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Wing Chun Basics

Wu Sao
It is important to keep the fingers straight and upright with the wrist on the centreline. The hand is drawn back until the wrist is one fist distant from the chest, maintaining the fingers straight and vertical with the thumb bent, this is the Wu Sau position or protective hand, not so much an active technique but one of the most important in the reality of fighting.

Tan Sao
The arm is pushed out along the centreline until the elbow is one fist distance from the chest. The hand is held horizontally about throat level, fingers pointing forward. The whole movement from the hand opening to finishing is done with tension and very slowly. As a guide it should take about one minute to complete the move.

Fook sao
Keeping the wrist on the centreline bend at the wrist relaxing the hand down. The thumb is placed on the second finger with the other fingers grouped around while keeping them straight, the fingers are pulled back toward the body.

Bong Sao
The elbow is at least level with the shoulder and the relaxed forearm is diagonally down and forward from the elbow with the wrist on the centreline. In the Bong Sau it is vital that you understand the correct use of energy in the elbow, its importance cannot be stressed

Siu Lim Tao

The literal translation of Siu Lim Tao as I understand it, is "Little Idea", and over the years I have come to realize just how powerful a concept it embraces. I have heard many other explanations, some reasonable, some bizarre, to the extent that some people say that there is a secret form that goes beyond Siu Lim T and that is the "BIG Idea" form. The ao are no secrets in Wing Chun only people who wish the hide their ignorance behind a pretence. If you are told that "You will learn the secrets when you have trained long enough and shown your dedication." The point is that you must have no 'little' or small ideas in your head when you practise, this means that you are concentrating on your moves and energies and not worrying about unrelated 'little' thoughts, such as "How much did I spend last night?" or "I wonder if they would like to go on a date?". To learn to concentrate on yourself is a difficult thing to do as we are not accustomed to doing it, it is not since being small children that our brains ha had to consider co-ordinating new ve body movements and so we have to learn once more to focus on our movements so that we can correct ourselves. It is not a problem if you are constantly making mistakes, if you are aware of them you can put them right, but if you are unaware of the errors you will continue to reinforce them through repetitive practise until they become bad habits. In learning to be self-critical you will begin to appreciate and understand yourself in a different light, criticism is not only a negative thing, you must also take it on board to realize when you are doing something right, essentially we are talking about a form of meditation, not the mystical heart stopping levitation type, but an intense internalization of body movements and how they controlled and used.

1 OPENING THE STANCE, stand upright and relaxed with your feet together and your arms by your side, eyes looking straightforward. It is at this point that you remove any distracting thoughts or Little Ideas from your mind and concentrate solely on the movements and energies of the form. 2 Lift your arms up, the hands close as and are held at the side of the chest, the fists do not protrude in front of the chest. The elbows are pulled back and kept in so that they are not visible from the front view, wrist and forearm are in line and held horizontal. 3 Sit down slightly until the toes are only just visible over the knees. It is important not to bend over too far as this will result in an incorrect stance, as well as stressing the knees too much which could lead to health problems later. 4 Maintaining the same level, pivot on the heels pushing the toes out without lifting them off the floor. 5 The balance is now shifted so that the feet pivot on the balls of the feet not on the toes, the heels are pushed out into a completed basic stance. The centre of gravity is over the heels and this brings the correct tension throughout the muscles of the legs. Hips are slightly pushed forward to create a straight line from knees through the hips to the shoulders. Knees are held one fist distance apart. 6 Bring the arms out, forward and down into a CROSSED GAUN SAU position. Cross the forearms just above the wrist and always left over right. The point where the arms cross describes a lower point on the centreline. 7 Maintaining the elbow position turn the hands so that the palms face up, while lifting the forearms to a CROSSED TAN SAU position with the wrists still in contact. The hands should now be at shoulder level and the left hand on the inside. A higher point on the centreline is now defined. 8 This is not a technique or practical fighting move, it dates back to the days when mirrors were not readily available and a pole was placed in the ground; then when the stance was lined up using the CROSSED GAUN SAU and CROSSED TAN SAU the pole was a point of reference to equate to the centreline.

9 Both elbows are now pulled back simultaneously into the rest position. Check that the forearms are horizontal, elbows in, fists level with the front of the chest and the wrists correctly aligned. 10 Bring the left fist into the centreline one fist distance from the chest in front of the solar plexus, the elbow should be in a relaxed natural position at the side of the body, too far off the body and it destroys the alignment and projection of energy. 11 The left fist is now extended out as a straight-line punch. When the fist begins its movement the arm is relaxed, this allows maximum speed production; tension in the early stages brings the antagonistic muscles into play slowing the movement. Tension is applied only in the last six inches to give the correct energy. The fist is vertical, connecting with the bottom three knuckles. You must be precise and certain that the knuckles are on the centreline. 12 The fist is brought into the centreline relaxed, due to the whole arm being relaxed the fist drops slightly at the wrist, though it is very important that the back of the wrist is in line with the forearm. When in the last six inches the fist snaps into the punch with total tension, the knuckles not only drive forward but also slightly up; this unique extra lifting energy from the wrist is the essence of Wing Chuns close range punching, it is not restricted to the extended arm it can be used close to the body, the important point is in understanding the expression of energy over a maximum of six inches. 13 Keeping the arm extended open the hand palm up with the fingers straight. 14 It is important to keep the elbow locked out and to pull the wrist and fingers back as far as possible so that the fingers are pointing towards the body. Slowly rotate in a clockwise direction with total tension; correct positioning is essential if you are to build maximum wrist strength and hence energy through HUEN SAU, or circling hand. 15 The slow rotation continues with the concentration focused on the tension and control of the movement.

16 Maintain the tension in the HUEN SAU until the hand reaches the horizontal. It is at this point that the rotation cannot continue without involving a lift in the shoulder. The arm now relaxes and immediately snaps closed as a fist held horizontally with the back of the hand facing up. 17 The left arm returns to the rest position by pulling the elbow back with energy being expressed in the last six inches. Check that the forearms are horizontal with the wrists flat, elbows in, fists level with the front of the chest and the shoulders relaxed. 18 Bring the right fist into the centreline held one fist distance from the chest in front of the solar plexus, elbow at the side of the body with the whole arm relaxed, just held in position. 19 Extend the right arm out, fast though relaxed. It is important to have the correct alignment throughout the arm movement with awareness that it is the elbow that is behind pushing the fist out along the centreline. 20 In the last six inches tension is applied in the arm resulting in the energy being expressed in the vertical fist with the bottom three knuckles on the centreline. 21 Open the hand palm up, keeping the elbow locked so the arm is straight. 22 Keeping the fingers, straight bend at the third joint while bending also at the wrist, pull back until the fingers point back toward the body. Tension will be felt mostly in the wrist and forearm, as this is an exercise designed to strengthen the wrist rather than a practical application, the importance of which will be covered further later. 23 Slowly rotate the hand in an anticlockwise direction as a HUEN SAU, keeping the elbow locked with the arm straight. Continue the rotation with tension until the hand reaches the horizontal then relax. The point where the HUEN SAU stops varies with the individual flexibility of the practitioner, using the hand becoming horizontal is merely a point of reference that gives a uniformity to the form as it passes down the generations. 24 As the arm relaxes the hand quickly closes as a fist held horizontally with the back of the hand facing up.

25 Pull the arm back to the rest position checking for elbow, forearm and wrist alignment along with your stance and posture. 26 Open the left hand, palm up and feed it in toward the centreline and as the hand is travelling out along the centreline the elbow follows, coming out also onto then out along the centreline. 27 The arm is pushed out along the centreline until the elbow is one fist distance from the chest. This is the TAN SAU position, the hand is held horizontally about throat level, fingers pointing forward. The whole movement from the hand opening to finishing in the TAN SAU is done with tension and very slowly. As a guide it should take about one minute to complete the move. 28 Maintaining the tension bend at the wrist while keeping the fingers straight and pointing toward the body. Slowly rotate the hand as a HUEN SAU. 29 The rotation continues slowly with tension until the hand comes to the horizontal and then the wrist tension is relaxed. 30 The arm is quickly brought back into tension with the hand vertical, fingers straight, locking the wrist and the thumb bent. The energy expressed in the arm when it returns to tension is JUM SAU ENERGY As the HUEN SAU is . executed the elbow moves out naturally from its position on the centreline. When the tension is applied correctly it focuses mainly on exercising the muscles on the outside of the forearm. 31 The hand returns toward the body by pulling the elbow back to the side of the body. It is important to keep the fingers straight and upright with the wrist on the centreline. The hand is drawn back until the wrist is one fist distant from the chest, maintaining the fingers straight and vertical with the thumb bent, this is the WU SAU position or protective hand, not so much an active technique but one of the most important in the reality of fighting. Once more moving very slowly with total tension is important using the guide of one minute the start of the return to the body to finishing in the WU SAU.

32 Keeping the wrist on the centreline bend at the wrist relaxing the hand down. The thumb is placed on the second finger with the other fingers grouped around while keeping them straight, the fingers are pulled back toward the body, this is a FOOK SAU position. Bring the arm into total tension feeling the muscles on the inside of the forearm being exercised. Slowly begin to push the wrist out along the centreline with the elbow following it onto the centreline. 33 As you push the wrist out think also about how your elbow travels through the movement, remembering what you understand of correct position and technique. The arm moving out in tension until the elbow is one fist distance off the chest while the wrist stays on the centreline. 34 When you have completed the push out into the FOOK SAU , taking about one minute, separate the fingers from around the thumb while maintaining the tension and execute the HUEN SAU, relaxing only when the hand reaches the horizontal. 35 Bring the arm quickly back into tension with the fingers straight and vertical, as the wrist stays locked and on the centreline. 36 Using the elbow as a focus of energy draw the arm back until the wrist is one fist distance from the chest resulting in a WU SAU position. Take care that the fingers are vertical throughout the movement and the wrist keeps its position on the centreline. Particular attention should be paid to the energy expressed in the fingertips, thumb, wrist and elbow. 37 Relax the hand down into the second FOOK SAU , wrist bent, fingers pulled back and grouped around the thumb with the hand held horizontally and the wrist on the centreline. Return the arm to total tension and slowly push the wrist out along the centreline, remembering that the elbow also comes onto the centreline. 38 Push the FOOK SAU out very slowly until the elbow is one fist distance from the chest, taking about one minute to complete the movement. When the hand stops separate the fingers and begin a HUEN SAU rotation.

39 The HUEN SAU finishes with a JUM SAU energy being expressed in the arm. The wrist is locked with the fingers vertical, thumb bent and the arm in total tension. 40 Draw the arm back very slowly into the WU SAU position one fist distance off the chest. Check that the fingers are still vertical and the wrist is on the centreline as the elbow returns to a natural position at the side of the body. 41 Relax the hand down into the third and final FOOK SAU , wrist bent, fingers pulled back with the second finger on the thumb and the rest of the fingers grouped around, while the wrist stays on the centreline. Concentration should be intense throughout all of the movements and energies, you must learn to remind yourself of this constantly otherwise you will never know correct position or achieve maximum energy. 42 Push the wrist out along the centreline with the elbow following from its position of rest at the side of the chest, initially staying in contact with the body until it also comes onto the centreline and then following out along the centreline to a position one fist distance from the chest. 43 Separate the fingers and execute a HUEN SAU rotation. 44 Throughout the rotation tension should be maintained. 45 Tension in the HUEN SAU continues until the hand reaches the horizontal. 46 The arm relaxes and the hand is brought into the vertical position with JUM SAU energy. 47 For the last time with the left arm draw the wrist back along the centreline by focusing on the elbow as it returns to its natural position at the side of the body. Fingers are kept vertical, the thumb bent and held off the palm, while the wrist is locked and finishes one fist distance from the chest. 48 From the relaxed WU SAU position the hand is thrust out sideways to be level with the shoulder as a PAK SAU or slap hand. The energy is expressed in the last six inches; as the fingers are kept vertical with the thumb bent. 49 Return the hand back relaxed to the centreline as a WU SAU. 50 Move the hand out with the palm facing forward along the centreline; the arm should be relaxed.

51 In the last six inches thrust the hand out as a vertical palm strike. 52 Flatten the hand palm up. 53 It is important at the end of all of these moves to hesitate for a moment; this punctuates the form and allows not only the practitioner but also the instructor to see clearly the precision of the movement and the correctness of the energy. 54 Keep the fingers straight, bending at the third joint bend also at the wrist so that the fingers point back toward to body. The elbow is kept locked out and with the arm in total tension the HUEN SAU is initiated. 55 Maintain the tension throughout the HUEN SAU rotation. 56 Continue the rotation with tension until the hand reaches the horizontal then the arm relaxes. 57 Snap the hand closed as a fist with the back of the hand up. 58 Pull the arm back to the rest position using energy through the elbow. Check the alignment of the elbow, forearm and wrist, along with the position of the fist in relation to the chest. 59 The moves are now repeated with the right arm. The words describing the movements of the left side have been repeated for the right so you can follow them as a distinct, separate sequence. To start the right hand opens palm up and is fed in toward the centreline, as the hand travels out the elbow is in touch with the body until it comes to the centreline, then it begins to move out along the centreline. 60 The arm is pushed out along the centreline until the elbow is one fist distance from the chest. This is the TAN SAU position, the hand is held horizontally about throat level, fingers pointing forward. The whole movement from the hand opening to finishing in the TAN SAU is done with tension and very slowly. As a guide it should take about one minute to complete the move. 61 Maintaining the tension bend at the wrist while keeping the fingers straight and pointing toward the body. Slowly rotate the hand anticlockwise as a HUEN SAU.

62 The rotation continues slowly with tension until the hand comes to the horizontal and then the wrist tension is relaxed. 63 The arm is quickly brought back into tension with the hand vertical, fingers straight, locking the wrist and the thumb bent. The energy expressed in the arm when it returns to tension is JUM SAU energy. As the HUEN SAU is executed the elbow moves out naturally from its position on the centreline. When the tension is applied correctly it focuses mainly on exercising the muscles on the outside of the forearm. 64 The hand returns toward the body by pulling the elbow back to the side of the body. It is important to keep the fingers straight and upright with the wrist on the centreline. The hand is drawn back until the wrist is one fist distant from the chest, maintaining the fingers straight and vertical with the thumb bent to the WU SAU position or protective hand. Once more moving very slowly with total tension is important using the guide of one minute the start of the return to the body to finishing in the WU SAU. 65 Keeping the wrist on the centreline bend at the wrist relaxing the hand down. The thumb is placed on the second finger with the other fingers grouped around while keeping them straight, the fingers are pulled back toward the body, to a FOOK SAU position. Bring the arm into total tension feeling the muscles on the inside of the forearm being exercised. Slowly begin to push the wrist out along the centreline with the elbow following it onto the centreline. 66 As you push the wrist out think also about how your elbow travels through the movement, remembering what you understand of correct position and technique. The arm moving out in tension until the elbow is one fist distance off the chest while the wrist stays on the centreline. 67 When you have completed the push out into the FOOK SAU , taking about one minute, separate the fingers from around the thumb while maintaining the tension and execute the HUEN SAU, relaxing only when the hand reaches the horizontal.

68 Bring the arm quickly back into tension with the fingers straight and vertical, as the wrist stays locked and on the centreline. 69 Using the elbow as a focus of energy draw the arm back until the wrist is one fist distance from the chest resulting in a WU SAU position. Take care that the fingers are vertical throughout the movement and the wrist keeps its position on the centreline. Particular attention should be paid to the energy expressed in the fingertips, thumb, wrist and elbow. 70 Relax the hand down into the second FOOK SAU , wrist bent, fingers pulled back and grouped around the thumb with the hand held horizontally and the wrist on the centreline. Return the arm to total tension and slowly push the wrist out along the centreline, remembering that the elbow also comes onto the centreline. 71 Push the FOOK SAU out very slowly until the elbow is one fist distance from the chest, taking about one minute to complete the movement. When the hand stops separate the fingers and begin a HUEN SAU rotation. 72 The HUEN SAU finishes with a JUM SAU energy being expressed in the arm. The wrist is locked with the fingers vertical, thumb bent and the arm in total tension. 73 Draw the arm back very slowly into the WU SAU position one fist distance off the chest. Check that the fingers are still vertical and the wrist is on the centreline as the elbow returns to a natural position at the side of the body. 74 Relax the hand down into the third and final FOOK SAU , wrist bent, fingers pulled back with the second finger on the thumb and the rest of the fingers grouped around, while the wrist stays on the centreline. Concentration should be intense throughout all of the movements and energies, you must learn to remind yourself of this constantly otherwise you will never know correct position or achieve maximum energy. 75 Push the wrist out along the centreline with the elbow following from its position of rest at the side of the chest, initially staying in contact with the body until it also comes onto the centreline and then following out along the centreline to a position one fist distance from the chest.

76 Separate the fingers and execute a HUEN SAU rotation. 77 Throughout the rotation tension should be maintained. 78 Tension in the HUEN SAU continues until the hand reaches the horizontal. 79 The arm relaxes and the hand is brought into the vertical position with JUM SAU energy. 80 For the last time with the right arm draw the wrist back along the centreline by focusing on the elbow as it returns to its natural position at the side of the body. Fingers are kept vertical, the thumb bent and held off the palm, while the wrist is locked and finishes one fist distance from the chest. 81 From the relaxed WU SAU position the hand is thrust out sideways to be level with the shoulder as a PAK SAU or slap hand. The energy is expressed in the last six inches; as the fingers are kept vertical with the thumb bent. 82 Return the hand back relaxed to the centreline as a WU SAU. 83 Move the hand out with the palm facing forward along the centreline; the arm should be relaxed. 84 In the last six inches thrust the hand out as a vertical palm strike. 85 Flatten the hand palm up. 86 Keep the fingers straight, bending at the third joint bend also at the wrist so that the fingers point back toward to body. The elbow is kept locked out and with the arm in total tension the HUEN SAU is initiated. 87 Maintain the tension throughout the HUEN SAU rotation. 88 Continue the rotation with tension until the hand reaches the horizontal then the arm relaxes. 89 Snap the hand closed as a fist with the back of the hand up. 90 Pull the arm back to the rest position using energy through the elbow. Check the alignment of the elbow, forearm and wrist, along with the position of the fist in relation to the chest. 91 This completes the first section of SIU LIM TAO, as a method of developing muscle energy it is the best way to build the muscles of the arm in the correct manner with actions that mimic how you will be using the muscles in the

two main expressions of energy from the shoulder unit, the elbow moving away from the body as in a punch or palm strike and the elbow pulling back as a LAP SAU or JUT SAU. 92 Another important aspect of this section is that it provides practise for proper breathing technique. By keeping the mouth closed, the teeth together and the tongue pressed to the roof of the mouth, with the breathing natural through the nose and not forced, using the diaphragm to inhale and exhale rather than the chest and keeping the rate of breathing independent from any arm or body movement so that it is relaxed and continuous. All of these things when practised together lead to improving various health aspects in general, from mental to dental. 93 With the start of the second section of SIU LIM TAO the emphasis shifts to learning how to express the energy that has been developed through the first section, by practising the use of that energy in the last six inches of the movements. 94 The second third begins by opening the left hand with the palm facing up. 95 As the hand relaxes down it turns to face palm down, the movement stays relaxed and controlled until the hand reaches hip level. 96 After the hand passes hip level the palm is pushed down with energy as a GUM SAU. Tension in the last six inches creates power in the palm heel, the arm is held slightly away off the body, with the fingers pointing back toward the leg. 97 The right hand opens, at first with the palm up and then turns palm down as the hand is dropped relaxed to hip level. 98 The palm is thrust down with the energy expressed in the last six inches as a GUM SAU, keeping the arm slightly off the body and the fingers pointing back toward the leg. 99 Bring both hands simultaneously behind the back placing them at the base of the spine with the first joint of the thumbs and the tips of the forefingers touching. 100 Both hands move out relaxed at first then thrust out in the last six inches as a double rear GUM SAU. It is important to place the energy in the palm heels and to push them out

horizontally with the fingers pointing back toward the body where they would not interfere with any contact made. 101 Relax the tension in the arms and bring the hands over the hips. 102 The hands are brought to rest in front of the hips, the elbows in a natural position at the side of the body. 103 Both hands together are now thrust out with the tension being restricted to the last six inches of the movement. 104 It is useful at this stage to concentrate on practising the GUM SAUs on their own as they are simple moves which make it easier to focus on what you are trying to achieve and understand the importance of the relationship between relaxation and tension, which is the basis of the energy of Wing Chun. 105 Lift the arms up in front of the chest and hold in a LAN SAU or bar arm position, no tension, with the left arm on top the arms are close but not touching. The arms are held horizontally at chest level, the level they are held is critical, too high and the shoulders will be affected, too low and the structure of the LAN SAU will be lost. LAN SAUs strength relies more upon the mechanics of the arm than the muscles involved. 106 Open the arms out horizontally, elbows leading. It is easy to misinterpret the movement in this technique, the main error in practising this move is that action is more of a swinging out of the arms with the hands following a circular trajectory, whereas the movement follows one of the basic principles of Wing Chun, that is the Straight Line theory, the palm heel describes a straight line from the point where it exists in the LAN SAU to its finish as a contact point of the SIDE BIU SAU. 107 The arms straighten out using the palm heel of the hand edge to strike with; the hands are kept flat throughout, though the fingers point slightly forward. This is a SIDE BIU SAU, the energy is directed straight out sideways and in the last six inches. 108 Bring the arms back to the LAN SAU position with the right arm on top, fingertips level with the elbows and the forearms horizontal but not touching.

109 The left hand is brought inside the right LAN SAU and then both elbows are relaxed down while keeping the hands held high. 110 Continue to drop the elbows in until the forearms have uncrossed, at this point there is still no tension in the arms. 111 Both arms fall simultaneously into tension as a JUM SAU energy. Wrist at a slightly higher level than the elbow, never below. Elbows are held about six inches apart, the forearms narrow toward the wrist. The hands are angled in a slight V, fingers straight, thumb bent, total tension applied. 112 This is the HIGH JUM SAU position, which differs from the LOW JUM SAU position that exists in the first third only in how the arm is held. The principles behind each are the same it is in their application where there is variation, one being defensive and the other offensive. The LOW JUM SAU becomes more evident in CHUM KIU and BIU JEE. 113 Relax the JUM SAU energy and bring the elbows in toward the centreline, the palms turn up so that the arms form a DOUBLE TAN SAU position. 114 Turn the palms to face down and at the same time allow the elbows to drift out from the centreline. When the palms become horizontal the elbows are jerked back about six inches toward the body, the elbows should be resting naturally by the side of the body. The hand is angled slightly up from the wrist with the fingers straight and the thumbs bent. The whole movement is continuous, the energy expressed through the elbow and focused in the wrist as a sharp pull back, this is the JUT SAU. 115 Thrust the fingers out relaxed at first, changing to tension in the last six inches as a BIU JEE finger strike with the arms straight and your hand slightly angled up from the wrist. 116 Keep the hands and fingers straight with the elbows locked and drop the wrists down. 117 Continue the movement down and in the last six inches bring the arms into tension. This is a downward JUT SAU type energy expressed through straight arms.

118 Bend the wrists dropping the hands down, press the thumbs to the second fingers and group the other fingers around, similar to the FOOK SAU of the first section. 119 Lift the arms up to shoulder level with energy expressed in the last six inches and focused in the back of the wrist. The elbows must be kept locked out so you can understand that you can still generate energy with a straight arm and that it is not essential to bend the elbow before power can be demonstrated. 120 Run through the HUEN SAU procedure to close the hands into fists held horizontally with the back of the hand up. 121 The arms are pulled back to the rest position at the side of the body. Always be careful to check your arm structure and stance, as it is easy to relax your concentration and drift out of correct position. 122 This completes the second third of SIU LIM TAO 123 The final section of SIU LIM TAO concentrates on the practising the use of energy in technique application. Energy that was developed in the first third and understood how to be expressed in the second. 124 Open the left hand and move it across the chest, as it passes the centreline it travels through the WU SAU position, hand vertical and the arm relaxed. The hand continues travelling in a straight line and stops level with the shoulder; the energy is expressed as always in the last six inches in the palm heel as a PAK SAU. 125 Relax the arm and bring the wrist back onto the centreline as a smooth movement with no tension. The palm begins to move out along the centreline while the hand tends toward the horizontal. 126 Complete the movement with tension over the last six inches as a horizontal palm strike. 127 Flatten the hand palm up. 128 Pull the fingers back toward the body, bend at the wrist and rotate as a HUEN SAU. 129 It is important to maintain the tension throughout this movement as constant correct practise will result in progressive development of wrist energy.

130 Tension continues until the hand reaches the horizontal then the arm relaxes. 131 Close the hand quickly as a fist. 132 Pull the arm back to the rest position at the side of the body with the fist at the side of and level with the front of the chest and the forearm horizontal. 133 The right hand now opens and initiates the PAK SAU movement by passing across the chest; in the last six inches tension is quickly expressed so that the PAK SAU energy is executed level with the shoulder, hand vertical with the palm heel as the point of focus. Return the wrist to the centreline with the arm relaxed. When the arm returns to the centreline it must not be interpreted as a technique, it is important for the beginner to understand the centreline as a concept and so by constantly returning to the centreline it helps to establish the concept and trains the hand to automatically return to the WU SAU position on the centreline. 134 Move the hand out along the centreline, relaxed at first and changing to tension in the last six inches as a horizontal palm strike. 135 Flatten the hand palm up. Remember to hesitate at each point of importance, this defines the move and shows understanding of the technique being practised. This hesitation is not too deliberate it only lasts a fraction of a second and does not interfere with the continuity o f the movements. 136 Bend the wrist with the fingers straight and pointing back toward the body, rotate slowly to initiate a HUEN SAU. 137 Continue the HUEN SAU slowly with tension until the hand reaches the horizontal and then relax. 138 Immediately after the hand is relaxed snap the hand closed as a horizontal fist. 139 Pull the arm back focusing the energy in the elbow and return to the rest position at the side of the chest, tension in the last six inches of the movement. 140 Open the left hand palm up. Bring the hand onto the centreline and push out relaxed though not slow. 141 In the last six inches tension is introduced in the arm. The palm is flat and at throat level, the elbow is one fist

distance from the body. Concentrate on the fingertips pushing out along the centreline expressing a TAN SAU energy. Wrist and elbow are on the centreline. 142 Relax the hand down in a curve. 143 The movement is complete when the straightened arm falls in line with the shoulder, tension in the last six inches. The hand is slightly pulled back with the fingers pointing toward the centreline away from the lower forearm which is the area used to express the energy as the GAUN SAU cover. 144 Lift the arm up relaxed into a TAN SAU position. This is not a defensive technique; you are merely returning the hand to the TAN SAU position to initiate the next movement. 145 Pull the fingers back toward the body and start a HUEN SAU rotation. The HUEN SAU practised in this technique is different to the others in SIU LIM TAO in that it is done relaxed and at speed. 146 Continue the rotation of the HUEN SAU with speed until it is complete, when the palm faces out and the hand is horizontal. 147 Thrust the hand out as a low horizontal palm strike at waist level. 148 Lift the arm up straight to shoulder level with the hand open and the palm up. 149 Pull the fingers back toward the body with the elbow locked out and bending at the wrist execute a HUEN SAU with slow tension. 150 Continue the HUEN SAU until the hand reaches the horizontal then relax. 151 Once the arm is relaxed, quickly close the hand as a horizontal fist. 152 Pull the arm back to its rest position at the side of the chest. Check stance and arm positions. 153 Open the right hand palm up and push it out along the centreline relaxed and at medium speed. 154 Complete the movement at speed and with tension in the last six inches as a TAN SAU energy, palm at throat height and the elbow one fist distance off the body. 155 Relax the arm down in a curve with the palm changing to face down.

156 The hand continues its movement down until the arm straightens and ends in line with the shoulder. The GAUN SAU energy is expressed in the last six inches in the lower forearm. 157 Lift the arm up relaxed in a TAN SAU position. 158 Pull the fingers back and initiate a relaxed HUEN SAU. 159 The rotation of the HUEN SAU is of medium speed so that you can understand the movement without making it too deliberate. 160 The HUEN SAU is complete when the hand is horizontal with the palm facing out. 161 As the HUEN SAU finishes the hand changes to a low horizontal palm strike with the energy focused in the palm heel of the hand in the last six inches of the movement. 162 Lift the arm straight to shoulder level with the hand flat and the palm up. 163 Pull the fingers back keeping them straight and bending at the wrist with the elbow kept locked, tension is applied throughout the arm and then the hand is slowly rotated as a HUEN SAU. 164 Continue the HUEN SAU until the hand reaches the horizontal and then relax the tension. 165 Snap the hand closed as a horizontal fist. 166 Pull the arm back to the rest position at the side of the chest with energy expressed in the elbow over the last six inches of the movement. Check for correct position and stance. 167 Open the left hand and start to push the arm out relaxed as if initiating a TAN SAU, when the arm reaches a relaxed TAN SAU position lift the elbow up vertically. 168 The forearm rotates so that the palm faces forward as the elbow is flicked into the BONG SAU position with the energy expressed in the last six inches of the movement. 169 The elbow is at least level with the shoulder and the relaxed forearm is diagonally down and forward from the elbow with the wrist on the centreline. In the BONG SAU it is vital that you understand the correct use of energy in the elbow, its importance cannot be stressed enough being one

of the Seeds of Wing Chun, the other two are TAN SAU and FOOK SAU . 170 Relax the elbow down toward the centreline while maintaining the wrist on the centreline. 171 As the elbow drops onto the centreline the hand turns palm up and the arm forms a relaxed TAN SAU. 172 Bend at the wrist to point the fingers down to the floor. 173 Thrust the hand out as a palm strike, pulling the hand back as far as you can so that the fingers are as close to the vertical as possible. This helps with the flexibility of the wrist and should not be viewed too literally as an application. 174 Flatten the hand in line with the horizontal arm. 175 Pull the fingers back toward the body to initiate a HUEN SAU rotation. 176 Maintain the tension in the HUEN SAU while keeping the elbow locked out. 177 Tension is relaxed in the HUEN SAU when the hand reaches the horizontal. 178 Close the hand quickly as a horizontal fist. 179 Pull the arm back to its rest position at the side of the chest using energy in the elbow. 180 Open the right hand and start to push the arm out relaxed, again as if initiating a TAN SAU, when the arm reaches a relaxed TAN SAU position lift the elbow up vertically. 181 The forearm rotates so that the palm faces forward as the elbow is flicked into the BONG SAU position with the energy expressed in the last six inches of the movement. 182 The elbow is at least level with the shoulder and the relaxed forearm is diagonally down and forward from the elbow with the wrist on the centreline. 183 Relax the elbow down toward the centreline while maintaining the wrist on the centreline. 184 As the elbow drops onto the centreline the hand turns palm up and the arm forms a relaxed TAN SAU. 185 Bend at the wrist to point the fingers down to the floor. 186 Thrust the hand out as a palm strike, pulling the hand back as far as you can so that the fingers are as close to the vertical as possible. This downward pointing palm is a very

difficult position to attain; it is important to try and not accept incorrect position and justify them with excuses. Use additional stretching exercises if necessary to increase the flexibility of your wrist. 187 Flatten the hand in line with the horizontal arm. 188 Pull the fingers back toward the body to initiate a HUEN SAU rotation. 189 Maintain the tension in the HUEN SAU while keeping the elbow locked out. 190 Tension is relaxed in the HUEN SAU when the hand reaches the horizontal. 191 Close the hand quickly as a horizontal fist. 192 Pull the arm back to its rest position at the side of the chest using energy in the elbow. Always remember to check position and stance at every occasion to reinforce your control over your movements and posture. 193 Open the left hand and bring the wrist onto the centreline with the arm relaxed. 194 While turning the palm to face down, move the wrist out forward and down while keeping it on the centreline. 195 When the movement is complete the arm is in a GAUN SAU position. There is no expression of energy in the GAUN SAU, as you are not practising a technique, merely positioning the arm for what is to follow. 196 Open the right hand and bring it out relaxed toward the centreline. 197 Place the right hand palm up onto the left arm with the palm heel of the right hand in contact with the elbow of the left GAUN SAU. Both arms should be relaxed. 198 Scrape the right palm heel down the left forearm, the arms remain relaxed throughout this movement until the right hand is six inches above the left wrist. 199 Energy is now expressed in both hands, the left hand is pulled back as it turns to face palm up and the right palm heel is thrust out across the left palm. 200 The right arm is now in the GAUN SAU position while the left hand is lifted up and comes to rest on the right elbow.

201 Check that the palm heel of the left hand is now in contact with the right elbow before you continue with the next movement. 202 Repeat the technique on the opposite side, with the left palm heel scraping down the right forearm. 203 When the left hand is six inches from the right wrist, the right hand turns as it is turned back so that the left palm heel can be thrust out across the right palm. 204 Now the left arm returns to the GAUN SAU position with the wrist on the centreline and the right hand is lifted to its position on the left elbow. 205 Keep the arms relaxed as the right palm heel scrapes down the left forearm until it is six inches above the left wrist. 206 In the last six inches the right palm is thrust again out with energy while simultaneously rotating the left forearm as it is pulled back so that the right palm heel crosses over the left palm. 207 While the right arm straightens into a GAUN SAU position with the wrist on the centreline the left arm is brought up to the right elbow. 208 Maintain the position of the right arm as you close your left hand as a vertical fist on your centreline. 209 Push the left fist out along the centreline relaxed as the right arm is brought up with the hand closed. 210 Energy is expressed in the last six inches as the left fist changes into a punch while the right fist is brought up relaxed and held by the left elbow. 211 Tension is relaxed from the left fist as it drops slightly and begins to be pulled back toward the body; simultaneously the right fist starts to push out along the centreline. 212 In the last six inches the right fist converts to a punch with the left hand coming to rest beside the right elbow. 213 Push the left fist out along the centreline relaxed while the right fist drops and is pulled back without tension. 214 As the left fist changes in the last six inches to a centreline punch, the right arm is pulled back to the rest position with the right fist held horizontally at the side of the

chest and level with the front of the chest, back of the hand down. 215 Keeping the arm straight open the hand flat with the palm up. 216 Pull the fingers back straight, bending at the wrist and the third joint of the fingers so that they point back toward the body. Tension is exerted in the arm as a slow HUEN SAU is initiated. 217 The HUEN SAU is slow and with total tension with the elbow locked out. Even though you are near completion of the form your concentration on position and movement is still critical, always bring to mind what makes a technique correct and only be satisfied with perfection, then you will always have something to aim for in your practise of SIU LIM TAO. 218 Continue the tension in the arm until the hand reaches the horizontal then relax the tension and rapidly close the hand as a horizontal fist. 219 Pull the arm back to the rest position at the side of the chest. 220 Begin to close your stance by first bringing your heels together by pivoting on the balls of your feet. 221 Rotate on the heels to bring the feet together, you should at this point still have your knees bent. Drop your arms relaxed to the side of your body as you stand up to relax from your stance in completion of SIU LIM TAO.