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, 1993,12 (3), 909-922
Successful therapeutic regimens for treating Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in cows
A.I. RADWAN *, S.I. BEKAIRI *, A.M. AL-BOKMY *, P.V.S. PRASAD *, O.M. MOHAMED ** and S.T. HUSSAIN **
Summary: Three therapeutic regimens were evaluated in 121 cows naturally infected with Brucella melitensis or Brucella abortus, using a combination of long-acting Oxytetracycline (LA-OTC), streptomycin (ST) and OTCintramammary infusion (IMI). Cessation of shedding of b r u c e l l a in udder secretions and absence of Brucella in selected tissues were considered criteria for successful treatment. Regimen A (tested on 35 cows) consisted of LA-OTC 25 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (i.m.) every 3 days for 42 days, ST 25 mg/kg i.m. daily for 8 days, and OTC-IMI 20 ml/teat daily for 4 days. Regimen B (tested on 53 cows) was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 2 days for 16 days and OTC-IMI every 2 days for 8 days. Both regimens were equally effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all cows involved in the tests and no relapses were recorded. However, regimen C, which was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 3 days for 24 days and OTC-IMI every 3 days for 12 days, resulted in the elimination of Brucella organisms from only 30 (91%) of 33 cows. Before commencement of the therapeutic regimens, B. melitensis biovar 1 or 2 had been repeatedly isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows and B. abortus biovar 1 from mammary secretions of 18 cows. KEYWORDS: Antibiotics - Brucella abortus - Brucella melitensis - Cattle Oxytetracycline - Streptomycin - Therapy.
INTRODUCTION Several c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c agents have b e e n employed in recent decades for the treatment of Brucella abortus infection in cows; however, n o n e of these has been entirely successful. N u m e r o u s chemical agents, general antimicrobials (phenols or dyes), trace elements, minerals and mixtures of vitamins (A and E ) have b e e n tried unsuccessfully. F u r t h e r m o r e , a t t e m p t s using antibiotics such as penicillin or sulfonamides failed to cause cessation of the shedding of B. abortus from the mammary secretions of infected cows, or caused only temporary cessation (7,11,37).
* Animal Production and Health Section, National Agriculture and Water Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, P.O. Box 17285, Riyadh 11484, Saudi Arabia. ** National Agriculture Development Co., P.O. Box 2557, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia.
In this trial. With regard to brucellosis in sheep.m. daily for 1 week) 14 (67%) of 21 cows w e r e successfully treated (25). In the respective groups.000 mg LA-OTC i. increasing the percentage of Brucella-tree sheep to 82%. route. 46 days after infection (30). every 2 days for 2 weeks) proved to be the most practical. daily for 3 weeks) showed a synergistic effect.m. In addition. inoculation of L A .m.] or i. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three long-term therapeutic regimens using a combination of LA-OTC.p. the majority of the treated sheep developed subcutaneous sterile abscesses in the flank at the site of repeated i. With the development of Oxytetracycline (OTC) and long-acting (LA)-OTC.4%) of 14 cows (24). melitensis or B. singly or in combination.p. alone or in combination with ST. Only one sheep was found to be bacteriologically positive at slaughter. safe. such therapeutic regimens have been applied in infected herds to prevent abortions and reduce the spread of brucellosis.13.O T C was combined with ST (20 mg/kg intravenously [i.500 or 1. In a n o t h e r study.m.p. Moreover. 52%.24. However. However. these regimens have failed to result in complete cure.m. due to repeated intraperitoneal (i. every 3 days for 6 weeks. However. abortus in 10 (71. on 118 sheep naturally infected with B. daily for 6 weeks) combined with ST (1 g i.p. injections of L A .O T C combined with ST. Radwan and colleagues (35) evaluated six different long-term treatment regimens on 480 sheep and goats naturally infected with B. every 2 days for 4 weeks combined with ST 20 mg/kg i. 69% and 100% of the sheep were found to be Brucella-îre-c at the end of the trial. Furthermore. the cost of therapy. 9 sheep experimentally infected with B. the use of these agents alone or in combination with ST has succeeded in eliminating the symptoms of this disease and reducing the shedding of brucellae by infected cows. In this trial. Furthermore.) inoculations with O T C (12. by the i. then 20 days later with 1. 6 sheep were Brucella-iiee. ST and OTC intramammary infusion (IMI) in eliminating B. Recently.] every 3 days for 2 weeks) combined with ST (20 mg/kg i. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive.25. has resulted in the reduction of abortions in infected herds or individual cows (20. abortus from naturallyinfected cows. In one of these studies. at necropsy (34).O T C 25 mg/kg i.V.4 g t o g e t h e r with i m m u n e serum for 3 days. Consequently. tetracyclines and streptomycin (ST).910 The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as aureomycin.25) and the successful results in sheep and goats (35). inoculation with OTC. In addition. the regimens previously tried involved small doses and few injections of the antibiotics used. the presence of antibiotic residues in milk and the failure to cure udder infections in many cases have led to the general conclusion that such treatment is unsuitable for the control of bovine brucellosis. every 3 days for 2 weeks) alone was successful in curing 3 (21%) of 14 cows. terramycin.29).m. when L A . The aim of the study was to obtain a therapeutic regimen which is effective. melitensis in the 80 sheep and goats treated (35). In view of the encouraging results in cows (24. when 8 infected Najdi sheep were inoculated with 1. groups of infected Najdi sheep were injected with 250. daily for 1 week) resulted in cessation of shedding of B.21). One of these regimens ( L A .m. melitensis. .000 mg O T C daily for 6 weeks.p. abortus were injected daily for 6 days with 1 g Chlortetracycline. serious local reactions were reported in cows. melitensis. in order to make treatment of Briicella-infected cows with superior genes a viable alternative to slaughter.O T C (20 mg/kg i. using high doses of L A .O T C (20 mg/kg intramuscularly [i. practical. effective and least expensive means of achieving complete elimination of B. treatment with OTC (250 mg i. Radwan and colleagues (34) conducted a long-term treatment trial using a variety of doses of O T C .
T h e animals belonged to two breeds (108 Holstein x Friesian and 13 Jersey). Shortly before initiation of the present treatment regimens.ST sulphate (from Giza. These two herds originally tested seronegative on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . eight years prior to the present study. melitensis. respectively . immediately after birth. Milking was ceased in lactating cows. as several previous studies have indicated that Brucella infections persist in cattle and s p o n t a n e o u s recovery is uncommon (10.p r e g n a n t cows were artificially inseminated. without regard to age. abortus biovar 1 was isolated from the mammary secretions of 18 cows. all n o n .L A . approximately four years prior to this study. and selected tissue samples were cultured. In two herds. T h e cows contracted brucellosis from sheep and goats infected with B. The cows originated from three large commercial dairy herds raised in the central and eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia. number of previous pregnancies. melitensis (biovars 1 and 2) which had been introduced to the two farms 8-12 m o n t h s before bovine brucellosis occurred in the two cattle herds (unpublished findings). abortus was small. This herd contained few seropositive cows on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . All cows in the study were isolated from other animals. and selected tissues were collected for bacteriological examination.O T C injectable solution (from F i a n c e ) containing 200 mg O T C base p e r millilitre . particularly because L A . The three herds were composed of highly valuable breeding cows originally imported from the United States of America (USA) and Europe.22. These animals were selected to provide a m o r e conclusive evaluation than that obtained in previous studies. Non-treated cows were not included as controls.911 MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals A total of 121 cows were selected. The cows were aged 3-10 years and weighed between 450 kg and 750 kg. B. these were placed in g r o u p B together with 35 cows with B. In the third herd. E g y p t ) supplied in vials. in contrast to ST and OTC-IMI which are not. dissolved (just before use) in 3 ml or 12 ml sterile distilled water. a total of 3 calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group) were sacrificed. One m o n t h after t r e a t m e n t . The reason for the division into three treatment schedules was to choose the most practical and effective regimen. 89 cows were found not to be pregnant (having already aborted or calved 4-8 months before t r e a t m e n t ) and 32 cows were in various stages of pregnancy. melitensis was isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows (biovar 1 from 97 cows and biovar 2 from 6 cows). a total of 12 pregnant cows (4 from each t r e a t m e n t group) were sacrificed. Since the number of available cows infected with B. Herd records indicated that none of the cows had been vaccinated during calfhood. In addition. B. Therapeutic agents The pharmaceutical products used in this study were as follows: . which gave positive results for brucellosis after serological and bacteriological tests. each containing l g or 4 g.O T C is a long-acting antibiotic. date of recent pregnancy and n u m b e r of previous abortions due to Brucella. Three months later. B and C). The 121 cows were divided into three treatment groups (A.28).
animals were initially screened for the presence of Brucella agglutinins by the rose bengal test (3). from the 12 pregnant sacrificed cows (4 cows from each treatment group which were slaughtered at 4 months post-treatment) the following tissue specimens were aseptically collected for bacteriological examination: supramammary. popliteal and head lymph nodes. In addition. uterus. A t each examination.O T C at the c o m m e n c e m e n t of therapy.OTC-IMI (from Athens. in the cervical. 5 mg Prednisolone and 10 ml special excipient. United Kingdom. each containing 200 mg OTC hydrochloride. liver and spleen. thigh and shoulder muscles. abortus strain 1119-3) was obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture in Ames. Both ST and OTC-IMI were administered with L A . at a dosage of 20-30 ml per site. precrural. Separate 30 ml samples of udder secretions from each quarter were also cultured every week during treatment. T h e isolated 2 . lung and spleen of foetuses from the sacrificed animals were cultured. Immediately before initiation of the therapeutic regimens. Weybridge. Animals testing positive to the rose bengal test were retested by the standard US plate agglutination procedure for the determination of Brucella antibody titres (3). prescapular. Iowa. iliac. Agglutination at 1:100 or greater was considered positive. Bacteriological examination T h e m e d i u m for Brucella culture was p r e p a r e d as described previously (35). and sections of udder. Aliquots from each udder secretion sample were spread with sterile cotton swabs on 2-4 freshly prepared plates of culture medium. The date of previous abortions in relation to the initiation of treatment was not recorded on the farms involved. 100 mg oleandomycin p h o s p h a t e . The standard Brucella plate antigen (made of B. ovary. mesenteric. Similar selected tissue specimens were cultured from 3 sacrificed newborn calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group). Following the three serological examinations.and bacteriologically-positive cows were serologically tested again immediately before initiation of the present treatment regimens and at monthly intervals after completion of treatment (for 4 months in 12 sacrificed cows and for 16 months in the remaining 109 cows). udder secretion. every month after completion of treatment until calving and again every 2 weeks after calving for 6 m o n t h s . In addition. Each tissue specimen was individually homogenised in a tissue grinder and aliquots were spread with sterile cotton swabs on several (4-8) freshly prepared plates of culture medium.O T C and ST were injected i. USA.m. 100 mg neomycin sulphate. New Haw. Greece) in 10 ml syringes. cultures of udder secretions were m a d e from the selected 121 positive cows to confirm shedding of Brucella organisms. sera from the selected 121 serologically. brain. liver. milk samples from all seropositive cows were subjected to bacteriological examination for identification of Brucella shedders. Serological testing All animals were subjected to three successive serological examinations at monthly intervals. mediastinal. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 7 days in the presence and absence of 10% C 0 a t m o s p h e r e . sera from all calves born from treated cows were examined immediately after birth. Furthermore. samples of stomach contents. The L A .912 . T h e rose bengal test antigen was obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory. In addition. Therapeutic regimens The treatment regimens of the three groups of infected cows are shown in Table I.
No of Success/treated Tissuesa)Udder secretions < > b e i.m.m.m. 25 mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 1 e B 8 14 49/49(100%) 35(c) ST(f) 18( ) 14 8 4 3/4 d LA-OTC( ) i. i.TABLE I Efficacy of three treatment regimens in eliminating Brucella melitensis or B.m. 25mg/kg &OTC-IMlig) IMI 20 ml/teat 25mg/kg 2 2 3 4/4 4 e C 3 33W LA-OTC( ) STW &OTC-IMl(s) i. 25mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 3 3 27/29(91%) i. melitensis cows naturally infected with B. abortus from naturally-infected cows Regimen FA v 3 No.: IMI: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) intramuscular (injection) intramammary infusion number of sacrificed cows from which selected tissues were cultured for Brucella number of cows from which mammary secretions were repeatedly cultured for Brucella cows naturally infected with B. 1 4 8 4/4 31/31 (100%) 3 14 A 35(c) LA-OTC( ) ST( ) & OTC-IMI(g) f 25mg/kg i.m. abortus long-acting Oxytetracycline injectable solution (from France) 200 mg/ml streptomycin sulphate (from Egypt) Oxytetracycline intramammary infusion (from Greece) 913 .m.of Periodicity treated Therapeutic agents cows Route Dosage E ™° Y ^¿J. 25mg/kg i.m.
Weybridge. No abortions were observed a m o n g the treated cows. retained placenta and mastitis. mycoplasmosis and mycotic abortion. However. or the use of c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c measures. Moreover. Furthermore.O T C injections. in the breeding season following treatment. Of the cows treated with regimens A. B and C experienced n o r m a l calving within 4 m o n t h s following completion of the treatment. there was very light swelling and signs of painful sensations at the site of r e p e a t e d L A .O T C and ST. F u r t h e r m o r e . no systemic reactions were observed in any of the treated cows during the treatment period. Meat inspection of the twelve cows which were slaughtered (4 months post-treatment) revealed complete absence of any detectable abnormalities in the muscles at the site of intramuscular inoculations of L A . and milk production was within the normal range for uninfected animals of the same breed. In addition. RESULTS Breeding performance A comparison was made between breeding performance in the three herds prior to identification of the infected cows and that in the treated animals in the breeding season following treatment. salmonellosis. The biotyping of the identified isolates was performed at the Central Veterinary Laboratory. B and C. C o n t i n u e d or r e s u m e d shedding of Brucella organisms in udder secretions or the isolation of Brucella organisms from any of the tissue specimens obtained at necropsy were considered as conclusive evidence of treatment failure. New Haw. particularly in the thigh muscles. In this study. The abortion rate in the three herds ranged between 5% and 1 5 % and the infertility r a t e was approximately 1 5 % . biochemically and serologically (3). the cows were living in an uninfected environment. Side-effects of the therapeutic agents In 8 cows. On the whole. with milk production reduced by 10-15%. aborted foetuses from the three cattle herds involved were cultured for Brucella isolation. the 32 cows which were in various stages of pregnancy at the time of initiation of the therapeutic regimens A.914 Brucella cultures were identified morphologically. B or C) in treating a cow weighing 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). the cows had b e e n living in an infected environment for periods of between 1 and 8 years. the treated cows expelled placenta from the womb without requiring any special manual manipulation. microscopically. 94% b e c a m e p r e g n a n t and experienced n o r m a l calving. Before t r e a t m e n t . Cost of therapeutic agents and animals The weight of the treated cows ranged between 450 kg and 750 kg. T h e s e slight local reactions disappeared within 36 hours. When Brucella organisms could no longer be recovered from udder secretions nor from any of the selected tissue specimens collected at necropsy. the respective cow was considered to be cured (successful t r e a t m e n t ) . United Kingdom. there were unusually high rates of metritis. . there were no cases of metritis or mastitis in the treated cows. in addition to routine bacteriological examination for listeriosis. and the average cost of the therapeutic agents alone used (regimen A.
in the 3 cows of regimen C where t r e a t m e n t failed. Serological findings Among the treated animals. abortus) were treated with regimen B. . the selected tissue specimens from 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months posttreatment) and all repeated udder secretion samples from the remaining 31 cows (for 16 months post-treatment) were all found to be free from Brucella organisms. T h e remaining 8 slaughtered cows did not show any decrease in titre over the same period. melitensis and 18 infected with B. In all successfully treated cows in the present study (118 cows treated with regimen A. Bacteriological findings In the present study. melitensis biovar 2 was isolated (1-5 colonies per plate) from mammary secretions. melitensis or B. or after calving in the other 2 cows (these animals were then re-treated with regimen B). only B. In regimen A. All selected tissue specimens from the 3 newborn calves (1 calf from a cow in each treatment group) were found to be free from Brucella organisms. while all calves born from treated cows were seronegative for brucellosis. T h e efficacy of the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t regimens applied in eliminating B. including the cost of air freight to Saudi Arabia. The Brucella agglutinin titres w e r e also c o m p a r e d with results o b t a i n e d p r e treatment and 16 months post-treatment in the remaining 109 treated cows. 4 3 % and 10% of the treated cows respectively. shedding of Brucella organisms in mammary secretions had ceased when these secretions were cultured (1 week after initiation of the antibiotherapy) and did not recommence. abortus from 121 naturally-infected cows is shown in Table I. In addition. only 5% of the 109 cows became seronegative 16 months posttreatment. melitensis) were treated with regimen C. Mycoplasma or pathogenic fungi were isolated from the aborted foetuses examined in the three herds. udder tissue and supramammary lymph nodes of only 1 of 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months post-treatment). melitensis or B. they ceased shedding Brucella. There was a decrease of two.600 each. However. all selected tissue samples from 4 slaughtered cows and the repeated udder secretion samples were found to be Brucella-free. at a cost of US$3. t h r e e and four dilutions in 4 2 % . B. when these 2 Brucella-shedding cows were re-treated with regimen B. However. The average number of Brucella colonies recovered per plate from the udder secretion samples of these 2 cows prior to treatment was approximately 30 times higher than the number recovered following treatment. which ranged between 2 and 8 colonies per plate. the amount of shedding declined after the initiation of treatment and remained low until 4 months post-treatment in 1 slaughtered cow. In addition. abortus w e r e isolated. B. when 33 cows (naturally infected with B. no Listeria. B or C). However. there was a decrease of only one dilution in the US plate agglutination test (from 400 to 200) from the beginning of t r e a t m e n t until 4 months post-treatment in 4 of 12 slaughtered cows. Salmonella. melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the repeated udder secretion samples from only 2 of 29 cows.915 The treated cows were imported a few years previously as pregnant heifers. When 53 cows (of which 35 were naturally infected with B.
melitensis infection from sheep and goats raised on the same farms. commercial dairy production was introduced to Saudi Arabia through the importation of valuable and highly productive exotic cattle at a very high cost. especially where it is difficult to change agricultural customs or social habits. it is recognised that the economic consequences of infection are e n c o u n t e r e d principally during initial infection and become less prominent in further pregnancies. metritis. Livestock producers in Saudi Arabia and in many other developing countries cannot afford the traditional "test and slaughter" approach used in developed countries. 35. The "test and slaughter" m e t h o d combined with calfhood vaccination no doubt contributes to considerable reduction in the number of infected herds. suis was not found in animals or humans (1. abortus. particularly in lymph nodes. In a campaign against brucellosis. the cattle were raised in large n u m b e r s u n d e r intensive management systems and sometimes together with small ruminants. Transmission of this infection to cattle p r o d u c e d an infection similar to that p r o d u c e d by B. An eradication campaign through slaughter and compensation is not within the economic scope of developing countries. liver.2.18.5. two of the cattle herds contracted B. On arrival in Saudi Arabia. while B. Although this has been the goal of several workers.39). Germany and France.16. Such infection was directly responsible for the high rate of abortions. it is impossible to apply only one method which would suit every country. infertility. with the development and widespread use of techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer. Consequently. B. except cows in one dairy herd which had B. Moreover. These cattle were originally imported as p r e g n a n t heifers from the USA and some E u r o p e a n countries.200. practical and safe antibiotherapy would be of e n o r m o u s benefit to producers in these countries as an alternative to slaughter of infected animals of high value. namely: the Netherlands. abortus for 8%. however. none has been fully successful. In the present study. in B. T h e following explanations were given for the previous t r e a t m e n t failures and difficulties: a) Brucella organisms are known to survive within phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. melitensis biovars 1.33.23. but from the subsequent problems or irregular breeding. loss of milk production. T h e infected vaccinated animals continue to present a serious public health risk. B. retained placenta and mastitis with reduced milk production. 2 and 3 were responsible for all infections in sheep. Brucellosis has been reported and confirmed in both livestock and humans in Saudi Arabia. camels and dairy cattle. abortus. cattle with superior genetic potential have become increasingly valuable. one worker assessed the average cost of an infected cow at approximately US$3. bone marrow. On the other hand. the . not just for abortion or stillbirth. for economic reasons this method cannot be applied in all cases. Slaughter of infected animals with superior genetic potential has serious economic and genetic consequences (24). and the reduced h u m a n productivity resulting from a spread of infection (38). However.32.916 DISCUSSION In order to increase milk production. abortus infection. melitensis accounted for 92% of human cases and B. A n effective. In addition.34.31.6. mass vaccination of infected herds protects only uninfected animals without altering the course of infection. goats.4. spleen. leading to serious consequences for cattle performance and cattle handlers.19.
26.5-1. and the possible harmful effect on consumers (27). 25. For this reason. Consequently. ST acts synergistically with O T C to inhibit growth of B. melitensis or B.25. early studies (20. Consequently.m.24. However. a combination of L A . However.25. the O T C base was used because it is capable of penetrating intracellularly and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis at the level of the ribosomes. i) Presence of antibiotic residues in milk and m e a t of t r e a t e d animals.24.12.29).6 ug/ml for three days (26). d) Insufficient duration of treatment (8.26). However.O T C or ST was used alone.34). abortus within bovine cells cultured in vitro.26.24. This may be due to the'fact that both ST and OTC-IMI are .26). O T C proved to be effectively bactericidal when combined with 10 µg/ml of ST (15.29). Since successful therapy in human beings appears to depend on the permeability of cell walls to drugs (24). e) Use of the intraperitoneal route for administration of antibiotics created serious reactions in some cases (17.13. abortus. OTC-IMI was used locally in combination with systemic (i. For these reasons. because it is known to inhibit p r o t e i n synthesis of G r a m .24.0 µg/ml. in infected cows.37). 36).917 mammary glands. several authors failed to cure udder infections in many cases (24. O T C .O T C and ST.11.25.21. before initiation of the present treatment regimens. O T C at 0.25. 34.25) on the treatment of bovine brucellosis indicated poor success rates when L A . F u r t h e r m o r e .34).25. melitensis (35). when administered every 3 days in regimen C. The present study aimed to overcome the above problems and involved work under particularly difficult conditions with regard to the level of infection among the cows used.n e g a t i v e bacteria. b) Incorrect choice of antibiotics (7. as one injection gave an effective concentration of 0. which were all serologically and (particularly) bacteriologically positive. in order to decrease the n u m b e r of Brucella organisms in u d d e r tissues and secretions. L A . were less effective in eliminating Brucella organisms in infected cows. relapses after antimicrobial t r e a t m e n t w e r e also explained by the intracellular location of brucellae (9. T h e ability of Brucella organisms to survive intracellularly can result in long-term chronic infection.13.I M I and ST. Furthermore. reproductive organs and tissues with a weak blood supply. milking was stopped in lactating cows and udders were completely evacuated before each injection.O T C and ST. This c o m b i n a t i o n p r o v e d to be highly effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all infected cows in regimens A and B.O T C combined with ST was used for the t r e a t m e n t of cows naturally infected with B. the following points were taken into account when attempting to obtain more successful results. p e r m i t t e d growth or was bacteriostatic for brucellae within tissue cells. The L A .O T C variant was selected to save time and effort and to provide long-lasting O T C concentration in blood plasma. f) Use of only one antibiotic (20. In addition.26). c) Insufficient doses of effective antibiotics (12. c o m p l e m e n t and antibiotics. and are therefore p r o t e c t e d from antibodies. In addition.25. despite the use of a combination of L A . ST was also used. h) Failure to cure udder infections in many cases (24.24).) inoculation of L A . g) High cost of antibiotherapy (24.O T C and ST proved very effective in curing sheep and goats naturally infected with B.
only a small n u m b e r of Brucella colonies were recovered from large tissue samples. However. In the present study.m.600. The present results of serological examinations were of some use in evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment regimens. In the present study.34). In Saudi Arabia. due to the development of several serious local reactions at the site of injection. The cost of successful treatment of a cow represents approximately 5% of the original price of the animal. The doses and duration of application of selected antibiotics in the present study indicate that the long-term therapy and the drug combinations used yielded better results than several other regimens (8. although O T C has been considered the most effective antibiotic for treatment of brucellosis.25). including the cost of air freight. In the present trial. 34) concluded that i. all t r e a t e d cows were dried before initiation of treatment. Even in relapsed cows (3 animals in regimen C). inoculation of OTC was not safe.13.12. regimens A and B proved to be effective. further research may yield a regimen .918 not long-acting antibiotics. inoculation of L A . and the protection of Brucella organisms in the presence of milk. B or C for treating a cow of an average weight of 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). T h e average cost of the antibiotics used in regimen A. however. the cost of supplies and intervention should be considered. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive in causing cessation of the symptoms of brucellosis and eliminating Brucella organisms from infected cows. a small number of relapses do occur. Previous studies in cows and sheep (17. there was no risk of harmful effects on h u m a n beings from antibiotic residues in the milk from these cows during and after treatment.I M I alone would be effective for the treatement of lactating cows due to the continuous flushing of OTC by milking. the majority (approximately 90%) of the cows treated were monitored bacteriologically for 16 months post-treatment in order to detect possible relapses. Also. i. However. relapses did not occur in any of the 88 cows treated with regimen A or B (provided that the treatment protocol is strictly observed). when treatment protocols were strictly observed. practical. the treated cows were originally imported as pregnant heifers at an average cost of US$3. reported that serological findings were not useful in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment regimens (24. Relapses have also been reported in cows (14. in other situations.p.O T C did not result in harmful systemic effects or any obvious lasting local reactions at the site of inoculation. at the present time. In conclusion. consequently. This did not include the cost of e q u i p m e n t or interventions. and t h e r e was no nontreated control group for comparison. the residues of antibiotics in milk and meat of treated animals should be investigated to determine accurately when milk and/or meat can be safely consumed following completion of the treatment regimens. In humans. In the present study. the results were not conclusive.26. which is considered economically feasible in Saudi Arabia.24. this treatment would probably be limited to valuable breeding animals. because all serological and bacteriological examinations were performed free of charge at Government institutions. Other investigators. T h e results obtained were in agreement with findings on successful treatment of brucellosis in sheep and goats when monitored for 8 months post-treatment (35).29). However. Consequently. relapses occurred in only 3 of 33 cows treated with regimen C.25. The cost of antibiotics used was calculated according to sale prices in the Saudi market at the time of the experiment (US$1 = SR3. it seems unlikely that O T C . However.24.75). as animals were only monitored for 16 months post-treatment. However.
pratiquée également tous les trois jours pendant 12 jours. for their s u p p o r t and c o . * * * DES PROTOCOLES THÉRAPEUTIQUES EFFICACES POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE L'INFECTION PAR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS ET BRUCELLA ABORTUS CHEZ LES VACHES.M.919 which could b e used for the t r e a t m e n t of all infected animals in a h e r d and for prophylaxis of those animals recently exposed to Brucella infection. . . melitensis ont été régulièrement isolés dans les sécrétions mammaires de 103 vaches et le biotype 1 de B. Deux critères ont été jugés déterminants pour conclure au succès du traitement : l'arrêt de l'excrétion de brucelles dans les sécrétions mammaires et l'absence de brucelles dans des tissus spécifiques. T h e t r e a t m e n t of seropositive animals should be performed together with vaccination of all seronegative animals in the same herd to achieve effective control and minimise public health risks. Al-Taher. sauf pour la ST qui était administrée un jour sur deux pendant 16 jours et pour l'OTC-IMI. combinant à la fois l'Oxytétracycline à action prolongée (long-acting Oxytetracycline : LA-OTC). les bio types 1 ou 2 de B.o p e r a t i o n in t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p r e s e n t treatment regimens.m. Bin Salamah.A. Les deux modes de traitement se sont révélés aussi efficaces l'un que l'autre pour l'élimination totale des brucelles des vaches objet de l'expérimentation et aucune récidive n'a été constatée. for his encouragement and co-operation. Quant au protocole C. Mukayel and A .M.I. A. Mohamed et S. hormis pour la ST qui était administrée tous les trois jours pendant 24 jours et l'OTC-IMI. Avant l'application de ces trois protocoles thérapeutiques. pratiquée un jour sur deux pendant huit jours. Radwan. Bekairi. Prasad.S.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC tous les trois jours pendant 42 jours. Al-Bokmy. O.m.V. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r s wish to express their sincere t h a n k s to M.I. P. il n'a permis l'élimination des brucelles que sur 30 (91 %) des 33 vaches traitées. Le protocole B (appliqué à 53 vaches) était similaire au précédent. similaire au protocole A. The authors also acknowledge the technical assistance of A . Thanks are also extended to the owners and veterinary staff of the three dairy farms involved.T. Le protocole A (appliqué à 35 vaches) consistait en une administration intramusculaire (i.S. Hussain. de 25 mg/kg de ST (i. S. Furthermore. abortus dans celles de 18 vaches. Résumé : Trois protocoles thérapeutiques ont été évalués chez 121 vaches atteintes d'une infection naturelle par Brucella melitensis ou Brucella abortus. it is concluded that the failure of a small number of cows to respond to regimen C cannot be accounted for by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of resistance by Brucella. la streptomycine (ST) et l'infusion intramammaire d'OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion : OTC-IMI). D i r e c t o r General of the Saudi National Agriculture and Water Research Centre and National Director of Project 016/UTFN/SAU/FAO.) quotidiennement pendant huit jours et en une OTC-IMI quotidienne de 20 ml par trayon pendant quatre jours.
m. . . Antes de aplicar estos tres protocolos terapéuticos.351-357. (1988).A. A L . P. El protocolo A.T. CHEN M . M . * PROTOCOLOS TERAPÉUTICOS EFICACES PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA INFECCIÓN POR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS Y BRUCELLA ABORTUS EN VACAS. Paris. Uno y otro tratamiento se mostraron equivalentemente eficaces para la eliminación total de las brucelas en las vacas tratadas y no se constató ninguna recidiva.S. Para considerar el tratamiento exitoso se tuvieron en cuenta dos criterios: el cese de la excreción de brucelas en las secreciones mamarias y la ausencia de brucelas en tejidos específicos.M E Z A I N I S. de 25 mg/kg de ST (i. SINOUSSI Y . Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.25-27. los biotipos 1 o 2 de B. Saudi biol. A. Saudi Med. A N G U S R.Oxitetraciclina ..Brucella melitensis . C .Brucella abortus . Radwan. Al-Bokmy. HAWARI A. O.I.R. Resumen: Se evaluaron tres protocolos terapéuticos en 121 vacas infectadas por vía natural por Brucella melitensis o Brucella abortus. 3. S.Y.. 7. . era similar al anterior excepto en cuanto a la ST.D.Oxytétracycline . 2.Streptomycine . REFERENCES 1. . PALABRAS CLAVE: Antibióticos . Soc. CHANG S. melitensis fueron regularmente aislados en las secreciones mamarias de 103 vacas y el biotipo 1 de B. abortus en las secreciones mamarias de 18 vacas. a partir de una combinación de oxitetraciclina de acción prolongada (long-acting Oxytetracycline: LA-OTC). (1984). sólo permitió eliminación de brucelas en 30 de las 33 vacas tratadas.. & HARLAND P.Bovinos . estreptomicina (ST) e infusión intramamaria de OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion: OTC-IMI). que se administró cada dos días durante ocho días. es decir. consistía en la administración intramuscular (i. el protocolo C. AL-MARSHEDY A.Brucellosis in children. que se experimentó en 53 vacas. Bekairi. Mohamed y S.G.V.) diarios durante ocho días y en una OTC-IMI diaria de 20 ml por pezón durante 4 días.I. ALTON G.G. similar al protocolo A salvo en que la ST se administraba cada tres días durante 24 días y la OTC-IMI también cada tres días durante 12 días. El protocolo B.H.920 MOTS-CLÉS : Antibiotiques . .M. . JONES L . 190 pp. 6. un 91%. . M . & CHOU N.Terapéutica.Thérapie. & V E R G E R J .Brucella abortus .Bovins . Ann.Techniques for the brucellosis laboratory. WANG C F .m..Estreptomicina . que se administró cada dos días durante 16 días. (1986).E.M. y ala OTC-IMI.A study on brucellosis among animals of some farms and rural areas of Saudi Arabia. que fue experimentado en 35 vacas.S. Prasad.Brucella melitensis .) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC cada tres días durante 42 días. Proc. Hussain. Por último..
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