Está en la página 1de 77

Barcelona, 6 dabril 2011

SERVICE SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERING (SSME) La ciencia de los servicios


Instruments de mesura de la qualitat dels serveis online

Frederic Marimon
Universitat Internacional de Catalunya

Index

Un modelo de evaluacin del servicio de consultora especializada en ISO 9000 Factores explicativos de la fidelizacin en un supermercado on-line E-banking Agencias de viajes online Otros trabajos

1
UN MODELO DE EVALUACIN DEL SERVICIO DE CONSULTORA ESPECIALIZADA EN ISO 9000

ndice

Evolucin mundial ISO 9000 Evolucin Espaa ISO 9000 Servqual Resultados escala Servqual Anlisis Factorial Exploratorio Encaje con modelo Servqual Anlisis Factorial Confirmatorio Modelos Alternativos Relacin calidad beneficio Conclusiones

Evolucin mundial ISO 9000


FORECAST OF THE ISO 9000 CERTIFICATES WORLDWIDE

Modelo de crecimiento:
N N0 K K N 0 e r0t N 0

1.200.000

900.000

Dic 2007: 915,486 ISO 9001 certificados


600.000

China: Italia: r2=.989


1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

210,773 115,539 73,176 65,112

300.000

Japn: Espaa

Esti maciones de l os parmetros Interv alo de conf ianza al 95% L mite Error t pico L mite inf erior superior 10525, 250 38500, 587 84365, 687 150667, 87 852131, 113 1508685 ,030 ,211 ,341

175 pases

Parmet ro n k r

Estimacin 61433, 137 1180408,2 ,276

Estos cuatro pases representan el 50% de los certificados mundiales.

Evolucin ISO 9000 (Espaa)


Estimaciones de los parmetros
FORECAST OF THE ISO 9000 CERTIFICATES IN SPAIN

70,000

95% K9000

60,000

Parmetro n k r

Estimacin 480,066 74948,360 ,439

Interv alo de conf ianza al 95% Lmite Error tpico Lmite inf erior superior 120,339 217,871 742,262 5445,678 63083,246 86813,474 ,029 ,375 ,502

50,000

Llegando a fase de maduracin: A 63% de su nivel de saturacin

40,000

30,000

Saturacin: ao 2010
Mercado atomizado

20,000

10,000

,0
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

r2=.997

Posibles estrategia de diferenciacin?

2011

Servqual
Calidad del servicio es la amplitud de la discrepancia que existe
entre las expectativas o deseos de los clientes y sus percepciones
Parasuraman A.; Zeithaml, V.A.; Berry, L (1985) A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research, Journal of Marketing 49, p 41-50.

Comunicacin boca-odo

Necesidades personales

Experiencia en el uso

Comunicacin externa

Expectativas

Percepciones

Calidad percibida en el servicio

Servqual
Elementos Tangibles. Fiabilidad. Apariencia de las instalaciones fsicas, equipos, personal y materiales de comunicacin. Habilidad para ejecutar el servicio prometido de forma fiable y cuidadosa. 11

32 22

Capacidad de Disposicin de ayudar a los clientes y respuesta. proveerlos de un servicio rpido.

Seguridad.

Conocimiento y atencin mostrados por los empleados y sus habilidades para inspirar credibilidad y confianza.
Atencin individualizada que ofrecen las empresas a sus consumidores.

19

Empata.

16

Importancia relativa de las dimensiones en distintos sectores


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Tangibles Fiabilidad Cap. de resp Seguridad
Taller

Empata

Estudio ZPB

Hospital urgencias

Restaurant

Mtodo SERVQUAL (Escala de medida).


Mide expectativas y percepciones, (22 pares) Cada cliente responde a las dos bateras.

Ejemplo de pregunta de expectativas:

Las instalaciones fsicas de las empresas de ____ excelentes son visualmente atractivas
Ejemplo de pregunta de percepciones:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Las instalaciones fsicas de las empresas XYZ SA son visualmente atractivas


Servqual = Percepcin Expectativas = 3 6 = -3 [-6,6] [1,7] [1,7]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(para un cliente)

07/04/2011

http://www.businessadvantageuk.biz/SERVQUAL.htm

10

Resultados empricos
1 Elementos tangibles SERVQUAL de cada dimensin

-1
Seguridad Fiabilidad Capacidad Respuesta Empata

07/04/2011

11

Resultados empricos
No ponderadas Ponderadas 0

Empresa A

Empresa B

Empresa C

07/04/2011

12

Resultados empricos
SI NO
0 Experimentaron algn problema? -1,5 -2,1 -0,5 -1 Los problemas se resolvieron satisfactoriamente?

NO SI

Los problemas impactan en la percepcin.


El peor comportamiento es no resolver satisfactoriamente. Lo ms importante es ser fiable: hacerlo bien desde la primera vez.

07/04/2011

13

Resultados empricos
No recomendaran
0 -0,5 Recomendaran

-2,3

07/04/2011

14

Comunicacin boca - odo

Necesidades personales

Experiencia en el uso servicio

Servicio esperado Deficiencia 5 Servicio percibido

Prestacin del servicio


Deficiencia 3 Deficiencia 1 Deficiencia 4

Comunicacin externa a los clientes

Deficiencia 2

07/04/2011

Percepciones de los directivos sobre las expectativas de los clientes

15

PROVEEDOR

Especificaciones de la calidad del servicio

CLIENTE

A GAPS MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY


CUSTOMER Market Information Gap SERVICE ORGANIZATION

Customers Service Expectations Service Quality Gap Customers Service Perceptions

Organizations Understanding of Expectations

Service Standards Gap Organizations Service Standards

GAP 1 GAP 2 GAP 5 GAP 3 GAP 4

Service Performance Gap Organizations Service Performance

Organizations Communications to Customers


07/04/2011

Internal Communication Gap

GAP 1: Market information


Customer Expectations Key Factors: Insufficient marketing research Inadequate use of marketing research Lack of interaction between management and customers Insufficient communication between contact employees and managers
Lack of Upward Communication

07/04/2011

Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations

GAP 2: Service standards gap


Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations Key Factors: Inadequate management commitment to service quality Absence of formal process for setting service quality goals Inadequate standardization of tasks Perception of infeasibility that customer expectations cannot be met

07/04/2011

Service Quality Specifications

GAP 3: Service performance gap


Service Quality Specifications Key Factors: Lack of teamwork Poor employee - job fit Poor technology - job fit Lack of perceived control (contact personnel) Inappropriate evaluation/compensation system Role conflict among contact employees Role ambiguity among contact employees Service Delivery

07/04/2011

GAP 4: Internal communication gap


Service Delivery

Key Factors: Inadequate communication between salespeople and operations Inadequate communication between advertising and operations Differences in policies and procedures across branches or departments Puffery in advertising & personal selling
External Communications to Customers

07/04/2011

Lack of Horizontal Communication

Servqual
Batera de percepciones:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Los consultores que le asesoraron / asesoran en temas relacionados con ISO 9000 tienen apariencia pulcra. Los materiales que utiliza la consultora que le asesor / asesora en temas relacionados con ISO (folletos, informes, documentos, etctera) son visualmente atractivos. Los documentos presentados por los consultores que le asesoraron / asesoran en temas relacionados con temas ISO 9000 son comprensibles. Cuando la consultora que le asesor / asesora en temas relacionados con ISO 9000 promete hacer algo, lo hace. Cuando la consultora que le asesor / asesora en temas relacionados con ISO 9000 promete empezar y acabar algo en unos plazos, los cumple. La consultora que le asesor / asesora se encarga de coordinar los distintos departamentos de la empresa para que se realice el trabajo al ritmo previsto. La consultora provee de un plan detallado de objetivos y plazos para realizar el proyecto antes de iniciarlo. Los empleados de la consultora que le asesor / asesora en temas relacionados con ISO 9000 siempre se muestran dispuestos a ayudarle. El consultor muestra entusiasmo y participa activamente en el proyecto. El comportamiento de los empleados de la consultora que le asesor / asesora en temas relacionados con ISO 9000, le transmite confianza. Los empleados de la consultora que le asesor / asesora en temas relacionados con ISO 9000 tienen conocimientos suficientes para contestar a las preguntas que les hace. La consultora que le asesor / asesora en temas relacionados con ISO 9000 se preocupa por los mejores intereses de usted. El consultor mostr / muestra habilidad de comunicacin y relacin con personas. La consultora que le asesor / asesora se preocupa por saber si usted est satisfecho con su asesoramiento.

Resultados escala Servqual


4.4 4.2

PERCEPCIONES

Media 14 tems 3.75 Tang Fiabilidad Resp Seg

Emp

4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2

Porte externo
3.0 2.8
b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7

Coordinacin
b8 b9 b10 b11 b12 b13 b14

Todas las percepciones estn por encima de 3.

Resultados escala Servqual


5.0

Media 14 tems 4.35

Tang

Fiabilidad Resp Seg

Emp

EXPECTATIVAS

4.5

4.0

3.5

Conoci mientos

3.0
c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 c8 c9 c10 c11 c12 c13 c14

Las expectativas superan a las percepciones.

Anlisis Factorial Exploratorio


Matriz de componentes rotados
(percepciones)
Componente F1 V12 V11 V13 V10 V8 V9 V14 V4 V6 V5 V7 V1 V3 V2 ,841 ,796 ,790 ,768 ,753 ,724 ,617 ,608 ,168 ,207 ,344 ,110 ,425 ,253 F2 ,264 ,002 ,026 ,383 ,340 ,426 ,446 ,470 ,851 ,794 ,573 ,131 ,415 ,513 F3 ,120 ,346 ,407 ,251 -,065 ,093 ,297 ,320 ,096 ,195 ,343 ,867 ,635 ,572 Factor 3: Tangibles Factor 2: Planificacin Factor 1: Competencia interpersonal

Los items de expectativas cargan sobre otros factores Los items formados como diferencias entre percepciones y expectativas cargan sobre otros factores Factores con contenido conceptual

Mtodo de extraccin: Anlisis de componentes principales. Mtodo de rotacin: Normalizacin Varimax con Kaiser. La rotacin ha convergido en 6 iteraciones.

Gap Percepciones Expectativas


4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4
Percepcin Percepcin Percepcin F1 F2 F3 Persona Scheduling Tangibles

4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4


Expectat. Expectat. Expectat. F1 F2 F3 Persona Scheduling Tangibles

25

Encaje con modelo Servqual


Anlisis factorial de PERCEPCIONES. Mtodo componentes principales, rotacin varimax.

Elementos tangibles

Fiabilidad

Capac. Resp.

Segur. 10 11 12

Empata 13 14

1
2
Programacin Calidad personal Elementos tangibles

V4.- Cuando el consultor promete hacer algo lo hace

Anlisis factorial confirmatorio


* * F1
Competencia interpersonal

* F2
Planificacin

F3
Tangibles

V5

V6

V7

V1

V2

V3

V4

V8

V9

V10

V11

V12

V13

V14

Modelos alternativos
Modelo A 14 variables 3 factores Modelo B 14 variables 3 factores (parmetro F3-V12) Modelo C 13 variables 3 factores Eliminacin V4 y una empresa

Datos

105

105

91

Parmetros
-Varianzas factores -Varianzas residuos 3 14 3 14 3 13

-Coeficientes regresin
-Correlaciones entre factores Total parmetros Grados de libertad 2 p-valor de 2 CFI RMSEA

11
3 31 74 90,308 ,0956 ,963 ,059

12
3 32 73 80,313 ,2608 ,983 ,040

10
3 29 62 76,532 0,1014 ,965 ,061

Beneficios aportados por el servicio


NO 1 SI

2
3 4 5

6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13

El haber trabajado con un consultor externo ha hecho aumentar el conocimiento acerca de la calidad. La formacin proporcionada por la consultora es satisfactoria. El haber trabajado con consultores externos ha aumentado la motivacin de la empresa para trabajar segn los estndares ISO 9000. El consultor externo nos ha ayudado a adoptar un enfoque tico. El consultor externo nos ayud a definir nuestra poltica de calidad y los objetivos que derivan de dicha poltica. El consultor externo nos ayud a definir nuestros procesos y enfocarnos a procesos. El consultor externo nos ayud a mejorar nuestro enfoque hacia clientes. El consultor externo nos ayud a establecer relaciones mutuamente beneficiosas con clientes y/o proveedores. El consultor externo nos ayud a establecer medidas para conocer el grado de satisfaccin de nuestros clientes. Los consultores externos nos han aportado ideas que han hecho crecer la rentabilidad de la empresa. El consultor externo nos ayud a implantar la mejora continua en la empresa. El consultor nos ayud a ver las relaciones entre nuestros procesos para gestionarlos como un sistema. El consultor nos ayud a encontrar la manera de tomar decisiones basadas en el anlisis de los datos.

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Relacin calidad beneficio


5

F b0 b1 R2
1 2 3 4 5

Sign. 32.782 .000 .456 .333 .702 .000 .346

2 1

Intervalo de confianza para b1 al 95%: [,457 ,947]

Media de calidad percibida 14 tems

Beneficio Media Aritmtica = 0,456 + 0,702 (Calidad Media Percibida)

Relacin calidad beneficio


F1
Competencia interpersonal

.6419 (7.1176) .1053 (1.0796)

Partial Least Squares (PLS)


Beneficios aportados

Parmetro (t-value) Goodness of fit (GoF) = .5326 Tenenhaus et al. (2004)

F2
Planificacin

-.0600 (.5337)
Competencia interpersonal Planificacin

AVE
.6810 .6832 .7067

Compos. reliability
.9445 .8658 .8768

R2

Cronbacs alpha
.9326 .7678 .7988

Redund.
.0000 .0000 .0000

F3
Tangibles

Tangibles

Beneficios

.6198

.9577

.4576

.9524

.2614

Conclusiones

Hay un factor claro:

calidad personal: competencias relacionadas con el conocimiento y con la voluntad

Otros factores: Scheduling / Tangibles La escala de medicin tiene parecido con Servqual La calidad del servicio impacta sobre el beneficio El factor que explica esta relacin es slo el primero

2
FACTORES EXPLICATIVOS DE LA FIDELIZACIN EN UN SUPERMERCADO ON-LINE

ndice

Servqual E-S-Qual Modelo propuesto Items de la escala de medicin de e-calidad Items de la escala de medicin de e-fidelidad Anlisis Factorial Exploratorio (e-calidad) Anlisis Factorial Confirmatorio (e-calidad) Fiabilidad constructos modelo interior Anlisis del modelo Conclusiones

Servqual
Elementos Tangibles. Fiabilidad. Apariencia de las instalaciones fsicas, equipos, personal y materiales de comunicacin. Habilidad para ejecutar el servicio prometido de forma fiable y cuidadosa. 11

32 22

Capacidad de Disposicin de ayudar a los clientes y respuesta. proveerlos de un servicio rpido.

Seguridad.

Conocimiento y atencin mostrados por los empleados y sus habilidades para inspirar credibilidad y confianza.
Atencin individualizada que ofrecen las empresas a sus consumidores.

19

Empata.

16

E-S-Qual

Parasuraman. A., Zeithaml. V.A. and Malhotra, A. (2005), E-S-Qual: A Multiple-Item Scales For Assessing Electronic Service Quality, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 213-233.

Eficiencia: Facilidad y rapidez para acceder y usar la web. Disponibilidad del sistema: Correcto funcionamiento tcnico de la web. Fiabilidad [1]: Grado de cumplimiento de las promesas sobre la entrega y disponibilidad del producto. Privacidad: Grado hasta el que el website es seguro y protege la informacin del usuario.
En el original fulfillment.

[1]

Modelo propuesto
Eficiencia

Disponibilidad del sistema Valor percibido


H2 H1

Fidelizacin

Fiabilidad

H3

Privacidad

Recuperacin

Items e-calidad
Facilidad bsqueda Fcil acceso a secciones Proceso de compra rpido Informacin bien organizada Descarga las pginas rpidamente Fcil de usar Ambiente de compra Web bien organizada Disponibilidad para la compra Web funciona inmediatamente No se cuelga No se bloquea despus del pedido Entrega los pedidos cuando promete Horario de reparto adecuado Entrega productos en correcto estado Stock de productos Sinceridad de la oferta Franjas horarias disponibles Protegen informacin de compra No comparten mi informacin personal Protegen informacin tarjeta de crdito 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0

Eficiencia

Disponibilidad del sistema

Fiabilidad Privacidad

Items e-fidelizacin

Hacer ms compras en esta web en los prximos meses Considerar esta web como mi primera opcin para futuras compras Animar a amigos y a otras personas a comprar en esta web Recomendar este sitio a alguien que busque mi consejo Hablar bien de la web a otras personas 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0

4,4 4,1 4,3 4,3 4,2 5,0

Anlisis Factorial Exploratorio


(e-calidad)
Componente EFF4 EFF3 EFF8 FUL6 EFF2 EFF6 EFF7 EFF1 SYA3 SYA2 EFF5 SYA4 FUL1 FUL4 FUL5 FUL2 PRI3 PRI2 PRI1 Valor propio 1 .836 .694 .667 .635 .623 .593 .554 .511 2 .450 3 4

Tras depurar la escala quedan las 4 dimensiones originales

.403 .469 .416 .870 .834 .767 .704

.440 .813 .761 .727 .444 .898 .887 .846

7.045

2.165

1.939

1.311

Fiabilidad de las subescalas


(e-calidad)

Subescala Eficiencia Disponibilidad del sistema Fiabilidad Privacidad

Items EFF1, EFF2, EFF3, EFF4, EFF6, EFF7, EFF8, FUL6 EFF5, SYA2, SYA3 FUL1, FUL2, FUL4, FUL5 PRI1, PRI2, PRI3

de Cronbach .876 .865 .725 .878

Rango de de Cronbach eliminando un item .850 - .879 .808 - .862 .607 - .732 .816 - .844

Anlisis Factorial Confirmatorio


(e-calidad)

2 de Satorra-Bentler = 255,81 CFI = .868 RMSEA = .068 Intervalo de confianza del 90% de los lmites de RMSEA .054 y .081

Fiabilidad constructos modelo interior

de Cronbach Valor percibido = .768 de Cronbach Recuperacin = .984 de Cronbach Fidelizacin = .898 El constructo recuperacin se ha formado con items que originalmente correspoden a la escala E-Recs-Qual

Anlisis del modelo


Utilizando EQS software Estimacin del parmetro .346 .320 .490 -.001 .720 .083 .107 Utilizando PLS software Estimacin del parmetro .273 .205 .207 .005 .530 .235 .265

Paso
Eficiencia Valor percibido Disponibilidad sistema Valor percib. Fiabilidad Valor percibido Privacidad Valor percibido H1: Valor percibido Fidelizacin H2 Recuperacin Valor percibido H3 Recuperacin Fidelizacin

t-valor
1.825 (*) 2.372 (*) 2.2538 (*) -.019 3.227 (*) 1.079 1.777 (*)

t-valor
1.949 (*) 1.891 (*) 2.027 (*) .070 6.554 (*) 2.158 (*) 3.204 (*)

Anlisis del modelo


Eficiencia

Disponibilidad del sistema

Fiabilidad

Valor percibido

Fidelizacin

Privacidad

Recuperacin

Anlisis del modelo


AVE Eficiencia Disponibilidad del sistema Fiabilidad Privacidad Valor percibido Recuperacin Fidelizacin Fiabilidad compuesta R2 Cronbach alpha

0.54590
0.78284 0.56064 0.79968 0.60077 0.46726 0.71519

0.90439
0.91528 0.83354 0.92289 0.85356 0.80054 0.92536

.00000
.00000 .00000 .00000 0.45473 .00000 0.47177

0.87793
0.86190 0.73782 0.87947 0.77170 0.70256 0.89817

Goodness of fit (GoF) = .5291 Tenenhaus et al. (2004)

Conclusiones

La escala de medicin tiene gran parecido con E-S-Qual Las tres primeras dimensiones impactan positivamente en la percepcin de valor La recuperacin del supermercado una vez detectado un problema con un cliente refuerza el nivel de fidelizacin No estamos en condiciones de poder afirmar que esa recuperacin incide en un aumento del valor percibido

estamos estudiando relacin de valor percibido con volumen de compras.

3
Service Quality, Satisfaction, and Loyalty in Online Banking

Index

Model: Mediating & Moderating role of Satisfaction in the relationship between quality and loyalty Questionnaire and measures Demographic characteristics of sample Assessment of e-service quality scale Exploratory factor analysis Reliability and validity of the adapted E-S-QUAL scale Evaluation of measurement model: Confirmatory factor analysis Testing of Hypotheses References

Model
Satisfaction
H2 H4 H3

Quality

H1

Loyalty

Mediating & Moderating role of Satisfaction


Satisfaction H2 Quality H3 H4 Loyalty Quality H1 Loyalty Satisfaction

SATISFACTION has a MEDIATING role in the relationship between quality and loyalty: it COMES BETWEEN THEM in Hypotheses H2 and H3.

SATISFACTION has a MODERATING role in the relationship between quality and loyalty :

it has an EFFECT ON THE DIRECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM in Hypothesis H4.

Questionnaire and measures


E-service quality factors (Adapted from Parasuraman et al., 2005)
Efficiency EFF1 It is easy to find what I need on my bank X web site EFF2 It is easy to get anywhere on my bank X site EFF3 My bank X enables me to complete a transaction quickly EFF4 Information at this site is well organized. EFF5 My bank X site loads its pages faster EFF6 This site is simple to use. EFF7 This site enables me to get on to it quickly. EFF8 This site is well organized. System Availability SAV1 This site is always available for business. SAV2 This site launches and runs right away SAV3 This site does not crash. SAV4 Pages at my bank X site does not freeze after I enter my order information Fulfilment FUL1 It performs orders when promised. FUL2 It quickly delivers what I order. FUL3 It is truthful about its offerings. FUL4 It makes accurate promises about performance of online banking.

Privacy PRI1 My bank web site protect information about my online banking behaviour PRI2 It does not share my personal information with other sites. PRI3 My bank X site protects information about my credit and debit cards

Questionnaire and measures


Loyalty Intentions (Adapted from Parasuraman et al., 2005)
LOY1 Say positive things about this online banking site to other people. LOY2 Recommend this online banking site to someone who seeks your advice. LOY3 Encourage friends and others to do business with this site. LOY4 Consider this online banking site to be your first choice for future transactions. LOY5 Do more business with this site in the coming months.

E-satisfaction (Adapted from Ribbink et al., 2004)


ESA1 I am generally pleased with Bank Xs online services. ESA2 The web site of this online bank X is enjoyable. ESA3 I am very satisfied with this bank Xs online services. ESA4 I am happy with this online bank X.

Demographic characteristics of sample


Measure Gender Age Complete sample Item Female Male 17-24 25-34 35-44 45 and above College or institute diploma and below University degree Master degree and above Others Less than 12,000 12,001-24,000 24,001 and above Less than 1 week Over 1 week - 1month 1month and above No ISO ISO Others Frequency 225 203 106 150 102 70 102 196 91 39 134 148 146 268 101 59 246 133 49 % 52.6 47.4 24.8 35.0 23.8 16.4 23.8 45.8 21.3 9.1 31.3 34.6 34.1 62.6 23.6 13.8 57.5 31.1 11.4

Education

Annual income ()

Last use of e-banking

Respondents per banks with ISO 9001 registration or not

Assessment of e-service quality scale


CFA (Confirmatory Factory Analysis) Loadings
Factors Efficiency ( Alpha = .906) EFF1 EFF2 EFF3 EFF4 EFF6 EFF7 EFF8 System Availability ( Alpha = .887) SAV1 SAV2 SAV3 SAV4 FUL1 FUL2 EFF5 Privacy ( Alpha = .890) PRI1 PRI2 PRI3 Goodness of fit statistics 2 df CFI BBNFI RMSEA Loadings
.815 .812 .715 .830 .813 .757 .866 .739 .861 .804 .779 .745 .816 .681 .887 .909 .920

EFA (Exploratory Factor Analysis)(a) Loadings


Efficiency System availability Privacy

t-value (b)
21.820 22.656 22.472 18.089 22.686 27.057 19.930 22.240 22.415 18.798 21.093 29.497 27.710 19.204 27.331 27.228 30.147

.783 .773 .603 .778 .749 .610 .809


.749 .788 .823 .644 .558 .645 .555 .834 .857 .845

323.63 116 .933 .921 .065

a: Total variance extracted by the three factors equal 64.11%; Rotation: Varimax normalized

Evaluation of measurement model


CFA (Confirmatory Factory Analysis) Loadings
Factors Efficiency ( Alpha = .906) EFF1 EFF2 EFF3 EFF4 EFF6 EFF7 EFF8 System Availability ( Alpha = .887) SAV1 SAV2 SAV3 SAV4 FUL1 FUL2 EFF5 Privacy ( Alpha = .890) PRI1 PRI2 PRI3 Goodness of fit statistics 2 df CFI BBNFI RMSEA Loadings
.815 .812 .715 .830 .813 .757 .866 .739 .861 .804 .779 .745 .816 .681 .887 .909 .920

EFA (Exploratory Factor Analysis)(a) Loadings


Efficiency System availability Privacy

t-value (b)
21.820 22.656 22.472 18.089 22.686 27.057 19.930 22.240 22.415 18.798 21.093 29.497 27.710 19.204 27.331 27.228 30.147

.783 .773 .603 .778 .749 .610 .809


.749 .788 .823 .644 .558 .645 .555 .834 .857 .845

323.63 116 .933 .921 .065

a: Total variance extracted by the three factors equal 64.11%; Rotation: Varimax normalized b : all t-value are significant at P < 0.001

Testing of Hypotheses: H1

Satisfaction
H2 H4 H3

Quality

H1

Loyalty

Testing of Hypotheses
H1: Quality Loyalty Standard beta Control variables Gender Age Education Annual income () Last use of e-banking Independent variables Efficiency System availability Privacy H2: Quality satisfaction Standard beta

H4: Satisfaction mediating (Quality Loyalty) Standard beta .022 -.067 -.017 .079 -.076

.016 -.093 -.038 .085 -.092

-.010 -.047 -.038 .009 -.029

.387*** .128* .226***

.393*** .233*** .337***

.168** -.002 .039 .557*** .535***

Satisfaction Adjusted R2 .434*** .673*** NOTE: Significant at * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001

Testing of Hypotheses: H2

Satisfaction H2
H4 H3

Quality

H1

Loyalty

Testing of Hypotheses
H1: Quality Loyalty Standard beta Control variables Gender Age Education Annual income () Last use of e-banking Independent variables Efficiency System availability Privacy H2: Quality Satisfaction Standard beta

H4: Satisfaction mediating (Quality Loyalty) Standard beta .022 -.067 -.017 .079 -.076

.016 -.093 -.038 .085 -.092

-.010 -.047 -.038 .009 -.029

.387*** .128* .226***

.393*** .233*** .337***

.168** -.002 .039 .557*** .535***

Satisfaction Adjusted R2 .434*** .673*** NOTE: Significant at * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001

Testing of Hypotheses: H3 & H4

Satisfaction
H2

H3 H4
H1

Quality

Loyalty

Testing of Hypotheses
H1: Quality Loyalty Standard beta H2: Quality Satisfaction Standard beta -.010 -.047 -.038 .009 -.029

H3 & H4 : Satisfaction mediating/moderating (Quality&Satisfaction Loyalty) Standard beta


.022 -.067 -.017 .079 -.076

Control variables Gender Age Education Annual income () Last use of e-banking
Independent variables Efficiency System availability Privacy

.016 -.093 -.038 .085 -.092

Moderatin g

.387*** .128* .226***

.393*** .233*** .337***

.168** -.002 .039 .557*** .535***

Mediatin g

Satisfaction Adjusted R2 .434*** .673*** NOTE: Significant at * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001

References

Ladhari, R. (2009): A review of twenty years of SERVQUAL research, International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 172198 Ladhari, R. (2010): Developing e-service quality scales: a literature review, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol 17. pp. 464-477. Marimon, F.; Cristbal E. (2005), "A study of the ISO 9000 certification process: consultant profiles and company behaviour." , Managing Service Quality., Vol 15, N 3, 290-305 Marimon, F.; Vidgen, R.; Barnes, S.; Cristobal, E. (2010): "Purchasing behaviour in an online supermarket: the applicability of E-S-QUAL" , International Journal of Market Research, 52, n 1, 111-129 Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Malhotra, A. (2005). E-S-QUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing Electronic Service Quality. Journal of Service Research, 7(3), 213-233.

4
Functional Quality and Hedonic Quality: A Study of the Dimensions of e-Service Quality in Online Travel Agencies

Index

Introduction Literature review Model Demographic characteristics of sample Assessment of scales Results

Introduction

Antecedents:

Quality Assessment in services (Servqual) Quality Assessment in services online supermarkets; e-banking

On line Travel Agencies Quality Perceived Value Loyalty New: hedonics

Literature review
Assessment of Quality:

SITEQUAL: Yoo and Donthu (2001) WebQual: Loiacono et al. (2002) / Barnes and Vidgen (2002) E-S-QUAL & E-RecS-QUAL: Parasuraman et al. (2005)

Literature review
E-S-QUAL (i) efficiency (the ease and speed of accessing and using a website) (ii) fulfilment (the extent to which the sites promises about order delivery and item availability are fulfilled) (iii) system availability (the correct technical functioning of the site) (iv) privacy (the degree to which the site is safe and protects customer information)

Literature review
E-RecS-QUAL (i) responsiveness (effective handling of problems and returns through the site) (ii) compensation (the degree to which the site compensates customers for problems) (iii) contact (availability of assistance through telephone or online representatives).

Literature review
Hedonic quality... ...can be defined as the value obtained by a consumer from enjoying the research for, and purchasing of, a particular good or service (Childrens et al., 2001; Bauer et al., 2006; Chitturi et al., 2008; Song and Zhinkan, 2008; VzquezCasielles et al., 2009)

...Hao-Erl et al. (2010) proposed that hedonic quality should be included as another dimension of service quality in the E-S-QUAL scale

Model
Efficiency

H1
Perceived Value H2 H4 Loyalty

H3

Hedonics

Demographic characteristics of sample

Age category Between 18 and 25 years Between 26 and 35 years Between 36 and 45 years > 45 years Total Gender Male Female Total Education level High School Professional capacitation University degree Others Total Annual income (in Euros) < 10,000 Between 10,000 and 30,000 Between 30,000 and 50,000 Between 50,000 and 70,000 > 50,000 I prefer do not answer Total Number 304 366 361 170 1201 % 25,3 30,5 30,1 14,2 100,0

598 603 1201

49.8 50.2 100.0

183 231 767 20 1201

15.2 19.2 63.9 1.7 100.0

197 543 201 50 27 183 1201

16.4 45.2 16.7 4.2 2.2 15.2 100.0

Assessment of scales: quastionarie


Constructs/Dimensions Efficiency (first e-quality dimension) Items Sources
Barnes and Vigden (2002, 2006); Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003); Chakrabortya et al. (2005); Parasuraman et al. (2005); Collier and Bienstock (2006); Cristobal et al. (2007); Ho and Lee (2007); Kima et al. (2007); Casalo et al. (2008); Holloway and Beatty (2008); Song and Zinkhan (2008); Hernndez et al. (2009); Hu (2009); Vzquez-Casielles et al. (2009); Wang et al. (2009); Marimon et al. (2010) EFF2: It is easy to navigate on this Parasuraman et al. (2005); Marimon et al. (2010)

EFF1: This site makes it easy to find what I need.

site. EFF3: This site enables me to complete a transaction quickly. EFF4: Information on this site is well presented

EFF5: The pages load quickly on this site. EFF6: It is easy to get on to this site quickly.

Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003); Parasuraman et al. (2005); Ho and Lee (2007); Kima et al. (2007); Holloway and Beatty (2008); Hernandez et al. (2009); Hu (2009); Wang et al. (2009); Marimon et al. (2010) Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003); Parasuraman et al. (2005); Bauer et al. (2006); Collier and Bienstock (2006); Cristobal et al. (2007); Francis (2007); Kima et al. (2007); Bai et al. (2008); Casalo et al (2008); Holloway and Beatty (2008); Hu (2009); Vzquez-Casielles, et al. (2009); Wang et al. (2009); Marimon et al. (2010) Parasuraman et al. (2005); Bauer et al. (2006); Collier and Bienstock (2006); Cristobal et al. (2007); VzquezCasielles, et al. (2009); Marimon et al. (2010) Wolfinbarger and Gilly (2003); Parasuraman et al. (2005); Casalo et al. (2008); Marimon et al. (2010)

Assessment of scales: three factorial exploratory analysis


Efficiency
Cronbach's alpha: .938 Range for Cronbach's alpha removing one item: .930 - .933 Range for correlations of the items and the sum of the subscale: .733 - .793 Average variance extracted (AVE): .663 Composite reliability: .946 Standardized t-values r2 loadings (*) .807 .651 .814 29.382 .662 .819 30.804 .671 .780 28.324 .608 .782 25.565 .612 .800 22.754 .640 .760 23.154 .577 .791 21.840 .626 .804 26.260 .647

Perceived value
Cronbach's alpha: .867 Range for Cronbach's alpha removing one item: .824 - .866 Range for correlations of the items and the sum of the subscale: .586 - .751 Average variance extracted (AVE): .653 Composite reliability: .904 Standardized t-values r2 loadings (*) .648 .420 .809 19.145 .654 .747 17.254 .558 .780 22.020 .609 .841 20.403 .707

Loyalty
Cronbach's alpha: .781 Range for Cronbach's alpha removing one item: .629 - .785 Range for correlations of the items and the sum of the subscale: 545 - .684 Average variance extracted (AVE): .681 Composite reliability: .856 Standardized t-values r2 loadings (*) .683 .467 .713 24.984 .508 .807 20.271 .651

Eff1 Eff2 Eff3 Eff4 Eff5 Eff6 Sya1 Ful1 Ful2

PeV1 PeV2 PeV3 PeV4 PeV5

Loy1 Loy2 Loy3

Measurement model (reliability and validity of scales)


(*) all significant at p-value = 0.01

Hedonics
Cronbach's alpha: .938 Range for Cronbach's alpha removing one item: .929 - .932 Range for correlations of the items and the sum of the subscale: .733 - .793 Average variance extracted (AVE): .663 Composite reliability: .907 Standardized t-values r2 loadings (*) .749 .562 .864 27.882 .746 .801 26.446 .641 .655 21.290 .428 .806 25.780 .649

Hed1 Hed2 Hed3 Hed4 Hed5

Discriminant validity

1 Efficiency 2 Hedonics 3 Perceived Value 4 Loyalty

1 0.8140 0.4418 0.6123 0.5678

2 0.8144 0.5310 0.5181

0.8081 0.7978

0.8251

Correlation matrix of latent factors


Diagonal elements are the square roots of average extracted (AVE)

Causal Model
Coefficient (*) t-value
Efficiency Perceived value Hedonics Perceived value Perceived value Loyalty Correlation Efficiency and Hedonics
Standardized solution of the causal model
(*) all significant at p-value = 0.01 Fit statistics: 2 SatorraBentler (df = 205) = 752.44 (p-value = 0.000) RMSEA = 0.054; CFI = 0.924; BB-NFI = 0.898; BB-NNFI = 0.914

Path

.498 .369 .957

7.835 8.082 16.486

Correlation (*) t-value .482


Efficiency H1 H3 Hedonics Perceived H4 Value H2 Loyalty

9.743