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Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

Introduction
There are all kinds of information that is exchanged in every company. This process is the organization communication. There are channels of communication that flows in every organization. Sometimes type and size of an organization can have an affect on what type of communication channel is mostly used. In every organization their communication process are different. Organizations have their own internal and external communication process. Everyone in an organization must recognize the importance of communication and the role it plays among the workers. Communication process is the sending and receiving of messages and the source sending (encodes) the intended meaning message through a channel which the receiver (decodes) the message perceived meaning and then possibly the receiver communicating through feedback to the sender returning another message. By having the feedback process we can help the communication process improve. It is very important to have an effective and efficient communication. People today spend most of the time of their lives in different kinds of organization school, work, hobbies and etc. And for organizations to function it takes effective internal and external communication. This term paper is done because a well-organized communication process is very essential for the employees to be able to delegate work as well as inform the others about their status in projects and tasks. To be able to do that one has to communicate correctly, with the right and effective channel. There should be a functional way to keep everyone informed about things that everyone should know.

Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

What is Communication?
Communication is the activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender.

What is Business Communication?


Business Communication: communication used to promote a product, service, or organization; relay information within the business; or deal with legal and similar issues. It is also a means of relaying between a supply chain, for example the consumer and manufacturer. Business Communication is known simply as "Communications". It encompasses a variety of topics, including Marketing, Branding, Customer relations, Consumer Community behavior, Advertising, Research Public & relations, Corporate communication, management, engagement, Measurement, Reputation

Interpersonal communication, Employee engagement, Online communication, and Event management. It is closely related to the fields of professional communication and technical communication. Business Communication can also refer to internal communication. A communications director will typically manage internal communication and craft messages sent to employees. It is vital that internal communications are managed properly because a poorly crafted or managed message could foster distrust or hostility from employees.[1] Business Communication is a common topic included in the curricula of Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programs of many universities. AS well, many community colleges and universities offer degrees in Communications.

Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

Types of Organizational Communication:


Various forms of communication exist in the workplace; however, be aware that some are more effective than others. In Gareth R. Jones and Jennifer M. George's book, Contemporary Management, information richness is "the amount of information that a communication medium can carry and the extent to which the medium enables the sender and receiver to reach a common understanding." The four levels of information richness in business communication are as follows: faceto-face communication, spoken communication electronically transmitted (telephone or voicemail), personally addressed written communication (personal messages), and impersonal written communication (impersonal messages). Face-To-Face Communication Apply face-to-face communication if you want to get the most out of an employee-toemployee interaction. It reveals more information than any other form of communication; most importantly, nonverbal communication. Examples of nonverbal communication are facial expressions, body language, tone of voice and attire. Nonverbal communication can support or contradict verbal statements. Instant feedback, another advantage of faceto-face communication, can resolve confusion, ambiguity or misinterpretation. "The best way to communicate major change to the frontline workforce is face-to-face," write T.J. Larkin and Sandar Larkin in their article, "Reaching and Changing Frontline Employees." Video conferencing is another way for employees to benefit from face-to-face communication while saving time and money. Telephone or Voicemail Call or leave a message if you can't speak face-to-face with someone. Telephone communication or voices messaging over the Internet are examples of spoken communication electronically transmitted. This is the next level of information richness, a step below face-to-face communication. An advantage of direct telephone communication is the tone of voice and immediate feedback. Unlike face-to-face communication, spoken communication lacks the benefits of body language or facial Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization 3

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501) expression. Voicemail takes another step back, as feedback is not immediate. Despite that, though, it is a necessity for out-of-office employees. Personal Written Messages If you telecommute, you likely communicate through e-mails or online messaging. Personally addressed written communication, a level below electronically transmitted verbal communication, demands attention from the recipient. The message is written in the way the recipient understands. The downside? Personally addressed letters and emails lack immediate feedback and nonverbal communication. As chat rooms become more common in the workplace, written communication will have a forum for immediate feedback. Impersonal Written Messages Use impersonal written communication for various messages like rules, policies, regulations, news, procedural changes and the arrival of new employees. The lowest level of information richness, these are the mass e-mails or general memos sent to a large group. Because of the impersonal nature, employees may not feel accountable to respond. As a result, feedback is not assured. Impersonal written communication must be written clearly, so that every person understands the message.

Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

The Flow and Channels of Communication in an Organization:


Communication is an essential part of every day life. People interact with each other every day and that calls for communication. An American communications philosopher Lee Thayer has said that Communication and functions of energy are the two basic elements in our lives. Communication affects our lives as much as nutrition or health. (Blundel, 2004, 2) That is why it is very important to know what communication is and what it includes. Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between a sender and a receiver (Bratton and Gold 1994, 259). Communication is an event, a process. To be more precise, it is exchange of messages between the sender and the receiver. (Blundel, 2004, 3) Communication process: According to Thomas J. Lee (2004) the fundamental purpose of communication in an organization is to enable and energize employees to carry out its strategic intent. It is essential for organizations to have the capability to quickly identify, send receive, and understand strategically relevant information. When making decisions on strategy and policy the necessity and the challenge of communication must be taken into account, and organizing the communication so that it functions effectively must be a part of the organizations strategic priorities. Communication can flow in three directions: Downward: As an example for downward communication we can use managers communicating with their subordinates. Upward: Upward communication flows to a higher level in the organization. Horizontal: Communication that flows between employees at the same level in the organization is horizontal communication.

Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

Communication Process in Different Organization


Communication Process in a Hospital: Communication is one of the most important skills a medical professional can have. Doctors, nurses, medical technicians and many other types of medical workers all may need to communicate with patients at some time. Effective communication helps patients answer questions appropriately, which may help with a diagnosis. It also helps a patient understand her medical condition. Failure to communicate effectively with a patient may lead to a misunderstanding and non-compliance with recommended treatment. Ways of Communication: 1. For instance, when you first talk to the patient determine if there are any language barriers. Many health care facilities can arrange for an interpreter. Determine if the patient has a medical condition, such as dementia, which may interfere with communication. Having a family member present while you talk to a patient with dementia may help. Identifying barriers allows you to develop ways to overcome them. 2. Speak in terms a patient can understand. Different patients may have different levels of understanding. This does not mean you have to talk down to a patient. However, a patient who is elderly and hard of hearing may need you to speak slowly. Also a patient who is dealing with a recent diagnosis may feel overwhelmed by all the information. Being clear and concise, without using complicated medical terminology, is best in this situation. 3. Listen to a patient's questions and answers. Communication is a two-way street. Although you may have information you want to convey to your patient, listening is part of the job. Take the needed time to hear your patients, and avoid interrupting. Rushing through a conversation may prevent you from really hearing what your patient has to say. 4. Watch for nonverbal communication. Look at your patient for signs he understands what you are saying. Watch facial expressions. If a patient looks confused, ask him if he has questions or understands what you are saying. Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization 6

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501) 5. be compassionate. Patients in a hospital not only are ill, they may be scared, depressed and feel vulnerable. Keep in mind a patient is more than a disease. Make eye contact, which may help a patient feel you are interested in the conversation. Always answer questions honestly and be respectful. Barriers to Effective Communication in a Hospital: Effective communication within hospitals depends on efficient patient care coordination, proper use of technology, and sound communication management procedures. Barriers to any of these can impede the effective transfer of information among hospital staff. According to the American Hospital Association, good communication in the health-care setting is becoming harder to achieve with complex technology, increased patient needs and a lack of resources. Patient Care Coordination Patient-centered communication allows doctors and nurses to reach populations entering hospitals from a variety of cultures and backgrounds. According to a communication barriers study produced by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, non-English speaking patients often encounter inappropriate medical treatment and hospitalization because of the language barrier between patient and doctor. Hospitals often lack the time and money needed to initiate effective communication strategies, such as creating community advisory boards and recruiting a diverse staff of health-care workers. Health Information Technology With advances in technology, hospital workers are becoming more reliant on high-tech devices and less on forms of written communication. Pagers, computers and cell phones keep doctors and nurses electronically connected, but more wiring can create more grievous errors. According to the National Center of Policy Analysis, health information systems can intensify problems when electronic medical records contain false information that is relied upon by hospital staff.

Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

Communication Process in a Classroom:


The communication process is vital to effective learning within a classroom environment. Classroom instruction that produces positive results acknowledges the need for a liberal use of nonverbal cues, student involvement and team communication. Delivering Instruction Instructors must convey instruction to students within a classroom. When lecturing or describing assignments, a teacher must gauge the comfort level of each of his students with his communication style. For example, if he explicitly defines rules and regulations associated with class work, he may help students to be clearly aware of their boundaries, but may also lead them to feel micromanaged. In actual practice, communication within the classroom tends to be a happy compromise between both extremes, being either exclusively direct or indirect in nature. Soliciting Participation Student involvement during classroom discussions typically fosters a healthy communication process. Students should be coaxed to participate in the classroom, despite the fact that many students are reticent to voice their opinions. The solicitation of participation serves multiple purposes. Students observe that their questions are worthy of being answered, can freely exchange ideas with one another and can build confidence as they express themselves in public. Often, instructors can quickly identify weak areas of student understanding when they are invited to speak up during a class session. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Communication within a classroom context relies just as heavily on written instruction, body language and implicit expectancies as it does on verbal cues. Douglas A. Parker, author of "Confident Communication: Speaking Tips for Educators," advises that twothirds of an instructor's message is contained in his nonverbal language. Educators should

Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501) devote attention to the use of appropriate gestures, facial expressions and constructive use of physical space when teaching a class of students. Team Building Acquisition of essential learning concepts is reinforced when students are encouraged to incorporate team communication skills within the classroom. Group work allows students to advance a division of responsibilities as well as to provide one another with peer support. Educators should monitor teams as they operate within a classroom, helping students to establish consensus regarding their approach to the material being studied. Assessments In order to assess student mastery of concepts touched upon during classroom instruction, an educator should compel his students to demonstrate their knowledge through written or oral tests. Written tests are familiar to students, who undergo a battery of standardized tests from grade school until they are deeply entrenched within their university years. Oral tests, by contrast, are more sparingly used and may permit educators to detect learning disabilities in children. Barriers to Effective Communication in the Classroom Teachers have an increasingly difficult job trying to communicate effectively to classrooms that are growing in size and may contain students who come from varied backgrounds. Some common barriers to effective communication in the classroom are listening barriers, perception barriers, oral barriers and cultural barriers. Learning to recognize and overcome these barriers is essential in effective classroom communication. Listening Barriers Effective listening is one of the most important factors in classroom communication. Take the time to listen to what the other person is saying. When someone is speaking, you should not be thinking of your next response. Negative emotions may occur when certain words or body language is used. A teacher must also take care to keep emotional Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization 9

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501) reactions to a minimum and focus on what the speaker is saying. Outside noise such as telephones, email or construction noise can sometimes make listening difficult. This outside noise should be minimized in the classroom. Perception Barriers Perception may be a barrier to effective communication in the classroom. Different people may receive and hear the same message but interpret it differently. Paying attention to detail is also important. Important aspects can be missed by not covering a subject in depth. A teacher should also learn to focus on both positive and negative aspects of a conversation. By having a distorted focus, a teacher may only focus on the negative aspects of a conversation. Oral Barriers Communication barriers in the classroom may exist if oral communication is not clear. Communication only occurs when the listener hears and understands your message in the way you meant for it to be received. Some problems in oral communications include using words with ambiguous meanings. The teacher must make sure the students clearly understand the meanings of words. Another problem in oral communications is using generalizations and stereotypes. Classroom communication should be specific to the topic and without bias. A teacher must also take caution not to make a premature conclusion before she has all the facts about a topic or situation. Finally, a teacher must overcome any lack of self-confidence and deliver the message with assertiveness and clarity. Cultural Barriers Cultural differences can be a barrier to effective communications in the classroom. It is possible for both a teacher and a student to have predisposed ideas about behavior based on what the other person's culture is. Messages are often misunderstood if they are delivered in a way that is unfamiliar to the student's culture. It is important to dispel assumptions or biases based on cultural differences in a classroom.

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Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501) Barriers to Effective Teaching Teachers employ a variety of teaching methods with the best of intentions. However, there are some barriers to effective teaching. These barriers could stem from practical issues, such as diversity in the classroom. However, there are also ways of reducing the impact of these obstacles, as a report from the U.S. Department of Education finds. Classroom Diversity Regulations relating to access to the general curriculum for all children have lead to a move towards inclusion. There are a number of ways that schools have moved to provide access to children with disabilities. One way is to include disabled children in a class with other children, and provide the same instruction to everyone. However, this may pose a barrier to effective teaching, considering that the lack of individualization of the lesson could pose a problem for the disabled children. For instance, teachers may not provide instruction on reading comprehension strategies that might benefit only the disabled children. Greater Teacher Responsibilities Considering a need to take into account the requirements of individual students, teachers, especially those who have to handle classrooms of large students, may find their teaching becomes less effective. As the move to inclusion grows, teachers have found themselves called on to develop new skills and be more attuned to the philosophy of inclusion. For instance, teachers need to be geared to the academic, emotional and intellectual needs of multiple students. Skills and Training Another barrier to effective teaching is that teachers may lack the skills or training to effectively instruct students. The Department of Education reports that certifying exams for teachers may incorporate low standards that do not substantiate the teachers' abilities to perform in a classroom setting. Bureaucratic practices are partly to blame for this state

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Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501) of affairs. Some licensing systems are complicated and may discourage people with a genuine interest in the profession. Eliminating Barriers Providing teachers with the right training and investing in their professional development is a way to eliminate some of the barriers that prevent them from being effective. For instance, state and local governments could dedicate a part of their education budgets to investments in teacher training. In Washington state's Bellevue school district, there is an initiative to allow teachers to engage in professional development. By lengthening the school day on four days, and letting off students early on the fifth day, the teachers have some free time to engage in professional development activities

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Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

Communication Process in the Workplace


Getting people to work together in peace, unity and motivated for a common vision is a complex process. Effective communication skills in the workplace help to promote clear vision, teamwork and comprehensive objectives. Businesses thrive on the use of effective communication. Communication is used for employee training, customer satisfaction and to build relationships with other businesses. Identifying areas of weakness and implementing effective communication skills is the first step in improving the workplace environment. 1. Keep it Professional A common downfall in workplace communication is when people take situations personally. When at work, all conversation and correspondence needs to remain professional. If there is conflict, it should be addressed by management in an organized and governed manner. For example, if a co-worker is stressed out because of personal reasons and gets angry with another employee, the other employee should respond professionally by avoiding emotional engagement. If the communication is inappropriate, the employee should report it to the Human Resources Department. He should not take it into his own hands. Listen with Empathy When an employee has a concern or issue, management needs to listen with empathy and respond accordingly. Listening skills are also required for employees who deal with customers or other external communication. For example, if a customer calls in with a complaint, the customer service representative should listen to the entire complaint, without interruption, and then address the issue with compassion and understanding.

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Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

Encourage Open Communication - Feedback Leadership should provide feedback agents such as surveys, focus groups and one-on-one meetings that encourage open, honest communication. If there is conflict within a department or team, the manager should call a meeting to address the issue at hand and talk about it openly to resolve the conflict. Workplace communication will not be effective if people do not feel comfortable being honest with their thoughts, concerns and ideas. Think of the Greater Good Stay away from confrontational behavior where you attempt to prove you are right. Effective workplace communication focuses on the greater good of the corporate culture and company's mission statement and goals. If youre accused of something or feel offended by another employee's comments, listen with compassion, respond with grace, and redirect the conversation back to the task at hand avoiding personal issues. Address the Good in People Its easy to focus on peoples faults and shortcomings, but this will only lead to discouragement. Encourage employees to do their best and, even during confrontation, address the good in the person. For example, if youre confronting someone because he is late, first offer encouragement, explaining that you have noticed his effort and desire to be on time, and then address the issue.

Barriers to Workplace Communication


Communication is the fabric of a company that helps employees succeed at their job, relate to the public and conduct business with customers and other businesses. Barriers exist in the workplace that can distract, distort or restrict communication. Identifying workplace communication barriers is the first step in overcoming them and improving organizational communication. Variation of Communication Process in Different Types of Organization 14

Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501) Physical Barriers Management may use physical barriers to intentionally limit communication. A common example is the placement of the CEOs office. Typically her office is located on the top floor and a key is required in the elevator to gain access. A closed office door, dividing walls or separate rooms that departments operate from all hamper communication. Emotional Barriers If a person is afraid of losing his job or that a superior is going to find out that he compromised his work, he will take pains to limit his communications. Jealousy and envy crop up when workers are at odds with one another. If an employee is promoted and others are unhappy with the promotion, this creates emotional barriers that will prevent effective communication. Perceptual Barriers Everyone sees and understands the world differently. A task may be given to a team of employees and each employee may pursue the objective very differently. A team leader may ask a team member to remember to turn in his work before 5. The team member may perceive that the leader doesnt trust him or doesnt think he is a good worker. A different worker in that situation might perceive that the leader is looking out for her best interest. Cultural Barriers A persons upbringing, culture and belief system can all play into complex barriers in the workplace. For example, a person from a South American country may feel comfortable talking in close proximity, while a North American may feel uncomfortable. Learning to keep comfortable social distances and observe other cultural preferences will help overcome cultural barriers.

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Effective English for Business Communication (MBA 501)

Conclusion
Finally we can say that in every organization follows different communication process, and thats why in a classroom, in a hospital and in a normal workplace employees are following different communication processes. We have completed our term paper based on a classroom, a hospital and a normal workplace, and in these three institutions has variation of communication process. Both the management and employees should realize that communication is a very important part of business, especially in the company where the offices and divisions are far away from each other and therefore communication gaps can easily cause major difficulties in the companys operations. There should be built a clear communication system and a person appointed to help the companys internal communication operate better. Communication in organizations encompasses all the means, both formal and informal, by which information is passed up, down, and across the network of managers and employees in a business. These various modes of communication may be used to disseminate official information between employees and management, to exchange hearsay and rumors, or anything in between. The challenge for businesses is to channel these myriad communications so they serve to improve customer relations, bolster employee satisfaction, build knowledge-sharing throughout the organization, and most importantly, enhance the firm's competitiveness.

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