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, 1993,12 (3), 909-922
Successful therapeutic regimens for treating Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus infections in cows
A.I. RADWAN *, S.I. BEKAIRI *, A.M. AL-BOKMY *, P.V.S. PRASAD *, O.M. MOHAMED ** and S.T. HUSSAIN **
Summary: Three therapeutic regimens were evaluated in 121 cows naturally infected with Brucella melitensis or Brucella abortus, using a combination of long-acting Oxytetracycline (LA-OTC), streptomycin (ST) and OTCintramammary infusion (IMI). Cessation of shedding of b r u c e l l a in udder secretions and absence of Brucella in selected tissues were considered criteria for successful treatment. Regimen A (tested on 35 cows) consisted of LA-OTC 25 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (i.m.) every 3 days for 42 days, ST 25 mg/kg i.m. daily for 8 days, and OTC-IMI 20 ml/teat daily for 4 days. Regimen B (tested on 53 cows) was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 2 days for 16 days and OTC-IMI every 2 days for 8 days. Both regimens were equally effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all cows involved in the tests and no relapses were recorded. However, regimen C, which was similar to regimen A, except that ST was administered every 3 days for 24 days and OTC-IMI every 3 days for 12 days, resulted in the elimination of Brucella organisms from only 30 (91%) of 33 cows. Before commencement of the therapeutic regimens, B. melitensis biovar 1 or 2 had been repeatedly isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows and B. abortus biovar 1 from mammary secretions of 18 cows. KEYWORDS: Antibiotics - Brucella abortus - Brucella melitensis - Cattle Oxytetracycline - Streptomycin - Therapy.
INTRODUCTION Several c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c agents have b e e n employed in recent decades for the treatment of Brucella abortus infection in cows; however, n o n e of these has been entirely successful. N u m e r o u s chemical agents, general antimicrobials (phenols or dyes), trace elements, minerals and mixtures of vitamins (A and E ) have b e e n tried unsuccessfully. F u r t h e r m o r e , a t t e m p t s using antibiotics such as penicillin or sulfonamides failed to cause cessation of the shedding of B. abortus from the mammary secretions of infected cows, or caused only temporary cessation (7,11,37).
* Animal Production and Health Section, National Agriculture and Water Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Water, P.O. Box 17285, Riyadh 11484, Saudi Arabia. ** National Agriculture Development Co., P.O. Box 2557, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia.
In a n o t h e r study.p. 69% and 100% of the sheep were found to be Brucella-îre-c at the end of the trial. . 52%.O T C combined with ST. the majority of the treated sheep developed subcutaneous sterile abscesses in the flank at the site of repeated i. Radwan and colleagues (35) evaluated six different long-term treatment regimens on 480 sheep and goats naturally infected with B. melitensis or B. The aim of the study was to obtain a therapeutic regimen which is effective. melitensis.000 mg O T C daily for 6 weeks. without side-effects and relatively inexpensive. In view of the encouraging results in cows (24. inoculation with OTC. However. injections of L A . groups of infected Najdi sheep were injected with 250.) inoculations with O T C (12. practical. abortus from naturallyinfected cows.m. However. 46 days after infection (30). In this trial.p. treatment with OTC (250 mg i. abortus in 10 (71. 9 sheep experimentally infected with B.m. safe. due to repeated intraperitoneal (i. serious local reactions were reported in cows. Radwan and colleagues (34) conducted a long-term treatment trial using a variety of doses of O T C . In addition. inoculation of L A . when L A . Furthermore.25) and the successful results in sheep and goats (35).O T C (20 mg/kg intramuscularly [i.500 or 1. every 3 days for 6 weeks. With regard to brucellosis in sheep. daily for 1 week) 14 (67%) of 21 cows w e r e successfully treated (25). In addition. Moreover. abortus were injected daily for 6 days with 1 g Chlortetracycline.] or i. the cost of therapy.m.m. at necropsy (34). However.29). the regimens previously tried involved small doses and few injections of the antibiotics used.4 g t o g e t h e r with i m m u n e serum for 3 days. daily for 3 weeks) showed a synergistic effect. every 2 days for 2 weeks) proved to be the most practical. One of these regimens ( L A .O T C was combined with ST (20 mg/kg intravenously [i.] every 3 days for 2 weeks) combined with ST (20 mg/kg i. every 3 days for 2 weeks) alone was successful in curing 3 (21%) of 14 cows. Recently. Consequently. on 118 sheep naturally infected with B. Furthermore. ST and OTC intramammary infusion (IMI) in eliminating B.V. Only one sheep was found to be bacteriologically positive at slaughter. daily for 6 weeks) combined with ST (1 g i. route. melitensis in the 80 sheep and goats treated (35). then 20 days later with 1. melitensis. using high doses of L A . 6 sheep were Brucella-iiee. these regimens have failed to result in complete cure. by the i. With the development of Oxytetracycline (OTC) and long-acting (LA)-OTC. tetracyclines and streptomycin (ST).p.p.24.910 The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as aureomycin. singly or in combination.000 mg LA-OTC i.m.p. In the respective groups. increasing the percentage of Brucella-tree sheep to 82%. the use of these agents alone or in combination with ST has succeeded in eliminating the symptoms of this disease and reducing the shedding of brucellae by infected cows. alone or in combination with ST.13.m. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three long-term therapeutic regimens using a combination of LA-OTC. in order to make treatment of Briicella-infected cows with superior genes a viable alternative to slaughter. every 2 days for 4 weeks combined with ST 20 mg/kg i.m. In this trial. daily for 1 week) resulted in cessation of shedding of B. In one of these studies. terramycin. the presence of antibiotic residues in milk and the failure to cure udder infections in many cases have led to the general conclusion that such treatment is unsuitable for the control of bovine brucellosis.4%) of 14 cows (24).O T C 25 mg/kg i.O T C (20 mg/kg i. effective and least expensive means of achieving complete elimination of B. such therapeutic regimens have been applied in infected herds to prevent abortions and reduce the spread of brucellosis. when 8 infected Najdi sheep were inoculated with 1.21). has resulted in the reduction of abortions in infected herds or individual cows (20.25.
respectively . which gave positive results for brucellosis after serological and bacteriological tests.L A . This herd contained few seropositive cows on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a . all n o n .911 MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals A total of 121 cows were selected. Milking was ceased in lactating cows. particularly because L A . in contrast to ST and OTC-IMI which are not. B. The cows originated from three large commercial dairy herds raised in the central and eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia. as several previous studies have indicated that Brucella infections persist in cattle and s p o n t a n e o u s recovery is uncommon (10.28). T h e cows contracted brucellosis from sheep and goats infected with B. Since the number of available cows infected with B. The three herds were composed of highly valuable breeding cows originally imported from the United States of America (USA) and Europe. a total of 12 pregnant cows (4 from each t r e a t m e n t group) were sacrificed. melitensis (biovars 1 and 2) which had been introduced to the two farms 8-12 m o n t h s before bovine brucellosis occurred in the two cattle herds (unpublished findings). dissolved (just before use) in 3 ml or 12 ml sterile distilled water. number of previous pregnancies. E g y p t ) supplied in vials. abortus biovar 1 was isolated from the mammary secretions of 18 cows. T h e animals belonged to two breeds (108 Holstein x Friesian and 13 Jersey). abortus was small.ST sulphate (from Giza. One m o n t h after t r e a t m e n t . In addition. these were placed in g r o u p B together with 35 cows with B. Shortly before initiation of the present treatment regimens. These two herds originally tested seronegative on arrival in Saudi A r a b i a .p r e g n a n t cows were artificially inseminated. without regard to age. 89 cows were found not to be pregnant (having already aborted or calved 4-8 months before t r e a t m e n t ) and 32 cows were in various stages of pregnancy. Non-treated cows were not included as controls.22. Herd records indicated that none of the cows had been vaccinated during calfhood. each containing l g or 4 g. a total of 3 calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group) were sacrificed. immediately after birth. and selected tissues were collected for bacteriological examination. Three months later. B and C). date of recent pregnancy and n u m b e r of previous abortions due to Brucella. These animals were selected to provide a m o r e conclusive evaluation than that obtained in previous studies.O T C injectable solution (from F i a n c e ) containing 200 mg O T C base p e r millilitre . The cows were aged 3-10 years and weighed between 450 kg and 750 kg. B. approximately four years prior to this study. The 121 cows were divided into three treatment groups (A. Therapeutic agents The pharmaceutical products used in this study were as follows: . eight years prior to the present study. All cows in the study were isolated from other animals. In two herds.O T C is a long-acting antibiotic. melitensis was isolated from udder secretions of 103 cows (biovar 1 from 97 cows and biovar 2 from 6 cows). melitensis. The reason for the division into three treatment schedules was to choose the most practical and effective regimen. In the third herd. and selected tissue samples were cultured.
Aliquots from each udder secretion sample were spread with sterile cotton swabs on 2-4 freshly prepared plates of culture medium. United Kingdom. Therapeutic regimens The treatment regimens of the three groups of infected cows are shown in Table I.OTC-IMI (from Athens. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 7 days in the presence and absence of 10% C 0 a t m o s p h e r e . sera from all calves born from treated cows were examined immediately after birth. Weybridge. Agglutination at 1:100 or greater was considered positive. Following the three serological examinations. liver. Each tissue specimen was individually homogenised in a tissue grinder and aliquots were spread with sterile cotton swabs on several (4-8) freshly prepared plates of culture medium. cultures of udder secretions were m a d e from the selected 121 positive cows to confirm shedding of Brucella organisms. Animals testing positive to the rose bengal test were retested by the standard US plate agglutination procedure for the determination of Brucella antibody titres (3). sera from the selected 121 serologically.O T C at the c o m m e n c e m e n t of therapy. ovary. lung and spleen of foetuses from the sacrificed animals were cultured. brain. Both ST and OTC-IMI were administered with L A . precrural. uterus.m. iliac. popliteal and head lymph nodes. 5 mg Prednisolone and 10 ml special excipient. abortus strain 1119-3) was obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture in Ames. in the cervical. 100 mg neomycin sulphate. Immediately before initiation of the therapeutic regimens. T h e rose bengal test antigen was obtained from the Central Veterinary Laboratory. Iowa. Greece) in 10 ml syringes. udder secretion. Bacteriological examination T h e m e d i u m for Brucella culture was p r e p a r e d as described previously (35). T h e isolated 2 . from the 12 pregnant sacrificed cows (4 cows from each treatment group which were slaughtered at 4 months post-treatment) the following tissue specimens were aseptically collected for bacteriological examination: supramammary.O T C and ST were injected i. The L A . Serological testing All animals were subjected to three successive serological examinations at monthly intervals.and bacteriologically-positive cows were serologically tested again immediately before initiation of the present treatment regimens and at monthly intervals after completion of treatment (for 4 months in 12 sacrificed cows and for 16 months in the remaining 109 cows). A t each examination. USA. mediastinal. In addition. each containing 200 mg OTC hydrochloride. prescapular. liver and spleen. and sections of udder. animals were initially screened for the presence of Brucella agglutinins by the rose bengal test (3). In addition. In addition. Similar selected tissue specimens were cultured from 3 sacrificed newborn calves (1 from a cow in each treatment group). milk samples from all seropositive cows were subjected to bacteriological examination for identification of Brucella shedders. samples of stomach contents. 100 mg oleandomycin p h o s p h a t e . New Haw. mesenteric. every month after completion of treatment until calving and again every 2 weeks after calving for 6 m o n t h s .912 . at a dosage of 20-30 ml per site. Furthermore. thigh and shoulder muscles. The standard Brucella plate antigen (made of B. Separate 30 ml samples of udder secretions from each quarter were also cultured every week during treatment. The date of previous abortions in relation to the initiation of treatment was not recorded on the farms involved.
m. abortus from naturally-infected cows Regimen FA v 3 No.m. melitensis cows naturally infected with B. 25mg/kg i.m. abortus long-acting Oxytetracycline injectable solution (from France) 200 mg/ml streptomycin sulphate (from Egypt) Oxytetracycline intramammary infusion (from Greece) 913 . i.of Periodicity treated Therapeutic agents cows Route Dosage E ™° Y ^¿J. No of Success/treated Tissuesa)Udder secretions < > b e i.m. 25mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 3 3 27/29(91%) i.TABLE I Efficacy of three treatment regimens in eliminating Brucella melitensis or B.m.m. 25mg/kg &OTC-IMlig) IMI 20 ml/teat 25mg/kg 2 2 3 4/4 4 e C 3 33W LA-OTC( ) STW &OTC-IMl(s) i. 1 4 8 4/4 31/31 (100%) 3 14 A 35(c) LA-OTC( ) ST( ) & OTC-IMI(g) f 25mg/kg i. 25 mg/kg IMI 20 ml/teat 1 e B 8 14 49/49(100%) 35(c) ST(f) 18( ) 14 8 4 3/4 d LA-OTC( ) i.m.: IMI: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) intramuscular (injection) intramammary infusion number of sacrificed cows from which selected tissues were cultured for Brucella number of cows from which mammary secretions were repeatedly cultured for Brucella cows naturally infected with B.
T h e s e slight local reactions disappeared within 36 hours. . In addition. and milk production was within the normal range for uninfected animals of the same breed.O T C injections. there were no cases of metritis or mastitis in the treated cows. Of the cows treated with regimens A. B or C) in treating a cow weighing 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). the respective cow was considered to be cured (successful t r e a t m e n t ) . biochemically and serologically (3). United Kingdom.914 Brucella cultures were identified morphologically. the 32 cows which were in various stages of pregnancy at the time of initiation of the therapeutic regimens A. New Haw. no systemic reactions were observed in any of the treated cows during the treatment period. In this study. The abortion rate in the three herds ranged between 5% and 1 5 % and the infertility r a t e was approximately 1 5 % . The biotyping of the identified isolates was performed at the Central Veterinary Laboratory. Weybridge. aborted foetuses from the three cattle herds involved were cultured for Brucella isolation.O T C and ST. mycoplasmosis and mycotic abortion. particularly in the thigh muscles. However. Before t r e a t m e n t . When Brucella organisms could no longer be recovered from udder secretions nor from any of the selected tissue specimens collected at necropsy. microscopically. RESULTS Breeding performance A comparison was made between breeding performance in the three herds prior to identification of the infected cows and that in the treated animals in the breeding season following treatment. there was very light swelling and signs of painful sensations at the site of r e p e a t e d L A . On the whole. F u r t h e r m o r e . salmonellosis. retained placenta and mastitis. there were unusually high rates of metritis. Meat inspection of the twelve cows which were slaughtered (4 months post-treatment) revealed complete absence of any detectable abnormalities in the muscles at the site of intramuscular inoculations of L A . 94% b e c a m e p r e g n a n t and experienced n o r m a l calving. Cost of therapeutic agents and animals The weight of the treated cows ranged between 450 kg and 750 kg. the cows had b e e n living in an infected environment for periods of between 1 and 8 years. the cows were living in an uninfected environment. Moreover. Furthermore. in the breeding season following treatment. C o n t i n u e d or r e s u m e d shedding of Brucella organisms in udder secretions or the isolation of Brucella organisms from any of the tissue specimens obtained at necropsy were considered as conclusive evidence of treatment failure. and the average cost of the therapeutic agents alone used (regimen A. No abortions were observed a m o n g the treated cows. with milk production reduced by 10-15%. in addition to routine bacteriological examination for listeriosis. B and C. or the use of c h e m o t h e r a p e u t i c measures. B and C experienced n o r m a l calving within 4 m o n t h s following completion of the treatment. Side-effects of the therapeutic agents In 8 cows. the treated cows expelled placenta from the womb without requiring any special manual manipulation.
In addition. However. There was a decrease of two. Salmonella. melitensis and 18 infected with B. when these 2 Brucella-shedding cows were re-treated with regimen B. All selected tissue specimens from the 3 newborn calves (1 calf from a cow in each treatment group) were found to be free from Brucella organisms. all selected tissue samples from 4 slaughtered cows and the repeated udder secretion samples were found to be Brucella-free. at a cost of US$3.600 each. or after calving in the other 2 cows (these animals were then re-treated with regimen B). while all calves born from treated cows were seronegative for brucellosis. the selected tissue specimens from 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months posttreatment) and all repeated udder secretion samples from the remaining 31 cows (for 16 months post-treatment) were all found to be free from Brucella organisms. However. melitensis) were treated with regimen C. udder tissue and supramammary lymph nodes of only 1 of 4 sacrificed cows (at 4 months post-treatment). they ceased shedding Brucella. T h e efficacy of the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t regimens applied in eliminating B. In addition. 4 3 % and 10% of the treated cows respectively. B. melitensis or B. The Brucella agglutinin titres w e r e also c o m p a r e d with results o b t a i n e d p r e treatment and 16 months post-treatment in the remaining 109 treated cows. melitensis or B. melitensis biovar 2 was isolated (1-5 colonies per plate) from mammary secretions. . T h e remaining 8 slaughtered cows did not show any decrease in titre over the same period. abortus) were treated with regimen B. However. when 33 cows (naturally infected with B. In all successfully treated cows in the present study (118 cows treated with regimen A. abortus w e r e isolated. abortus from 121 naturally-infected cows is shown in Table I. The average number of Brucella colonies recovered per plate from the udder secretion samples of these 2 cows prior to treatment was approximately 30 times higher than the number recovered following treatment.915 The treated cows were imported a few years previously as pregnant heifers. including the cost of air freight to Saudi Arabia. melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the repeated udder secretion samples from only 2 of 29 cows. When 53 cows (of which 35 were naturally infected with B. t h r e e and four dilutions in 4 2 % . shedding of Brucella organisms in mammary secretions had ceased when these secretions were cultured (1 week after initiation of the antibiotherapy) and did not recommence. the amount of shedding declined after the initiation of treatment and remained low until 4 months post-treatment in 1 slaughtered cow. no Listeria. there was a decrease of only one dilution in the US plate agglutination test (from 400 to 200) from the beginning of t r e a t m e n t until 4 months post-treatment in 4 of 12 slaughtered cows. Serological findings Among the treated animals. Mycoplasma or pathogenic fungi were isolated from the aborted foetuses examined in the three herds. Bacteriological findings In the present study. only B. B. which ranged between 2 and 8 colonies per plate. B or C). In regimen A. in the 3 cows of regimen C where t r e a t m e n t failed. only 5% of the 109 cows became seronegative 16 months posttreatment.
practical and safe antibiotherapy would be of e n o r m o u s benefit to producers in these countries as an alternative to slaughter of infected animals of high value. for economic reasons this method cannot be applied in all cases. commercial dairy production was introduced to Saudi Arabia through the importation of valuable and highly productive exotic cattle at a very high cost. retained placenta and mastitis with reduced milk production. except cows in one dairy herd which had B. one worker assessed the average cost of an infected cow at approximately US$3.16. loss of milk production.31. it is impossible to apply only one method which would suit every country. not just for abortion or stillbirth. and the reduced h u m a n productivity resulting from a spread of infection (38).39). T h e following explanations were given for the previous t r e a t m e n t failures and difficulties: a) Brucella organisms are known to survive within phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. goats.34. Consequently. suis was not found in animals or humans (1. metritis. abortus for 8%. Livestock producers in Saudi Arabia and in many other developing countries cannot afford the traditional "test and slaughter" approach used in developed countries. Slaughter of infected animals with superior genetic potential has serious economic and genetic consequences (24). These cattle were originally imported as p r e g n a n t heifers from the USA and some E u r o p e a n countries. abortus.126.96.36.199. bone marrow. while B. 2 and 3 were responsible for all infections in sheep. Germany and France. the cattle were raised in large n u m b e r s u n d e r intensive management systems and sometimes together with small ruminants.916 DISCUSSION In order to increase milk production. particularly in lymph nodes. it is recognised that the economic consequences of infection are e n c o u n t e r e d principally during initial infection and become less prominent in further pregnancies.200. mass vaccination of infected herds protects only uninfected animals without altering the course of infection. camels and dairy cattle. In addition. in B. B.2. melitensis infection from sheep and goats raised on the same farms. especially where it is difficult to change agricultural customs or social habits. An eradication campaign through slaughter and compensation is not within the economic scope of developing countries. infertility. none has been fully successful. In the present study. abortus. On the other hand. Brucellosis has been reported and confirmed in both livestock and humans in Saudi Arabia. leading to serious consequences for cattle performance and cattle handlers. melitensis biovars 1. In a campaign against brucellosis.5. A n effective. liver. Moreover. with the development and widespread use of techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer.4. T h e infected vaccinated animals continue to present a serious public health risk. Transmission of this infection to cattle p r o d u c e d an infection similar to that p r o d u c e d by B. 35. two of the cattle herds contracted B. The "test and slaughter" m e t h o d combined with calfhood vaccination no doubt contributes to considerable reduction in the number of infected herds. but from the subsequent problems or irregular breeding. namely: the Netherlands. B. On arrival in Saudi Arabia. abortus infection. spleen.6. however. cattle with superior genetic potential have become increasingly valuable. Although this has been the goal of several workers.18. However. the . Such infection was directly responsible for the high rate of abortions. melitensis accounted for 92% of human cases and B.
d) Insufficient duration of treatment (8. f) Use of only one antibiotic (20. the O T C base was used because it is capable of penetrating intracellularly and inhibits bacterial protein synthesis at the level of the ribosomes. However.29). O T C . h) Failure to cure udder infections in many cases (24.O T C and ST. Consequently.25.O T C and ST. c) Insufficient doses of effective antibiotics (12. a combination of L A . In addition. 36).I M I and ST.5-1.26. 25. The L A .26. Since successful therapy in human beings appears to depend on the permeability of cell walls to drugs (24). g) High cost of antibiotherapy (24. b) Incorrect choice of antibiotics (7. For these reasons.25. in order to decrease the n u m b e r of Brucella organisms in u d d e r tissues and secretions.25. and are therefore p r o t e c t e d from antibodies. as one injection gave an effective concentration of 0. For this reason.24.12.26). because it is known to inhibit p r o t e i n synthesis of G r a m . in infected cows. early studies (20. T h e ability of Brucella organisms to survive intracellularly can result in long-term chronic infection.6 ug/ml for three days (26).m. several authors failed to cure udder infections in many cases (24. O T C at 0.13. melitensis (35). e) Use of the intraperitoneal route for administration of antibiotics created serious reactions in some cases (17. and the possible harmful effect on consumers (27). Furthermore.24. ST was also used. OTC-IMI was used locally in combination with systemic (i.24. p e r m i t t e d growth or was bacteriostatic for brucellae within tissue cells.34).25) on the treatment of bovine brucellosis indicated poor success rates when L A . This may be due to the'fact that both ST and OTC-IMI are . the following points were taken into account when attempting to obtain more successful results.) inoculation of L A . Consequently. L A .11. when administered every 3 days in regimen C.29). 34.37).O T C variant was selected to save time and effort and to provide long-lasting O T C concentration in blood plasma. melitensis or B.O T C and ST proved very effective in curing sheep and goats naturally infected with B.24. despite the use of a combination of L A . F u r t h e r m o r e .25. However. The present study aimed to overcome the above problems and involved work under particularly difficult conditions with regard to the level of infection among the cows used.26).13. were less effective in eliminating Brucella organisms in infected cows.26). which were all serologically and (particularly) bacteriologically positive. abortus within bovine cells cultured in vitro. relapses after antimicrobial t r e a t m e n t w e r e also explained by the intracellular location of brucellae (9. In addition.O T C or ST was used alone.0 µg/ml.24). However. c o m p l e m e n t and antibiotics.21. ST acts synergistically with O T C to inhibit growth of B. reproductive organs and tissues with a weak blood supply. i) Presence of antibiotic residues in milk and m e a t of t r e a t e d animals.25. abortus.917 mammary glands. O T C proved to be effectively bactericidal when combined with 10 µg/ml of ST (15. This c o m b i n a t i o n p r o v e d to be highly effective in eliminating Brucella organisms from all infected cows in regimens A and B.25. before initiation of the present treatment regimens. milking was stopped in lactating cows and udders were completely evacuated before each injection.O T C combined with ST was used for the t r e a t m e n t of cows naturally infected with B.n e g a t i v e bacteria.34).
at the present time. practical. The cost of successful treatment of a cow represents approximately 5% of the original price of the animal. The cost of antibiotics used was calculated according to sale prices in the Saudi market at the time of the experiment (US$1 = SR3. reported that serological findings were not useful in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment regimens (24. due to the development of several serious local reactions at the site of injection. In humans.25). without side-effects and relatively inexpensive in causing cessation of the symptoms of brucellosis and eliminating Brucella organisms from infected cows. Also. inoculation of OTC was not safe. T h e average cost of the antibiotics used in regimen A. however.600. and the protection of Brucella organisms in the presence of milk. because all serological and bacteriological examinations were performed free of charge at Government institutions.918 not long-acting antibiotics. However. relapses did not occur in any of the 88 cows treated with regimen A or B (provided that the treatment protocol is strictly observed). this treatment would probably be limited to valuable breeding animals. The doses and duration of application of selected antibiotics in the present study indicate that the long-term therapy and the drug combinations used yielded better results than several other regimens (8. relapses occurred in only 3 of 33 cows treated with regimen C.m. there was no risk of harmful effects on h u m a n beings from antibiotic residues in the milk from these cows during and after treatment.12. only a small n u m b e r of Brucella colonies were recovered from large tissue samples. in other situations.I M I alone would be effective for the treatement of lactating cows due to the continuous flushing of OTC by milking. inoculation of L A .24. the residues of antibiotics in milk and meat of treated animals should be investigated to determine accurately when milk and/or meat can be safely consumed following completion of the treatment regimens. Previous studies in cows and sheep (17. Relapses have also been reported in cows (14. the treated cows were originally imported as pregnant heifers at an average cost of US$3. In the present study. regimens A and B proved to be effective. i. as animals were only monitored for 16 months post-treatment. B or C for treating a cow of an average weight of 600 kg was US$186 (SR700). the cost of supplies and intervention should be considered. and t h e r e was no nontreated control group for comparison. a small number of relapses do occur. 34) concluded that i. although O T C has been considered the most effective antibiotic for treatment of brucellosis. This did not include the cost of e q u i p m e n t or interventions.75). In the present study.13. However. including the cost of air freight. In conclusion. it seems unlikely that O T C .25. Other investigators. further research may yield a regimen . However. However. However. Consequently. In the present trial.O T C did not result in harmful systemic effects or any obvious lasting local reactions at the site of inoculation. all t r e a t e d cows were dried before initiation of treatment.p. the majority (approximately 90%) of the cows treated were monitored bacteriologically for 16 months post-treatment in order to detect possible relapses. the results were not conclusive.29). In Saudi Arabia. when treatment protocols were strictly observed.26.34). The present results of serological examinations were of some use in evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment regimens. T h e results obtained were in agreement with findings on successful treatment of brucellosis in sheep and goats when monitored for 8 months post-treatment (35). consequently. which is considered economically feasible in Saudi Arabia.24. Even in relapsed cows (3 animals in regimen C). In the present study.
Le protocole A (appliqué à 35 vaches) consistait en une administration intramusculaire (i. O.M.) quotidiennement pendant huit jours et en une OTC-IMI quotidienne de 20 ml par trayon pendant quatre jours. sauf pour la ST qui était administrée un jour sur deux pendant 16 jours et pour l'OTC-IMI. Quant au protocole C. Furthermore.919 which could b e used for the t r e a t m e n t of all infected animals in a h e r d and for prophylaxis of those animals recently exposed to Brucella infection. The authors also acknowledge the technical assistance of A . Thanks are also extended to the owners and veterinary staff of the three dairy farms involved. pratiquée également tous les trois jours pendant 12 jours. Al-Bokmy. de 25 mg/kg de ST (i.m. . Deux critères ont été jugés déterminants pour conclure au succès du traitement : l'arrêt de l'excrétion de brucelles dans les sécrétions mammaires et l'absence de brucelles dans des tissus spécifiques. A. * * * DES PROTOCOLES THÉRAPEUTIQUES EFFICACES POUR LE TRAITEMENT DE L'INFECTION PAR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS ET BRUCELLA ABORTUS CHEZ LES VACHES. Résumé : Trois protocoles thérapeutiques ont été évalués chez 121 vaches atteintes d'une infection naturelle par Brucella melitensis ou Brucella abortus. it is concluded that the failure of a small number of cows to respond to regimen C cannot be accounted for by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of resistance by Brucella. Mohamed et S. for their s u p p o r t and c o . Les deux modes de traitement se sont révélés aussi efficaces l'un que l'autre pour l'élimination totale des brucelles des vaches objet de l'expérimentation et aucune récidive n'a été constatée.I.o p e r a t i o n in t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p r e s e n t treatment regimens. Al-Taher. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r s wish to express their sincere t h a n k s to M. T h e t r e a t m e n t of seropositive animals should be performed together with vaccination of all seronegative animals in the same herd to achieve effective control and minimise public health risks. les bio types 1 ou 2 de B.A.T. Radwan.S.m. Hussain. for his encouragement and co-operation. Mukayel and A . S. similaire au protocole A. la streptomycine (ST) et l'infusion intramammaire d'OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion : OTC-IMI). pratiquée un jour sur deux pendant huit jours. Bekairi.S. D i r e c t o r General of the Saudi National Agriculture and Water Research Centre and National Director of Project 016/UTFN/SAU/FAO. abortus dans celles de 18 vaches.V.) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC tous les trois jours pendant 42 jours. Le protocole B (appliqué à 53 vaches) était similaire au précédent. il n'a permis l'élimination des brucelles que sur 30 (91 %) des 33 vaches traitées.I.M. P. Bin Salamah. hormis pour la ST qui était administrée tous les trois jours pendant 24 jours et l'OTC-IMI. Prasad. combinant à la fois l'Oxytétracycline à action prolongée (long-acting Oxytetracycline : LA-OTC). . melitensis ont été régulièrement isolés dans les sécrétions mammaires de 103 vaches et le biotype 1 de B. Avant l'application de ces trois protocoles thérapeutiques.
. de 25 mg/kg de ST (i. A N G U S R. Para considerar el tratamiento exitoso se tuvieron en cuenta dos criterios: el cese de la excreción de brucelas en las secreciones mamarias y la ausencia de brucelas en tejidos específicos. CHANG S. Saudi biol.Brucella melitensis . abortus en las secreciones mamarias de 18 vacas. es decir. ALTON G.m. 2. M .) de 25 mg/kg de LA-OTC cada tres días durante 42 días.. Paris. 6. 190 pp. . Proc.S.Brucella abortus .Brucella melitensis .I.S. consistía en la administración intramuscular (i. Radwan. que se administró cada dos días durante 16 días. que se experimentó en 53 vacas.T. PALABRAS CLAVE: Antibióticos ..25-27. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. similar al protocolo A salvo en que la ST se administraba cada tres días durante 24 días y la OTC-IMI también cada tres días durante 12 días.Brucella abortus . era similar al anterior excepto en cuanto a la ST. C .Bovinos . melitensis fueron regularmente aislados en las secreciones mamarias de 103 vacas y el biotipo 1 de B.Oxitetraciclina . sólo permitió eliminación de brucelas en 30 de las 33 vacas tratadas. que fue experimentado en 35 vacas. JONES L . El protocolo B. . Soc. * PROTOCOLOS TERAPÉUTICOS EFICACES PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA INFECCIÓN POR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS Y BRUCELLA ABORTUS EN VACAS. Antes de aplicar estos tres protocolos terapéuticos. P.Techniques for the brucellosis laboratory. (1988). & CHOU N. SINOUSSI Y .M. .. & V E R G E R J . a partir de una combinación de oxitetraciclina de acción prolongada (long-acting Oxytetracycline: LA-OTC). .G. .) diarios durante ocho días y en una OTC-IMI diaria de 20 ml por pezón durante 4 días. Al-Bokmy. A. Saudi Med. Hussain.I. que se administró cada dos días durante ocho días.R. (1986). Mohamed y S. Resumen: Se evaluaron tres protocolos terapéuticos en 121 vacas infectadas por vía natural por Brucella melitensis o Brucella abortus. Uno y otro tratamiento se mostraron equivalentemente eficaces para la eliminación total de las brucelas en las vacas tratadas y no se constató ninguna recidiva. el protocolo C. (1984). Bekairi.G. un 91%.m.920 MOTS-CLÉS : Antibiotiques .D. WANG C F .A study on brucellosis among animals of some farms and rural areas of Saudi Arabia.Estreptomicina ..Terapéutica. M . AL-MARSHEDY A. A L .. & HARLAND P.V. Por último. Prasad. los biotipos 1 o 2 de B. El protocolo A.Y. y ala OTC-IMI. O. REFERENCES 1. HAWARI A.M. 7.Streptomycine .M E Z A I N I S.Thérapie. estreptomicina (ST) e infusión intramamaria de OTC (OTC-intramammary infusion: OTC-IMI). Ann.Oxytétracycline . 3. CHEN M .E. S.Brucellosis in children.H.A. .351-357.Bovins .
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