Está en la página 1de 15

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

CIP - WHO NEEDS IT? A COMBINATION CIRCUIT OF GRAVITY, FLOTATION AND INTENSIVE LEACH MAY PROVIDE THE OPTIMAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND COST OUTCOME FOR GOLD PLANTS.

Authors:

Sandy Gray, Technical Director, Gekko Systems Australia Jennifer Abols, VP Canadian Operations, Gekko Systems Inc Canada Andrew McCallum, Process Metallurgist, Gekko Systems Australia Gary Patrick, Consultant Metallurgist, Celtic Resources Garry Johansen, Exploration Manager, Bendigo Mining

Key words: intensive cyanidation, leaching, gravity concentration, flotation, gold ABSTRACT The authors challenge the traditional thinking that whole ore cyanidation followed by Carbon in Pulp (CIP) or Carbon in Leach (CIL) should be applied as a standard process in the majority of gold processing flowsheets. The concept of whole ore leaching by using cyanide can result in unnecessary environmental and capital risk. Alternative, currently available technologies can be used to provide the desired level of gold recovery at a much lower installed cost and less impact on the environment. Gravity concentration, alone or in conjunction with flotation, can produce a gold bearing concentrate that can then be fed directly to a batch or continuous intensive cyanidation unit. The InLine Leach Reactor (ILR) is an intensive cyanidation unit developed by Gekko Systems of Australia. Advantages of this technology include significantly reduced capital outlays for greenfield plants or plant upgrades and increased investor returns. Reduction of onsite cyanide and carbon inventories improves plant safety, materials handling and site security. By using direct electrowinning to treat the gold bearing solutions produced by the ILR, the need for a conventional carbon stripping circuit is removed. Potential also exists to increase grind size saving energy, further reducing capital and operating costs and decreasing the environmental impact of a mill. Detoxification of cyanide before the release of solution to the tailings dam can minimise tailings disposal and containment requirements. When used in the right application the proposed process will have little or no impact on gold recovery and may actually increase recovery for complex ores. Areas applicable to this type of treatment include: plants in environmentally sensitive regions, lower tonnage higher grade deposits, coarse gold deposits, and preg robbing ores - some of which may not currently be economically feasible using standard processes and flowsheets. We have provided three examples of such projects, where an alternative to whole ore leach and CIP or CIL has delivered these benefits.

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 1

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

INTRODUCTION The vast majority of recently commissioned gold processing plants utilise whole ore cyanide leaching followed by CIP or CIL. These processes can be very effective and high gold recoveries can be achieved when used in the proper circumstances. Whole ore leaching followed by CIP or CIL has been applied so widely however, that project owners may have suffered financially because the processes selected did not fully meet the specific needs of the deposit. We also believe that some potentially lucrative projects may not have gone ahead due to insufficient ore resources required for and/or the high capital and environmental costs associated with whole ore cyanidation. Both the gravity concentration and flotation of gold and gold bearing sulphides have been successfully incorporated into many gold circuits throughout the world, although the treatment options of such concentrates have often created further difficulties. With the recent development and commercialisation of a continuous intensive cyanidation process capable of the successful treatment of such concentrates the need for whole ore cyanidation and CIP or CIL can now be reconsidered. Gravity recovery is a concentration process based on differences in specific gravity between ore and gangue minerals. Separation is performed by shaking tables, Humphreys spirals, jigs, hydrocylones, dense media, etc. (Dictionary of Earth Sciences, Oxford University Press 1999). The use of gravity to recover gold is the oldest, most cost effective and environmentally friendly method available. With the advent of froth flotation and later whole ore leach in conjunction with the Merrill Crowe Process, CIP or CIL the use and further development of gravity concentration devices for the recovery of gold in modern gold plants went into decline. Limitations of the CIP/CIL process recently saw the re-emergence of gravity concentrators either in the grinding circuit or in treating the CIP/CIL tailings in many operations. Batch centrifugal concentrators (BCCs) such as the Knelson Concentrator, Falcon Concentrator and InLine Spinner in grinding circuits and Kelsey jigs on tailings streams have been implemented to recover coarse gold and gold bearing sulphides that would otherwise require much greater residence times than are afforded by whole ore leach circuits.

Maximising Gravity Recovery through Continuous Concentrate Technology The development and application of a continuous concentrate unit, such as the InLine Pressure Jig (IPJ), is at the centre of the innovative new flowsheet, designed to produce high gold gravity recoveries at a coarse grind with a manageable mass. With a combination of gravity concentrators and or flotation a combined concentrate containing a significant portion of the total gold in the feed can now easily be treated with leach recoveries expected in the order of 95 percent and above. Continuous concentrators, like the IPJ, allow gravity recovery to be optimised for a particular ore by "climbing the recovery curve". This involves the production of a continuous stream of high

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 2

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

grade heavies, resulting in mass yields to concentrate of between one percent to a maximum of 30 percent, with 10 percent being typical (Longley et al., 2002). To illustrate this point, figures 1 and 2 show the possible recovery and grade as a function of yield for a typical high grade gold ore sample tested at Gekko Systems Pty Ltd. As the mass yield is increased the gold recovery increases. Batch units such as BCCs are limited to mass flow to concentrates of less than 0.05 percent and accordingly cannot generally achieve the high recovery levels required for a gravity only circuit. For the material tested below, batch units at a yield of 0.1 percent would be limited to recoveries of around 50 percent, whereas a continuous unit has the potential to recover over 90 percent at a yield above 10 percent.

Gold Recovery Yield Curve


100% 90% 80%

Gold Grade Yield Curve


800 700 600

70%

Grade (ppm)

Recovery

60% 50% 40% 30%

500 400 300 200

20% 10% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

100 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Yield

Yield

Fig 1: Gold Ore Recovery Yield Curve

Fig 2: Gold Ore Grade Yield Curve

This extra recovery as yield increases is due to either poorly liberated gold or gold associated with heavy minerals, typically sulphides. This association with sulphides often leads to difficulties processing such ores through conventional CIP/CIL circuits, however the concentrate usually responds very well to intensive cyanidation. The ability of the IPJ to produce a high yield of sulphide rich concentrate can result in the economic treatment of an extremely complex ore that may otherwise require a treatment route similar to that of a truly refractory ore. The gravity concentration flowsheet detailed in figure 3 incorporates both IPJs and BCC's. The IPJ's treat the entire underflow stream from the hydrocyclones. Since the IPJ tailing is recycled back to the mill the gravity concentrators have multiple opportunities to recover the gold minerals before they report to cyclone overflow. On the overflow stream from the hydrocyclones, IPJs/BCC's are used to scavenge any fine gold minerals; again they treat the entire stream. In this case it is a single pass opportunity to recover
Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 3

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

the gold minerals. Further recovery on the overflow stream can be achieved by adding conventional or flash flotation. The mass recovery to concentrate is determined from grade recovery testwork done in the laboratory.
Milling Hydrocyclones U/F Tail IPJ Conc
Fig 3: Gravity Concentration Flowsheet.

O/F

IPJs/BCCs

Conc

Tail

The storage requirements for the gravity and or flotation tailing stream may differ significantly from conventional CIP/CIL tailings or intensive cyanidation tailings streams. If the ore has a high sulphide content, the gravity concentrators and or flotation will produce a sulphide rich concentrate and hence a sulphide depleted tailing, significantly reducing the opportunity for acid generation and heavy metal mobilisation in the tailings impoundment area. This means there are often significant advantages if the two tails streams are stored separately.
INTENSIVE CYANIDATION

Until recently gravity concentrates from BCCs were generally treated by tabling, with the table concentrates being smelted while table middlings and tailings were recycled to the milling circuit for further grinding and leached in the CIP/CIL circuit. Gold recovery on production tables is relatively low, often only 30 percent, and rarely above 60 percent. Significant factors in tabling performance are mineralogy and the operators experience and ability. Complex, sulphide associated gold particles are generally lost to table tails and, through attrition, will eventually report to the cyclone overflow. For the gravity recovery process to be viable, in the absence of whole ore cyanidation, it is necessary to reliably obtain high recoveries from the gravity concentrate - in excess of 97 percent. The only proven technology giving high gold recoveries from gravity concentrates is intensive cyanidation coupled with either direct electrowinning or carbon absorption. The chemistry of cyanidation is proven and well known with the majority of gold operations in the world using the process: 4 Au + 8 CN- + 2 H2O = 4 Au(CN)2- + 4 OHSandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 4

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

Intensive cyanidation typically uses cyanide levels of about 2 percent and oxygen or peroxide are added, at a concentration of approximately 20 ppm. The ILR process, patented by Gekko Systems, does not require any exotic reagents or oxidants and equipment is modularized and skid mounted, which simplifies shipping and installation. There are over fifteen mines worldwide using InLine Leach Reactors for intensive cyanidation of gravity gold concentrates. These include both batch and continuous units. While batch ILR's are cost effective for small concentrate masses, higher feed rates require a continuous reactor.

CONTINUOUS INLINE LEACH REACTOR

The only commercially manufactured continuous intensive cyanidation reactor is the InLine Leach Reactor (ILR), produced by Gekko Systems Pty Ltd. Continuous ILRs have been successfully operated in Australia, Malaysia, Ghana, Tanzania, Mali and Argentina at throughputs from 50kg/h up to 10t/h. The continuous ILR is based on the same principle as the laboratory bottle roll. It consists of a horizontal drum, with internal baffles and lifters, rotating slowly on support rollers to ensure effective contact of the solids with reagents. Solids and solution are fed continuously and overflow continuously. The solution flow rate through the ILR is largely independent of the solids flow rate allowing solution grade to be controlled within fairly wide limits. Gray and Katsikaros (1999) have described the ILR in detail. The ILR operates continuously in conjunction with an existing or dedicated electrowinning cell (or carbon column) with the barren solution recycled back to the ILR to minimise reagent use. For mass balance reasons a small bleed solution is also produced carrying trace amounts of gold that can be recovered via a carbon column. The continuous intensive cyanidation flowsheet, shown in figure 4, includes an ILR and a dedicated electrowinning cell. The leached solids are continuously dewatered, washed if necessary, and then transferred to the tailings storage or detoxification facility. Dewatering is carried out using a combination of cones, screens and cyclones to take full advantage of the coarse nature of the concentrate. Flocculants can be used if required to settle slimes. Intensive cyanidation of a gravity concentrate typically gives leach recoveries of over 95 percent. The aggressive leach conditions with high cyanide and oxidant levels are easily able to treat coarse particles and complex ores that under standard CIP/CIL conditions would give extremely poor leach performance. These conditions give high gold dissolution rates even when there is only minor exposure of the gold surface and in the presence of passivating sulphides. ILRs are successfully recovering gold from gravity concentrates containing free gold, pyrite, arsenopyrite, mixed sulphides and preg robbing carbon.

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 5

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

ELECTROWIN SOLUTION STORAGE FEED FROM CONCENTRATOR RAKE MOTOR .55KW THICKNER CLARIFYER

SOLIDS STORAGE

MOTOR 4KW

REAGENT ADDITION WATER ADD

DEWATERING SCREEN

WATER ADD

SOLID TAIL

MOTOR 2.2KW

REACTOR DRUM MOTOR 4KW MOTOR 4KW

Fig 4: Continuous Intensive Cyanidation Flowsheet

An intensive cyanidation leach profile is provided in figure 5. This leach profile is typical, with very rapid initial leach rates. The size of the required ILR for a given application is determined from the leach rates and the required throughput. Laboratory tests have proven to be very reliable in predicting full scale performance. The use of an ILR increases security by removing the need to manually handle gold concentrates. The design means high value concentrates are stored in a single closed vessel with any access and sample points padlocked for security if desired. Once the solids are fed into the reactor they are inaccessible until after leaching.

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 6

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

Au Leaching
100 90 80 70 % leached 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 6 12 time (hours) 18 24

Fig 5: Typical Intensive Cyanidation Kinetics

SAFETY

Cyanide is a highly toxic chemical that has a high recognition factor in the general community. Yet cyanide has been extensively used in the mining and numerous other industries for many years, generally in a safe and responsible manner. In contrast, the use of intensive cyanidation reduces the overall usage and inventory of cyanide in the plant compared to a conventional CIP/CIL plant treating the same ore. This is due to the reduced mass of material treated and the correspondingly small size of the leach circuit. The high concentration of cyanide requires similar management practices as are used currently in the elution and electrowinning areas of a CIP/CIL plant. Where the ILR is installed indoors, good ventilation, preferably with forced extraction, is recommended as a precaution. The potential evolution of high levels of hydrogen cyanide is small due to cyanide's high pKa value and at the high concentration used; the natural solution pH is above 11. With the drum fully enclosed and the small area of cyanide solution exposed during operation forced extraction in an indoor installation is straightforward. Lastly the ILR continually monitors pH to prevent the evolution of hydrogen cyanide.

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 7

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

TAILINGS DISPOSAL

Of increasing concern to both mining companies and society is the long term liability and risk associated with large tailings storage facilities containing cyanide residues. The gravity concentration, flotation and intensive cyanidation process that weve presented can result in typically 80 percent to 90 percent of tailings being relatively coarse and devoid of cyanide residue. With a coarse grind and the removal of sulphides from the bulk of the tailings stream, the potential mobilisation of heavy metals and acid generation is considerably reduced. Due to the small volume of gravity concentrate treated by the ILR it is economic to treat the ILR tails via a cyanide destruction and detoxification facility. In this case the site would not have any cyanide in the tailings pond(s). The ILR tails, being a much smaller volume, could also be stored in a facility that allows for encapsulation of the material to a higher standard than would normally be economic for the complete tailings stream. These features are extremely important in areas with fragile environments e.g. Alaska, Greenland and adjacent to National Parks. The benefits of restricting cyanide tailings to small volumes, which can be easily detoxified or encapsulated, should also allow faster approvals by government and environmental agencies, increasing the financial return and reducing risk to investors.

CAPITAL

The gold mining industry is compelled to provide a high return to investors; otherwise they will invest elsewhere. The need is to build plants with reduced capital requirements and to provide a shorter lead time for approval and construction ensuring a faster return on capital. Both these factors also make it more attractive to build in countries of high political risk, further increasing exploration targets. The capital cost savings of the proposed flowsheet are considerable. For example the cost of a comminution circuit grinding to a P80 of 500mm compared to a P80 of 75mm will be 50 percent less (Lanz and Noakes, 1993). Capital costs of an IPJ, BCC, ILR and electrowinning flowsheet are 40 percent lower compared to the traditional leach, CIP and carbon strip circuit. Further savings in tailings containment can be expected. Additionally, environmental approvals can be expected to be faster due to the reduced cyanide inventory and increased feasibility of completely detoxifying all residues. Environmental bonds may also be lower leading to the greater availability of operating capital.

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 8

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

SITE EXAMPLES NEW BENDIGO GOLD PROJECT

The Bendigo Goldfield has historically produced over 22 million ounces of gold with 82 percent of this coming from quartz reef mining carried out from surface to an average depth of 500 m and the deepest mine going to 1,400m. Between 1854 and 1954 quartz reef mining yielded about 18 million ounces of gold from 40 million tonnes of ore, the recovered grade being 0.5 oz/t (14.3g/t). No processing plant presently exists although a bulk sampling plant has been modified to trial process the 65,000 tonnes of development ore that will be produced whilst exploring the Sheepshead and Deborah lines of the reef during 2003. This trial processing will assist with further metallurgical testing. Initial test work indicates greater than 90 percent recovery using gravity, with up to 99 percent recovery by flotation of the gravity tail without the use of cyanide in the main circuit. Metallurgical testwork performed on bulk samples taken from the Bendigo Mine Development have shown that excellent gravity gold recoveries are achievable. Due to the large amount of coarse gold present, gravity concentration recoveries of up to 98 percent have been achieved. Even at low head grades (1.38g/t) recoveries of greater than 80 percent have been reported. Combined with flotation, the recovery at low head grades exceeded on average 91.4 percent and up to 99.6 percent at higher head grades (+8 g/t). These results are shown in the figure 6, below.
Bendigo New Moon Metallurgical Recoveries Vs Head Grade
98 100 91.4 98 80 80
Recovery (%)

99.6

92

60

Flotation Recovery Gravity Recovery Total Recovery

40 20 11.4

1.6 77

0 1.38 8 Head Grade (g/t)

Fig 6: Metallurgical Recoveries vs. Head Grade for Bendigo

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 9

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

The total recovery by gravity/flotation has also been found to be grind size independent below approximately 500 microns. The possibility of processing at 1 mm is being considered, as test work has indicated that recoveries drop off only marginally, even at this grind size. Bendigo anticipates approximately 90 percent recovery by simple gravity processing. Flotation or extra gravity concentration aimed at sulphide recovery (1 to 2 percent of ore) will increase total recovery to the high 90s. The original bulk sampling plant incorporated two of Gekko Systems Inline Spinners. The upgraded bulk sampling plant, recently commissioned, treats up to 15 tph and includes a coarse gold trap developed by Gekko Systems, two Inline Pressure Jigs and a shaking table to concentrate and recover gold. A proposed flow sheet for the operating plant at Bendigo, incorporating intensive cyanidation is shown in figure 7, below.
CLASIFICATION TO BE CONFIRMED

FLOTATION PLANT FINAL TAIL

POSSIBLE SCAV CIRCUIT

ROUGHER GOLD IPJ2400

FEED FROM CONCENTRATOR

CONTINUOUS ILR FLOWSHEET

CLEANER GOLD IPJ1500

MILL FEED

TO WATER SUPPLY

Fig 7: Proposed Flowsheet for New Bendigo Gold Plant

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 10

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

NEZHDANINSKOYE PROJECT

The Nezhdaninskoye project is located in North Eastern Yakutia, Russia and is 50 percent owned and managed by Celtic Resources. Historically the mine was in production from 1975 and closed in 1992, Celtic Resources reopened the mine in 2001. Past metallurgical test work had shown that gravity concentration could yield both a gold product suitable for smelting and gravity gold sulphide concentrate that contained up to 80 percent of the gold. Flotation of the gravity tailings recovered a further 18 percent of the gold. Combined gold recoveries were reported to be up to 97 percent. However final recoveries were ultimately lower. An investigation of fine grinding followed by resin in leach reported recoveries of less than 90 percent gold recovery from the gold sulphide concentrate and 70 percent gold recovery from the flotation concentrates. Further test work involving gravity concentration, followed by CIL leaching conducted in Australia in 1997 showed recoveries of 91 percent from the Quartz Veins while recoveries of only 75 percent were achieved from the Breccia Zones. A preg-robbing effect was preventing high leach recoveries, ruling out RIL and CIL circuits. Recent test work conducted by Ammtec in Australia investigated gravity recovery and direct cyanidation of the gravity sulphide concentrate. The test work indicated that recovery could be improved through the use of high intensity gravity separation units, coarser grinds to minimise carbon liberation and the use of the Gekko Systems ILR to enable gold recovery as soon as it is liberated (Armitage et al., 2002).
Tabling Recovery Yield Curve
100% 90% 80% 70%

Au Leaching
100 90 80 70
% leached

Recovery

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0%

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Yield

12 time (hours)

18

24

Fig 8: Gravity recovery mass yield curve for Nezhdaninskoye

Fig 9: Concentrate leach recoveries for Nezhdaninskoye

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 11

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

The recent test work confirmed that very high gravity recovery is achievable. The grade/recovery relationship for the quartz vein ore indicated that over 90 percent of the gold can be concentrated into a yield of less that 16 percent of the ore. The recovery / yield curve is pictured above in figure 8. The concentrate leach results indicate that over 90 percent recovery is achievable using intensive cyanidation conditions. Leach recoveries have since been optimised with grind size reduction and kerosene addition to combat the preg-robbing issue. Results are shown in figure 9, above. From the test work results a simplified flow sheet for Nezhdaninskoye was developed and is shown in figure 10, below. This flow sheet incorporates IPJs, BCCs and tabling to produce a high yield gravity concentrate. Gekko Systems continuous ILR10000 is to be used to leach the concentrate. The ILR plant is currently under construction.
ROM Crushing and Screening

Classifying Cyclone O/F

Primary Grinding Circuit and InLine Pressure Jigs

Conc Secondary Grinding Circuit and InLine Pressure Jigs Conc Concentrating Tables Tail Dewatering Cyclones O/F U/F BCCs Tail Cleaner Table Conc Tailings Dam Calcine Oven & Furnace Dore Cathode Gekko ILR EW Conc Regrind Conc Mid U/F

O/F Process Water

Tailings Thickener

Fig 10: Simplified flowsheet for Nezhdaninskoye


Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 12

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

NOVODNEPROVKA

Novodneprovka Gold Mine in Kazakhstan had been traditionally run using gravity only. Lower than expected gravity gold recoveries have resulted in the plant being upgraded to a total gravity/flotation, continuous ILR and detoxification circuit. From a feed of 20 tph the gravity/flotation circuit can recover approximately 95 percent of the gold into approximately 400kg/hr of concentrate. The concentrate is then leached in a continuous ILR1000, providing up to 98 percent leach recovery. Gold is recovered from solution using a combination of electrowinning and carbon columns. Tailings from the ILR are treated by a detoxification system to ensure a benign tail is produced from the plant. The plant upgrade is currently in progress with the ILR achieving the expected 98 percent recovery during recent commissioning. Figure 10 below shows the continuous ILR 1000 prior to shipping to Novodneprovka Gold Mine in Kazakhstan.

Fig 11: Continuous ILR 1000, destined for Novodneprovka Gold Mine in Kazakhstan

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 13

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

SUMMARY

The intensive leaching of gravity and/or flotation concentrates using high levels of cyanide and oxygen, when used in the proper application, can result in overall gold recoveries comparable to or greater to those seen with traditional whole ore leach circuits. Advantages of our proposed flowsheet include: Maximised return to shareholders with a combined reduction in capital outlay and risk Reduced table losses to cyclone overflow High security and less gold room labour Easy installation modular design A reduction in equipment lead time, Smaller plant footprint Reduced cyanide and carbon consumption Lower reagent handling Reduced tailings disposal and environmental costs Lower energy costs

A flowsheet comprising of the production of a gold bearing concentrate, followed by intensive cyanidation and tailings detoxification mark a significant changing of thinking as to the most appropriate gold processing route in the future. Environmental, political and investor factors as well as and project size and location may demand an alternative to the traditional whole ore leach, CIP/CIL gold circuit. We believe we have offered a possible viable replacement with proven, currently available technology.

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 14

Canadian Mineral Processors Conference - Vancouver, January 2003

REFERENCES

Armitage, Mick et al., 2002, Celtic Resources AIM Prospectus, Section Five Competent Persons Report, Celtic Resources Holdings PLC, 2002. Gray, A H and Katsikaros, N, 1999, The InLine Leach Reactor The New Art in Intensive Cyanidation of High Grade Centrifugal Gold Concentrates Proceedings, Randol Gold and Silver Forum, Denver, May 1999. Lanz, T and Noakes, M. 1993. Cost Estimation Handbook for the Australian Mining Industry AusIMM 1993. Longley, R J, Katsikaros, N, Hillman, C, 2002, A New Age Gold Plant Flowsheet for the Treatment of High Grade Ores, Paper presented at AusIMM Metallurgical Plant Design and Operating Strategies Conference, Sydney.

Sandy Gray, Jennifer Abols, Andrew McCallum, Gary Patrick, Garry Johansen. CIP - who needs it? A combination circuit of Gravity, Flotation and Intensive Leach may provide the Optimal Environmental and Cost Outcome for Gold Plants.

Page 15