tin Oo 23 Phet Kyat Yambye 115
31 U San Hlai 3 Marutshein Yambye 120
30 U Hla Kyaw 5 Letpan Yambye 50
31 U Win Shwe 1 No.3 Qtr Yambye 25
32 U Aung Mauung 27 Letpan Yambye 245
33 U Aye Tin 10 Letpan Yambye 80
34 U Khin Mg Shwe 10 Letpan Yambye 130
35 U Shwe Thein 5 No.3 Qtr Yambye 20
36 U Hmet Ni Aung 1 Letpan Yambye 41
37 U Ba Kyi 1 No.4 Qtr Yambye 65
38 U Ba Kyaing 1 Letpan Yambye 55
39 U Shwe Than 1 Letpan Yambye 75
40 U Nyi Than 1 No.2 Qtr Yambye 75
41 U Than Win 1 Letpan Yambye 70
Total 509 3970.5
Shrimp farming in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
Data source: Forest Department, Yambye Township (2009-2010)
Sr.
No
Shrimp pond
maker Name
Natve Village Township Area
(Acre)
1 U Mg Hla Amawepon Ann 50
2 U Bo Ni Than Amawepon Ann 50
3 U Wae Chan Phyu Launpannkya Ann 12
4 U Chan Sein Oo Saytaun galay Ann 8
5 U Mg Saw Yine Saytaun galay Ann 8
6 U Hla Saw Mg Saytaun galay Ann 8
7 U Mg ThanYae Saytaun galay Ann 8
8 U Win Hlaing Saytaun galay Ann 8
9 U Sein Saw Oo Sanel/Ywahaung Ann 8
10 U Mg Thein Myint Sanel/Ywahaung Ann 8
11 U San Htun Aung Sanel/Ywahaung Ann 8
12 U Mg Win Tin Lanpunkya Ann 8
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13 U Shwe Tin Aung Amawepon Ann 8
14 U Mg Kyaw Amawepon Ann 8
15 U Aung Htun Sein Amawepon Ann 10
16 U Kyaw Tin Chitpon Ma Ann 10
17 U Hla Thein Alael Kyun Ann 20
18 U Tin Mg Chitpon Ma Ann 10
19 U Mg Saw Thein Yae Kaung Chein Ann 10
20 U Kyan Nu Amawepon Ann 10
21 U Apu Gyi Alael Kyun Ann 10
22 U Ba Hlai Amawepon Ann 10
23 U Kyan Htun Lanmoon chae Ann 10
24 U Mg Nu Chae Lanmoon chae Ann 10
25 U Mg Seit Nyo Lanmoon chae Ann 10
26 U Win Myint Yae Kaung Chein Ann 10
27 U Khin Mg Than Kyauk Myaung Ann 10
28 U Kyaw Win Kyauk Myaung Ann 10
29 U Mg Phyu Nyunt Amawepon Ann 50
30 U Mg Phyu Nyunt Pautaw Pautaw 10
31 U San Shwe Sitwe Sitwe 10
32 U Bo Ni San Amawepon Ann 10
33 U Mg Wae San Amawepon Ann 10
34 U U Htun Amawepon Ann 10
35 U Mg Htunn Tin Amawepon Ann 10
36 U Mg Than Shwe Pautaw Ann 10
37 U Kyaw Thein Hla Amawepon Ann 10
38 U Nyi Nyi Thein Pautaw Pautaw 10
39 U Nyi Nyi Htay Pautaw Pautaw 10
40 U San Shwe Win Yambye Yambye 10
41 U Apu Gyi Sitwe Sitwe 10
42 U Wae Thein Htun Amawepon Ann 10
43 U Mg Than Aye Amawepon Ann 10
44 U Mg Than Kyaw Moe Amawepon Ann 10
45 U Hla Thein Pautaw Pautaw 25
46 U Thein Mg Pautaw Pautaw 15
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47 U Aung Win Hlai Pautaw Pautaw 15
48 U Yae Thel Aunt Pautaw Pautaw 15
49 U Mg Htun Tin Pautaw Pautaw 15
50 U Mg San Myint Pautaw Pautaw 15
51 U Kyar Sein Kyauk Phyu Kyauk Phyu 10
52 U Than Wae Aung Kyauk Phyu Kyauk Phyu 10
53 U San Win Amawepon Ann 10
54 U Than Shwe Pautaw Pautaw 10
55 U Kyaw Thein Hla Pautaw Pautaw 10
56 U Mg Than Sein Pautaw Pautaw 10
57 U nyi Nyi Thein Pautaw Pautaw 10
58 U Kyaw Thein Hla Pautaw Pautaw 10
59 Nyi Nyi Thein Pautaw Pautaw 10
60 U Mg Nyi Htay Pautaw Pautaw 10
61 U Ba Thein Win Amawepon Ann 10
62 U La Phyu Chae Amawepon Ann 10
63 U Mg Hla Saw Amawepon Ann 10
64 U Mg Saw Win Amawepon Ann 10
65 U Thein Win Chae Amawepon Ann 10
66 U Mg Tin Wae Alanchein Ann 10
67 U Mg Tin Aye Tataung Ann 10
68 U Khin Mg Indaiigyi Ann 10
69 U Ba Tin Kyauk Phyu Kyauk Phyu 25
70 U Sein Kyaw Hlai Kyauk Phyu Kyauk Phyu 25
71 U Mg Tin Mya Kyauk Phyu Kyauk Phyu 17
72 U San Shwe Hla Kyauk Phyu Kyauk Phyu 17
73 U Saw Win Kyauk Phyu Kyauk Phyu 16
Total 930
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Status of Paddy and Shrimp farming in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
Data source: Forest Department and Land record and Survey Department
Sr. No Data source
Number of
Kari Groups
Kari-
paddy
farm
operators
Shrimp farm
operators
Paddy
farming
(acre)
Number
of Shrimp
farms
Shrimp
farms
(acre)
1
Land
Record and
Survey Dpt.
(2008-09)
59 620 75 4806 23 1822
2
Forest
Department
(2009-10)
59 584 73 3945.45 10 910
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Annex : 5 Townships and village tracts within 10 kilometers of Wunbaik
Reserved Forest
Township Village Tract Name Villages Populaton
KyaukPyu Awa Taung Awa Taung 545
YamBye Kala Bon Kala Bon 546
NgaNyoGaing 504
Yan Thit Gyi Yan Thit Gyi Awa 535
Sit Pyar 1169
Yan Thit Gyi Anyar 637
Yan Thit Che Yan Thit Che 1649
MaYutChaing MaYutChaing 453
MaYutChaing Ale 456
Letpan Letpan Anyar 888
Letpan Awa 972
Chaung Ne 844
Pyin She 729
Thin Baw Seik Kyet Tha Ye 600
Htain Pyin 604
Aung Se Tha 583
Gyi Pyu Taung 500
Ann Gyi Pyu Taung Kan gyun gyi 450
Kyauk kyi bauk 207
Kin che ywa thit 641
Pyin wan 1127
Ma-e 2005
Taung Goke Ma-e Myaung daung 156
Kok pe 93
Chet pauk 1026
Kha maung dwin 314
We ywa 399
Yan de 897
Bu Shwe Maw Thein chaung byin 609
Aung seik pyin 619
Kyauk we 681
In daing gyi 498
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Annex 6 : Mult temporal analysis
Topographic maps and remote sensing data were used to classify the forest utlizaton paterns in
Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest boundary. The following RS-GIS maps were used:
Landsat 5 TM digital imageries (Scene ID - 134-47); (February 1990, February 2000);
Resoluton: 13m
Aster digital imagery; (October 2009); Resoluton: 15m
Geoeye (January 2011); Resoluton: 1m and AVNIR (2010); Resoluton: 10m
UTM topographic maps; Scale 1: 50, 000
The following sofware was used for mult-temporal analysis of the maps:
TNTmips version 6.4, 6.9 and 7.4
ArcView version 3.2
Accurate discriminaton of mangrove species is not possible with moderate spatal resoluton
(>10m) satellite sensors (e.g. Landsat TM, Landsat MSS, Aster and SPOT XS) enabling only broad
separaton of mangroves from surrounding vegetaton or diferentaton of mangroves into broad
classes based on density or on associaton of species. Species discriminaton is, however, possible
with very high resoluton (VHR) mult-spectral IKONOS and Quickbird imagery.
Using the RS-GIS maps the land area of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest was classifed into ten
land categories as follows:
1. Dense mangroves (> 40% crown cover)
2. Degraded mangroves (> 10% and < 40% crown cover )
3. Swamp (bush type marshy/peat vegetaton)
4. Closed forest (spanning more than 0.5 hectares; with terrestrial trees higher than 5
meters and with > 40% crown cover )
5. Open forest (terrestrial plant formatons with > 10% and < 40% crown cover)
6. Scrub (areas mostly covered by grassland and stunted trees, shrub forests, <10% crown
cover)
7. Agriculture land (encroachment for paddy farming)
8. Shrimp pond (encroachment for shrimp farming)
9. Water (creeks, canals, rivers, ponds and stagnant water bodies)
10.Road (Ma-ei to Kyaukpyu Geo textle road)
3.1 Change detecton method
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There are many digital change-detecton techniques that can be grouped under three broad
headings characterized by the data transformaton procedures and the analysis techniques used to
delimit areas of signifcant changes:
Image enhancement;
Mult-data classifcaton; and
Comparison of two independent land cover classifcatons.
Images from four diferent acquisiton dates (1990, 2000, 2009 and 2011) were independently
classifed using a Maximum Likelihood Classifcaton Algorithm. Digital change based on
categorizaton and subsequent comparison was then carried out.
3.2 Accuracy assessment
The accuracy report included percent accuracy based on the results of the error matrix (ERDAS,
1991). By using the ground truth raster, the error matrix showed the overall accuracy of the
classifcatons as 97.56%, 98.70%, 97.41% and 98.48% for 1990, 2000, 2009 and 2011 respectvely.
3.3 Rapid forest inventory
Ground truth data was generated through the rapid surveys carried out during January - April 2010.
Ten random sites of 0.5 hectares (10 m x 500 m) were selected. Two of the ten sites were encroached
paddy farming areas. Locaton, habitat, forest land cover, stand size, density, species frequency
and dominance were recorded/estmated for each site using GPS, compasses, clinometers and
measuring tapes.
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Annex : 7. IMMP consultaton in Yambye
Feedback from partcipants of the Workshop on the Integrated Mangrove Management Plan,
Yambye, 9
th
December 2011.
Seventy nine partcipants atended the IMMP consultaton meetng in Yambye on 9
th
December
2011. At the meetng, details of the guidelines and optons included in this report were presented.
Partcipants included 40 members of communites living in and around Wunbaik, representatves
of village, village tract, township and district level line agencies, including the forest, fsheries,
agriculture and land planning departments, Peace and Development Councils from , the Special
Police Squad, the Immigraton Department, the local police department and three local NGOs. At
the end of the meetng blank sheets were given out for the return of comments. The comments
were classifed as shown in the table.
Suggeston
No. of partcipants
suggestng
Reallocate paddy farming in Wunbaik to an alternatve area 19
Provide compensaton to quit paddy farming in Wunbaik
reserved forest
4
Paddy farming to contnue in Wunbaik 5
Provide alternatve livelihood optons 16
Provide improved technology for paddy farming 7
Provide alternatve energy optons/woodfuel/natural oil & gas 17
Allocate prohibited fshing grounds on rotatonal basis and
special mangrove conservaton area
18
Community-based management (CBNRM) 3
Strict law enforcement by Forest Department 16
Beter coordinaton among line departments 8
Educaton, Training and Awareness on mangrove ecosystems
& status of degradaton due to paddy farming, urgent need for
mangrove conservaton for long term food security at grass root
level and administraton level
14
Media coverage/communicaton mechanism/local resource
centre
7
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Final Workshop at Naypyitaw, December 15, 2011
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Mangrove Forest Structure
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Mangrove Survey
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Mangrove Fishery
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Mangrove utlizaton
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Agriculture behind single row of mangroves
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List of fgures, tables and boxes
Figures
1. Cause and efects of mangrove degradaton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forests
2. Strategy for mangrove ecosystem conservaton to achieve sustainable livelihoods
3. Locaton of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
4. Status of mangroves in Wunbaik Reserved Forest during 1990, 2000, 2009 & 2011
5. Water holding areas of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest in 2000 and 2011
6. Mangrove forest area converted for agriculture during 1990, 2000, 2009 & 2011
7. Mangrove forest area converted for aquaculture during 2000, 2009 & 2011
8. Illegal human setlement inside the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
9. Hotspots of illegal wood cutng in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
10. Hotspots of debarking and tree cutng in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
11. Mangroves cover change in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest between 1990, 2000, 2009
and 2011.
12. Land cover in 2000 and 2011
13. Elevaton map of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
14. Field survey sites
15. Mangrove foor of Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
16. Herb and shrub layers in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
17. The under storey in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
18. The major canopy in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
19. Emergent vegetaton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
20. Mangrove species compositon in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
21. Monogeneric vegetaton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
22. Relatve frequency and dominance of mangrove species in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove
Forest
23. Density of seedlings in the feld survey sites in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
24. Tree size class distributon in the survey sites in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
25. Compartment wise mangrove degradaton and encroachment in Wunbaik Reserved
Mangrove Forest
26. Mangrove vegetaton and fshery resources in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
27. Awareness and skill development programs in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
28. Commercial community nursery and the management commitee from the benefciary
village
29. Fuel efcient stove producton at the benefciary village
30. Pond restoraton actvites at the benefciary villages
31. Double Rack Backyard Vegetable Garden in the benefciary villages
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32. Alternatve fuel and tmber plantaton in the benefciary villages
33. Stove fueled by gas generated from rice husk
34. Mangrove area converted for paddy in Mingyaung Public Protected Forest, near Hlang
Kuang setlement area
35. Map showing the 25 acres registered as a community forest near Hlang Kuang setlement
in Mingyaung Public Protected Forest
36. Ecological Mangrove Restoraton (EMR) training and demonstraton in four acres
Tables
1. Average rainfall, temperature and humidity recorded at Kyauk Phyu District in 2011
2. Populaton of Kyauk Phyu District in 2010-11
3. Status and forest cover change in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
4. Ranges of salinity and tdal height observed at the feld survey sites in Wunbaik Reserved
Mangrove Forest
5. Details of feld survey sites
6. Maximum diameter at breast height (DBH) for major species above found in Wunbaik
Reserved Mangrove Forest
7. Species wise seed producton in Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
Annexes
1. Flora identfed in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
2. Fishery resources identfed in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
3. Birds identfed in the Wunbaik Reserved Mangrove Forest
4. Wunbaik user informaton
5. Townships and village tracts within 10 kilometers of Wunbaik Reserved Forest
6. Mult temporal analysis
7. IMMP consultaton in Yambye
Boxes
1. Implementng the Prohibited Fishing Ground of the Year plan
2. Reintroducton of marsh crocodiles to the Wunbaik area