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, 1993,12 (3), 909-922
Successful therapeutic regimens for treating Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in cows
A.I. RADWAN *, S.I. BEKAIRI *, A.M. AL-BOKMY *, P.V.S. PRASAD *, O.M. MOHAMED ** and S.T. HUSSAIN **
Summary: Three therapeutic regimens were evaluated in 121 cows naturally infected with Brucella melitensis or Brucella abortus, using a combination of long-acting Oxytetracycline (LA-OTC), streptomycin (ST) and OTCintramammary infusion (IMI). Cessation of shedding of b r u c e l l a in udder secretions and absence of Brucella in selected tissues were considered criteria for successful treatment. Regimen A (tested on 35 cows) consisted of LA-OTC 25 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (i.m.) every 3 days for 42 days, ST 25 mg/kg i.m. daily for 8 days, and OTC-IMI 20 ml/teat daily for 4 days. Regimen B (tested on 53 cows) was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 2 days for 16 days and OTC-IMI every 2 days for 8 days. Both regimens were equally effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all cows involved in the tests and no relapses were recorded. However, regimen C, which was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 3 days for 24 days and OTC-IMI every 3 days for 12 days, resulted in the elimination of Brucella organisms from only 30 (91%) of 33 cows. Before commencement of the therapeutic regimens, B. melitensis biovar 1 or 2 had been repeatedly isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows and B. abortus biovar 1 from mammary secretions of 18 cows. KEYWORDS: Antibiotics - Brucella abortus - Brucella melitensis - Cattle Oxytetracycline - Streptomycin - Therapy.
INTRODUCTION Several c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c agents have b e e n employed in recent decades for the treatment of Brucella abortus infection in cows; however, n o n e of these has been entirely successful. N u m e r o u s chemical agents, general antimicrobials (phenols or dyes), trace elements, minerals and mixtures of vitamins (A and E ) have b e e n tried unsuccessfully. F u r t h e r m o r e , a t t e m p t s using antibiotics such as penicillin or sulfonamides failed to cause cessation of the shedding of B. abortus from the mammary secretions of infected cows, or caused only temporary cessation (7,11,37).
* Animal Production and Health Section, National Agriculture and Water Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, P.O. Box 17285, Riyadh 11484, Saudi Arabia. ** National Agriculture Development Co., P.O. Box 2557, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia.
practical. Radwan and colleagues (34) conducted a long-term treatment trial using a variety of doses of O T C . the cost of therapy.4%) of 14 cows (24). terramycin. the presence of antibiotic residues in milk and the failure to cure udder infections in many cases have led to the general conclusion that such treatment is unsuitable for the control of bovine brucellosis.29). In addition.m.500 or 1. However.25) and the successful results in sheep and goats (35).O T C 25 mg/kg i. However.m. when L A . In the respective groups. on 118 sheep naturally infected with B. route. every 2 days for 4 weeks combined with ST 20 mg/kg i. inoculation with OTC. these regimens have failed to result in complete cure. Furthermore. Only one sheep was found to be bacteriologically positive at slaughter. injections of L A .O T C combined with ST.p. in order to make treatment of Briicella-infected cows with superior genes a viable alternative to slaughter. .] or i.p. due to repeated intraperitoneal (i. has resulted in the reduction of abortions in infected herds or individual cows (20.21). 6 sheep were Brucella-iiee. 69% and 100% of the sheep were found to be Brucella-îre-c at the end of the trial. by the i. such therapeutic regimens have been applied in infected herds to prevent abortions and reduce the spread of brucellosis. Furthermore. abortus were injected daily for 6 days with 1 g Chlortetracycline. serious local reactions were reported in cows. every 3 days for 2 weeks) alone was successful in curing 3 (21%) of 14 cows. effective and least expensive means of achieving complete elimination of B. One of these regimens ( L A . In view of the encouraging results in cows (24. With the development of Oxytetracycline (OTC) and long-acting (LA)-OTC.13.m. the use of these agents alone or in combination with ST has succeeded in eliminating the symptoms of this disease and reducing the shedding of brucellae by infected cows.O T C (20 mg/kg i. 46 days after infection (30). melitensis in the 80 sheep and goats treated (35).) inoculations with O T C (12.V.m. melitensis. inoculation of L A .25. safe.000 mg O T C daily for 6 weeks. abortus from naturallyinfected cows. 52%. Recently. tetracyclines and streptomycin (ST). when 8 infected Najdi sheep were inoculated with 1. daily for 1 week) resulted in cessation of shedding of B. every 2 days for 2 weeks) proved to be the most practical. increasing the percentage of Brucella-tree sheep to 82%. ST and OTC intramammary infusion (IMI) in eliminating B. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive. Consequently. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three long-term therapeutic regimens using a combination of LA-OTC. daily for 6 weeks) combined with ST (1 g i.O T C was combined with ST (20 mg/kg intravenously [i. alone or in combination with ST. singly or in combination. melitensis.m. groups of infected Najdi sheep were injected with 250. Radwan and colleagues (35) evaluated six different long-term treatment regimens on 480 sheep and goats naturally infected with B.p. treatment with OTC (250 mg i. daily for 1 week) 14 (67%) of 21 cows w e r e successfully treated (25).O T C (20 mg/kg intramuscularly [i. melitensis or B. abortus in 10 (71.4 g t o g e t h e r with i m m u n e serum for 3 days.910 The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as aureomycin. daily for 3 weeks) showed a synergistic effect.] every 3 days for 2 weeks) combined with ST (20 mg/kg i. With regard to brucellosis in sheep. However.m.p. The aim of the study was to obtain a therapeutic regimen which is effective. the majority of the treated sheep developed subcutaneous sterile abscesses in the flank at the site of repeated i. the regimens previously tried involved small doses and few injections of the antibiotics used. In a n o t h e r study. using high doses of L A . at necropsy (34). 9 sheep experimentally infected with B. In this trial.000 mg LA-OTC i.24. every 3 days for 6 weeks. In this trial. then 20 days later with 1. In addition. In one of these studies.m. Moreover.p.
In two herds. The three herds were composed of highly valuable breeding cows originally imported from the United States of America (USA) and Europe. particularly because L A . In addition. all n o n . The 121 cows were divided into three treatment groups (A. 89 cows were found not to be pregnant (having already aborted or calved 4-8 months before t r e a t m e n t ) and 32 cows were in various stages of pregnancy.28). a total of 3 calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group) were sacrificed. abortus biovar 1 was isolated from the mammary secretions of 18 cows. dissolved (just before use) in 3 ml or 12 ml sterile distilled water. approximately four years prior to this study.p r e g n a n t cows were artificially inseminated. melitensis was isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows (biovar 1 from 97 cows and biovar 2 from 6 cows). Three months later. B. a total of 12 pregnant cows (4 from each t r e a t m e n t group) were sacrificed. All cows in the study were isolated from other animals. eight years prior to the present study.O T C is a long-acting antibiotic.911 MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals A total of 121 cows were selected. melitensis (biovars 1 and 2) which had been introduced to the two farms 8-12 m o n t h s before bovine brucellosis occurred in the two cattle herds (unpublished findings). T h e cows contracted brucellosis from sheep and goats infected with B. Herd records indicated that none of the cows had been vaccinated during calfhood.ST sulphate (from Giza. as several previous studies have indicated that Brucella infections persist in cattle and s p o n t a n e o u s recovery is uncommon (10. One m o n t h after t r e a t m e n t . The cows were aged 3-10 years and weighed between 450 kg and 750 kg. respectively . abortus was small. number of previous pregnancies. B and C). These two herds originally tested seronegative on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . Therapeutic agents The pharmaceutical products used in this study were as follows: . In the third herd. in contrast to ST and OTC-IMI which are not. B. E g y p t ) supplied in vials.22. immediately after birth. The cows originated from three large commercial dairy herds raised in the central and eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia. These animals were selected to provide a m o r e conclusive evaluation than that obtained in previous studies. Since the number of available cows infected with B. and selected tissues were collected for bacteriological examination. and selected tissue samples were cultured. each containing l g or 4 g. This herd contained few seropositive cows on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . which gave positive results for brucellosis after serological and bacteriological tests. Shortly before initiation of the present treatment regimens. The reason for the division into three treatment schedules was to choose the most practical and effective regimen. Non-treated cows were not included as controls. melitensis.O T C injectable solution (from F i a n c e ) containing 200 mg O T C base p e r millilitre . T h e animals belonged to two breeds (108 Holstein x Friesian and 13 Jersey). date of recent pregnancy and n u m b e r of previous abortions due to Brucella.L A . these were placed in g r o u p B together with 35 cows with B. Milking was ceased in lactating cows. without regard to age.
abortus strain 1119-3) was obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture in Ames. New Haw. 100 mg oleandomycin p h o s p h a t e . and sections of udder. Bacteriological examination T h e m e d i u m for Brucella culture was p r e p a r e d as described previously (35). Greece) in 10 ml syringes. The L A . Each tissue specimen was individually homogenised in a tissue grinder and aliquots were spread with sterile cotton swabs on several (4-8) freshly prepared plates of culture medium. udder secretion. United Kingdom. mesenteric.912 . Serological testing All animals were subjected to three successive serological examinations at monthly intervals. animals were initially screened for the presence of Brucella agglutinins by the rose bengal test (3). Similar selected tissue specimens were cultured from 3 sacrificed newborn calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group). Therapeutic regimens The treatment regimens of the three groups of infected cows are shown in Table I. each containing 200 mg OTC hydrochloride. Furthermore. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 7 days in the presence and absence of 10% C 0 a t m o s p h e r e . samples of stomach contents. Separate 30 ml samples of udder secretions from each quarter were also cultured every week during treatment. Both ST and OTC-IMI were administered with L A . Following the three serological examinations. Immediately before initiation of the therapeutic regimens. 100 mg neomycin sulphate. prescapular. 5 mg Prednisolone and 10 ml special excipient. lung and spleen of foetuses from the sacrificed animals were cultured. The standard Brucella plate antigen (made of B. in the cervical. In addition. brain. thigh and shoulder muscles. uterus. liver. milk samples from all seropositive cows were subjected to bacteriological examination for identification of Brucella shedders. sera from the selected 121 serologically. Iowa. Weybridge.and bacteriologically-positive cows were serologically tested again immediately before initiation of the present treatment regimens and at monthly intervals after completion of treatment (for 4 months in 12 sacrificed cows and for 16 months in the remaining 109 cows). T h e rose bengal test antigen was obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory. A t each examination. Animals testing positive to the rose bengal test were retested by the standard US plate agglutination procedure for the determination of Brucella antibody titres (3). popliteal and head lymph nodes. USA. In addition. mediastinal. sera from all calves born from treated cows were examined immediately after birth. iliac. from the 12 pregnant sacrificed cows (4 cows from each treatment group which were slaughtered at 4 months post-treatment) the following tissue specimens were aseptically collected for bacteriological examination: supramammary.O T C and ST were injected i.O T C at the c o m m e n c e m e n t of therapy. cultures of udder secretions were m a d e from the selected 121 positive cows to confirm shedding of Brucella organisms.OTC-IMI (from Athens. liver and spleen. every month after completion of treatment until calving and again every 2 weeks after calving for 6 m o n t h s . T h e isolated 2 . The date of previous abortions in relation to the initiation of treatment was not recorded on the farms involved. Aliquots from each udder secretion sample were spread with sterile cotton swabs on 2-4 freshly prepared plates of culture medium. In addition. ovary. at a dosage of 20-30 ml per site. precrural.m. Agglutination at 1:100 or greater was considered positive.
of Periodicity treated Therapeutic agents cows Route Dosage E ™° Y ^¿J.m.m.: IMI: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) intramuscular (injection) intramammary infusion number of sacrificed cows from which selected tissues were cultured for Brucella number of cows from which mammary secretions were repeatedly cultured for Brucella cows naturally infected with B.m. 25 mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 1 e B 8 14 49/49(100%) 35(c) ST(f) 18( ) 14 8 4 3/4 d LA-OTC( ) i. 25mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 3 3 27/29(91%) i.TABLE I Efficacy of three treatment regimens in eliminating Brucella melitensis or B. 25mg/kg &OTC-IMlig) IMI 20 ml/teat 25mg/kg 2 2 3 4/4 4 e C 3 33W LA-OTC( ) STW &OTC-IMl(s) i. abortus long-acting Oxytetracycline injectable solution (from France) 200 mg/ml streptomycin sulphate (from Egypt) Oxytetracycline intramammary infusion (from Greece) 913 . abortus from naturally-infected cows Regimen FA v 3 No. melitensis cows naturally infected with B.m.m. 25mg/kg i. No of Success/treated Tissuesa)Udder secretions < > b e i. 1 4 8 4/4 31/31 (100%) 3 14 A 35(c) LA-OTC( ) ST( ) & OTC-IMI(g) f 25mg/kg i. i.m.m.
there were no cases of metritis or mastitis in the treated cows. with milk production reduced by 10-15%. the respective cow was considered to be cured (successful t r e a t m e n t ) . Moreover. B and C. B or C) in treating a cow weighing 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). Cost of therapeutic agents and animals The weight of the treated cows ranged between 450 kg and 750 kg. Of the cows treated with regimens A. RESULTS Breeding performance A comparison was made between breeding performance in the three herds prior to identification of the infected cows and that in the treated animals in the breeding season following treatment. microscopically. 94% b e c a m e p r e g n a n t and experienced n o r m a l calving. Before t r e a t m e n t . retained placenta and mastitis. biochemically and serologically (3). and milk production was within the normal range for uninfected animals of the same breed. the 32 cows which were in various stages of pregnancy at the time of initiation of the therapeutic regimens A. United Kingdom. T h e s e slight local reactions disappeared within 36 hours. mycoplasmosis and mycotic abortion. Weybridge. The biotyping of the identified isolates was performed at the Central Veterinary Laboratory. In addition. or the use of c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c measures. New Haw. Side-effects of the therapeutic agents In 8 cows. When Brucella organisms could no longer be recovered from udder secretions nor from any of the selected tissue specimens collected at necropsy. salmonellosis. On the whole. in the breeding season following treatment. . No abortions were observed a m o n g the treated cows. The abortion rate in the three herds ranged between 5% and 1 5 % and the infertility r a t e was approximately 1 5 % . no systemic reactions were observed in any of the treated cows during the treatment period. particularly in the thigh muscles. Furthermore. In this study. B and C experienced n o r m a l calving within 4 m o n t h s following completion of the treatment. aborted foetuses from the three cattle herds involved were cultured for Brucella isolation. However. in addition to routine bacteriological examination for listeriosis.914 Brucella cultures were identified morphologically. Meat inspection of the twelve cows which were slaughtered (4 months post-treatment) revealed complete absence of any detectable abnormalities in the muscles at the site of intramuscular inoculations of L A . the cows were living in an uninfected environment. and the average cost of the therapeutic agents alone used (regimen A.O T C and ST. there was very light swelling and signs of painful sensations at the site of r e p e a t e d L A .O T C injections. C o n t i n u e d or r e s u m e d shedding of Brucella organisms in udder secretions or the isolation of Brucella organisms from any of the tissue specimens obtained at necropsy were considered as conclusive evidence of treatment failure. the treated cows expelled placenta from the womb without requiring any special manual manipulation. there were unusually high rates of metritis. the cows had b e e n living in an infected environment for periods of between 1 and 8 years. F u r t h e r m o r e .
In regimen A. T h e remaining 8 slaughtered cows did not show any decrease in titre over the same period. Serological findings Among the treated animals. 4 3 % and 10% of the treated cows respectively. The Brucella agglutinin titres w e r e also c o m p a r e d with results o b t a i n e d p r e treatment and 16 months post-treatment in the remaining 109 treated cows. There was a decrease of two. shedding of Brucella organisms in mammary secretions had ceased when these secretions were cultured (1 week after initiation of the antibiotherapy) and did not recommence. they ceased shedding Brucella. the amount of shedding declined after the initiation of treatment and remained low until 4 months post-treatment in 1 slaughtered cow. udder tissue and supramammary lymph nodes of only 1 of 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months post-treatment). Bacteriological findings In the present study. In addition. melitensis and 18 infected with B. while all calves born from treated cows were seronegative for brucellosis. abortus) were treated with regimen B. only B. However. . t h r e e and four dilutions in 4 2 % . In addition. only 5% of the 109 cows became seronegative 16 months posttreatment.915 The treated cows were imported a few years previously as pregnant heifers. all selected tissue samples from 4 slaughtered cows and the repeated udder secretion samples were found to be Brucella-free. the selected tissue specimens from 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months posttreatment) and all repeated udder secretion samples from the remaining 31 cows (for 16 months post-treatment) were all found to be free from Brucella organisms. including the cost of air freight to Saudi Arabia. All selected tissue specimens from the 3 newborn calves (1 calf from a cow in each treatment group) were found to be free from Brucella organisms. melitensis or B. T h e efficacy of the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t regimens applied in eliminating B. no Listeria. melitensis biovar 2 was isolated (1-5 colonies per plate) from mammary secretions. which ranged between 2 and 8 colonies per plate. melitensis or B. when 33 cows (naturally infected with B. melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the repeated udder secretion samples from only 2 of 29 cows. abortus from 121 naturally-infected cows is shown in Table I. there was a decrease of only one dilution in the US plate agglutination test (from 400 to 200) from the beginning of t r e a t m e n t until 4 months post-treatment in 4 of 12 slaughtered cows. melitensis) were treated with regimen C.600 each. or after calving in the other 2 cows (these animals were then re-treated with regimen B). In all successfully treated cows in the present study (118 cows treated with regimen A. Salmonella. B. The average number of Brucella colonies recovered per plate from the udder secretion samples of these 2 cows prior to treatment was approximately 30 times higher than the number recovered following treatment. B. However. in the 3 cows of regimen C where t r e a t m e n t failed. Mycoplasma or pathogenic fungi were isolated from the aborted foetuses examined in the three herds. abortus w e r e isolated. when these 2 Brucella-shedding cows were re-treated with regimen B. However. at a cost of US$3. When 53 cows (of which 35 were naturally infected with B. B or C).
34.31. T h e following explanations were given for the previous t r e a t m e n t failures and difficulties: a) Brucella organisms are known to survive within phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. Brucellosis has been reported and confirmed in both livestock and humans in Saudi Arabia.18. melitensis biovars 1. while B. not just for abortion or stillbirth. it is recognised that the economic consequences of infection are e n c o u n t e r e d principally during initial infection and become less prominent in further pregnancies. infertility.4. mass vaccination of infected herds protects only uninfected animals without altering the course of infection. On arrival in Saudi Arabia. melitensis infection from sheep and goats raised on the same farms. it is impossible to apply only one method which would suit every country. metritis. Germany and France. commercial dairy production was introduced to Saudi Arabia through the importation of valuable and highly productive exotic cattle at a very high cost. melitensis accounted for 92% of human cases and B. Slaughter of infected animals with superior genetic potential has serious economic and genetic consequences (24).32. cattle with superior genetic potential have become increasingly valuable.200. In the present study. The "test and slaughter" m e t h o d combined with calfhood vaccination no doubt contributes to considerable reduction in the number of infected herds. in B. however. the . spleen. leading to serious consequences for cattle performance and cattle handlers. the cattle were raised in large n u m b e r s u n d e r intensive management systems and sometimes together with small ruminants. abortus. Consequently. Moreover. loss of milk production. practical and safe antibiotherapy would be of e n o r m o u s benefit to producers in these countries as an alternative to slaughter of infected animals of high value. retained placenta and mastitis with reduced milk production.6. but from the subsequent problems or irregular breeding.2. Although this has been the goal of several workers. bone marrow. 2 and 3 were responsible for all infections in sheep.33. camels and dairy cattle. However. In addition. Livestock producers in Saudi Arabia and in many other developing countries cannot afford the traditional "test and slaughter" approach used in developed countries. especially where it is difficult to change agricultural customs or social habits. On the other hand. liver. for economic reasons this method cannot be applied in all cases. abortus for 8%. none has been fully successful. 35. suis was not found in animals or humans (1. one worker assessed the average cost of an infected cow at approximately US$3. goats. namely: the Netherlands. Transmission of this infection to cattle p r o d u c e d an infection similar to that p r o d u c e d by B. In a campaign against brucellosis. T h e infected vaccinated animals continue to present a serious public health risk. particularly in lymph nodes.916 DISCUSSION In order to increase milk production. These cattle were originally imported as p r e g n a n t heifers from the USA and some E u r o p e a n countries.5. B. and the reduced h u m a n productivity resulting from a spread of infection (38). B.19. A n effective. abortus infection.23. with the development and widespread use of techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer.39). Such infection was directly responsible for the high rate of abortions. two of the cattle herds contracted B. An eradication campaign through slaughter and compensation is not within the economic scope of developing countries. abortus. except cows in one dairy herd which had B.16.
when administered every 3 days in regimen C. milking was stopped in lactating cows and udders were completely evacuated before each injection. F u r t h e r m o r e .21.24.24). This c o m b i n a t i o n p r o v e d to be highly effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all infected cows in regimens A and B. c o m p l e m e n t and antibiotics.29). Furthermore. ST was also used. before initiation of the present treatment regimens. relapses after antimicrobial t r e a t m e n t w e r e also explained by the intracellular location of brucellae (9. e) Use of the intraperitoneal route for administration of antibiotics created serious reactions in some cases (17.34). in order to decrease the n u m b e r of Brucella organisms in u d d e r tissues and secretions. f) Use of only one antibiotic (20. O T C proved to be effectively bactericidal when combined with 10 µg/ml of ST (15.917 mammary glands. reproductive organs and tissues with a weak blood supply. However. The L A .24.29). For this reason. In addition. 34.26). and the possible harmful effect on consumers (27). the following points were taken into account when attempting to obtain more successful results.24. b) Incorrect choice of antibiotics (7. Consequently.25.37).26). several authors failed to cure udder infections in many cases (24. The present study aimed to overcome the above problems and involved work under particularly difficult conditions with regard to the level of infection among the cows used. early studies (20. melitensis or B. g) High cost of antibiotherapy (24.34). This may be due to the'fact that both ST and OTC-IMI are . melitensis (35). a combination of L A . abortus within bovine cells cultured in vitro.26). O T C at 0. ST acts synergistically with O T C to inhibit growth of B. as one injection gave an effective concentration of 0. However. Since successful therapy in human beings appears to depend on the permeability of cell walls to drugs (24).5-1. For these reasons. h) Failure to cure udder infections in many cases (24. and are therefore p r o t e c t e d from antibodies.25. i) Presence of antibiotic residues in milk and m e a t of t r e a t e d animals. p e r m i t t e d growth or was bacteriostatic for brucellae within tissue cells. 36).24.m. the O T C base was used because it is capable of penetrating intracellularly and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis at the level of the ribosomes.O T C and ST proved very effective in curing sheep and goats naturally infected with B.) inoculation of L A .25) on the treatment of bovine brucellosis indicated poor success rates when L A . 25. despite the use of a combination of L A . In addition.13. in infected cows.I M I and ST.6 ug/ml for three days (26). d) Insufficient duration of treatment (8.0 µg/ml.25.O T C or ST was used alone.O T C combined with ST was used for the t r e a t m e n t of cows naturally infected with B.11.13.O T C and ST.n e g a t i v e bacteria. T h e ability of Brucella organisms to survive intracellularly can result in long-term chronic infection. L A . which were all serologically and (particularly) bacteriologically positive.26.12. Consequently. were less effective in eliminating Brucella organisms in infected cows. O T C . abortus.25.O T C and ST. OTC-IMI was used locally in combination with systemic (i.O T C variant was selected to save time and effort and to provide long-lasting O T C concentration in blood plasma.26. However.25. c) Insufficient doses of effective antibiotics (12. because it is known to inhibit p r o t e i n synthesis of G r a m .25.
In the present study. this treatment would probably be limited to valuable breeding animals.p. a small number of relapses do occur. including the cost of air freight.25.24. 34) concluded that i. when treatment protocols were strictly observed. The cost of successful treatment of a cow represents approximately 5% of the original price of the animal.O T C did not result in harmful systemic effects or any obvious lasting local reactions at the site of inoculation. The doses and duration of application of selected antibiotics in the present study indicate that the long-term therapy and the drug combinations used yielded better results than several other regimens (8. B or C for treating a cow of an average weight of 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). i. In conclusion.m. and t h e r e was no nontreated control group for comparison. as animals were only monitored for 16 months post-treatment. In Saudi Arabia. however. This did not include the cost of e q u i p m e n t or interventions. the cost of supplies and intervention should be considered. consequently. T h e average cost of the antibiotics used in regimen A. although O T C has been considered the most effective antibiotic for treatment of brucellosis. it seems unlikely that O T C . inoculation of L A .918 not long-acting antibiotics. However. which is considered economically feasible in Saudi Arabia. Also.I M I alone would be effective for the treatement of lactating cows due to the continuous flushing of OTC by milking. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive in causing cessation of the symptoms of brucellosis and eliminating Brucella organisms from infected cows. Other investigators.600. all t r e a t e d cows were dried before initiation of treatment. However. However.13. However. In humans.25). reported that serological findings were not useful in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment regimens (24. due to the development of several serious local reactions at the site of injection. regimens A and B proved to be effective. The present results of serological examinations were of some use in evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment regimens. in other situations. the residues of antibiotics in milk and meat of treated animals should be investigated to determine accurately when milk and/or meat can be safely consumed following completion of the treatment regimens. further research may yield a regimen . Even in relapsed cows (3 animals in regimen C). The cost of antibiotics used was calculated according to sale prices in the Saudi market at the time of the experiment (US$1 = SR3. and the protection of Brucella organisms in the presence of milk. In the present study.26.75). practical. at the present time. However. Consequently. there was no risk of harmful effects on h u m a n beings from antibiotic residues in the milk from these cows during and after treatment. because all serological and bacteriological examinations were performed free of charge at Government institutions. the results were not conclusive. relapses did not occur in any of the 88 cows treated with regimen A or B (provided that the treatment protocol is strictly observed). only a small n u m b e r of Brucella colonies were recovered from large tissue samples. In the present trial. Relapses have also been reported in cows (14. T h e results obtained were in agreement with findings on successful treatment of brucellosis in sheep and goats when monitored for 8 months post-treatment (35). the treated cows were originally imported as pregnant heifers at an average cost of US$3.29). inoculation of OTC was not safe.12. In the present study.34).24. the majority (approximately 90%) of the cows treated were monitored bacteriologically for 16 months post-treatment in order to detect possible relapses. relapses occurred in only 3 of 33 cows treated with regimen C. Previous studies in cows and sheep (17.
I. Al-Bokmy. melitensis ont été régulièrement isolés dans les sécrétions mammaires de 103 vaches et le biotype 1 de B. Mohamed et S. Bekairi.A.m. S. Quant au protocole C. les bio types 1 ou 2 de B. Mukayel and A . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r s wish to express their sincere t h a n k s to M. Prasad. Résumé : Trois protocoles thérapeutiques ont été évalués chez 121 vaches atteintes d'une infection naturelle par Brucella melitensis ou Brucella abortus. combinant à la fois l'Oxytétracycline à action prolongée (long-acting Oxytetracycline : LA-OTC).M. Le protocole A (appliqué à 35 vaches) consistait en une administration intramusculaire (i.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC tous les trois jours pendant 42 jours.V. sauf pour la ST qui était administrée un jour sur deux pendant 16 jours et pour l'OTC-IMI. P. Avant l'application de ces trois protocoles thérapeutiques.m. Bin Salamah.S. Radwan. abortus dans celles de 18 vaches. it is concluded that the failure of a small number of cows to respond to regimen C cannot be accounted for by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of resistance by Brucella.o p e r a t i o n in t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p r e s e n t treatment regimens. . Al-Taher. for his encouragement and co-operation. la streptomycine (ST) et l'infusion intramammaire d'OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion : OTC-IMI). pratiquée un jour sur deux pendant huit jours. D i r e c t o r General of the Saudi National Agriculture and Water Research Centre and National Director of Project 016/UTFN/SAU/FAO.T. pratiquée également tous les trois jours pendant 12 jours. Furthermore. Thanks are also extended to the owners and veterinary staff of the three dairy farms involved.M. Deux critères ont été jugés déterminants pour conclure au succès du traitement : l'arrêt de l'excrétion de brucelles dans les sécrétions mammaires et l'absence de brucelles dans des tissus spécifiques. Hussain. T h e t r e a t m e n t of seropositive animals should be performed together with vaccination of all seronegative animals in the same herd to achieve effective control and minimise public health risks. il n'a permis l'élimination des brucelles que sur 30 (91 %) des 33 vaches traitées.S.I. similaire au protocole A. Le protocole B (appliqué à 53 vaches) était similaire au précédent. hormis pour la ST qui était administrée tous les trois jours pendant 24 jours et l'OTC-IMI. The authors also acknowledge the technical assistance of A . for their s u p p o r t and c o . A. Les deux modes de traitement se sont révélés aussi efficaces l'un que l'autre pour l'élimination totale des brucelles des vaches objet de l'expérimentation et aucune récidive n'a été constatée.) quotidiennement pendant huit jours et en une OTC-IMI quotidienne de 20 ml par trayon pendant quatre jours. O.919 which could b e used for the t r e a t m e n t of all infected animals in a h e r d and for prophylaxis of those animals recently exposed to Brucella infection. * * * DES PROTOCOLES THÉRAPEUTIQUES EFFICACES POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE L'INFECTION PAR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS ET BRUCELLA ABORTUS CHEZ LES VACHES. . de 25 mg/kg de ST (i.
6. A L . * PROTOCOLOS TERAPÉUTICOS EFICACES PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA INFECCIÓN POR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS Y BRUCELLA ABORTUS EN VACAS. CHEN M .Brucella abortus .D. ALTON G. de 25 mg/kg de ST (i.m. Radwan.S. . PALABRAS CLAVE: Antibióticos . a partir de una combinación de oxitetraciclina de acción prolongada (long-acting Oxytetracycline: LA-OTC). similar al protocolo A salvo en que la ST se administraba cada tres días durante 24 días y la OTC-IMI también cada tres días durante 12 días. Proc. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. es decir. los biotipos 1 o 2 de B. estreptomicina (ST) e infusión intramamaria de OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion: OTC-IMI). el protocolo C. Saudi Med. AL-MARSHEDY A. & HARLAND P.Bovins . era similar al anterior excepto en cuanto a la ST. . M . HAWARI A. Para considerar el tratamiento exitoso se tuvieron en cuenta dos criterios: el cese de la excreción de brucelas en las secreciones mamarias y la ausencia de brucelas en tejidos específicos. (1986). que se administró cada dos días durante 16 días.Thérapie. C . (1984). Saudi biol.M. & V E R G E R J . sólo permitió eliminación de brucelas en 30 de las 33 vacas tratadas. Resumen: Se evaluaron tres protocolos terapéuticos en 121 vacas infectadas por vía natural por Brucella melitensis o Brucella abortus.M. 7. El protocolo A.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC cada tres días durante 42 días. 2. abortus en las secreciones mamarias de 18 vacas. Prasad. y ala OTC-IMI. REFERENCES 1. & CHOU N.Oxitetraciclina . .Bovinos .Brucella abortus . Soc.V. S.) diarios durante ocho días y en una OTC-IMI diaria de 20 ml por pezón durante 4 días. (1988). Al-Bokmy.351-357.Streptomycine .. ..Brucellosis in children. A. Por último.920 MOTS-CLÉS : Antibiotiques . un 91%.. que se experimentó en 53 vacas. A N G U S R.Y.R.E.G. .G. 190 pp. .S..Terapéutica.A. Bekairi.Oxytétracycline .. que fue experimentado en 35 vacas.25-27.Techniques for the brucellosis laboratory. JONES L .H. SINOUSSI Y .Brucella melitensis .Estreptomicina . P. Ann. CHANG S.Brucella melitensis . El protocolo B. Hussain. M . consistía en la administración intramuscular (i. Uno y otro tratamiento se mostraron equivalentemente eficaces para la eliminación total de las brucelas en las vacas tratadas y no se constató ninguna recidiva. O.I. que se administró cada dos días durante ocho días.M E Z A I N I S. 3. Antes de aplicar estos tres protocolos terapéuticos.m. Mohamed y S.I.T. . Paris. melitensis fueron regularmente aislados en las secreciones mamarias de 103 vacas y el biotipo 1 de B.A study on brucellosis among animals of some farms and rural areas of Saudi Arabia. WANG C F .
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