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Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

MC LC
THUT NG VIT TT.........................................................................................2
LI NI U....................................................................................................... 3
CHNG I........................................................................................................... 4
TNG QUAN V MNG TH NG PON (Passive Optical Network)....................4
1.1 PON L G ?...............................................................................................4
1.3 CC CNG NGH PON..............................................................................7
1.3.2 B-PON..................................................................................................9
1.3.3 E-PON..................................................................................................9
1.3.4 G-PON.................................................................................................9
2.1 GII THIU CHUNG..................................................................................10
2.2.1 H thng GPON.................................................................................11
......................................................................................................................17
2.3 PHN B BNG THNG TRONG MNG GPON:.........................................23
2.3.1. Phn b bng thng ng................................................................23
2.3.1.1 PON DBA tru tng...................................................................23
2.3.1.2 Yu cu chc nng DBA..............................................................24
2.3.1.3 Cc phng php DBA................................................................25
2.3.1.4 M t ton hc ca DBA..............................................................25
2.3.2 Bo hiu trng thi DBA v cu hnh.................................................32
2.3.2.1 Bn tin DBRu...............................................................................32
2.3.2.2 c trng chim gi b m.......................................................33
2.3.2.3 Cc kiu dng DBRu....................................................................34
2.4 THNG S K THUT..............................................................................36
2.5 K THUT TRUY NHP V PHNG THC GHP KNH ...........................37
2.5.1 K thut truy nhp............................................................................37
2.5.2 Phng thc ghp knh....................................................................37

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Phng thc ghp knh l ghp knh song hng .Hin nay cc h thng
GPON u s dng ghp knh phn chia khng gian .N thc hin nh s
dng nhng si ring bit cho truyn dn ng ln v ng xung ........38
2.6 PHNG THC NG GI D LIU.........................................................38
2.7 NH C V PHN NH BNG TN NG.............................................38
2.7.1 Th tc nh c ................................................................................38
Cc bc trong pha th hai bao gm:
B5. OLT xc nh tt c cc ONU ang hot ng cho ngng qu trnh
truyn dn ((5) ONU halt).
B6. S dng cc s seri ,OLT xc nh mt ONU nht nh v ch cho
ONU c truyn cho qu trnh tr ((6) ranging request ).
B7. ONU c cng s sri vi OLT c xc nh cho qu trnh tr ((7)
ranging tranmssion ) ,bao gm c ONU-ID trong pha 1.
B8. OLT o RTD ph thuc vo thi gian m tn hiu s dng cho php
o tr c thu .Sau khi s sri v ONU-ID l ng ,OLT thng bo tr
cn bng ((9)Equalization Delay ) ti ONU ((8)- ranging_ time
message ).
B9.ONU lu gi tr tr cn bng v to tr nh thi cho chui d liu
lung ln vi gi tr ny .........................................................................41
2.7.2 Phng php cp pht bng thng...............................................41
KT LUN..........................................................................................................43
CC TI LIU THAM KHO................................................................................44

THUT NG VIT TT

T vit tt
PON
OLT
ONT
ONU
OND
GPON

SVTH: Nhm 13

Ting Anh
Passive Optical Network
Optical line terminal
Optical network terminal
Optical network unit

Ting Vit
Mng quang th ng.
Thit b u cui knh
Thit b u cui mng
n v mng quang

Gigabit Passive Optical

Mng quang th ng tc

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

APON

Network
ATM Passive Optical

gigabit
PON tren nen ATM

BPON

Network
Broadband Passive

Mng quang th ng

EPON

Optical Network
Ethernet Passive Optical

bng thng rng


Mng quang th ng

WDM

Network
Wavelength Division

chun Ethernet
Ghp knh phn chia theo
bc sng

FTTH
FTTB
FTTC
CO

Multiplexing
Fiber to the home
Fiber to the building
Fiber to the curt
Center office

Cp quang ti ta nh
cp quang ti khu dn c
Vn phng trung tm

LI NI U

T xa n nay thng tin lin lc lun ng mt vai tr quan trng trong i


sng con ngi. Ngoi vic cung cp cho con ngi cc dch v thit thc, phc v
cho nhu cu i sng ca con ngi, thng tin cn c ngha quyt nh n thnh
cng ca mt doanh nghip v s pht trin ca con ngi trong tng lai.
Trong nhng nm qua, h tng mng Vin thng pht trin nhanh c v
cng ngh v cht lng cung cp dch v. Vin thng tri qua mt qu trnh
pht trin lu di vi nhiu bc ngot trong pht trin cng ngh v pht trin
mng li. Vit Nam cng nh cc nc trn th gii, hin nay c rt nhiu nh
khai thc Vin thng khc nhau vi s a dng ca cng ngh v cu hnh mng
cng nh cung cp dch v.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Ngy nay, cng vi s pht trin chng mt ca khoa hc k thut v ang gt


hi c rt nhiu nhng thnh cng rc r th nhng nhu cu v gii tr, hc tp v
nm bt thng tin ca con ngi cng ngy mt tng ln. Nm bt c nhng nhu
cu y cc nh khai thc Vin thng ang a ra c rt nhiu nhng cng ngh
khc nhau nhm p ng nhu cu khch hng v cng ngh GPON l mt trong
nhng cng ngh ang pht trin
Trong tiu lun mn hc ny em xin trnh by mt cch tng quan v h
thng GPON trong cng ngh PON.
Tiu lun: Mng quang th ng GPON chia lm hai chng gn:
Chng I: TNG QUAN V MNG TH NG PON (Passive Optical
Network)
Chng II: CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG GPON
Em xin chn thnh cm n C Dng th thanh T tn tnh hng dn
nhm em hon thnh tiu lun mn hc ny.
EM XIN CHN THNH CM N!

CHNG I
TNG QUAN V MNG TH NG PON (Passive Optical Network)

1.1 PON L G ?

PON l t vit tt ca Passive Optical Network hay cn gi l mng quang


th ng. Cng ngh mng quang th ng PON cn c hiu l mng cng ngh
quang truy nhp gip tng cng kt ni gia cc nt mng truy nhp ca nh cung
cp dch v v ngi s dng. Mng quang th ng (PON) hay cn gi l mng
quang khng ngun l phn mng truy nhp dng si quang lm mi trng truyn
dn. trn mi trng truyn dn quang ny ch c cc thit b th ng (khng
ngun) nh l si quang v b tch/ghp
PON l mt kin trc mng im-a im, s dng cc b chia quang th
ng (khng c ngun cung cp) chia cng sut quang t mt si quang ti cc
SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

si quang cung cp cho nhiu khch hng, thng t l chia l 4,8,16,32,64,


128...ty thuc vo cu hnh mng. Mt mng PON bao gm mt OLT(Optical Line
Terminal u cui quang) t ti tng i ca nh cung cp dch v v cc
ONU(Optical Network Unit n v mng quang) t ti pha khch hng.
PON ra i nhm hng ti vic khc phc hin tng nghn c chai bng
thng mng truy nhp hin nay. Bng cch a ra khong bng thng gia T1
(1,5 Mbps) v OC3 (155 Mbps) phc v cho mng truy nhp (xem hnh 1.0),
PON gii quyt c vn m trc y cc k thut truy nhp khc khng
lm c.

Khong bng thng p ng ca PON


Bng thng

64 k 144 k

1.5 M

45 M

155 M

1G

(bps)
Dch v

POTS ISDN

DSL

T1

T3 OC-3

Hnh 1.0: Khong bng thng p ng ca cc loi dch v


1.2 TNG QUAN V CNG NGH PON
Mng quang th ng PON c trnh by nh Hnh1.1 s dng phn t
chia quang th ng trong phn mng phn b nm gia thit b ng truyn
quang Otical Line Terminal (OLT) v thit b kt cui mng quang Optical network
Unit (ONU).

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Hnh 1.1: M hnh mng quang th ng


Trong cc thut ng trong hnh c ch thch nh sau:
Passive slitter

: B chia th quang th ng

Feeder Fiber

: Cp Feeder

Central office

: Trung tm nh cung cp dch v

Distribution fiber

: Phn phi quang

Management system : H thng qun l


Passive splitter

: B chia th ng

Cc phn t th ng ca PON u nm trong mng phn b quang, bao


gm cc phn t nh si quang, cc b tch /ghp quang th ng, cc u ni v
cc mi hn quang. Cc phn t tch cc nh OLT(Optical Line Termination - Thit
b u cui dng dy quang) c t ti CO v cc ONU(Optical Network Unit n v mng quang) hoc mt thit b u cui mng quang Optical Network
Termination (ONT) c t ti u xa ca mng PON. Mt ONT c dng khi
dy quang m rng n tn nh khch hng, trong khi ONU c dng khi thit b
u cui si quang c t trong 1 t vin thng gn 1 cm dn c hoc cc cng
ty. Cc kt ni t ONU n nh khch hng c th bng cc phng tin khc nh
cp ng trc hoc i dy xon.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Tn hiu trong PON c th c phn ra v truyn i theo nhiu si quang


hoc c kt hp li v truyn i trn mt si quang thng qua b ghp quang, ph
thuc tn hiu i theo hng ln hay xung ca mng quang th ng PON.
Hnh trn m t kin trc ca mt mng PON thc t, trong 1 mng
quang kt ni tt c thit b chuyn mch trong Central Office (CO Trung tm nh
cung cp dch v). Trong giao din vi mng PON bao gm PSTN, cc IP
router, VoD server, Ethernet switch, cc ATM switch, v trung tm lu tr d liu
bao gm cc b phn nh cc chui a cng dung lng lnBt u vi CO, mt
si quang n mode chy thng n 1 b chia (splitter) cng sut quang gn 1 cn
h, hoc 1 ta nh vn phng,B chia c nhim v chia ra thnh N ng ring
bit n cc thu bao. Nu b chia c thit k chia cng sut ti v nu P l
cng sut quang vo b chia, th mc cng sut n mi thu bao l P/N. Ta c th
thit k b chia cng sut vi cc t s khc nhau v c th c nhiu b chia trn 1
con ng ty thuc ng dng.
Kt ni CO v b chia quang c gi l cp feeder. Mt b chia quang c th
phc v n 32 thu bao. V c t cch CO khong 10km hoc trong vng 1km
tnh t cc thu bao trong 1 vng ln cn, mt khu vc cng ty. Si quang phn
phi c tp trung ti b chia quang. T chng c th kt ni trc tip n user
hoc chy trong mt si cp a li n mt hp ghp gi l u cui truy nhp. Ti
y, cc dy cp ring kt ni n tng khch hng.
Thng thng cc h thng PON truyn d liu c hng xung v hng ln
trong cng mt si quang. Trn mi si mc d cc b ni nh hng cho php s
dng cng mt bc sng cho c 2 hng, tuy nhin i vi cc h thng truyn ti
tc cao m bo cht lng th thng thng mi hng s dng mt bc
sng ring. Trong cc mng PON cc bc sng c s dng l 1490nm hoc
1550nm cho hng xung v 1310nm cho tn hiu ng ln.
1.3 CC CNG NGH PON

Cc cng ngh chnh l APON (ATM PON), BPON (Broadband PON),


EPON (Ethernet PON), GPON (Gigabit PON) v WDM PON. Tt c chun ny
SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

u da theo kin trc PON c bn trn. im khc bit chnh nm trong cc


giao thc truyn ca chng. Bng sau cho ta mt s c tnh ca mi phng php
v chun m chng h tr.

Bng 1.2:So snh c tnh ca cc mng PON


1.3.1 A-PON

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

y l chun mng quang th ng u tin. Tng c s dng ch yu cho


cc ng dng thng mi v trn nn ATM.
APON l s kt hp gia phng thc truyn ti khng ng b ATM vi mng
truy nhp quang th ng PON. Tc hot ng l 155,52Mbps hoc
622,08Mbps. Bng tn cho mi thu bao l 4,8Mbps trong h thng 155,52Mbps v
19,4Mbps trong h thng 622.08Mbps.
1.3.2 B-PON
B-PON l chun trn nn APON. c b xung h tr cho WDM ghp
knh phn chia theo bc sng, cp pht bng thng ng ln ng v ln hn, v
tnh chn lc. N cng cung cp mt giao din qun l chun OMCI gia OLT v
ONU/ONT cho php nhiu nh cung cp dch v cng hot ng.
ITU-T G.984
1.3.3 E-PON
E-PON l giao thc mng truy nhp y dch v FSAN (Full Service
Access Network T chc iu hnh mng truy nhp dch v y ), EPON
(Ethernet PON) l mt chun IEEE s dng Ethernet cho d liu gi. Tuy nhin
c ch duy tr v phc hi mng ca gii php EPON cn chm nn ch c th p
dng cho mng c quy m va v nh.
1.3.4 G-PON
GPON (Gigabit PON) l mt s pht trin ca chun BPON. N h tr tc
cao hn, tng cng bo mt v chn lp 2 giao thc (ATM, GEM, Ethernet).
Mng GPON u tin c FSAN chun ho vo nm 2001 vi bng tn l 1Gb/s.
Kin trc ca mng GPON cho php cc dch v thoi v d liu c truyn ti
vi tc ln n 2.5Gb/s. Bng tn dnh cho mi thu bao l 31.25 Mb/s cho
lung xung khi mng hot ng vi tc 2.5Gb/s,v 15.625 Mb/s khi mng hot
ng vi tc 1Gb/s.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

CHNG II
CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG GPON
2.1 GII THIU CHUNG

Mng GPON u tin c FSAN chun ho vo nm 2001 vi bng tn l


1Gb/s. Mng GPON cho php cc dch v thoi v d liu c truyn ti vi tc
ln n 2.5Gb/s. Bng tn dnh cho mi thu bao l 31.25 Mb/s cho lung xung
khi mng hot ng vi tc 2.5Gb/s,v 15.625 Mb/s khi mng hot ng vi tc
1Gb/s.
GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) nh ngha theo chun IUT-T G984.
GPON c m rng t chun BPON G983 bng cch tng bng thng, nng hiu
sut bng thng nh s dng gi ln, c di thay i v tiu chun ha qun l.
Thm na, chun cho php vi s la chn ca tc bt: cho php bng thng
lung xung l 2,488Mbit/s v bng thng lung ln l 1,244Mbit/s. Phng thc
ng gi GPON-GEM cho php ng gi lu lng ngi dng rt hiu qu, vi s
phn on khung cho php cht lng dch v QoS cao hn phc v lu lng nhy
cm nh truyn thoi v video. GPON h tr tc cao hn, tng cng bo mt
v chn lp 2 giao thc (ATM,
GEM, Ethernet tuy nhin trn thc t ATM cha tng c s dng). iu cho
php GPON phn phi thm cc dch v ti nhiu thu bao.
GPON h tr y cc dch v bao gm thoi (TDM), cc dch v
Ethernet nh Video, Data

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Phm vi v mt vt l ca mng l 20km, trong khi phm vi v mt


logic ca mng ln ti 60km
H tr cho vic la chn cc tc bit khc nhau bao
gm:622Mb/s,1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s cho lung xung v 1.25 Gb/s dnh cho lung ln.
Kh nng vn hnh khai thc bo dng cao.
Vi cc u im trn GPON l h thng mng truy nhp quang th ng tin
tin nht hin nay, c kh nng h tr truyn nhiu dch v, vi kh nng thit lp
cc ch vn hnh qun l v bo dng tt nht.
2.2 CU TRC KHUNG TRONG MNG G-PON
2.2.1 H thng GPON
GPON s dng lp con truyn dn hi t (GTC- GPON Transmission
Convergence), khung GTC c th ng gi cc cell ATM. Khng ging nh
APON/BPON, khung GTC c th ng gi trc tip cc gi d liu thng qua
phng php ng gi GPON (GEM- GPON Encapsulation Method). Phn ti
khung GTC cha c ATM v GEM.
Mc d G-PON h tr truyn ti tin ATM, nhng n cng a vo mt c
ch thch nghi ti tin mi m c ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet
c gi l phng thc ng gi G-PON (G-PON Encapsulation Method - GEM).
GEM l phng thc da trn th tc ng khung chung trong khuyn ngh G.701,
ngoi tr vic GEM ti u ha t mo u phc v cho ng dng ca PON, cho
php sp xp cc d liu Ethernet vo ti tin GEM v h tr sp xp TDM.
G-PON s dng cu trc khung GTC (G-PON Transmission Conversion)
cho c hai hng xung v hng ln. Khung hng xung bt u vi mt t mo
u PLOAM, tip sau l vng ti tin GEM hoc cc t bo ATM.
PLOAM gm c thng tin cu trc khung v sp t bng thng cho
ONT/ONU gi d liu trong khung hng ln tip theo.
Khung hng ln bao gm cc nhm khung gi t cc ONT. Mi mt
nhm c bt u vi t mo u lp vt l m c chc nng tng t trong BPON, nhng cng bao hm tng hp cc yu cu bng thng ca cc ONT. Cc yu

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

cu bng thng chi tit hn c gi i km vi cc nhm hng ln khi c yu cu


t OLT.
OLT gn cc thi gian cho vic gi d liu hng ln t cho mi ONT/ONU.
Ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet bng phng thc GEM
(GPON Encapsulation Method).
S dng cu trc khung GTC (GPON Tranmission Coversion) cho c hai
hng ln v xung.

2.2.2 Lp truyn dn hi t GPON


2.2.2.1 Chc nng ca GTC
Chc nng chnh ca lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC- GPON
Transmission Convergence) l cung cp ghp knh vn chuyn gia OLT v
ONU. Cc chc nng khc bao gm:
Thch nghi vi giao thc tn hiu lp con, cc chc nng hot ng, qun l
v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM, giao din phn phi bng tn ng, sp xp v
ng k ONU, sa li (mc nh), mt m lung d liu hng xung (mc nh) v
knh thng tin cho giao din qun l v iu khin ONT/ONU.
1

H thng GTC cung cp iu khin a truy nhp cho lu lng hng ln.

Trong khi nim c bn, cc khung hng xung ch th vng c php truyn lu
lng ln trong khung hng ln ng b vi khung hng xung.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Hnh 2.0 : Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON


Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON c m t Hnh 2.0. OLT gi
cc con tr trong khi iu khin vt l PCBd, cc con tr ny ch th thi gian bt
u v kt thc m mi container truyn dn (T-CONT) c th dng truyn d
liu hng ln. Bng cch ny, ch c mt ONU truy nhp mng ti bt k thi im
no khng c s tranh chp trong hot ng bnh thng. Cc con tr c a vo
cc khi byte, cho php OLT iu khin mi trng mng vi tc 64 kbps. Tuy
nhin, chun cho php nh khai thc dch v thm cc tc ln hn.
2.2.2.2 Tc bit ca GPON
Khi tc bit tng ln n hng gigabit th cn c b pht cng sut cao v
do dn n l cng cn c b thu c nhy cao hn. iu ny c th c khc
phc bng cch s dng c ch cn bng cng sut. C ch cn bng cng sut h
tr cho vic iu chnh cc mc cng sut ca ONU lm gim vng chnh lch
cng sut nhn c OLT. Mt ONU gn OLT th suy hao thp, S khi to
nh hn cng sut ONU xa.
Bng 2.1: Lit k tc bit trong GPON

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

2.2.3 Khung truyn dn GPON


2.2.3.1 Cu trc khung hng xung
Mi khung hng xung GTC di 125 s c tc khung l 1.24416
Gbit/s v 2.48832 Gbit/s, cha khi iu khin vt l (PCBd- downstream Physical
Control Block) v phn ti c m t hnh 2.2
Header ca khi iu khin vt l bao gm phn c nh v phn c th thay
i. Phn c nh cha vng ng b vt l, vng ID v vng PLOAM. Phn c th
thay i bao gm chiu di ti hng xung (Plend-Payload length downstream)
v b nh bng thng hng ln. Chi tit cc vng c m t Hnh 2.3

Hnh 2.2 : Khung hng xung GTC


Vng ng b vt l

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Vng ng b vt l c c nh l 4 byte v n bt u mi khi PCBd.


ONU s dng phn ny tm v tr bt u khung. ONU thc hin c ch ng b
nh hnh 2.4. ONU bt u trng thi tm kim. ONU tm ra Psync trong hng i.
Mi ln n tm ra Psync th n s chuyn thnh pre-sync v thit lp b m ci gi
tr l 1. Sau , ONU s tm Psync khc sau chu k 125 s. C mi Psync ng, b
m s tng thm 1. Nu Psync khng ng, ONU s truyn ngc li trng thi tm
kim. Trong trng thi pre-sync, nu b m truyn ng ti M1 th ONU s truyn
n trng thi ng b sync. Mi ln ONU n trng thi sync, ONU biu th n
tm ra cu trc khung hng xung v bt u x l thng tin PCBd. Nu ONU pht
hin vng Psync M2 k tip khng ng, n s biu th l mt khung v tr v trng
thi tm kim.
Vng ID
Vng ID c 32 bit trong mt bit dng kim tra li khung FEC
hng xung, mt bit dnh v 30 bit ch th cu trc khung ln hn. B m siu
khung ny c dng cho h thng m ha d liu ca ngi dng v cng c th
c dng cung cp tn hiu tham chiu ng b tc thp. 30 bit ca vng ID
dng m v mi ID ca khung s ln hn khung trc . Bt c khi no b
m tng ti gi tr ti a th n s quay v 0 cho khung tip theo.
Vng qun l, vn hnh v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM
Vng PLOAM c 13 byte trong khi iu khin vt l, n cha cc bn tin
OAM lp vt l. Hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM lin quan n cc cnh bo
gy ra bi cc s kin c truyn qua cc bn tin trong vng PLOAM 13 byte. Tt
c kch hot u lin quan n bn tin c nh x trong vng PLOAM.
ONU ID nh a ch cho mi ONU ring. Trong lc sp xp, ONU s
c gn mt s gi l ONU ID. S ny c gi tr t 0 n 253. Lc cha c sp
xp vng ny c gi tr l 0xFF qung b cho tt c ONU.
1

Bn tin ID ch th loi bn tin.

D liu c dng cho phn ti ca bn tin truyn dn hi t GPON GTC.


CRC dng kim tra li khung.

SVTH: Nhm 13

-15-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Vng BIP
Vng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn
i, u thu cng tnh s bit c chn vo l chn hay l, sau so snh vi kt qu
ca BIP c truyn o s li trn ng link.
Vng chiu di ti hng xung
Vng chiu di ti hng xung (Plend) ch nh chiu di b nh bng
thng v phn dnh ring cho ATM trong container truyn dn. Vng ny c gi
2 ln. Trong 12 bit u biu din chiu di b nh bng thng. iu ny gii hn
s ID phn b c th c gn ch ln ti 4095. Chiu di phn dnh ring cho
ATM c biu din 12 bit tip theo. iu ny cho php hng ln 4095 cell
ATM trong mt khung v tc ln ti 10 Gbps. 8 bit cui kim tra CRC. u thu
ca vng Plend s thc hin pht hin v sa li.
Vng b nh bng thng
Vng b nh bng thng l mt mng c cu trc 8 byte. Mi vng trong
mng ny biu th phn bng thng cho mt container truyn dn ring. Ton b s
vng trong b nh c biu din chiu di ti Plend. Khun dng mi vng c
m t Hnh 2.3

Hnh 2.3: M t chi tit khung hng xung GTC


SVTH: Nhm 13

-16-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Vng phn b ID cha 12 bit ch th CON-T ring m n c gn thi


gian lung ln ca mng PON. Tip theo l Vng c cha 12 bit ch th cch phn
phi dng . Tip l Bit 11 gi PLSu (power levelling sequence upstream): nu
bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin PLSu trong lc phn b. Nu khng
c ci t th ONU s khng gi thng tin PLSu trong lc phn b. Bit 10 gi
PLOAMu: nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn
b. Nu khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi thng tin PLOAMu trong lc
phn b. Bit 9 s dng sa li FEC (forward error correction): nu bit ny c ci
t ONU s tnh ton v chn FEC trong lc phn b. Bit 7 v 8 gi bo co bng
thng ng DBRu (Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream): ph thuc vo ni dung
2 bit ONU s gi DBRu ph hp vi v tr ID hay khng. V 00: khng gi DBRu,
01: gi DBRu mode 0 (2 byte), 10: gi DBRu mode 1 (3 byte), 11: gi DBRu mode
2 (5 byte) cui cng l Bit 0-6: dnh.

Hnh 2.4 : C ch trng thi ng b ONU


Vng StartTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian bt u phn b. Thi gian ny
tnh bng byte, bt u khung l 0. iu ny gii hn kch thc ca khung ln l
65,536 byte. iu ny nh a ch cho tc hng ln ti 2.488 Gbps. Thi
gian bt u tr n ni bt u truyn d liu khng bao gm thi gian overhead
ca lp vt l.

SVTH: Nhm 13

-17-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Vng StopTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian kt thc phn b. Thi gian
ny c tnh bng byte, bt u khung l 0. Thi gian kt trc tr n byte d liu
cui cng c kt hp vi vic phn b ny.
Vng CRC: cu trc phn b c bo v s dng CRC-8.
Vng ti
Vng ti truyn dn hi t c 2 phn: phn dnh ring cho ATM v phn
dnh ring cho GEM.
Phn dnh ring cho ATM: cha 53 cell ATM. Kch thc phn ny c
a vo vng Plend dnh cho ATM. Do vng ny cng c kch thc l bi s
53 byte. Cc cell hng xung th c lc ONU da vo ch s nhn dng
ng o VPI cha trong mi cell.
Phn dnh ring cho GEM: cha mt s khung GEM phc ha thnh a
khung. Kch thc ca phn dnh ring GEM th bng ton b chiu di khung tr
i khi iu khin PCBd v phn ATM. Khung hng xung c lc ONU da
vo 12-bit Port-ID cha trong mi phn on khung.
2.2.3.2 Cu trc khung hng ln
Cu trc khung hng ln c biu din Hnh 2.4.5. Chiu di khung th
ging nh khung hng xung. Mi khung cha mt s truyn dn t mt hay
nhiu ONU. B nh bng thng ch nh vic sp xp truyn dn ny. Mi chu k
phn phi phi theo s iu khin ca OLT, ONU c th truyn mt n bn
overhead v d liu ngi dng. Bn loi overhead l:
Overhead lp vt l (PLOu- Physical layer overhead).
1

Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l (PLOAMu-Physical layer

operations, administration and management upstream).


2

San bng cng sut (PLSu- Power levelling sequence upstream).

Bo co bng thng ng (DBRu-Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream).

Hnh 2.5 ch ra chi tit cc overhead. OLT ch th thng qua c trong b

nh bng thng c hay khng thng tin vng PLOAMu, PLSu hay DBRu c gi
trn mi vng phn b. Trng thi ca PLOu th n trong vng sp xp khi phn
phi. Quy lut l mi ln mt ONU chuyn qua mi trng mng PON
SVTH: Nhm 13

-18-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

.
Hnh 2.4.5: Khung hng ln GTC

Vng overhead lp vt l hng ln


Vng overhead lp vt l hng ln gm cc vng l li m u, vng ranh

gii v 3 vng d liu tng ng vi ONU. duy tr kt ni vi ONU, OLT s


th cp vic truyn ln ca mi ONU trong khong thi gian ti thiu. Khong thi
gian ny c xc nh bi cc thng s dch v ca ONU. OLT s nh dng v
iu khin li m u v ranh gii trong cc bn tin overhead. Vng BIP c 8 bit.
Trc khi ONU-ID c gn, ONU t gi tr khng xc nh l 255 trong
vng ny. OLT c th kim tra vng ny xc nhn a ch phn b v truyn
ng n ONU. Vng ID cung cp trng thi ONU thi gian thc bo co cho OLT.
Khi ONU ch ra mt PLOAM khn cp ang i, OLT s cp mt v tr hng ln
cho php ONU gi bn tin PLOAM. Thi gian p li s t hn 5 ms.
Vng vn hnh, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu
Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu c 13 byte cha
cc bn tin PLOAM c m t phn PLOAMd.

SVTH: Nhm 13

-19-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Hnh 2.5 : M t chi tit khung hng ln GTC


Vng san bng cng sut PLSu
Trnh t san bng cng sut PLSu c kch thc 120 byte, ONU s dng
cho vic o cng sut. Chc nng gip iu chnh mc cng sut ONU. Vng ny
c gi khi c ch th c. C ch iu khin cng sut th c li trong 2 trng hp
l khi to cng sut ban u ca b pht ONU (ch xy ra lc kch hot ONU) v
thay i cng sut ca b pht ONU (xy ra lc hot ng cng nh lc kch hot).
PLSu c th c yu cu bt k thi im no. nhiu trng hp, trong lc
kch hot, OLT c th ci t bit PLSu qung b cho php ONU thit lp b
pht. Nu ONU khng s dng vng PLSu th ONU s khng kch hot b pht.
iu ny lm gim s ng .
Vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu
Cu trc DBRu cha thng tin T-CONT. Vng ny c gi khi c ch th
c. Vng DBA cha trng thi lu lng ca T-CONT. Vng 8, 16 hay 32-bit c
dng cho mc ch ny. Vng CRC: cu trc DBRu c bo v s dng CRC-8.

SVTH: Nhm 13

-20-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

u thu ca DBRu s thc hin pht hin v sa li CRC-8. Nu CRC ch th rng


li khng th sa c th thng tin trong DBRu s b loi b.
Phn ti
Phn ti a ln c th l cell ATM, khung GEM hay bo co DBA.
Phn ti ATM hng ln c 53 byte. Chiu di ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu
di overhead c yu cu. OLT sp xp cc con tr phn ti ATM lun l 53
bytes. Nu ti khng 53 bytes th n s n thm cho 53 byte, cc cell ATM
hng ln c trnh by nh Hnh 2.6

Hnh 2.6 : Cc cell ATM hng ln


Phn ti hng ln GEM cha mt s khung GEM (Hnh 2.6.1). Chiu di
ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu di overhead c yu cu.
Phn ti hng ln DBA cha bo co phn b bng thng ng t ONU
nh trong Hnh 2.7. Bo co bng thng ng u tin c xp hng cc byte
u tin ti v tr bt u phn b, tt c bo co th lin tip nhau. Nu chiu di
phn b khng khp vi ton b chiu di bo co th ONU s b bt phn cui ca
bo co hay m thm cc bit 0 phn cui nu khng . Ch rng ONU phi
phn hi vic phn b ti DBA thm ch nu mode ny ca DBA khng h tr th
n vn duy tr phn ti ny.

SVTH: Nhm 13

-21-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Hnh 2.6.1 Cc khung GEM hng ln

Hnh 2.7 : Bo co DBA hng ln


2.2.4 Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON
Phng php c bn nht ca phn phi bng thng hng ln l phn b
bng nhau gia cc ONU. Phng php ny khng hiu qu. c bit l lu lng
gi bi nhu cu bng thng ca cc ONU th t khi bng nhau ti mi thi im.
Vic tn dng ton b bng thng c th c thc hin nu bng thng hng ln
c phn phi ng ty theo nhu cu ca ONU. Trong khi ITU-T khng quy nh
thut ton DBA, G.983.4 quy nh khung v c ch thc hin DBA trong h
thng BPON v GPON. G.983.4 quy nh 2 c ch gn bng tn ng nh sau:
Vi phng php u tin, ONU ng vai tr l b ng, OLT gim st
bng thng ca mi ONU c s dng da trn s cell ATM nhn ri v khung
GEM nhn ri m n nhn trong khung GTC hng ln. V l do ny, phng php
ny c coi nh l iu chnh cell nhn ri. Phng php ny cn c gi l
bo co khng trng thi. C nhiu bng thng hn c gn cho ONU nu vic tn
dng bng thng vt qu ngng quy nh. Thun li ca phng php ny l lm

SVTH: Nhm 13

-22-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

n gin ha ONU v trnh vic s dng bng thng hng ln cho vic bo co
nhu cu bng thng.
Vi phng php th 2, ONU bo co trng thi b m n OLT. Do vy,
n c gi l bo co trng thi b m hay bo co trng thi SR (Status
Reporting). Ch th nhu cu bng thng trong loi T-CONT c truyn trong vng
overhead lp vt l c th hn l vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu. OLT s
dng thng tin bo co trng thi quyt nh phn b bng thng ph hp cho
mi v tr ID.
2.3 PHN B BNG THNG TRONG MNG GPON:

2.3.1. Phn b bng thng ng


Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation(DBA) trong mng GPON l qu trnh OLT ti
phn b bng thng truyn ln ca cc ONU da trn trng thi hot ng v cc
tha thun lu lng. Trng thi hot ng c th c thng bo tng minh qua
cc bo co trng thi b m hoc khng tng minh bng cch truyn cc khung
idle GEM khi ONU n lt truyn.
Li ch ca DBA th hin 2 im sau:
Mng c th hot ng vi s lng thu bao ln hn do hiu sut s dng
bng thng tng.
Cc thu bao c th hng cc dch v gia tng, nh l yu cu bng thng
thay i vi nh bng thng vt qua mc bng thng c th phn b trong kiu
phn b tnh.
2.3.1.1 PON DBA tru tng
Trong G-PON, thc th nhn ca phn b bng thng lung ln c c trng
bi mt allocation ID (Alloc-ID). Bt chp s lng Alloc-ID phn b ti mi
ONU, s lng cc cng GEM c ghp trn mi Alloc-ID, cu trc hng i vt
l v logic c thit lp bi ONU, lu lng tng c OLT kt hp vi mi

SVTH: Nhm 13

-23-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Alloc-ID nh mt b m logic v, cho mc ch phn phi bng thng, xem xt tt


c Alloc-ID nh cc thc th ngang hng cng cp trong cu trc logic.

Hnh 2.8:PON DBA tru tng


Mi b m logic Alloc-ID, module chc nng DBA ca OLT suy ra t s
chim gi thng tin cng nh thng qua cc bn tin thng bo trng thi inband
hoc bng cch quan st cc thnh phn idle ca upstream. Sau , n cung cp ng
vo cho b phn lp lch trong OLT chu trch nhim to ra Bwmaps. Bwmaps
c thng tin n cc ONU trong lung xung.
2.3.1.2 Yu cu chc nng DBA
Suy lun t trng thi b m
Cp nht bng thng phn b da trn trng thi b m v quan st thng s
bng thng thit b.
Phn b bng thng da trn bng thng cp nht tc thi
Qun l hot ng DBA

SVTH: Nhm 13

-24-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

2.3.1.3 Cc phng php DBA


Ty thuc c cu suy lun tnh trng b m, 2 phng php DBA l:
SR-DBA da trn cc thng bo v tnh trng b m c xem xt bi OLT
v cc ONU p ng
TM DBA da trn s quan st OLT ca cc khung GEM idle v so snh ca
n vi p ng Bwmaps.
OLT nn h tr s kt hp c TM v SR DBA v c kh nng hot ng vi
mng PON c c SR v NSR ONU.
2.3.1.4 M t ton hc ca DBA
Phn ny gii thiu mt kiu phn b bng thng ch r hnh vi mc tiu ca c
ch. l m hnh tham kho fluid c th c dng kim tra cc trng hp
c lng mt DBA
a.Tm tt cc k hiu
C: dung lng lung ln ca giao din PON (bps)
A: lng thng tin n b m (b)
B: s chim gi b m logic (b)
D: M t phn b lu lng
RF: Bng thng c nh (bps)
RA: Bng thng assured (bps)
RM: Bng thng ti a (bps)
RG: Bng thng guaranteed, ng (bps)
RL: Lu lng ti ngh, ng (bps)
RNA: Bng thng khng m bo, ng (bps)

SVTH: Nhm 13

-25-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

RBE: Bng thng best-effort, ng (bps)


SNA: Bng thng thng d cho phn b bng thng khng m bo, ng (bps)
SBE: Bng thng thng d cho phn b bng thng best-effort, ng (bps)
AB: ch s 3 cp cho phn b bng thng thm {None, NA, BE}
P: Mc u tin cho phn b bng thng best-effort
: Trng s ca phn b bng thng best-effort

b.Ti ngh:
Mi Alloc-ID c th biu th c tnh thay i da vo lu lng ti ngh,
RL(t), c nh ngha l tc trung bnh m ti b m logic ca 1 Alloc-ID
c phc v n ht trong khong thi gian cho trc , i din mt hng s h
thng ( nh nht l 1, nhng thng s dng l thi gian ca 8 khung):
RL(t)=

B (t ) + A(t , t + )

Trong B(t) l s chim gi b m logic ti thi im t, v thnh phn ty


chn A(t,t+) tng trng cho cc lu lng mi n trong khong thi gian
(t,t+).
Miu t lu lng:
Mi Alloc-ID c dnh sn vi m t lu lng gm 3 thng s : bng thng
c nh, bng thng m bo (assured bandwith), v bng thng ti a, cng nh
ch s 3 cp dnh cho bng thng thm: non-assured sharing, best-effort sharing,
hoc none. Do miu t lu lng ca Alloc-ID i c i din bi 4 thnh phn:
Di=(RiF,RiA,RiM,iAB)

SVTH: Nhm 13

-26-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Bng thng c nh, RF 0, i din cho phn bng thng dnh ring trn
ng uplink m OLT phn b tnh cho Alloc-ID no , bt k yu cu lu lng
ring v lu lng tng th trn PON.
Bng thng m bo, RA 0,i din cho phn bng thng trn uplink m OLT
s phn b cho Alloc-ID no khi Alloc-ID cha tha mn nhu cu lu lng, bt
chp lu lng tng th trn mng PON. Nu nhu cu lu lng c tha mn,
OLT c th ti phn b phn bng thng cn li cho cc Alloc-ID thch hp.
Bng thng ti a, RM>0, i din cho gii hn ln trong tng bng thng c th
phn b cho Alloc-ID di mt vi iu kin lu lng.
T cc nh ngha trn ta c th suy ra
RMi RFi + RAi
ABi = NA, ch khi RMi > RFi + RAi >0
ABi = BE, ch khi RMi > RFi + RAi 0
Ngoi ra, c tnh lu lng tng qut nn tha mn iu kin n nh cn bn:
( RFi + RAi) C
c. Cc thnh phn ca bng thng c phn b:
Bng thng Ri (t) 0, c phn b ng n mi Alloc-ID di dng bao gm
2 thnh phn guaranteed v additional. Bng thng additional c th l non-assured
hoc best-effort:
Ri(t)=RiG(t)+RiNA (t)
Cho Alloc-iD vi ABi = NA, v
Ri(t)=RiG(t)+RiBE(t)
Cho Alloc-ID vi ABi = BE.
d. Phn b bng thng m bo:
SVTH: Nhm 13

-27-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Khi iu kin n nh c bn c tha, thnh phn bo m ca phn b bng


thng ng cho bi:
RGi(t)=min{RFi+RAi;max{RFi;RLi(t)}}
V sn sng cho Alloc-ID bt chp tnh trng chung ca lu lng. Do , R Fi
c trng cho bin di ca phn b bng thng m bo (guaranteed) R Gi(t), v RAi
+RFi l bin trn.

Hnh 2.9 Cc gi tr phn b bng thng cho cc ti khc nhau


Phn b bng thng khng m bo:
Bng thng khng m bo, RNA, l mt dng bng thng thm vo m OLT
c th phn b ng n mt Alloc-ID thch hp t l vi tng bng thng c nh
v m bo ca Alloc-ID.
Lng bng thng d c th c phn b vo cc bng thng khng m bo
tng ng vi t l ca dung lng ng ln m cn trng sau khi cc thnh
phn bng thng m bo phn b ng n tt c Alloc-IDs. Cng thc tnh:

SVTH: Nhm 13

-28-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

SNA(t)= C - min {RiF + RiA;max{RiF;RiL(t)}}


Tiu chun cn bng ca chia s bng thng khng m bo c cho bn di.
Di cc iu kin c th ca lu lng ti, 2 Alloc-ID thch hp ( AB = NA),
khng bo ha (RG (t) + RNA(t) < min{RM ; RL(t)}) i v j s c cp bng thng
khng m bo tha mn phng trnh:
RjNA(t )
RiNA(t )
=
RiF + RiA RjF + RjA

Phn b bng thng best effort


Bng thng best-effort l mt dng ca bng thng thm vo m OLT c th
phn b ng n cc Alloc-ID thch hp t l vi thnh phn khng m bo ca
bng thng d tr ti a.
Lng bng thng d c th phn b di dng bng thng best-effort tng
ng vi phn dung lng ng ln cn li sau khi tnh cc thnh phn cho
bng thng m bo v bng thng khng m bo. Cng thc:
SBE(t) =

C -

min {RMi

i{ ABi NA}

; max{RiF;RiL(t)}} - i{ i NA} {RiF+RiA;


min

AB

max{RiF;RiL(t)}}
Tiu chun cng bng trong phn chia bng thng Best-effort da trn cng
thc di. Di cc iu kin c th ca ti lu lng, 2 Alloc-ID thch hp ( AB =
BE), cha bo ha (RG(t) + RBE(t) < min{RM ; RL(t)}) i v j s c phn b bng
thng best-effort tha mn iu kin:
RiBE (t )
RjBE (t )
=
RiM ( RiF + RiA) RjM ( RjF + RjA)

Nu (RG (t) + RBE(t) min{RM ; RL(t)}), bng thng phn phi ng s l


R(t) = min{RM ; RL(t)}
u tin ca cc thnh phn bng thng c phn phi:
SVTH: Nhm 13

-29-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

1. Bng thng c nh .
2. Bng thng m bo.
3. Bng thng khng m bo.
4. Bng thng best-effort.
u tin,OLT nn phn b bng thng c nh n cc Alloc-ID trong PON,
bt chp ti ngh v tnh trng lu lng tng quan. Sau , OLT hon tt ng
k phn bng thng cam kt bng vic phn b bng thng m bo cho cc AllocID cho n khi t mc d tr RA hoc yu cu lu lng c tha mn. Sau ,
OLT phn b bng thng khng m bo cho cc Alloc-Id cha bo ha thch hp
cho n khi tt c cc Alloc-IDs t ngng bo ha hoc bng thng d S NA(t) cn
kit. Cui cng, OLT phn b bng thng BE n cc Alloc-ID cha bo ha.
Kiu phn b bng thng m rng
OLT c th ty chn d tr cho cc Alloc-ID da trn m t lu lng:
Di=(RiF,RiA,RiM,iAB,Pi, i)
M t lu lng m rng thit lp thm 2 thng s:
Mc u tin best-effort Pi v trng s best-effort i c s dng trong trng
hp AB = BE. Tiu chun cng bng trong best-effort thit lp da trn cc thng
s ny v cng thc c tnh nh sau:
Min l c t nht 1 Alloc-ID thch hp (AB = BE) vi mt mc u tin best-

effort cao hn duy tr trng thi cha bo ha (RG(t) + RBE(t) < min{RM ; RL(t)}),
chia s bng thng c phn b ca Alloc-ID no vi Pi s bng 0.
Nu khng c Alloc-ID thch hp vi mt u tin ln duy tr trng thi

cha bo ha, 2 Alloc-ID i v j thch hp (AB = BE), khng bo ha vi u tin


cho trc s c phn b bng thng best-effort tha mn iu kin:
j
RBEi (t ) RBE (t )
=
j
i

SVTH: Nhm 13

-30-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Kiu phn b bng thng m rng c th lm gim quy tc u tin trn bng
cch gn tt c cc Alloc-ID lin quan vo cng mt nhm u tin ging nhau .Hn
na, kiu phn b bng thng m rng cn cho php ch r hnh vi mong mun ca
h thng khi c nhiu Alloc-ID trong mt ONU ph hp vi nhm u tin ca dch
v,v cc Alloc-ID trong cng mt nhm u tin trong mng PON c phc v
vi trng s t l c bn.
V d trong hnh sau,tt c cc T-CONT c gi s trng thi best-effort v
c cung cp u tin Pi v trng s best-effort i.

Hnh 2.10: V d v xp hng v cu trc u tin trong phn b bng thng


m rng
Cc m t lu lng Alloc-ID v loi T-CONT
Tng qut, bng thng v thnh phn thch hp ca m t lu lng Alloc-ID
c th c cc mi quan h qua li khc nhau vi mi ci khc. Nm thng s kt
hp ca m t lu lng Alloc-ID, trong iu kin thc t, quan trng hn cc
thng s khc xc nh v kt hp vi cc loi T-CONT. nh ngha ca 5 loi
T-CONT c cho trong bng di

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Bng 2.11:Cc loi T-CONT

T-CONT loi 1 c trng bi ch cc thnh phn bng thng c nh, khng


c chia s bng thng d. Thch hp mang cc lu lng c tc c nh ( hoc
tc thay i vi tc bin tng i thp ), lu lng nhy vi tr hoc jitter.
T-CONT loi 2 c trng bi duy nht bng thng bo m, khng c chia
bng thng d. Ph hp vn chuyn cc loi lu lng on-off vi tc bin c
xc nh , khng c cc yu cu nghim ngt v tr v jitter.
T-CONT loi 3 c trng bi bng thng m bo v phn chia bng thng
khng m bo. Vn chuyn cc loi lu lng dng tc thay i dng burst yu
cu m bo tc trung bnh.
T-CONT loi 4 c trng bi chia s bng thng best-effort nhng khng c s
d tr bng thng c nh v bng thng m bo. Ph hp vi vn chuyn lu
lng burst thay i khng nhy vi tr.
T-CONT loi 5 l tng hp cc loi T-CONT khc c th p dng cho tt c cc
lung lu lng tng qut.
2.3.2 Bo hiu trng thi DBA v cu hnh
2.3.2.1 Bn tin DBRu
DBA report chim t 1 n 2 byte trong bn tin DBRu tnh trc khi ONU
truyn upstream. OLT yu cu truyn DBRu bng cch t im m ng trong

SVTH: Nhm 13

-32-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

trng cc c ca mt cu trc allocation trong Bwmap. Bn tin DBRu ch ra lng


thng tin c trong b m logic tng ng Alloc-Id ca cu trc allocation .
Cu trc allocation cha yu cu DBRu cng c th cha allocation thng
thng i vi Alloc-ID cho trc. Nhn thy s khng r rng tn ti, nhng cha
c nh i ch, s t quyt ca ONU bo co tnh trng chim gi b m logic
trc hoc sau khi allocation hin ti c phc v.Cc yu cu sau l cn thit
ONU s theo ph hp cc ng ngha chn ca DBRu report.
Thut ton OLT DBA s to ra cc ng ngha th ca DBRu report.
DBRu report khng c tnh vo bt k .
2.3.2.2 c trng chim gi b m
ONU nh du tnh trng chim gi b m logic kt hp vi Alloc-ID theo cc
khi bo co. Kch thc khi bo co nn ging nhau i vi tt c Alloc-ID trn
cng giao din PON. Kch thc ca khi bo co c thng bo qua knh OMCI
vo lc ONU kch hot v c mt gi tr mc nh l 48 byte.
Nu c k gi ca mt loi no vi chiu di Li byte (i=1,,k) c cha
trong b m logic ng vi 1 Alloc-ID, s chim gi b m ca loi , R, c
tnh nh sau:
1
R=ceil(
B

Li )
i =1

Trong B l kch thc khi bo co, v ceil(X) l hm tr v gi tr s


nguyn nh nht m ln hn hoc bng X.
Bn tin DBRu trong vic truyn lung ln, gi tr chim gi b m c m
ha trong mt trng octet kch thc c nh. M ha khng tuyn tnh ny c
cho bi bng sau:

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Bng 2.12:M ha trong trng bo co DBA

2.3.2.3 Cc kiu dng DBRu


C 2 kiu nh dng DBRu:
Mode 0: mt trng mt octet cha m khng tuyn tnh ca tt c lng
thng tin trong b m logic ng vi 1 Alloc-ID
Mode 1: 2 trng mt octet, trng u tin cha m ha khng tuyn tnh
ca lng thng tin c nh du vng khi vo buffer, v trng cn li cha
m ha khng tuyn tnh ca thng tin c nh du xanh khi vo buffer.
Trong khi bo co ca mode 0 c th c ng dng cho cc Alloc-Id khng
hn ch, bo co ca mode 1 c ng dng cc Alloc-ID thch hp cho chia s
bng thng khng m bo hoc best-effort v cc lung lu lng cu thnh ca
n ph thuc s iu chnh lu lng ti ONU. B iu chnh lu lng mi lung
ca ONU s tng ng go r token song song, thit lp cc kim tra CIR v EIR
trn mi gi thng tin n. B iu chnh lu lng s nhn vo mt gi n b
m l xanh nu n vt qua kim tra CIR, v vng nu trt kim tra CIR
nhng qua kim tra EIR. B iu chnh lu lng s loi b cc gi trt c CIR v
EIR v nh du l .
Trong phn trn, phn b bng thng DBA da trew6n thng tin ng c trao
i vi OLT s dng cc bo co mode 0.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

c bit m hnh c thit lp khi nim ti yu cu RL(t) = [B(t) + A(t,t+)]/,


nhng khng cp n mu ca cc thnh phn ca ti yu cu, c th c nh
ngha nh sau:
RLgr(t)=

Bgr (t ) + Agr (t , t + )

RLye(t)=

Bye(t ) + Aye(t , t + )

Trong gr v ye tng ng l xanh v vng; B(t) l lng lu lng theo


mu tng ng trong b m ti thi gian t, v thnh phn A(t, t+) ch r lu
lng tng ng theo mu n trong khong thi gian (t, t+) vi khong c nh
.

Hnh 2.13 Phn chia mu lu lng trong b m


Gi s b iu chnh phn bit theo bn thng s: CIR, CBS, EIR, EBS, cho
php tc thng tin nh l PIR=CIR+EIR v xem xt mt lung lu lng n
vo b m. Trong tnh trng gi thuyt ca mt qu lu lng n l tng, trn,
thnh phn xanh ca ti yu cu c th c tm chnh xc theo cng thc:
RLgr(t)=min{RL(t);CIR}

SVTH: Nhm 13

-35-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Trong hnh v trn, cho ta thy cc thnh phn theo mu ca lu lng c


iu chnh so vi tng lu lng yu cu trc khi iu chnh, hnh a l trong
trng hp l tng. Trong thc t, tuy nhin , lu lng c dng cc burst, v vic
truyn dng burst gy mo cc thnh phn mu ca lu lng trong b m. Cho
cc thng s ca b iu chnh, thnh phn xanh ca ti yu cu c th c gii
hn nh sau:
CBS
CIR

;
RLgr(t) min {RL(T);CIR}
CIR + EIR CBS + EBS

RL(t)min

2 bt ng thc xc nh mt vng trong s cc thnh phn mu ni lu


lng c th l vng hoc xanh ty thuc c tnh ca qu trnh n.
2.4 THNG S K THUT

Bc sng 1260-1360nm ng ln,1480-1500nm ng xung .

a truy cp hng theo TDMA.

Cp pht bng thng ng DBW (Dynamic Bandwith Allocation).

Loi lu lng: d liu s.

Khung truyn dn GEM.

Dch v y : (Ethernet, TDM, POST ).

T l chia th ng: ti a l 1:128.

Gi tr BER ln nht:

Phm vi cng sut lung xung: -3 n 2 dBm (10km ODN), T 2 n 7

dBm (20km ODN).

Loi cp tiu chun ITU-T Rec.G625.

Suy hao ti a gia cc ONU l: 15 Db.

C ly cp ti a: 20km DFB laser lung ln, 10km vi Fabry-perot.

SVTH: Nhm 13

-36-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Hnh 2.14. TDMA GPON.


GPON s dng TDMA c cc u im:

Cc ONU c th hoat ng cng bc sng .

Cc OLT cng ch cn mt b thu.

Gim chi ph u t ,bo dng .

dng lp t thm cc ONU nu c nhu cu m rng mng.

Yu cu s dng khi dng k thut TDMA


ng b lu lng trnh xung t d liu khi c hai gi d liu n b
nghp cng mt thi im.
2.5 K THUT TRUY NHP V PHNG THC GHP KNH

2.5.1 K thut truy nhp

K thut truy nhp ph bin l TDMA .

TDMA l k thut chia bng tn thnh cc khe thi gian k tip nhau.Nhng
khe ny c th n nh trc cho mi khch hng

2.5.2 Phng thc ghp knh

SVTH: Nhm 13

-37-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Phng thc ghp knh l ghp knh song hng .Hin nay cc h thng
GPON u s dng ghp knh phn chia khng gian .N thc hin nh s dng
nhng si ring bit cho truyn dn ng ln v ng xung

u im
- Tng c qu cng sut trong mng

Nhc im
- Cn gp i s
lng si,

- Vic s dng hai si quang lm cho vic thit k mm do

connector .

hn.
- Kh nng m rng trong tng lai.
- Chi ph gim do s dng cng bc sng ,b pht v b thu.
2.6 PHNG THC NG GI D LIU

GPON nh ngha hai phng thc ng gi d liu ATM v GEM (GPON


Encapsulation Metho)
Phng thc ng gi GEM s dng ng gi qua mng GPON, cung cp
kh nng ng gi tng t ATM.H tr nhiu dch v khc nhau ,khch hng
ATM c sp xp trong sut vo khung GEM s dng th tc ng gi GEM .Lu
lng d liu bao gm cc khung Ethernet ,gi tin IP,IPTV ,VoiIP , v cc loi
khc gip cho truyn dn khung GEM hiu qu v n gin .
2.7 NH C V PHN NH BNG TN NG

2.7.1 Th tc nh c
mt ONU c th hot ng trong mng PON n phi c ranging (xc
nh c ly gia OLT v ONU ) .C ly ranging ti a l 20km . Th tc ranging
c chia lm 2 pha . pha th nht ng k s sri cho UNU cha ng k v cp
pht ONU-ID cho ONU thc hin .S ID phi l duy nht ng thi ONU-ID
c s dng iu khin ,theo di v kim tra ONU.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Hnh 2.15. GPON ranging pha 1


Cc pha trong bc th nht :
B1. OLT xc nh tt c cc ONU ang hot ng cho ngng qu trnh truyn
dn ((1)ONU halt).
B2 . OLT xc nh tt c cc ONU cha c ID yu cu truyn s serial ((2)
Serial_number request).
B3. Sau khi nhn c yu cu truyn s serial ,ONU khng c ID s truyn sri
( (3) SN- transmission ) sau khi ch mt khong ti a l 50ms.
B4. OLT ch nh mt ONU-ID ti mt ONU cha ng k m OLT nhn c
seri ((4) assign ONU-ID).
Trong pha tip theo RTD c o cho mi ONU ng k mi ,pha ny cng p
dng cho cc ONU b mt trong qu trnh thng tin.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Hnh 2.16. GPON ranging pha 2.

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

Cc bc trong pha th hai bao gm:


B5. OLT xc nh tt c cc ONU ang hot ng cho ngng qu trnh
truyn dn ((5) ONU halt).
B6. S dng cc s seri ,OLT xc nh mt ONU nht nh v ch cho ONU
c truyn cho qu trnh tr ((6) ranging request ).
B7. ONU c cng s sri vi OLT c xc nh cho qu trnh tr ((7)
ranging tranmssion ) ,bao gm c ONU-ID trong pha 1.
B8. OLT o RTD ph thuc vo thi gian m tn hiu s dng cho php o
tr c thu .Sau khi s sri v ONU-ID l ng ,OLT thng bo tr cn
bng ((9)Equalization Delay ) ti ONU ((8)- ranging_ time message ).
B9.ONU lu gi tr tr cn bng v to tr nh thi cho chui d liu lung
ln vi gi tr ny .
2.7.2 Phng php cp pht bng thng

Hnh 2.17. Bo co v phn b bng thng trong GPON


Th tc cp pht bng thng
B1. ONU lu d liu thu bao cho lu lng hng ln vo b m
B2. Khi d liu trong b m c bo ti OLT nh mt yu cu ti mt thi
im OLT quy nh
B3.OLT xc nh thi gian bt u truyn dn v khong thi gian truyn cho php
(1/4 ca s truyn dn ) ti ONU nh mt s cp php
SVTH: Nhm 13

-41-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

B4 ONU nhn s cp php v truyn khi d liu xc nh .

Hnh 2.18 .Th tc cp pht bng thng trong GPON.

2.8 BO MT V M HA LI
Do GPON l mng in a im nn d liu hng xung c th nhn bi
tt c cc ONU. Trong h thng PON th hng xung, d liu c truyn
broadcast n tt c ONU. Mi ONU ch c th truy cp d liu ca mnh, nhng
nu ngi dng no c nh ph hoi th c th gi ONU ca ngi dng khc
truy cp d liu, h thng bo mt PON s ngn chn vic ny. Ging nh cc
mng khc, GPON s dng th tc mt m ngn nga vic nghe trm cc tn
hiu khng mong mun. Khng ging nh truy cp wireless hay modem, trong
mng PON, bt k ONU no cng khng th thy c lu lng hng ln ca
ONU khc. iu ny cho php lm n gin ha th tc mt m. u tin l ch cn
mt m hng truyn xung ca d liu. Th 2 l d liu hng ln c th truyn
kha mt m. GPON s dng chun mt m AES (Advanced Encryption Standard).
l mt khi mt m m n hot ng trn mt khi d liu 16 byte (128 bit).
c bit ch m c s dng. Khi mt m gi ngu nhin 16 byte c pht
ra v XOR vi d liu ng vo to ra d liu mt m OLT. ONU, d liu

SVTH: Nhm 13

-42-

Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

c mt m ny th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin 16 byte tng t nh OLT


to li d liu ban u. Vi ATM ch c 48 byte c mt m, vi GEM ch c
phn ti GEM c mt m. OLT khi to vic trao i kha bng vic gi bn tin
n ONU thng qua knh PLOAM. Sau ONU s chu trch nhim to ra kha v
pht ngc tr v OLT.
Sa li tin FEC (Forward Error Correction) : Cng ngh GPON s dng
phng php sa li tin FEC. FEC mang li kt qu tng qu ng truyn ln 34dB ( li m ha) v vy cho php tng tc bit v khong cch gia OLT va
ONU cng nh h tr t s chia ln hn trong mng. FEC c ty chn s dng
trong c hng ln v hng xung, dung M Reed Solomon thng l RS.

KT LUN

Ngnh cng nghip vin thng ang c tc pht trin ht sc nhanh chng
v s cnh tranh trong lnh vc mng thng tin din ra rt gay gt. Khi s cnh
tranh gia tng, iu quan trng i vi cc cng ty vin thng l phi xc nh li v

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

th ca mnh trong th trng vin thng v c chin lc pht trin mi duy tr


khch hng ca mnh cng nh thu ht khch hng ca nhng nh cung cp khc.
Vi nhng u im v tc , bng thng cng nh chi ph lp t, GPON khng
th nm ngoi chin lc pht trin ca cc nh khai thc vin thng cho mng truy
nhp.
Qua ti ny, em a ra c cc m hnh mng truy nhp quang vi
nhng u im vt tri v tc , bng thng cng nh cht lng, ha hn s
pht trin vt bc cho mng truy nhp. l cc vn ct li nht khi trin khai
mng cp quang thu bao. Tuy nhin, do s hn ch v thi gian, ti liu tham kho
cng nh kh nng hiu bit ca bn thn, nhng kt qu t c ch dng li
mc l thuyt. Em mong mun sau ny mnh c c hi i su vo thc tin hon
thnh d nh trong tng lai.

CC TI LIU THAM KHO


[1]. Bi ging Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Bin son: Ths. Dng Th
Thanh T
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_optical_network
[3] -www.vntelecom.org
[4] Quang Minh, Cng ngh v chun ha mng quang th ng

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN

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SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B

Tiu lun mn hc: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp

Mng quang th ng GPON

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Ngy.......thng..... nm 2012

SVTH: Nhm 13

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Lp : L11CQVT07-B