By
A Doctorial Thesis
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of: Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University October 2000
.:
x. '. .. '. .
L _
ABSTRACr
Abstract
The economic and environmental benefits securedthrough the increased integration of (PV) technology into the built environment are undeniable and provide photovoltaic the principal motivation for this research. Present delays in the technology transfer of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) can be attributed to the following: " material cost " performance guarantee increasedinstallation complexity " " unfamiliar technology It is well understood that the temperature of a PV material receiving solar irradiation, increase with solar intensity, while reducing in electrical efficiency. It therefore will makes economic sense to minimise the increase in PV material temperature and maximise electrical energyyield. Through the addition of a convecting fluid, flowing over the surface of heated PV material, heat transfer will be induced. With the added benefit of warm air capture from an integrated photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collector, the economic benefits are increased. But, to ensure maximum utilisation of both thermal and electrical energy a significantly more complex control system has to be employed than that production, for a PV system on its own. Integrating such PVT systems into building facades brings with it another important The ideal site for such PVT modules on a building facade tends to be at consideration. the locations of light apertures.The reasonsfor this include considerations of the basic construction of the PVT modules, which incorporate a ventilated cavity of similar construction to modem day doubleglazing. Thus, the optimum performance of PVT modules on buildings can only be achieved through the simultaneousregulation of the following. PV electrical output " thermal energy capture
iv
ABSTRACr
solar energy gains All three of these points are strongly dependenton the ratio of opaque PV material to transparent glass over the facade construction. An optimum facade design will make consideration of the following points. building location " building design "
buildinguse "
energy storagefacilities and " budget " Modelling the energy flows within a multifunctional PVT building facade presents a problem of considerable complexity. Previous work in this area has centred on performing finite element analysis of the system in order to find solutions to complex algorithms. It requires considerable computational power to perform these calculations and often the results produced are much more detailed than required. Within this thesis, a fully operational PVT facade model is presented, giving the for improved multifunctional facadedesign. potential This new model has been developed into a software program for use within the TRNSYS environment. By using the TRNSYS software, a detailed building model has been created and integrated with the new PVT facade model. Simulations were then undertaken to evaluate the energy transfers between internal and external environments and the electrical and thermal energy capturing capabilities of the facade. Simulated results have been evaluated against experimental data taken from a fully operational PVT facade. The results conclude that the presented model simulates the energy flows around, through and within the facade (radiative, conductive, convective and electrical) very well. Performanceenhancing development work is due to take place on the operational facade analysed in this work, very soon. This new facade model will be used as a tool to evaluate the proposed changesto the building prior to this development work being undertaken.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Acknowledgements
With respect to the last four years of research,and summarised in this thesis, I would like to credit the following. Without the help and guidance of whom, it would not have been possible to complete this work. I am profoundly grateful to them all. I owe my greatest thanks to EPSRC, without the financial backing from which (through both payments of course fees and living expenses) it would not have been possible to undertake this work. Thanks need also to be given to both of my supervisors; Dr David Infield who originally provided me with the opportunity to carry out this research and Professor Victor Hanby whose knowledge of my researchareahas been invaluable. I've been greatly fortunate to have the opportunity to work within the `Control Group' department of the University for the majority of my research time at Loughborough. The endlesshelp and guidance provided by both Professor Roger Goodall and Dr John Pearsonhas been a great source of encouragement. My final thanks go to my family who have unconditionally supported me throughout the whole of my seven years of University life. I would especially like to acknowledge Mum and Dad, who were never given the opportunities that have been made my available to me. In addition, I give thanks to my brother Gyles (who's computing facilities I have exploited to the full in producing this thesis), my sister Zoe and her husbandTrevor for their help and encouragementthroughout.
vi
STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY
Statement of Originality
This is to certify that I am responsible for the work submitted in this thesis, that the original work is my own except as specified in acknowledgementsand footnotes, and that neither the thesis nor the original work contained therein has been submitted to this or any other institution for a higher degree.
Signed...... `....
....
.........
Mr Duncan E. Wren
26thOctober 2000
INDEX
Index
NOMENCLATURE XI .........................................................................................................................
1.2 PROJECTPROGRAM
1.3 THESIS STRUCTURE .................................................................................................................... 1.4 UTILISED RESEARCH SOFTWARE................................................................................................. 1.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................................................
MODELLING
........................................................................................................................ 3.2 THE MODELLING PROCEDURE.................................................................................................. 3.3 NATURAL CONVECTION ........................................................................................................... 3.4 FORCED CONVECTION .............................................................................................................. COEFFICIENTS 3.5 WIND DRIVEN PRESSURE ................................................................................... 3.6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 4 EXPERIMENTAL 4.1 INTRODUCTION
3.1 INTRODUCTION
................................................................................................. 4.3 DETAILS OF BUILDING UNDER INVESTIGATION .......................................................................... 4.4 WIND LOADING EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION .......................................................................... 4.5 DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................................. 4.6 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................... 4.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................
INDEX
5.2 FACADE DESCRIPTION .............................................................................................................. 5.3 MODEL DESIGN ........................................................................................................................ 5.4 FACADE DYNAMIC RESPONSE ................................................................................................ 5.5 PROGRAM CONSTRUCTION ..................................................................................................... 5.6 MODEL VALIDATION .............................................................................................................. 5.7 VALIDATION AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL DATA ......................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... 5.9 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................................... 5.8 DISCUSSION
..................................................................................................
6.6 GRID CONNECTION ................................................................................................................. 6.7 DATA LOGGING & RETRIEVAL ............................................................................................... 6.8 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................
7 BUILDING
MODELLING
RESULTS .......................................................................................
147
147 148 150 152 155 157 158 160 164 168 198 208
7.1 INTRODUCTION
...................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... 7.5 INFILTRATION & VENTILATION ............................................................................................... 7.6 COOLING & HEATING .............................................................................................................
7.7 BUILDING WALL CONSTRUCTIONS .......................................................................................... 7.8 THE BUILDINGFACADE INTERFACE........................................................................................ 7.9 SIMULATION APPROXIMATIONS .............................................................................................. 7.10 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS .................................................................................................... 7.11 DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................
7.12 BIBLIOGRAPHY
SOLUTIONS
...
220 ..................................
ix
INDEX
Al THE VELOCITY BOUNDARY LAYER A2 THE THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER A3 CONVECTION FROM A FLAT PLATE
B APPROXIMATE
INTEGRAL
ANALYSIS METHOD
............................................................
231
231 235
......................................................................................... ..........................................................................................
239 .........................................................
239 242 244
......................................................................................... ..........................................................................................
.............................................................................................
247 ....................................................
247 249 250 252 253 255
............................................................................................... FACADE GLAZING TEMPERATURES ......................................................................................... CAVITY AIR USEFUL HEAT GAIN ............................................................................................ FACADE COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY FACTOR AND HEAT LOSS COEFFICIENT ................................ FACADE CAVITY AIR OUT TEMPERATURE ............................................................................... CAVITY MEAN AIR TEMPERATURE .........................................................................................
PARADIGM
.............................................................
256 256
258 ..........................................
258
...............................................................................................................
...................................................................................
261
G GRAPHICAL RESULTS FROM CIIAPTER 4.4 264 ..................................................................... H PREDICTED RESPONSEOF FACADE MODEL 273 ..................................................................
Nomenclature
A a, g B C cf
C..
m2 _ m
+ob
Y
_ m
Jkg' j& Wm2 _
d
e E F F' FR g G gg Gr H h
m m Wm2K7'
i 1
Jkg' Wm2
xi
NOMENCLATURE
k
K ke I L
thermal conductivity, extinction coefficient constant eddy conductivity length facade cavity spacing, length of system characteristic
Wm lKa
Wm'Ic' m m m
n
Nu p Pr Q,q Q. Ra Re Rt T
index refractive
local Nusselt number pressure Prandtl number heat useful heat gain Rayleigh number Reynolds number thermal resistance temperature Wlm2K K Nm2
t
U u, v V W x x, y X, Y z
time
thermal losses componentsof velocity velocity facade cavity width thickness componentsof length body forces referenceheight
s
Wm zK' ms2 msI m m m Nm3 m
NOMENCLATURE
Greek Symbols
8 v 0
velocity boundary layer height volumetric thermal expansioncoefficient kinematic viscosity dimensionlesstemperature, time, angle StefanBoltsman constant absoluteviscosity reflectance, density transmittance, sheer stress, time constant
a P
Nm2
a
n
solar absorptance, thermal diffusivity efficiency, similarity variable emittance dynamic viscosity eddy diffusivity thermal boundary layer height difference
m2s''
%
E f EH S, h
NsmZ mZs'' m
NOMENCLATURE
Subscripts
00
infinite time,
a
T 1,2,3,4,5 a A, B, C,D, E,F, G,H bottom c cav2 e eqv ext f g h i int PV r s STC t top
xiv
1 OUTLINE OF RESEARCH
1.1 Introduction
The work undertaken within this thesis centres on the design of a theoretical model to simulate the operation of a building integrated solar photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collector. The chosen design was required to provide accurate calculations of the thermal and electrical energy flows from and through a ventilated facade. The PVT collector model design was constructed by updating a proven thermal collector model. The original collector model was improved through the addition of up to date published research material and consideration of previously unmodelled processes. The performance of the presentedPVT model has been evaluated against experimental data taken from a monitored fullscale PVT facade. Based on the findings from this analysis, guidelines will be developed to improve the design and control of such building integrated PVT facadesin future installations.
3
4 5
The work contained in this thesis is entirely encompassedunder Activity 4 of Table 1.2.1.The individual tasks contained in Activity 4 above, are shown in Table 1.2.2.
.3*1
Compare the zone heating characteristics from facade heat capture and thermal storagereclamation Study the effect of the control system on energy capture and delivery Model electrical performance of PV array Develop thermal storagemodel for integration with facade/building model
4.7*5
4.8 *6
Developzonelightingloadmodel
Simulate modifications to facade performance after the addition of the solar air heating element on the facade
4.9 4.10
*' & *4 Aspects of the thermal energy storage element of the Matarb library simulation model have yet to be finalised and as such storageis not in a position to be modelled at present. *2 This task will be jointly undertaken between Loughborough University and GRAMMER, external to this present research *3 A full investigation of the PV array performance of the building has been carried out using the FACPV software by Aceves et alW'W
by *S Construction a lighting load modelfor the library is to be undertaken HfT, externalto of this present research
*6 A discussion on this modification to the facade is given later in this thesis
Of the tasks listed in Table 1.2.2, those fully or partly addressedwithin this thesis are Tasks 4.1,4.2,4.9 and 4.10.
operation
5 Validation of Facade Model Validates fagademodel against experimental data 6 The Matar Library & Its Facade
CHAPTER 1. OWIJNE
OF RESEARCH
By way of its flexible nature, many tools and utility programs can be controlled from the IISiBat shell, such that a complete simulation containing many modular componentscan be incorporated into one environment program.
1.5 Bibliography
O.Aceves, L. Sabata, M. Chantant, J.M. Servant, Ph. Ragot, J.C.Aguillon, M. Gurard, and A. Lloret, Modules", "Design and Performance Photovoltaic Assessment of Solar Energy
Multifunctional
13`h European
Conference,Nice, France, 2327 October 1995. 2 Loughborough University, "Design Study & Experimental Evaluation of an Integrated Solar Facade", (Joule11Project Report for Matar Library Project, JOU2CT920046), 1997.
2.1 Introduction
An accurate evaluation of heat transfer between the thermal collector plate and fluid in any solar thermal collector system is of paramount importance. The working is at transferring its absorbed heat to the more effective a collector construction fluid, the more efficient its performancewill be. working Where the fluid makes contact with its bounding surface, both velocity and thermal boundary layers are formed within the fluid. The velocity boundary layer is by the presence of velocity gradients and sheer stresses,whereas the characterised boundary layer is characterisedby the temperaturegradient and heat transfer. thermal At the boundary surface, the fluid velocity will be zero and heat transfer will be Away from the surface, bulk fluid motion and achieved solely through conduction. heat transfer originate from the fluid velocity and thermal boundary layers, which increasing fluid flow path length. grow with It is the condition of both the velocity and thermal boundary layers, which determine the magnitude of convective heat transfer; both of which are influenced by the following: " surface geometry (roughness) the nature of fluid motion " " fluid thermodynamic and transport properties The nature of fluid motion can be classified under either, or both of forced and natural Natural convection describes a fluid convection. flow induced solely through buoyancy forces, which in turn arise through density differences caused by temperature variations in the fluid. Forced convection, on the other hand, describes a fluid flowing by way of an external means. 8
Regardless of the particular nature of the convective heat transfer process, the appropriate expressionquantifying the heat flow between fluid and bounding surface is given by Newton's Law of cooling, shown by Equation 2.1.1. qq = k(T, Tf) where q, = convective heat flux [Wm'] T, =surface temperature[K] Tf =fluid temperature[K] k= '2 convective heat transfer coefficient [WmK] Equation 2.1.1
The convective heat transfer coefficient h,, encompasses each of the three influencing factors listed above in such a way that any study of heat convection ultimately reduces to a study of the meansby which h, may be determined. An evaluation of h, for a specified system can be achieved through consideration of the interaction between the fluid and its bounding surface at the point of contact. At the bounding surface there is no fluid motion and energy transfer occurs solely by conduction. The heat flux at any distancex from the leading edge may be obtained by applying Fourier's law of conduction at j0.
4: =kf
9 aTf
ayy. o
Equation 2.1.2
where q, = heat flux at surface[Wm'2] y= distancefrom bounding surface into fluid [m] kf= fluid conductivity [Wm''K'' ] Combining Equations 2.1.1 & 2.1.2 gives the following relation for h, where qs=qc.
k
fax
aTf ly.
0
Equation 2.1.3
TT T,  Tf
Hence conditions in the thermal boundary layer, which strongly influence the wall temperature gradient dT/y(, determine the rate of heat transfer across the boundary _o, layer. 9
There are four generalmethodsavailablefor evaluatingthe convectiveheat transfer h,, coefficients, asfollows:
1. Dimensional analysiscombined with experiments 2. Exact mathematical solutions of the boundarylayer equations 3. Analyses of the boundary layer by integral methods 4. Analogy between heat, massand momentum transfer All four of these techniques have contributed to the understanding of convective heattransfer. Yet, no single method can solve all possible problems because each method has limitations, restricting its scopeof application.
10
11
a(pu) a(PV) ax +
P
=o ay
2
Equation 2.3.1
au au = ap a +u+vax ay ax
ax
au (au av 2+ax 3 ax ay
ay
a4 + av au
ay ax
+X
Equation 2.3.2 av
uax+vay
av
2p+ a __ ayay
av
au _2
av
tL2Ji1
ay
3 ax+ay
a +ax
au
av
ay+ax
+Y
Equation 2.3.3
12
where u= mass average fluid velocty in x direction [ms'] v= mass average fluid velocity in y direction [ms'] p= fluid pressure [Nm']
13
uv u Du v v
ay x'y'x
where fluid velovity parallel to surface[ms] u= v= fluid velocity perpendicular to surface[ms'] That is, the velocity component in the direction along the surface is much larger than that normal to the surface and thermal gradients normal to the surface are much larger than those along the surface. Under these conditions, the continuity and x momentum describing the system are by Equations 2.3.4 and 2.3.5. given
au
ax
av
=0 ay
Equation 2.3.4
Du v au uaz+a+v =1
aY
ap 'u
Pxy2
Equation 2.3.5
v=
[m2S1
Adapting the above approximations to the equations describing the energy transport processesin the system, gives Equation 2.3.6.
ap ap aT vaT _ a2T v +u ax +v + u ax Z+ c, a yy yv a
ADV =COND+DISS+COMP where ADV = advective temperatureflow COND = conductive temperatureflow DISS = fluid dissipation COMP = fluid compressibility a= thermal diffusivity [m2s]
(DU
Equation 2.3.6
Advection being the process whereby heat is transferred by both conduction and convection.
14
In most situations, the viscous dissipation may be neglected relative to those that account for advection and conduction. In fact it is only for sonic flows or the highspeedmotion of lubricating oils that viscous dissipation may not be neglected. Comparing Equations 2.3.5 & 2.3.6 highlights strong similarities. If the pressure gradient appearing in Equation 2.3.5 and the viscous dissipation & compressibility terms of Equation 2.3.6 are neglected, the two equations are in fact of the same form. Implications of this similarity may be developed in a rational manner by nondimensionalising the governing equations and utilising dimensionless independent variables.
15
CHAPTER
2. CONVECTIVE
HEAT
TRANSFER
2.4 Approximate
Integral Analysis
Method
The approximate
description of the fluid flow within the boundary layer. Instead, a plausible but simple equation is used to describe the velocity and temperature distributions in the boundary layer. The problem is then analysed on a macroscopic basis by applying the equation of motion and the energy equation to the aggregate of the fluid particles contained within the boundary layer. This method is relatively simple; moreover, it yields
to problems that cannot be treated by an exact mathematical analysis. In solutions those instances where other solutions are available, they agree within engineering
to the solutions obtained by this approximate method. This technique is not accuracy limited to laminar flow, but can also be applied to turbulent flow. Instead of writing the equations of motion and heat transfer for a differential control
such as is done in the exact mathematical solution method, a plausible but volume, is used to describe the velocity and temperature distributions simple equation boundary layer. This is achieved through deriving equations in the
of particles in the boundary layer rather than individual particles themselves. properties
Direction of flow ab
S(x)
Edge of boundary layer
Plate surface
1
16
v r
Figure 2.4.1 Control Volume for Approximate Momentum Analysis The net increase in xmomentum fluid flux flowing through the control volume is evaluated from considerations of the xmomentum flux flowing into and outof the
CHAPTER
2. CONVECTIVE
HEAT
TRANSFER
control volume. This control volume under investigation extends from the convection surface to a position above the top of the velocity boundary layer, as shown on Figure 2.4.1. Using Equation 2.4.1 (the momentum integral equation) the boundary layer thickness and wall friction can be determined using an assumed velocity distribution. The results naturally become more accurate the more closely the assumed velocity distribution resembles actual conditions. df 'u(u u)dy Equation 2.4.1
dx where
g,. = dimensional conversion factor [kg mN's2 ] 'c, = shear stress[ N M2]
ua, bc
Direction of flow
at
Edge of boundary layer
Al
I
X
(1
T,  plate surface temperature
Figure 2.4.2 Control Volume for Approximate Energy Balance in a Boundary Layer
17
CHAPTER 2. CoNvEcnvE
HEAT TRANSFER
In order to determine the rate of convective heat transfer to or from a surface, an energy balance for the aggregateof fluid particles within the control volume of Figure 2.4.2 has to be made. In doing this, the following conditions are imposed:Frictional sheerforces againstthe surfaceare negligible " The fluid physical properties are independentof temperature " Energy is transferred by convection into, or out of the control volume shown by Figure 2.4.2, as a result of fluid motion and conduction through the interface. Equation 2.4.2. to the fluid thermal boundary layer. representsa cubic solution Tf Ts
C1y+C2y3 =
Equation 2.4.2
where Tf =fluid temperature[K] T, = surfacetemperature[K] Equation 2.4.3, the energy conservation equation taken from Appendix B, can be the respective boundary conditions, giving Equation 2.4.4. for the size of solved under thermal boundary layer.
a jl("Tf)udy ax oP T
where
Tf =k co
y y.o
Equation 2.4.3
k= fluid thermal conductivity [Wm''K" ] p= fluid density [Kgm3] specific heat [JKg'K' ] c. = S, = 0.95 Pry y where 5,1,= thermal boundary layer size [m] Equation 2.4.4
18
Where the bar over a symbol denotes the temporal mean value and the prime denotes the instantaneous deviation from the mean value. Figure 2.5.1 shows this relation pictorially. From the resulting theory [see Appendix C], the derived local Nusselt number at any value of x larger than x,, the point at which turbulence becomes evident, can be shown to be Equation 2.5.1.
19
CHAPTER 2. CoNvEcnvE
HEAT TRANSFER
Nux =
hkx
uX = 0.0288Pr1" v
o. s Equation 2.5.1
U,
U
U
s 0.036Pr1" ReLo. =
Equation 2.5.3
But Equation 2.5.3 neglects the existence of the laminar boundary layer and is therefore valid only when Lx,,. The laminar sublayer can be included in the analysis if Equation 2.5.1 is used between the limits of x=x, and x=L and an equivalent 20
CHAPTER 2. CoNvEcrivE
HEAT TRANSFER
laminar boundary layer equation (such as that derived under the `Dimensional Analysis' section) is used betweenthe limits of x=0 and x=x,.
21
CHAPTER 2. CoNvEcnvE
HEAT TRANSFER
22
the characteristic length x of the geometry and usually defined as a function of the on height, H or width, L. convecting wall S(TsT Rax = va where accelerationdue to graviy [ms'] g= = volumetric thermal expansion coefficient [K']
v= kinematic viscosity [m2s1]
Equation 2.6.1
a= thermal diffusivity [m2s''] The physical interpretation of Rax with respect to fluid flow over a flat vertical plate be summarisedas shown below. can Rax <= 109 Rax =109 Rax >= 109 fluid flow is laminar semiturbulent (transitional) flow fluid flow is turbulent 
In situations of fluid flow under forced convection, the state of convection is calibrated in terms of the fluid velocity, or more generally, the Reynolds number, Re. Re L where velocity [ms'] v= L= somecharacteristiclength for the surfaceof interest [m] v= kinematic viscosity [m2s'] vL Equation 2.6.2
23
CHAPTER 2. CoxvECTrvE
HEAT TRANSFER
iv,. U2
=n "
R S
0.387Rati'6
1+
0.492
Pr
9 16 T16 fn
Equation 2.6.1.1
2. free convection uniformly heatedplate. [O<Ra<oo] NuhVz= 0.825 + 0.387RahU6 9/16 8/27 Equation 2.6.1.2
1+
0.437
Pr
He notes that these expressionsfail to indicate the discrete transition from laminar to turbulent flow and that more accurate representationsof convective heat transfer from in the laminar regime (i. e. Rah<109),can be obtained using the following vertical plates expressions. 3. free convection isothermal plate. [Rah<109] T7__ v. vo "r , lvuti A =
LO
0.670RahV4
916 4/9
Equation2.6.1.3
1+0.492
Pr
0.437
Pr
T16
4/9
In the later work of Loveday & Taki(31, convection coefficients are derived experimentally for convected heat from external, vertical surfaces. Their proposals are summarisedas follows in terms of the heat transfer coefficient.
1. forcedconvectionfor windwardconditions
'39' h =16.15 V, 24 Equation 2.6.1.5
3. averagecorrelation of the above two conditions o. V, asz =16.21 where V, = wind speedmeasurednear the surface,in the horizontal direction Equation 2.6.1.7
Figure 2.6.1.1 Plan View Showing Leeward and Windward Wind Directions
In the published work of Incropera & DeWitt111, many Nusselt number relations are defined for numerous flat plate convection scenarios. In a mixed boundary layer both laminar and turbulent air flow regimes are present, an expression situation, where for the average Nusselt number has been obtained by integrating the heat transfer O) the laminar region (x? x>: and then over the turbulent region coefficient over ). (h>x>x, This leads to the following: I
Nuh =(0.037Reh4871)Pr3 where 0.6<Pr<60 5x105 < Rea 5108 Re,., = 5x105
Equation 2.6.1.8
25
CHAPTER 2. CONVEctivE
HEAT TRANSFER
In the most up to date work of Kimura et a1[4], conjugate natural convection (laminar & turbulent air flows) was analytically and experimentally investigated from on vertical plate and concluded with the following relations. The characteristic length used in this work is the wall height, H. 1. Laminar fluid flow (Pr1)
!5
Nuy =0.8(PrRaH)
4T4
Equation2.6.1.9
NUH =0.19(PrRaj'T3
Equation2.6.1.10
The airflow patterns enforced on these facade surfaces will be described most accurately through the experiments of Loveday & Taki (Equations 2.6.1.5,2.6.1.6 and 2.6.1.7) who's derived equationshave been adopted for use within the facade model to the heat convected from both external and internal facade surfaces. simulate
Nuc = 1,0.75C,
RA` 4,0.29
I C, Rais
MAX
Equation2.6.2.1
26
0.49 16 Pr
looked at the effect of aspect ratio on In a continuation of this work, Shewen et a1(61 heat convection within a vertical cavity. Combining the above work of Raithby and his own, led him to the following expression for the local Nusselt number in that of the characteristiclength is again the cavity spacing,L. which
I
/
I
Which he goes on to state,is only applicable within the following limitations. A>_40 Pr  0.7 RaL < 106 like ElSherbiny et al171, Raithby, uses a combination of three correlations to define the Nusselt/Rayleigh number relation. He proposed the following, where the predicted length is the cavity spacing,L and: characteristic Nu, is the averageNusselt number on the lower 3rdof the heated plate Nut is the averageNusselt number on the middle 3rdof the heated plate Nui is the averageNusselt number on the upper Yd of the heated plate
27
Nu, = 0.0605Ra3
i
N3 3
Nut = 1+
0.104 Rao.z9s
1+
6310 Ra
"36
=MAX
Equation2.6.2.3
WrightI81rederives ElSherbiny's correlations to eliminate a small discontinuity in his RaL=5,400. Wright proposed the following set of equations to replace equations near those of Raithby basedagain on the characteristic length L.
I NuL = 0.0673 83 8 RaL3 RaL > 5x104
Equation 2.6.2.4
Because Equation 2.6.2.4 has been derived through the most uptodate analysis on within sealed cavities and also corrects for discontinuities encountered in convection it is this equation that has been adopted for use within the facade model earlier work, to describeheat convection within asymmetrically heatedsealedcavities.
k=(Ey+a)
28
where EH = eddy diffusivit y [m2s"i] ( k/cp) [m2s' ] a= thermal diffusivity k= thermal conductivity [Wm'K1 ]
yqs
cold surface
hot surface
q:
NuzL =i
Equation 2.6.3.1
,, tvu2L
0.1986Re2L8 Pr

Equation 2.6.3.2 2+
5.0 2+Y
Re2Lis+9.74 Pr
29
Aung et a11101 the finite difference method to find solutions to the mass, used equations for both, uniform cavity wall temperatures and momentum and energy heat fluxes. Through their evaluation, they arrive at the following uniform cavity wall where the characteristic length is the cavity depth, L. relations, 1. Uniform wall heat fluxes
, IYUL
qL T, To k
2
Equation2.6.3.3
i
To = temperatureof fluid at channelentrance[K] k= thermal conductivity of fluid [Wm'K1 ] 9= dimensionlesstemperature[n] TTo 9n.uL k
Therefore,by measuringthe wall temperatures half their full height, the average at Nusseltnumberfor the system be found. can
2. Uniform wall temperatures MQ'"= tL L Equation 2.6.3.4
2HTTo
where Q'y = heat absorbedby fluid between channel entranceand exit [W] H= channelheight [m] T= mean fluid temperature[K] Aung concluded that the averageNusselt number is found to be related to the Rayleigh very nearly by a universal curve for all wall temperature difference ratios, number
30
the average of the two wall temperature differences is used to define these providing parameters.
Sparrow et all' ", investigated the fluid flow patterns enforced by an asymmetrically heated, vertical ventilated cavity. He reports that fluid downflow was evident at the top opening of the channel, adjacent to the heated wall. The effects of this phenomenon were analysed through a comparison of experimental and theoretical results of convection. His experimentally derived averageNusselt number for air on the heated plate of the is given through the following relation, where the critical length is the cavity cavity depth, L.
0.229
Nuc = 0.667
Rai
Equation2.6.3.5
where NUL = averageNusselt number for the heated wall RaL = Pr Grl Through the comparison of theoretical and experimental data, he concludes that the down flow phenomenon has an insignificant effect on the overall thermal reported convection processwithin the cavity.
The work of Maad & Belghitht121 took the process of thermal convection analysis a further by investigating the effects of gridgenerated turbulence on the stage convection process. The experiment they performed used two vertical, parallel, heated that were maintained at a temperature above that of the fluid flowing between plates them. Turbulence in the flow was induced by a grid structure located at the bottom opening of the cavity. Their conclusions from this work are summarisedbelow. The averageNusselt number of air flowing under forced convection at the exit the cavity is comparable to that observed on a flat plate, despite the of thermosiphon effect within the cavity.
31
Experimental results show that the introduction of turbulence in the cavity led to a non laminar flow in which the hydrodynamic and thermal fields became very unstable. " The fluid temperature in the middle of the channel was significantly increased that of air flow without gridgenerated turbulence and could reach 60% above of the wall temperature. " In spite of the decrease in volumetric airflow, the average Nusselt number increasedaccording to the size and solidity of the grid arrangements. The Nusselt number expression derived through the work of Sparrow et al (Equation 2.6.3.5 above) describes significantly well the magnitude of thermal convection from the internal surfacesof an asymmetrically heated open cavity and has been adopted for use within the facademodel.
2.6.4 Open cavities with asymmetric heating combined with radiation effects
Carpenter et alE131 one of the first pieces of work to investigate the effects of published between parallel plates in an open cavity on the heat transfer of air radiation exchange flowing between then under free convection. For the condition of asymmetric heating, a Rayleigh number less than 2 [see Equation 2.6.1], Carpenter concludes that the and between cavity walls was found to have little effect on the overall radiation exchange convective heat transfer to the cavity air. As the Rayleigh number increases,radiation serves to transfer heat across the cavity, increasing the convective heat flux from one surface, while decreasing it on the higher temperature surface. Under this condition, significant temperature opposite the higher temperaturewall is observed through radiation exchange,while reduction of the sametime increasing the temperatureof the cooler surface. at He goes on to state that under these conditions, a universal correlation still exists between Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers, when evaluated at the `average wall temperature' and `wall temperature gradient at midheight' for all heat flux ratios and parameters. However, problems occur because the maximum wall radiation temperatureis greatly affected by the radiation exchangebetween the walls.
32
Cheng & Muller[14] make use of a CFD package to numerically simulate a 3D cavity in which a fluid flows under turbulent natural convection with the addition of model thermal radiation exchange between asymmetrically heated cavity walls. They (2], [111, data from other sources [10], [131 compare their theoretical results with experimental and develop the following semiempirical correlation for the total Nusselt number, Nu,., incorporating both convective and radiative heat transfer processes. The characteristic length is defined in terms of an equivalent hydraulic diameter of the flow channel,lo, where:
1
where
L+B
Equation2.6.4.1
Nu,,. = 0.1Ra, os
0.919R 1+(1+2A)1+0.513R,
Equation 2.6.4.2
R, = parameterdefined below
K= J
I 2 +2AE
st Nur,
St = Stanton  number (seebelow) [n] Nuta = Nusselt number for convection only
4QeT,'lo St =k
Equation 2.6.4.3
33
where a= Stefan  Boltzman constant [Wm"ZK"4] T, = Temperatureof heatedwall [K] k= thermal conductivity [Wm"'K" ] Nui, = 0.1Ra,,i Equation 2.6.4.4
The Nusselt expression derived by Cheng & Muller (Equation 2.6.4.2 above) encapsulatesboth the heat convection and radiation exchange within a cavity and a very convenient solution to the calculation of both energy flows within the provides facade. Due to its derivation through CFD modelling, Equation 2.6.4.2 provides a considerably robust solution to the convective and radiative cavity energy flows and has been for use within the facademodel. adopted
34
Z7 Bibliography
1 F.P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt, "Introduction to Heat Transfer  Second Edition". (John Wiley & Sons,New York, 1990). S.W. Churchill and H. S. Chu, "Correlating Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Free Convection from a Vertical Plate", International Journal of Heat Transfer, 18,13231329 (1975). 3 D. L. Loveday and A. H. Taki, "Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients at a Plane Surface on a FullScale Building Facade", International Journal of Mass Heat Transfer, 39,17291742 (1996). 4 S. Kimura, A. Okajima and T. Kiwata, "Conjugate Natural Convection from a Vertical Heated Slab", International Journal of heat and mass transfer, 41, 32033211 (1998). 5 G.D. Raithby, K. G.T. Hollands and T. E. Unny, "Analysis of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection Across Vertical Fluid Layers", ASME Transactions Journal of Heat Transfer, 99,287293 (1977). 6 E. Shewen, K. G.T. Hollands and G.D. Raithby, "Heat Transfer by Natural Convection Across a Vertical Air Cavity of Large Aspect Ratio", Journal of Heat Transfer, 118,993995 (1996). 7 S.M. ElSherbiny, G.D. Raithby and KG. T. Hollands, "Heat Transfer by Natural Convection Across Vertical and Inclined Air Layers", Journal of Heat Transfer, 104,96102 (1982) 8 J.L. Wright, "A Correlation to Quantify Convective Heat Transfer Between Vertical Window Glazings", ASHRAE Transactions, 102,940946 (1996). 9 H. Barrow, "Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients for Turbulent Flow Between Parallel Plates with Unequal Heat Fluxes", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1,306311 (1960). 10 W. Aung, L. S. Fletcher and V. Sernas, "Developing Laminar Free Convection Between Vertical Flat Plates With Asymmetric Heating", International Journal Heat and Mass Transfer, 15,22932307 (1972). of 35
11
E.M. Sparrow, G.M. Chrysler and L. F. Azevedo, "Observed Flow Reversals and MeasuredPredicted Nusselt Numbers for Natural Convection in a OneSided Heated Vertical Channel", ASME Transactions  Journal of Heat Transfer, 106, 325332 (1984).
12
R.B. Maad and A. Belghith, "Heat Transfer Increase in Passive Solar Systems Using GridGenerated Turbulence", Ist World Renewable energy Congress Solar Thermal Technology, (1990), pp. 683687.
13
J.R. Carpenter, D.G. Briggs and V. Sernas, "Combined Radiation and Developing Laminar Free Convection Between Vertical Flat Plates with Asymmetric Heating", ASME Transactions  Journal of Heat Transfer, February, 95100 (1976).
14
X. Cheng and U. Muller, "Turbulent Natural Convection Coupled With Thermal Radiation in Large Vertical Channels with Asymmetric Heating", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 41,16811692 (1998).
15
F. Kreith, "Principles of Heat Transfer  3rd Edition". (Harper & Row, London, 1973)
36
3 THERMAL MODELLING
OF A PV VENTILATED
FACADE
3.1 Introduction
The most well known and utilised modelling system developed for simulating solar thermal energy capture devices is that developed in the early 70's by J.A. Duffie and W. A. BeckmanH'I. Their theoretical thermal collector model simulates a system shown schematically by Figure 3.1.1. The operational characteristics (e.g. collector efficiency, output air
temperature etc. ) of such a theoretical device are calculated through the use of a trialanderror iterative process, formulated to converge on the simultaneous solution of two control variables; the collector cover and plate temperatures.
Glass Cover
Collector Plate
In
%
Insulation
Air Flow
Figure 3.1.1 The Duffie & Beckman Solar Thermal Collector Design
37
Solar radiation passesthrough the glass cover and is absorbed by the solar collector The heated collector plate then loosesits heat through the following. plate. Thermal lossesto the external environment (top and bottom losses) " Radiation exchangewith the collector cover " Convective heat transfer to the working fluid " Newly derived and previously calculated steady state cover and plate temperaturesare after each iteration until convergenceis achieved to within a limiting value. compared Once this is achieved and the simulated operating collector plate and cover temperatures are known, all other collector operating characteristics can be derived simultaneously. The solar thermal collector described by Figure 3.1.1 differs significantly from the design of the ventilated facade being analysed in this work. The main differences can be summarisedas follows. semitransparentfacade construction " thermal lossesto both internal and external air temperatures " location of absorberplate within facade construction " Due to the glass construction of the facade, light propagation thorough its construction into the building zone has to be additionally accounted for within the standard model. Because of the opaque collector plate and insolation material within the Duffle & Beckman model, solar gains play no part in their original equations. Also due to the location of the facade as a building wall, thermal losses from the facade will be to both internal and external air temperatures.This significantly increasesthe allocable thermal loss calculations, hinting at a simplified mathematical complexity of procedure. Rather than the absorberplate being located underneath a glazing cover as described in Figure 3.1.1, the collector plate effectively forms part of the front cover within the facade construction, thus requiring further modifications to the existing collector model. The changesto the standardDuffie & Beckman thermal collector model, made by the discussedfurther in Chapter 5. above modifications, are
38
Property Calculated
Glazing Properties Energy Flows Air Properties
4
5 6
HeatTransferCharacteristics
FacadeUValues Facade Operating Characteristics
7
8
Approximate values for the collector glazing and absorber plate temperatures are provided as initial inputs to the model in order to evaluate the energy flows within 2 (Table 3.2.1). Newly calculated values for the collector glazing and absorber section temperaturesare made within section 8 (Table 3.2.1) of the calculational process. plate These newly calculated temperatures are compared with the original inputted values and an average taken of the two. These average glazing and collector plate temperaturesbecome the inputted values on the next iteration of the program, which is repeated until convergence between consecutive temperatures is made to within a limiting value.
39
1_x 9 cos6
Equation 3.2.1.2
where 10= light path length through transparentmaterial [m] thickness of transparentmaterial [m] x=
p,
Sin2(0201),
2
s1ri2(e2+e, where
) )tan2(e2+e,
tan2(e2e,
Equation3.2.1.3
p1 = surfacereflection [n]
From Equations 3.2.1.1,3.2.1.2 and 3.2.1.3, the transmittance through the collector construction can be calculated using Equation 3.2.1.4. z=z, z, Equation 3.2.1.4
40
where
+ ...
p= reflectance[n]
k= extinction coefficient [n] thickness [m] x= material where
Ps=PA
Surface Reference
A
F_
G(1PA)PePA(1PB)
G(1pA)(1Pe)
G(1PA)
Figure 3.2.1.1 Glazing Properties The solar energy absorbed within the absorber material can be calculated using Equation 3.2.1.5. Gu = G(Ta,,, )
where G = magnitude of solar energy absorbed within the collector plate [Wm'] G= solar energy incident on collector [Win'] a,,, = absorption coefficient of solar energy within PV material [n]
Equation 3.2.1.5
41
G8 = (1 A)G r where z= transmission coefficient of collector glazing [n] A= opaqueabsorberarea[m'] G= solar energy incident on collector [Wm.2]
Equation 3.2.2.1
Equation3.2.3.1
where accelerationdue to gravity [ms'2] g= = volumetric thermal expansion coefficient [K"'] T, = glazing surfacetemperature[K] T_ = temperatureof free streamair [K] H= glazing height [m]
v= kinematic viscosity [m2s 1]
42
Nu_hH k,
Equation 3.2.3.2
Equation3.2.3.3
G, =
where m=V. WLp, V. = collector cavity air velocity [ms'] W= collector cavity width [m] L= collector cavity depth [m] ] p, = collector cavity air density [kgm3 A= collector facadearea[m2]
Equation3.2.3.4
Equation 3.2.4.1
where ka = air thermal conductivity at facadesurface[Wm''K'' ] Nu = Nusselt Number at facadesurface [n] 1= collector characteristic length [m] 43
The convection heat transfer coefficient on the external collector surface is found using Equation 3.2.4.7. [See Chapter 2, Equation 2.6.1.7] h =16.21 V 452 where V, = external wind velocity [ms] Equation 3.2.4.2
Equation 3.2.4.3 is used in the Duffie & Beckman model to calculate the radiation heat transfer between the collector plate and the glazing cover. Q(Tn h_ . 2_T Z 11Tc R
Tebsorber +
')+( 0
E.
1
beba
Equation 3.2.4.3
1
where a= Stefan Boltzman constant[Wm'2K4 ] emittanceof collector absorberplate [n] EQ = emittanceof collector cover [n]
And an expression for the radiation heat transfer coefficient from the external glazing surface is derived below. h, =esQ(Twve +TZXTtt+Tay) where Eg = emittanceof glazing [n] T,,, = temperatureof collector cover [K] Q T, = sky temperature[K] ky Equation 3.2.4.4
ki
Equation 3.2.5.1
k, = insulationthermalconductivity[Wm''K' ]
Equation3.2.5.2
Equation 3.2.5.3
Equation 3.2.5.4
I
h,U.,
hr/, ' +h2Uq+h2hr+hih2 (,
Equation 3.2.6.1
45
where h, = convection heat transfer coefficient from collector glazing surface[WM'2K' ] h2=convection heat transfer coefficient from collector absorbersurface[Wm'2K"' ] T, = temperatureof collector glazing [K] T2= temperatureof absorberplate [K]
Facade Uvalue[Ui]: U.... U" (U+U4' h,h= h, +h, h, +h, Equation 3.2.6.2
1+
_
Equation 3.2.6.3
Equation 3.2.7.1
46
where A, = collector area[m2] Fe = heat removal factor [n] G. = absorbedsolar insolation [Wm'2] UL = collector heat loss [Wm'2K'' ] T.. = air temperaturein [K] T.. = external air temperature[K]
Q
r / 1. pI%1
Equation 3.2.7.2
where CP = air specific heat [JKg''K'' ] m= massflow rate of cavity air [Kgs'' ]
1J
T, =T
+LFR
Fl
Equation 3.2.7.3
+h /ew/eom,
Equation 3.2.8.1
47
where T, temperatureof absorberplate [K] y,, b, = U, = collector top losses[Wm"2K'' ] hc..., .. h, w convection coefficient from collector plate [Wm'2K'' ] = '2 radiation coefficient betweenabsorberand cover [WmK"' = ]
Steadystateabsorber temperature: 
Q.
T.aa =T+ a [l
RL
FR] 
Equation 3.2.8.2
48
va
T, = surfacetemperature[K] T. = free streamfluid temperature[K] T, +T_ [K] 2 h= height up facade[m] v= kinematic viscosity [m2s'' ] a= thermal diffusivity [m2s''] For a single vertical plate, the critical Rayleigh number is quoted as being =109. Therefore, if the following approximate quantities are assumed to be constant for the 49
Pr, v, and a, then a relation between plate and fluid temperatures and the variables height up the facade, where the onset of turbulence occurs, can be obtained. critical Only approximate values for these variables can be assigned because of their temperature dependency.The values given below are taken at room temperature. Pr=0.7 v =16.0x106 m211 1 a =23.0x10'6 m2s This relation is shown graphically below, where:DeltaT_AT_ MeanT T
IT,
TI T, +T 2
Through knowledge of the wall and fluid temperatures and using Graph 3.3.1, it becomes possible to determine the development of turbulence in a system in which air flows under laminar natural convection.
10 9 8 7 6
. 5
y4 b 0 2
c Q1 .,
u
u0
1 0.00
0.1
Graph 3.3.1 Critical Reynolds Height with respect to Fluid/Surface Temperature Expression
To evaluate the state of airflow within a collector cavity, the double bounding wall has to be considered. If the combined height of the boundary layers construction formed on the two surfacesbecome large enough to interact with each other across the 50
cavity, then turbulence may be induced prematurely to the location predicted from a single plate.
Equation 3.3.1.1
where AP = cavity air pressuredifference [N m'] T, = cavity air in termperature[K] w T.., = cavity air out temperature[K] Resistanceto upward buoyancy airflow within a cavity comes as a combination of two effects; restricted airflow patternsand surface friction. If the cavity is straight, without bends, then the velocity head of the airflow can be found using Equation 3.3.1.2.
Y_2Pyz
Equation3.3.1.2
The resulting surface friction within the cavity works to oppose the upward buoyancy driven airflow. These frictional forces within a smoothed wall cavity can be approximated using Equation 3.3.1.3. OPF= XA) C ZpVZ Equation 3.3.1.3
51
FACADE
where p= mean cavity air density [Kgm"3] V= cavity air velocity [ms'] F= friction factor [n] C= cavity channelcircumference[m] A= cavity channelcrosssection area[m2] The friction factor (F) shown in equation 3.3.1.3 is a measureof the resistanceto flow due to the shape and texture of the channel; the higher its value, the greater the to air flow. Most thermal collectors can be approximated to a smooth large resistance duct for which a friction factor of 0.0025 is justified. The total resistanceto upward buoyancy airflow can be found through the summation the above two equations,giving Equation 3.3.1.4. of AP=APB+ A1. AP= 1PV2 1+ AC Equation 3.3.1.4
If the depth of the channel (L) is small comparedto its width (W), as is usually the case the design of solar thermal collectors, then C/A approaches 2/W and Equation within 3.3.1.4 becomesthe following.
nP=
2pv2
2F) +W
Equation3.3.1.5
Combining Equation 3.3.1.1 with 3.3.1.5 provides a means by which the cavity airflow can be found. 345 v2W The derived buoyancy cavity airflow rate formula shown by Equation 3.3.1.6 does not include any allowance for the effects of external air pressureon the cavity air. If there is erratic airflow around the facade construction, such as in an external differences may be imposed between the facade entrance and environment, air pressure exit. This will in turn effect the buoyancy pressure gradient and hence the upward flowing cavity air in either a detrimental or constructive manner. These perturbations 52 1_1
Equation3.3.1.6
in cavity airflow rate can be predicted knowing the external airflow conditions and using the method outlined in Chapter 4.
53
where distancefrom leading edge[m] x= distancefrom surface[m] y= perpendicular This similarity variable can be introduced because,despite the growth of the boundary layer with distance x from the leading edge, the velocity profile u/u, geometrically similar, such that:
u_y u_ S
remains
Introducing Equation 3.4.2 into the momentum equations [A 1.13 & A1.14, Appendix A] and then solving the non linear, thirdorder differential equations produced, leads to the following relationship for air flowing along a flat plate under laminar boundary (21 layer conditions.
54
u u_
Thus, Equation 3.4.2 becomes Equation 3.4.3 (below) where the boundary layer thickness, S, is substituteddirectly for the value ofy.
6=
5.0
k
5x Rex
Equation 3.4.3
From Equation 3.4.3 it is evident that 5 increaseswith increasing x but v decreases with increasing u.., the greater the free streamvelocity, the thinner the boundary layer. Thus the approximate size of the velocity boundary layer, 8, at any height h up the facade cavity can be found from Equation 3.4.4.
5h ReH2
Equation 3.4.4
Combining equations 3.4.1 and 3.4.4 gives the following expression for the height up the facadewhere the opposing wall boundary layers interact. h=8 uH 25v
Equation3.4.5
If the formation of opposing boundary layers is assumedto be of identical magnitude both collector walls, such that opposing boundary layers interact at a cavity height on h, the boundary layer depth, S, at interaction will have a magnitude equal to half the collector cavity spacing. Whenever there is a temperaturedifference between the fluid and its contacting surface in laminar flow, the thermal boundary layer Soh, will be larger than that of the velocity boundary layer S, whereby its size can be quantified by the following relation.
sr
s' Pr3
Equation 3.4.6
S1ti =3
888
Equation3.4.7
In turbulent flow, the two boundary layers become comparable, such that &51h.
56
57
3.6 Bibliography
1 J.A. Duffle and W.A. Beckman, "Solar Energy Thermal Processes", (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London), (1974) 2 F.P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt, "Introduction to Heat Transfer Second Edition". (John Wiley & Sons,New York, 1990). E.M. Sparrow, G.M. Chrysler and L. F. Azevedo, "Observed Flow Reversals and MeasuredPredictedNusselt Numbers for Natural Convection in a OneSided Heated Vertical Channel", ASME Transactions  Journal of Heat Transfer, 106,325332 (1984).
58
4.1 Introduction
An open cavity construction exposed to nonuniform air pressure fluctuations will be subjected to induced cavity airflows due to pressurevariations between cavity entrance and exit. The magnitude, direction and frequency of these induced pressure variations within a cavity will be influenced by many parameters including cavity shape, size, orientation and exposure to the incident wind. The problem becomes all the more complicated if consideration is given to the turbulent nature of the incident airflow on the cavity, which will be strongly influenced by neighbouring constructions around the cavity. To be able to model a system of the complexity described above, would require a complex CFD modelling program, the like of which is out of the scope of this In an attempt to validate the effects of external air pressure fluctuations on research. cavity air flow patterns, this chapter presents results from a full scale experimental of external and cavity air flow patterns within an open facade cavity on a analysis building structure.
59
,a,
where P, = static pressure[Pa] ar p= air density [kgm"'] 9= mean air velocity [ms's] The wind pressure distribution on a building's envelope is usually described by dimensionless pressure coefficients Cp, derived as the ratio of the surface dynamic to the dynamic pressure in the undisturbed flow pattern, measured at a pressure height, z. reference The pressure coefficient at a point k, at a location xy, z, with the reference dynamic Pdy corresponding to height zref, for a given wind direction, 0, can be pressure describedby Equation 4.2.2.
Pk
0) (Zrej, = CPk
Pdyn (Zrej
Po(Z) )
Equation 4.2.2
The vertical profile of the wind speed, u, in the atmospheric boundary layer is dependant upon the roughness of the surface surrounding the building. The primarily increases with increasing height above the ground. The mean wind wind speed be calculated either by a logarithmic equation, Equation 4.2.3, or a velocity profile can power law expression, Equation 4.2.4.
V(Z)
v(zref)
Equation4.2.3
where d= zero flow plane displacementheight [m] height above the ground [m] z= zo = roughnesslength [m] referenceheight [m] z,pf =
a U(Z) Z
v(Zret )
Equation 4.2.4
Zre!
Both equations assume that the wind flow is isothermal and horizontal and that the flow will not changeits direction as a result of differences in terrain surface. wind The value of the exponent a increaseswith increasing roughnessof the solid boundary. Some standardvalues for a are shown in Table 4.2.1 below['].
61
390 510
0.28 0.40
Equation 4.2.5
a'
z, I
10
Where the terrain dependentconstantsa and g are assignedthe typical values shown in Table 4.2.2.
Table 4.2.2 Typical Values for the Terrain Dependant Constants a&g
Roughness Type Terrain dependent constant a Terrain dependent constant g
There are a number of variables affecting the air pressure distribution around a building construction due to the natural flow of the wind (as discussed previously). Wallaveraged values of Cp usually do not match the accuracy required for multizone models. More detailed evaluations, in which sitespecific Cp airflow calculation
62
distributions are evaluatedover the envelope of the building construction, can be made the following four different approaches. using any of on " Performing fullscale measurements an existing building [requiring expensiveand timeconsuming experimental analysis] " Carrying out wind tunnel tests on models of existing or designedbuildings [relies on availability of test equipment and relevant assistance] " Generating Cp values by 3dimensionalnumerical airflow models [implies timeconsuming and complex calculations] " Generating Cp values by numerical models based on parametrical analysis of wind tunnel test results [requires the use of existing wind tunnel test measurements]
An approximate building model was not available for wind tunnel investigations on and cavity air flow patterns, limiting an airflow analysis to either of external 1 or 3 described above. A 3D airflow model would have the potential of approaches flow within the cavity itself, but would be time consuming and predicting accurate air the scope of this research.It was therefore concluded that the first of the above outside methods, involving a fullscale experimental evaluation, would be the most convenient and provide the most useful results.
63
CHAPTER
4. EXPERIMENTAL
& THEORETICAL
ASSESSMENT
OF WINO
LOADING
Under Investigation
From past analyses of the PVT facade on the Matar library (located just outside Barcelona in Southern Spain) since its construction in 1994, it has been disclosed that induced pressure variations around the South facing ventilated facade play an wind important role in determining the facades passive contribution to thermal and electrical This therefore provides justification energy generation. for the further investigation of
the Matar library building and the direct effect these have on airflow patterns around
Builtup Areas
facade airflow.
on the building
thermal and electrical energy capturing abilities. This analysis is made significantly more complex because of' the urban location (see
Figure 4.3.1). Building constructions of various sizes and shapes surround the library imposing turbulence on the incident air stream coming from any direction on all sides, and making an accurate assessment of air pressure at the library location very difficult.
64
CHAPTER
4. EXPERIMENTAL
& THEORETICAL
ASSESSMENT
OF WIND
LOADING
On the building roof are situated solar PV modules that protrude from the building roof. These will inevitably induce complicated airflow patterns (and hence pressure fluctuations) within the air flowing over and around them (Figure 4.3.3).
Making airflow airflow and air an assessment of the effect of these external Although many airflow patterns on the cavity evaluations of
task.
experimental out
numerous because
complications measurements
arise
the Matar
library
at the location
entrance
pose an even
65
CHAPTER
4. EXPERIMENTAL
& THEORETICAL
ASSESSMENT
OF WIND
LOADING
Latitude:
41.32
If the library were positioned on an open, flat plane in which there were no other constructions within the vicinity, such that externally induced air turbulence were
the sole consideration required for an evaluation of the facade considered neglected, differences, would be the ground roughness. In this case, the wind surface pressure have a profile shown by Figure 4.3.3, and the air pressure difference velocity would between facade cavity entrance and exit could be evaluated by the application standard tables of pressure coefficients.
100% Wind Velocity [Free Stream]
of
80%
AAA
Facade entan c
Figure 4.3.3 Formation of the Boundary Layer Air pressure fluctuations experiencedbetween the facade cavity entrance and exit will the following four processes. of originate as a consequence
i) from neighbouring building constructions vortex shedding
ii) vortex shedding from the library building itself (e. g. from roof PV modules) iii) vortex formations generated between adjacent buildings iv) the size, location and orientation of the cavity openings Due to its urban location, the Matar library will experience considerable air pressure fluctuations originating from vortex formations being shed from adjacent buildings.
These vortices will be created as a consequence of the wind blowing across building including the corners of the library construction itself and the South facade. corners, Measurements of air pressure at these locations of vortex interaction will be very
66
Irregular airflow patterns will also be evident as vortices are formed between erratic. building constructions,in the manner shown by Figure 4.3.4. Any air pressure analysis made on the facade cavity would also have to take into the size, location and orientation of the cavity air inlet and exhaust consideration positions.
No. e.g. supplement 3 to the 1960edition of the 'National Building Codeof Canada, "Handbookof
Pressure Coefficients for Wind Loads" [1961]
67
p= Cppdyn
where p= actual air pressure[Nm'] Cp = pressurecoefficient pdyn dynamic pressure[Nm2] =
Equation4.3.1
The induced cavity air pressure could therefore be evaluated from the difference in air pressuresat P1and P2. The true cavity air exhaust position differs from this simplified example in the way shown by Figure 4.3.5b. The situation is now considerably more complex and, for which, standardpressurecoefficient values are not available. Heightened by the turbulence induced by surrounding buildings and the library roof structure itself, it becomes apparent that there is considerable difficulty in trying to predict the magnitude of air pressureat any specific location on the building surface. The construction of the lower inlet to the facade is such that it can be modelled in And as much the same manner as previously diagnosedin the work of Tamura et att41. such, pressure coefficients at this position on the building can be obtained directly from tables. In contrast, evaluation of the air pressure coefficient at the facade exhaust is much more complicated. Consider, as a first example, the airflow pattern around the cavity exhaust position, when the incident air velocity is normal to the facade front (Figure 4.3.6). In this case,with a flanged cavity exit, several airflow phenomena are observed, each of which are complex and hard to predict.
68
1
facade Library Construction
fcadc
Library Construction
Wind Direction
Turbulence
B
A Exhaust
Flow Reverse
C
Solar
Panels
Building
"
the air flow passes the top edge of the facade construction as
(position
A),
be observed. The location of which will depend on the speed of separation will the airflow. " the air continues on its path over the top of the facade, turbulence will occur as at position B
69
in the turbulence of the wake at B, it is then possible, and likely that reverse " flow will occur throughout the air at position C Thus the magnitude of the air pressure at PI, will be a factor of several airflow lowering of air pressuredue to turbulence and the unknown effect of the phenomena; a reverse air flow at C. Because of these complex airflow patterns, the most suitable the external air pressure & cavity airflow relationship is direct method of evaluating experimental investigation on a fullscale building. Other considerations required for air flow analysis of this type have been investigated His by Tamura et att41. work concluded that wind induced pressure coefficients around buildings do not only vary horizontally up the height of the building, but also acrossits This phenomenon is highlighted in other publications, such as Newberry & width. Eaton[6]. Thus, it is likely that the facade cavity airflow will be forced in both horizontal and directions by the induced external wind pressures. vertical
70
71
CIIAPTER
4. F XPERIMEN'I
AL & THEORI:
IICAI.
Assl!
SSMIW
air exhaust
air exhaust
I............ 
i +...........  WW

+........... . WW

Pn[l
Pnpi
Pn[ i
550cm
x
Pial'i
i v
1,141"1 Piil )
air inlet
4
420cm 4
420cm
air inlet
I900cm
I900cm
B C D
E F
187 61 126
432 481
Between the wind directions of NW and NE very Iew data fields were recorded over the 24 hour period of experimental investigation. As such any recorded data between these
assessment.
72
data obtainedin this work, utilise the Graphicalrepresentations the experimental of terminologyshownin Table4.4.2throughout.
Meteorological wind speedsand direction were recorded on the library roof at a height of 12 m above ground level. These wind speedswere therefore subject to a regression in order to allow for the difference in height between the meteorologically method measureddata and the height of the library (taken as the reference height, zo). Regressionswere calculated using the alternative powerlaw wind profile developed at the Laurence Berkeley Laboratory (Equation 4.2.5), with the following terrain dependentparameters(seeTable 4.2.2  urban location):
a=0.67, g=0.25
73
CI IAPIBR
4. HXP[RIMIiNTAI.
ASSI'SSMP.
NT OF WIN[)
LUAUINO
NE, ENE, E
E,ESE,SE
SE,SSE,S
S,SSW,SW
li
sw, wsw, w
W, WNW, NW
74
The following Table 4.4.3 provides a full listing of the graphs producedfrom the datacollectedin this investigation. experimental Table 4.4.3 List of Graphs Produced
Graph Ref. 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6 Wind Direction A B C D E F X Axis Wind Speed*' [ ms''] Wind Speed*' [ms''] Wind Speed*1[ ms'] Wind Speed*' [ms''] Wind Speed*' [ms''] Wind Speed*' [ms''] Y Axis Cavity Air Flow Rate*2 [ms''] Cavity Air Flow Rate*2 [ms''] Cavity Air Flow Rate*2 [ms''] Cavity Air Flow Rate*2 [ms''] Cavity Air Flow Rate*2 [ms''] Cavity Air Flow Rate*2 [ms''] Cavity Air Flow Rate *2 [ms'']
4.4.7
les AngAll
4.4.8
Angles
*' All wind speedswere measuredat a height of 12m above the library roof
75
4.5 Discussion
It is evident from the distribution of data points on each of the graphs enclosed in " Appendix H that a significant amount of numerical averaging, performed by the logging system, can be seen on all the stored experimental data. The averaging of this data will undeniably have an effect on the accuracy of any trend line drawn through the data points but it is not known how severe this effect has been on the analysis. The heights of surrounding buildings around the library are similar to that of the anemometer location used to record wind data for this experiment. If is therefore likely that turbulence will have been induced on the air from neighbouring buildings as it is taken up by the anemometer. Due to time restrictions while on site, adverse weather conditions and calibration it was only possible to obtain 24 hours of useable, oneminute interval problems, data. As a result of this, it is evident that many of the graphs in Appendix H suffer from a lack of data points. This limitation in available data readings may well influence projected trend lines. It is understood that a study of this type requires a longer period than 24 hours of assessmentto obtain a better representation of the being analysedhere. processes It is known that the cavity airflow rate is a function of both the cavity entrance/exit pressure difference and the thermal buoyancy effects on the air. Throughout the whole of this analysis the pressuretransducersused in this experiment were located outside the facade cavity where only the external air pressure would be measured and the buoyancy effects would be ignored. Therefore, all the pressure measurements recorded within this work relate solely to wind induced pressure differences up the height of the cavity
The magnitudeof theseunmeasured buoyancyeffectsdiscussed the bullet point in " abovewill depend the amountof solarinsolationand the ambientair temperature on (i.e. heat gains and lossesfrom the collector plate), both of which will change 76
throughout the day. These continually varying pressure differences continuously the facade cavity can be calculated knowing the external wind direction and across strength, and the pressurecoefficient. Calibration of the pressure transducerswas undertaken on completion of the series " Although a great deal of care was taken within the pressure of experiments. transducer calibration procedure, it is noted that the instrumentation was relocated from the site of experimentation before its calibration could be performed. The in atmospheric conditions and the possibility of accidental adjustment to change transducers during transit may well have introduced unaccountedfor alterations to the equipment before calibration. Within the construction of the experimental layout, long electrical cables of 15 meters in length were required for the electrical connections approximately between the electrical outputs of the pressure transducers and the data logging Although an analogue data recording system was used, no attempt was system. to evaluate the electrical resistance of these cables which could have a made the electrical signals passed along them and hence the significant effect on These cables were not used in the processof calibration. measuredresults.
Experimental Analysis
Each of the graphs shown in Appendix H was produced using EXCEL software and trend lines drawn on them were calculated using internal EXCEL any quadratic/linear as best fit lines through the plotted data points. algorithms
&6
Each of the graphs listed in this section show relationships between cavity airflow the incident wind speed for each of the six wind orientation groups. rates and Comparing these 6 graphs highlights the variations in cavity airflow rates with respect to incident wind angle, observed between wind directions of a Northerly and Southerly nature. 77
Generally, the effect of an incident wind coming from a direction behind the facade or from its side will be to decreasethe cavity airflow rate. The greater the wind speed from this direction, the greater the reduction in cavity airflow rate. This effect is clearly evident in Graphs 4.4.1 (NE, ENE, E), 4.4.2 (E, ESE, SE) and 4.4.5 (SW, SSW, W). As the incident wind direction changes to a more Southerly orientation, a more effect is inflicted on the cavity air. The cavity air flowrate is seen to prominent increase under an increasing incident wind speed in a much more significant way than it was reduced in the above scenario, as is seen in Graphs 4.4.3 (SE, SSE, S) and 4.4.4 (S, SSW, SW). The trend line shown on Graph 4.4.6 (W, WNW, NW) shows a slight increase in rate with increasing incident wind speed. Because this plotted data is cavity airflow to be in contradiction to the above trend, it is assumed that an additional, seen is having an effect on the incident wind when it comes from unaccountedfor variable direction of between West and North West. It is possible that this extra variable a from induced turbulence on the incident wind from adjacent buildings. originates The general relationship between incident wind direction and cavity airflow rate would the scenariosdepicted by Figures 4.5.1 and 4.5.2 is taking place. During times suggest Northerly incident wind, the reduced airflow rate through the facade cavity would of a that the air pressurearound the facade is similar to that shown by Figure 4.5.1. suggest During times of a Southerly incident wind, the increased airflow rate through the facade cavity would suggest an opposing effect was being enforced of the cavity air, as that shown by Figure 4.5.2. such
Graph 4.4.7 (Cavity airflow rate with respect to cavity pressure difference for all incident wind directions) This single graph collates all experimental data records for all incident wind directions (Data files A to F). The plotted data points depict the overall relationship between the induced cavity pressure difference and the resulting cavity airflow rate, at all incident wind angles. The data arranged on this graph has been plotted for positive pressure differences only (i. e. only for cavity airflow in an upward direction).
78
ClIAI'lTR
4, F XI'[KIMI(NTAI.
& TIIIUHI
III
AI
Ass]
SSMI NT l)f
WIND
T.UAUINIi
wind direction
.
facade
+ve
4=
cavity
cavity entrance
library building
 ve
wind direction
facade
cavity exit
 ve
I
4=
library building
cavity
+ ve
.,
79
i) the pressuredifference up the height of the cavity, where the greater the difference,the greater flow rate. the pressure
ii) the increase in cavity flow resistancedue to the onset of turbulence, where the greater the air flow rate, the greater the induced turbulence. The effect of these two conflicting processesacting concurrently would be to observe an asymptotic decrease in flow rate with increasing pressure difference until a maximum flow rate is reached.At this point, maximum turbulence will be induced on the air within the cavity, resulting in an increasedresistanceto airflow. A best fit quadratic trend line passing through the plotted data points on Graph 4.4.7 suggeststhis is an adequateevaluation of the air flow phenomenon within the cavity as it flows under an increasing cavity pressuredifference. At the point under which there is zero cavity pressure difference, it is seen on Graph 4.4.7 that there is evidence on a nonzero flow rate within the cavity. At this point, the airflow may be attributed solely to the thermal buoyancy effects of the air, which were not measuredby the pressuretransducers.
Graph 4.4.8 (Cavity pressure coefficient with respect to incident wind direction for all wind speeds)
Thereare severalsimilaritiesbetween air pressure the variationsacrossthe openings of facadecavity andthoseobserved across adjacent sidesof a building wall. In a similar a differential across the coefficientto express pressure way, the applicationof a pressure methodfor its analysis. cavity providesa convenient a facade
The contribution of the wind to the pressure difference across an exterior opening can be calculated using Equation 4.5.1 (21.
80
LIiW
=I 2 CPPUz
Equation 4.5.1
A B C D E F
*
The errors quoted alongside each of the derived pressure coefficients in Table 4.5.1 were obtained through the process of linear regression on each graph from data files A to F. Determination of the confidence intervals for each regression coefficient (e.g. each Cp value) was achieved through application of the theory by Kryszigm"l where calculations were performed on each data file sets to find the maximum perturbations of the gradient of the least squaresfit trend line drawn through the plotted data points.
81
A graphical representation of the results shown in Table 4.5.1 along with the be seen in Graph 4.4.8 where a smoothed bestfit trend line has associatederrors can been passedthrough the data points and from which the following points arise. i) The largest positive pressure coefficient across the facade cavity is seen to be at an incident wind angle of approximately 157.50.This angle is very produced close to that in which the facade faces (i. e. 175). This would suggestthat when the incident wind comes from an angle parallel to the direction in which the facade faces, the greatest contribution to cavity air flow rate in the positive direction (upwards) is observed. This would reinforce the theory denoted by Figure 4.5.2 above. ii) From an incident wind angle coming from behind the facade, the cavity pressure coefficient is seen to drop significantly. From an Easterly wind direction, the pressure coefficient is seen to drop to below zero at which angle the cavity air is forced into an opposite (downward) direction. This would reinforce the theory denotedby Figure 4.5.1. iii) From a Westerly direction, the cavity pressure coefficient is not seen to drop to as low a value as that when the wind is from the East. It is postulated that this results from the varying turbulence of the incident wind on the facade, which is induced from adjacent buildings. Different amounts of turbulence will be induced on the incident wind originating from different directions.
82
C) CD
M
0 NN
LO N N
0 OD
LO CM 'r. 
C) )
LO
T00
0 (D
IZT NO N
The numerical calculation of pressure coefficients on building surfaces can be achieved through a parametrical model devised by Grosso[); the process of which is outlined below. In this analysis the results obtained from wind tunnel tests are used to derive for the pressure coefficients on a rectangular shaped building model, in expressions terms of various influencing parametersdefined in Table 4.5.2.
Table 4.5.2 Influencing Parameters for Calculating Pressure Coefficients Climatic Parameters
Abbreviation
a
Name
Wind Velocity Profile Experiment
Description
See Table 4.2.2
anw
Wind InducedAngle
Windward=0,Leeward=180
Experimental Parameters
Abbreviation Name PlanArea Density Description Built up PlanArea Total PlanArea RelativeBuilding Height Building Height Heightof SurroundingBuildings
pad
rbh
Building Parameters
Abbreviation Name Description
far
FrontalAspectRatio
Building Width Building Height Building Depth Building Height Vertical Positionof SurfaceElement Building Width
Horizontal Position of Surface Element
sar
SideAspectRatio
zh
xl
Building Width
84
In relation to the location and building structure of the Matar library, the following shown in Table 4.5.3 can be applied to the above coefficients for this values evaluation.
far sar zh x1
The complete pressurecoefficient expressionhas the form of Equation 4.5.2. Cp = Cp(zh)Cp(a)Cp(pad)Cp(rbh)Cp(far)Cp(sar)Cp(xl) Equation 4.5.2
Where each Cp coefficient correspondsto a specific polynomial expression, utilising the relevant values shown in Table 4.5.3. Performing this calculation using the data from Table 4.5.3 gives the following values for the pressure coefficients at the top and bottom locations on the South facade under wind incidence. normal
1.771
2.317
NET
4.088 
+ 5.387(3.505)
*1 calculated from theory on a plain vertical wall, ignoring the facade cavity *2 obtained through experimental evaluation
85
A calculated net cavity pressure coefficient of 4.088 is thus obtained and the coefficients at the two locations on the building surface indicate that the airflow at the be forced in a downward direction (e.g. from lower to higher pressure surface would coefficient). With the facade cavity attached to this surface, an experimentally derived pressure +5.387 is obtained, as shown in Table 4.5.4. Thus, under normal wind coefficient of incidence, a complete reversal in airflow pattern is experienced on the external wall surface to that within the cavity.
Also assessedin this piece of work was the induced horizontal airflow within the facade cavity. Assuming horizontal air displacement in the facade is caused through differences in magnitude of vertical pressure differences across the facade provides a by which horizontal airflow can be predicted. Therefore at any position along means the width of the facade where a relatively high vertical pressure differential is is assumed to be forced towards a position having a relatively lower observed, air vertical pressuredifferential. Therefore when the three transducer pressurereadings are in time, horizontally induced air flow will be present compared at any single moment between neighbouring transducersof varying pressuredifference. The results obtained from this analysis show a very wide spread of data points. This in turn suggests there are large errors within the data correlation's recorded for this It is therefore felt justified in stating that no valid predictions could be drawn analysis. from theseresults, and as such is not included in this discussion. Several difficulties were encounteredduring the setting up of this experiment. Possibly the most significant of these originates from the enforced location by which each of the three pressure transducershad to be located on the facade. Although the width of the facade is some 37 meters, it was only possible to set up the transducersto a maximum separation of just over 4m from each other along the top of the facade. Thus the recorded data values are attributable to only the centre 8m section of the complete facadewidth.
86
4.6 Conclusions
The discussion presented here confirms the fact that simple pressure coefficient models, such as that of Gross(], can be completely misleading in its application to nonstandard systems such as for the fagade entrance and exit locations. This is clearly evident through the complete reversal of sign between the calculated and experimentally derived values of Cp for winds normal to the fagade (Table 4.5.4).
A significantlymore accurate throughthe applicationof an analysis would be achieved around the facade entrance and exit locations or onsite airflow characterisation thoroughthe useof a FCD modellingpackage. alternatively
87
4.7 Bibliography
1 M. Grosso, "Wind Pressure Distribution Around Buildings: a parametrical Energy and Buildings, 18,101131 (1992). model". 2 F. Allard, "Natural Ventilation in Buildings A James, London, 1998). Design Handbook", (James &
M. Grosso, "Wind PressureDistribution Around Buildings: a parametrical Energyand Buildings, 18,101131(1992). model".
Y. Tamura, et al., "Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Study of Approach Windbuilding pressure correlation", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 72,421431 (1997).
J.D. Holmes and R.J. Best, "An Approach to the Determination of Wind Load Effects on LowRise Buildings", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 7,273287 (1981).
C.W. Newberry and K. J. Eaton, "Wind Loading handbook". (Building Research Establishment, London, 1974).
R.P. Hoxey, A. P. Robertson, B. Basara and B. A. Younis, "Geometric Parameters that Effect Wind Loads on LowRise Buildings: Full Scale and CFD
Experiments", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 50, 243252 (1993). 8 P. Krishna, "Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings A Review", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 54/55,383396 (1995). T. Stathopoulos,"Wind Loads on Low Rise Buildings: A Review of the State of the Art", Engineering Structures, 6,119135 (1984). 10 J.D. Holmes, "Analysis and Synthesis of PressureFluctuations on Bluff Bodies using Eigenvectors", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 33,219230 (1090). 11 Kreyszig, "Advanced Engineering Mathematics  60' Edition", (Wiley, New York, 1988)
88
5 VALIDATION
OF FACADE MODEL
5.1 Introduction
A theoretical facade model has been written to simulate the various energy flows with a typical ventilated facade construction. The facade model presented associated here utilises the same iterative method of solution as that developed by Duflie and Beckmanlll, and described in Chapter 3. A typical solar facade construction capable of thermal capture may look like Figure 5.1.1 in which thermal energy is collected through the process of convection heat transfer between the solar collector plate and air flowing within the cavity.
I
l: flcctive Cover
J
theoretical the most model (Figure significant of
Air Flow
highlights
89
The flow of shortwave solar radiation within the Dufte and Beckman thermal through the glass cover, across the fluid filled cavity and is collector propagates by the collector plate. The heated collector plate then looses its heat absorbed through the following three processes. Thermal lossesto the external environment (bottom and top losses) " Radiation exchangewith the collector cover " Convective heat transfer to the working fluid " The Duffie and Beckman model calculations rely on the fact that all thermal losses from the collector described in Figure 3.1.1 are to a single ambient temperature. Thermal losses from the solar absorber in the facade model shown by Figure 5.1.1 can be explained in precisely the same manner as above, but the facade acts as a boundary between two different thermal environments (internal thermal losses to be calculated according to and external conditions) requiring temperature. To meet this requirement a single, each adjacent environment temperature incorporating both internal end external air equivalent ambient temperatures has had to be applied to the facade model in order to utilise the Duffie and Beckman method of solution. 2 Because the facade forms an external wall of a building and is not simply an isolated standalone system such as in the case of the Duffle and Beckman have to be made to evaluate the energy transfer between the model, calculations facade and the adjacent building zones. These energy flows can be categorisedas follows. Shortwave solar gains propagating directly through the facade construction " Convective heat transfer from the inner glazing " 3 The semitransparent collector plate construction on the facade, as shown in Figure 5.1.1 is constructed from a mosaic of photovoltaic (PV) cells between transparent glazings. Thermal energy is absorbed within encapsulated the PV cells by virtue of their dark colour, while at the same time producing solar electricity. This generation of solar electricity requires additional consideration regarding energy balance calculations on the complete PVT facade system.
90
C'IIAPII!
K 5. VALII)Al'ION
OF FAC'AUL
MIOII
For the purpose of model validation, the f4 ade model design adopted in this work replicates the construction of the multifunctional facade on the Matar library, as
shown schematically in Figure 5.2.1 and described in further detail within Chapter 6.
12345 ABCDEFGH
External Environment
Uc
Internal Environment
Solar Insolation
m,
U111
Cavity 2
Cavity I
4
L III.
absorption within the dark PV material which is arranged in a mosaic pattern and 91
C'IIAPRR
5. VAI. IUA1lUN
encapsulated in glazing 2. Thermal energy absorbed within conduct through glazing 1, where it will
the IN
through glazing 3 towards surface D, where it will be lost From glazing 3 through the following processes. Radiation exchange with surface E of glazing 4 " Convective transfer with the cavity air " Radiated heat received by surface E from surface D may then also add to the heating of the cavity air through convective exchange at surface F, if the cavity air is at a lower temperature than the glazing material.
92
direction. Cavity 2 is a sealed void between glazings 4 and 5, and forms an insulating layer to the internal environment. The dimensions of the ventilated facade cavity (Cavity 1) are described in Figure 5.2.2, where an aspectratio of =50 and a cavity volume of  47m3 are observed. The outer composite facade (glazings 1+2+3) has a total area of 312m2, constructed from an opaque section, having an area of 87m2 and a mosaiced PV/glass section, having an area of 225m2. The mosaiced PV/glass area of the facade has been constructed in such a way as to achieve a semitransparent effect with a 15% transparency.
93
Q; =A1 Rtsy n,
Equation5.3.1
where A= internal facadearea[m2] RtsH= thermal resistanceof the surface film on glazing surface H [W''m2K] Tgs= temperatureof inner glazing number 5 [K] The equivalent internal/external air temperature required for calculation of heat . lossesfrom the facadeis calculated using the following expression. 94
T=
w, ry"
+ Vint
Equation5.3.2
where T... = external air temperature[K] t TQ = internal air temperature[K] int To determine the instantaneous steady state temperatures of the 5 facade " energy balance equations were derived for each glazing, as listed glazings, below.
T8 '
TQ eqh,
Y: RlHI
Equation 5.3.3
egv
TgZ +1
Uext 13
Rg3
Tg7
Equation 5.3.4
1 +h2+h, Rya
Equation 5.3.5
UintTQ., h,Tp3 +h, + vg,, T_. = __ g''_ U; + h, + h, n, Ta, +h.,? eqv(hasy s)+T8, Rl av2 +hes R'cav2 +hYs
Equation 5.3.6
Equation 5.3.7
95
where T,, = equivalent air temperature[T] egv Ta, = mean cavity air temperature[K] cav, ham convective heat transfer coefficient on surface A [Wm2K''] = ksm= convective heat transfer coefficient on surface H [Wm'2K''] = convective heat transfer coefficient on surface E [Wm2K''] h2 = convective heat transfer coefficient on surface D [Wm'2K''] h, = radiative heat transfer coefficient on glazing 1[Wm'2K'' ] `1
Using the above energy balance expressionsfor the five glazing temperatures, " for the collector efficiency factor (F'), total Uvalue (UL), useful heat relations gain (Q,,), cavity air out temperature (T0,0,) and mean cavity air temperature (Ta. can be derived for the facade construction. mean)
F'=
93 (Ua,U, +U., (h, +h)+Ur(h,
g (h,h, +h, U,, + h,h, +h, h, ) w R3 h2+h, h2+h, h, )+U, U,, (h2+h, )+U,, (h,hl+hh=+h, h, ) +h2)+h,
Equation 5.3.8
'//
[(Um4U(hi
R
(h,h, +h2h, +h, h=)+U, h=+h, h, +h=h, ))+U,,, Uw(h, h=+h, h, +h2h, )J +h=)+Ua, (h, +hIhl +hlhr)+UaiUMn(hI +hr)+Um(hh3 +h1h7 r +hIhr)
Equation 5.3.9
(hlhr S(m)
Qu =
R! 83
1F
G Equation5.3.10
where
F' + AIAr + A2Ar + utxruint + h2h, + A1A2) + Vmt + A2 /+ V LR9j \UmtUexr \A1 at( \AIAr Y) )+ (hr (hr (VextUuu Y2 + AIA2 + AIAr + VextV int \A2 + Ar + A2 + AI /+ Vid + Vext rl (AIA2 l1 r \AIA2 + AIAr + A2Ar Vat \ArA2 + Y2 + AIAr IJ
G'
T=T+ a, 0ut
a'eqv
hhB+ D EmaC pa
(h, + h2D B
Equation 5.3.11
where
A= hr [R' B: 3 C1 Ri 93 (Uint (Uext + h2 + hr )+ V )+ exthr VextUint (h2 + hr )
RS3 `Uint+hr+hl)
DR
E+
11 h B+h D EinaC pa
Equation5.3.12
97
The dynamic temperatureresponseof each of the facade glazings is calculated 0 using the Hammerstein first order paradigm, as described below. TT=T (T.. To)e z where T = steadystatetemperature[K] To= temperatureat time t=0 [K] t= time [s] z= time step[s] The electrical conversion efficiency of the PV cells within the facade Equation 5.3.13
construction is calculated with respect to the mean PV/glass temperature of Glazing 2, using the expressionof Agarwal & Garg[2].
Equation5.3.14
Electrical energy generation from the facade PV material is accounted for . within the energy balance of the facade by subtraction its electrical power output at any time, from the total thermal power of the solar absorbing PV/glass glazing (Glazing 2, Figure 5.2.1).
There are also several proposedmodel improvementsto the original Duffle and below. Beckman thermalcollectormodelasdiscussed
All of the temperature dependent air properties used within the model are " in respect of relevant air temperatures (Ta), as shown in the calculated following expressions which are taken from Incropera & DeWittt51. The original Duffle & Beckman model treats each of these as constant values. [Kgm3] Air Density T,2  0.010TQ 3.356 + pa;, =1x10.5 Equation 5.3.1.5
98
SpecificHeat[kJkg''K']
Cp.,, = 3x109T' 2x107 [Nsm 2] Dynamic Viscosity 2 +7x1087 +1x10 ,,, = 3x10"T, Kinematic Viscosity [m2s''] v,,, =1x1017,2+3x1087, 3x106 Thermal Conductivity [Wnf'K'] k,,, = 84 05T. + 0.0033 Thermal Diffusivity [m2s'] a,,, = 2x1027,2+3x1087, 3406 Prandtl Number [n] Pr,,, = 1x10'87,3 + 1x105  0.00417, + 1.19 7,2 2 +1x107, +0.946
Correlations are also described for the air film temperatures measured near the " surfaces of relevant facade glazings and which are used for the evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients at the glazing surfaces. (T" 2 where T. = temperatureof free streamair [K] T, = surfacetemperatureof glazing [K] T, Equation 5.3.16
Considerable development has also been made regarding the formulation of . convection coefficients on flat, vertical surfaces since the original external work of Duffie and Beckman. Such development is seen in the work of Loveday & Taki(4], whose average heat transfer correlation outlined in chapter 2 (Equation 2.6.1.7) has been utilised in this model.
99
The ideal choice of expressionfor the simulation of the convectionprocess " the facade the cavity,would takeinto account following points. within
cavity shape& dimensions " both forced & natural convection air flow states " The expression derived by Cheng & Muller431[Equation 2.6.4.2] meets this and has been chosen for use within the facade criterion sufficiently well simulation model but with the radiation component removed. The expression is shown pictorially in the Graph 5.3.1. where lo A= St = = 0.299 (0.15/39)=0.0038 59.01 (TI=293 K) 71.93 (TI=313 K) 86.62 (TI=333 K) [Equation 2.6.4.1] [Equation 2.6.4.2] [Equation 2.6.4.3]
and V=
Eglass
lca;, =
a=5.669x =
0.026 Wm"K'
10$ Wiri 2K4 1/T K,
g=
100
40 35 7 30
25
20
15
NO  platetemperature 60 C [top line] a Nu2  platetemperature 40 C [middle line] = Nu 1 platetemperature 20 C [bottom line] =
10
z5 0
0 0.001 0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
Delta T/MeanTn
TI
The net cavity airflow rate is calculated considering the following three .
processes. i) Air pressure variations due to external wind loading on the facade (see chapter 4)
Equation5.3.17
where PH,= cavity air pressuredifference [Pa m''] Cp = cavity pressurecoefficient [n] (seeGraph 4.4.8) p= mean cavity air density [kgm' ]
Equation5.3.18
where PB= cavity air pressuredifference [Pa m'] T,.,, cavity air in termperature[K] = Tout cavity air out temperature[K] = Resistanceto upward buoyancy airflow within a cavity comes as a combination two effects; restricted airflow patterns and surface friction. of If the cavity is straight, without bends, then the velocity head of the airflow can be found using Equation 5.3.19.
v
where
1 PV= 2H
Equation5.3.19
P, = cavity air pressuredifference [Pa m'' ] p= mean cavity air density [Kgm''] V= mean cavity air velocity (ms'] H= cavity height [m] The resulting surface friction within the cavity works to oppose the upward buoyancy driven airflow. These frictional forces within a smoothed wall cavity can be approximated using Equation 5.3.20.
(PV2]F(. 1=
Equation5.3.20
102
where OPF= cavity air pressuredifference [Pa m'] F= friction factor [n]
After some manipulation, it is found that the cavity air velocity can be calculated from Equation 5.3.22. 13451 11+ IP Ti. To, CpU2 H
V21 I +HA
FC
Equation5.3.22
From which the cavity airflow rate per unit of cavity cross sectional area, Q, can be found using Equation 5.3.23.
Q= VA
Equation5.3.23
Equation 5.3.22 is used directly within the facade model to calculate simulated cavity airflow rates.
Some of the original approximations from the Duffle and Beclanan model have also been adoptedin this model and are summarisedbelow. There is no absorption of solar energy by glazings, other than by the PV . insofar as it affects lossesfrom the collector. material, There is onedimensional heat flow through each of the facade glazings to both " and interior environments. exterior 103
There is negligible temperature drop across any of the facade glazings, " including the PV material. The sky can be consideredas a black body for longwavelength radiation, at an " equivalent sky temperature. The temperature gradients up the height of each facade glazing and PV material " can be treated independently. Facadematerial properties are each independentof temperature. . Internal and external thermal losses are to the same equivalent ambient temperature. Effects of dust and dirt on the collector are negligible. .
104
consideration of the steady state model calculations. From the solved Hammerstein equation (Equation El. 2), it can be seenthat the whole dynamic characterisation relies on the system dominant time constant,T. The magnitude of this time constant is attributed to the ratio of the construction's thermal capacitance and overall thermal losses. To apply a single figure to this suggestthat the facade were constructed from a single material, having constant would uniform thermal properties throughout. Representing the thermal characteristics of a structure, such as that of the facade fabric, will inevitably introduce complicated errors. In an effort to increase the accuracy of the facade thermal response calculation, a lumped capacitancemethod can be applied to the problem. The results from such an will produce mean thermal properties for the complete facade construction analysis from which a time constantcan be derived. and
Following the theoretical procedureof Incropera & De Witti51,the mathematical formula used to assigna dynamic response time constantz, to a construction,is as follows.
PVC z=h, A:
Equation5.4.1
+ PslllconVslllconCslllcon
+ Atnlk,
Equation 5.4.2
int
The composite facade construction is shown by Figure 5.4.1 where each respective material property is listed in Table 5.4.1.
41.512
450
Using data from Table 5.4.1 and Equation 5.4.2 gives the following expression for the specific facade construction. 50475 seconds Equation 5.4.3
This equation is the lumped capacitanceexpression,which can be used directly within the Hammerstein equation to derive the facadedynamic time constant.
106
The suitability of the original time constant equation (Equation 5.4.1 ) to deriving the time constant of the complicated following equations.
"r external =1
facade construction
6' 2I
J', eaerna/
0.452
h,. ml
Nu KI
erual
I .",,... u..,.
2.5mm
1Onun
rt
f ff
1i0nun
41111116mm
f ff f ff f
6000nun
61111116111111
107
where V, = external wind speed[ms" ] eXem Nu = internal surfaceair Nusselt number Kt,; = thermal conductivity of internal surface air [Wm'K' ] nterns! H= facadeheight [m] The following values, attributed to each of the variables above, have been extracted from actual simulations of the facade model and represent realistic figures for each of them.
108
(INFO(10) + 6) =0
109
The FLAG value is checked after each iteration of the loop. If FLAG=1 then the iterative process is complete and the loop is terminated. If FLAG=O, then the iterative is incomplete and the program loop is repeated. process IF(INFO(10)+ 6) =1, THEN OUTPUT results ELSE repeat loop The loop is terminated when the following expressedis fulfilled.
IF
<K AND
\Tg2. new
Tg2, / old
110
10
11 12
ThermalCapacitance Effects
Internal Heat Flow Program Control
On completion of the iterative process, and convergence of the control variables is achieved, steady state calculations of glazing temperatures (e.g. at time, t=oo) are subjectedto a conversion to dynamic values using the Hammerstein Paradigm. After temperatures have been converted to dynamic values using the Hammerstein Paradigm, the FLAG value is set to 1 in order to signal a termination to the program. The corrected temperaturesare then used in one final iteration of the program loop in order to correct other facade operational characteristicscalculated within the program.
(INFO(10)+6)=1
Error checking is performed on every value provided as an INPUT or PARAMETER to the program. Usersupplied model parametersinputs are checked and evaluated at the input stage using a data validation process inbuilt into the IISIBAT software. Data as program inputs are given validity checks from within the facade module supplied program using the internal TRNSYS subroutines TYPECK and RCHECK, which Isl provide simple numerical boundary condition checks
111
TYPE70. FOR
VARIABLE DECLERATIONS
ff
USER INPUTS
MODEL PARAMETERS
SECTION
ENERGY FLOWS
FLAG=O [OFF]
SECTION 3
SECTION 9
NEW STEADY STATE TEMPS SECTION 6
SECTION 12
IMN
CONTROL
10
TYPE 56 BUILDINGMODEL
112
What follows is a complete listing of the inputs, parameters and outputs provided to from the facade componentmodel. and
Inputs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (Solar Total) (Sim_Time) (Ta_ext) (Va_ext) (Va_int) (Ta_cavl_in) (Va_cavl ) Total solar insolation on facade surface Simulation time External air temperature External horizontal air velocity Internal horizontal air velocity Cavity 1 air in temperature Cavity 1 vertical air velocity Insolation angle Zone 1 air temperature Zone 2 air temperature Zone 3 air temperature Zone 4 air temperature Zone 5 air temperature Zone 6 air temperature Zone 7 air temperature Wm'= s K ms'' ms'' K ms'' degrees K K K K K K K
8. (Angle)
9. (Ta Zonel) 10. (Ta_Zone2) 11. (Ta_Zone3) 12. (Ta Zone4) 13. (Ta_Zone5) 14. (Ta_Zone6) 15. (Ta_Zone7)
Parameters 1. (wdth) 2. (hght) 3. (dxglzl) 4. (dx... glz2) 5. (dx... glz3) 6. (dxglz4) 7. (dxglz5) 8. (dx_cavl ) 9. (dx_cav2) 10. (Pi! cover) 11. (Eglzl ) 12. (Eglz2) 13. (Eglz3) 14. (E... glz4) 15. (E_glz5) 16. (nglzl ) 17. (nglz2) 18. (n_glz3) 19. (nglz4) 20. (ng1zS) 21. (Kglzl ) 22. (Kglz2) 23. (K... glz3) 24. (K. glz4) Facadewidth Facadeheight Glazing 1 thickness Glazing 2 thickness Glazing 3 thickness Glazing 4 thickness Glazing 5 thickness Cavity 1depth Cavity 2 depth Facadeconstruction percentagePV coverage Glazing 1 emittance Glazing 2 emittance Glazing 3 emittance Glazing 4 emittance Glazing 5 emittance Glazing 1 refractive index Glazing 2 refractive index Glazing 3 refractive index Glazing 4 refractive index Glazing 5 refractive index Glazing 1 extinction coefficient Glazing 2 extinction coefficient Glazing 3 extinction coefficient Glazing 4 extinction coefficient 113 m m m m m m m m m % n n n n n n n n n n n n n n
25. (KgIzS) 26. (Ktglzl ) 27. (Ktglz2) 28. (Kt_glz3) 29. (Ktglz4) 30. (KLglz5) 31. (nstc) 32. (Ejv) 33. (alpha Piz 34. (roe_PP) 35. (tau Pig) 36. (Tgac) 37. (Tgglz4) 38. (n_air)
39. (gray) 40. (Sigma)
Glazing 5 extinction coefficient Glazing 1 thermal conductivity Glazing 2 thermal conductivity Glazing 3 thermal conductivity Glazing 4 thermal conductivity Glazing 5 thermal conductivity PV efficiency at StandardTest Conditions PV material emittance PV material absorptance PV material reflectance PV material transmittance Glazing 2 (facade) mean temperature Glazing 4 mean temperature Air refractive index Gravitational constant StefanBoltzmannconstant
n n n n K K n ms'2 Wm'2K
Outputs 1. (Zonel_Cool) 2. (Zone3_Cool) 3. (Zone4_Cool) 4. (Zone5_Cool) 5. (Zonel Heat) 6. (Zone3 Heat) 7. (Zone4 Heat) 8. (Zones Heat) 9. (Solgain, I) 10. (Solgain; 3) 11. (Solgain z4) 12. (Solgainz5) 13. (Ta_cavl_out) 14. (qufac+quplus) 15. (Tgfac) 16. (Tg_glz5) 17. (FACeff) 18. (Heat_gain_air) 19. (Pveff) 20. (electpower) Zone 1 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 3 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 4 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 5 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 1 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 3 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 4 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 5 equivalent heat flow to external Zone 1 direct solar gains Zone 3 direct solar gains Zone 4 direct solar gains Zone 5 direct solar gains Cavity 1 air out temperature Total heat absorbedby PV material Glazing 2 (facade) mean temperature Glazing 5 mean temperature Facadethermal efficiency Cavity 1 air total heat gain PV material efficiency PV material electrical output W W W W W W W W W W W W K W K K W % W
114
InterModel Calculations from The Duffle & Beckman publicationW1W which the fundamental theory on which facade model is based, also provides worked solutions to many of the derived this This provided a source by which many of the elementary facade model equations. equations could be validated. By utilising `cell addressreferencing' within the EXCEL software, it was possible to document in which the complete set of equations used for the Duffle & create a Beckman solar thermal collector model could be initiated. As equations were added, the basic model, this provided a basis against which the updated and modified within FORTRAN facademodel programming could be checkedand validated.
Equations & Source Code Scrutiny As new equations were derived and added to the facade model, EXCEL provided a by which graphical outputs could be generated and compared with theoretical source Equations were validated both individually and as part of their and predicted results. containing module. MATLAB was also extensively used within this process as a tool for the simplification formats and in the direct integration of equations into the FORTRAN of equation environment.
Predicted Response Once the completed facade model was integrated into the FORTRAN environment, it became possible to run dummy simulations of the facade program and assess its to known input signals. These simulated facade model responsescould then responses be validated against a predicted responsefrom the same input signal.
115
The three predicted responsevalidations carried out on the facade model are listed in Table 5.6.1.
5.6.3
E, F&G
Through the use of these step functions, both the dynamic responses and the steady state operating conditions of the facade model were observed. Both internal and environments were simulated by a single valued, constant air temperature, the external is listed along with all the model parametersand inputs in the text for value of which the sake of any future validation tests on alternative models. Details of the experimental procedures used to produce the graphical results shown in Table 5.6.2 can be seenin Appendix H.
C 562 . .
D
2.Fagade SteadyStateTemperature Characteristics Facade SteadyStateEnergyFlows (@100angle) Facade SteadyStateEnergyFlows (@60angle) Facade SteadyStateEnergyFlows (@80angle)
E 5.6.3 F G
116
The graphs shown below relate to each of the entries in Table 5.6.2, a discussion on which is given at the end of this chapter.
117
MOUII
Time (hours)
(lIAP1PK
5. VAIIUATIUN
OF FA(AI)P
Ml>I>l
Time (hours)
70
60 ,
50 y
40
IF
30
External Air Temp DI 7i
j7ej7j. ; =
0
a E
20
I ll IF: 11 ill t
rl DI il 77iL" ==L I
7;  Iri 17
10
7
119
0
Graph 5.6.1 B2 Facade Steady State Temperature Characteristics
('IIAPIF.
R 5. VA!
11 )AII()N
OF FA('AUF
MUI)FI
70
7. V7 17 R= r773 =771;
Cm=
10
Time (hours)
(ll\I'll.
lt 5 VAIII)AlIUN
UP FA('AUIMUI)II
Time (hours)
70
60
U4 ... C, L
11
External Air Temp
30 P
0) C.
'lIii
Al
It iL
, m U;
1
1
E
20 o r
11 A$
,I
10
13
Muuii
10 =1
.7IaMM. =[. II
At AL
1'
4.06%
12.12%
r7lwr. Tlml
N_2
i""1"
1' 1' t
_.....
Irs
1
4.01
16.34%
8.37%
7.91%
122
('unP'r8R
5. V: V QLA1H)N UF FA'nIHMuPlI
LT1rnfI'!
IflrT1
00Col" OPOslolus
3.00% 42.34%
40.92%
7.05%
5.65% 1.04%
123
Cavity air External air Internal air Externalair temp' out temp' temp' velocity Kelvin Kelvin Kelvin ms'I
Description Total solar insolationon facadesurface Simulationtime Externalair temperature Externalair velocity
Internal air velocity
Source*' Table 5.7.1 column 2 Calculated Table 5.7.1 column 6 Table 5.7.1 column 8
[constant]''
124
7 8 9 10 11 12
13
Cavity I vertical air velocity Insolationangle Zone I air temperature Zone 2 air temperature Zone 3 air temperature Zone 4 air temperature
Zone 5 air temperature
ms'1 degrees K K K K
K
Calculated Eqn. 5.3.22 Table 5.7.1 column 3 Table 5.7.1column 7 Table 5.7.1column 7 Table 5.7.1column 7 Table 5.7.1 column 7
Table 5.7.1 column 7
14 15
K K
Matar6 Data  Data taken from the Matar6 library experimental data file; Table 5.7.1.
*2 The internal air velocity wasassumed be at a constant ms" throughoutthe whole simulation 0.1 to
1 2
3
m m
m
37.5 6.0
0.004
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11
Glazing 2 thickness Glazing 3 thickness Glazing 4 thickness Glazing 5 thickness Cavity I depth Cavity 2 depth Percentage coverage facade PV on
Glazing I emittance
m m m m m m %
n
12 13 14
n n n
125
15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22
Glazing 5 emittance Glazing I refractiveindex Glazing 2 refractiveindex Glazing 3 refractiveindex Glazing 4 refractive index Glazing 5 refractiveindex
Glazing I extinction coefficient Glazing 2 extinction coefficient
n n n n n n
n n
23 24 25 26 27
28
Glazing 3 extinctioncoefficient Glazing4 extinctioncoefficient Glazing 5 extinctioncoefficient Glazing I thermalconductivity Glazing 2 thermalconductivity
Glazing 3 thermal conductivity
29 30 31
32
1.05 1.05 13
0.95
Wm" K7' %
n
33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40
PV materialabsorptance PV materialreflectance PV materialtransmittance Glazing 2 (facade)meantemperature Glazing 4 meantemperature Air refractiveindex Gravitationalconstant
StefanBoltzmann constant
n n n K K n ms'2
Wm'2K'4
01 Each of these parameters correspond to the physical properties and conditions of the Matarb library facade
126
Expressions used within this simulation for calculating the convected heat from the facade surfacesare summarisedin Table 5.7.4.
Cavity airflow rates were calculated taking into account the external pressure in described Chapter 4. coefficients usingthe analysis
The resulting cavity 'air out' temperatureproduced by way of this simulation was then compared with input 5, the experimentally obtained cavity air out temperature from the Matard library. A comparison of these two parameters can be seen in Graph 5.7.1, demonstratesthat the facade model simulates well the temperature of the cavity which air. Further discussionon which is given in the section 5.8. exhaust
It can be seenfrom Graph5.7.1that the simulatedcavity air out temperature changes The exact reasonfor this is not in a stepwisemannerduring the hours of darkness. inputtedinto the facade but the experimentally recordedexternalair temperature clear is known to suffer from the sameeffect and is not attributableto the program model calculations.
127
o_
Cl)
(uinIaN) ain3ejadwal
5.8 Discussion
Investigations 5.6.1 & 5.6.2 (ExperimentsA, B, C&D, Table 5.6.2)
Each of the heating/cooling curve graphs produced from the facade model in this investigation (Graphs 5.6.lA1,5.6.1131,5.6.1 C1&5.6.1D1) show typical traces of heating and cooling curves for all glazings and cavity air. Confidence in the classical dynamic response of the model under a step change impulse in solar radiation and temperatureis therefore increased. external air The facade model program presupposesthat all the component materials within its construction respond in exactly the sameway to a thermal stimulus, such that its whole dynamic responsecan be modelled by a single constant value of thermal capacitance. It is seen that when the simulation program works with a time constant of 0.4 (and Y2hour intervals of weather data) it requires approximately 2.5 hours before using are achieved after a thermal step change impulse. steady state conditions The faced glazing temperature profile graphs, 5.6.1A2,5.6.1132,5.6.1 C2 & 5.6.1D2 that for all these experiments at all times when there is incident solar insolation show the facade, the facade absorber plate (glazing 2) has the highest temperature within on the construction. In all these experiments, the temperature of glazing 5 is seen to deviate from that of the internal air temperatureonly slightly. This can be attributed to the high insulative properties of the still air cavity between glazings 4 and 5. The flow thermal energy through glazings 4 and 5 is simulated in the model by a constant, of valued Uvalue of magnitude 2.78 Wm'2K1, attributed to a double glazed single taken directly from TRNSYS material data files. window construction and In experiments A and C (Graphs 5.6.1A2 & 5.6.1C2) it is seen that the mean facade cavity air temperature is lower than the mean temperature of glazing 4. This increased temperature of glazing 4 can be attributed to the absorption of radiation emitted across the facade cavity from glazing 3. In this scenario, heat will be available for convection from both glazings 3 and 4 to the cavity air. In the case of experiments B and D (Graphs 5.6.1B2 & 5.6.1D2) the opposite is true and heat will be available for from the cavity air onto glazing 4. convection
129
For the purpose of calibration, the following experiments have been carried out on the facade model to investigate the steady state model responses to step changes in temperatureand solar insolation. ambient Considering the simulated cavity air out temperature under a step change in solar insolation, while maintaining constant external and internal temperatures, the following comparisonsin simulated results can be made.
Table 5.8.1 Simulations Under Constant External & Internal Air Temperatures
Comparing Graphs 5.6.1A1 & 5.6.ICI 5.6.1 B1 & 5.6.1D1 External Air Temp*' Change in Insolation Air Out Temperature Change
0Celsius
15.3Celsius
30 Celsius
14.6Celsius
And considering the simulated cavity air out temperature under a step change in temperature, while maintaining a constant solar insolation, the following external comparisonsin simulated results can be made.
1000Wm'2
0 to 30 Celsius
26.1Celsius
500 Wm'2
0 to 30 Celsius
26.7Celsius
130
0 InI'1ltR 5. VALII>Arlc)N
OF Fn'nDP: MUUIiI.
Table 5.6.2)
Combining the results shown in Graphs 5.6.3E, 5.6.3E and 5.6.3G in which the angular dependence of incident solar insolation on the facade energy flows is demonstrated, Figure 5.8.1 in produced. The trends seen on this graph show that the energy flows within the facade are approximately constant up until an incident angle of around 500 deviation from normal incidence, with thermal losses to the external environment
(shown in blue), dominating. After this point, reflections from the facade (shown in red) begin to dominate up to a point of 100% reflection at near perpendicular solar incidence.
60%
50`S,, 40
30
2O 10%
o% 0
10 20 30 40
1%,
131
5.9 Bibliography
1 J.A. Duffle and W. A. Beckman, "Solar Energy Thermal Processes",(John Wiley & Sons,Inc., London), (1974) 2 R.K. Agarwal and H. P. Garg "Study of a photovoltaic/thermal system, thermo, solar water heater combined with solar cells", Energy Conversion and syphonic Management, 35,605620 (1994) 3 X. Cheng and U. Muller, "Turbulent Natural Convection Coupled With Thermal Radiation in Large Vertical Channels with Asymmetric Heating", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 41,16811692 (1998). 4 D. L. Loveday and A. H. Taki, "Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients at a Plane Surface on a FullScale Building Facade", International Journal of Mass Heat Transfer, 39,17291742 (1996). 5 F.P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt, "Introduction to Heat Transfer  Second Edition", (John Wiley & Sons,New York), (1990) F. Kreith, "Principles of Heat Transfer  3rd Edition". (Harper & Row, London, 1973) 7 S.A. Klein et al, "TRNSYS 14.2 for Windows A for Windows", (SEL, Wisconsin), (1996) transient Simulation Program
132
6 THE MATAR
6.1 Introduction
The original architectural plans for the multifunctional (PVT) solar modules located on
the library building in Matar were presented to the EC Thennie programme in 1991. The building has been designed and constructed as a prototype, incorporating several
novel energy capturing devices, enabling the passive production of solar electricity and thermal energy while maintaining its full functionality as a public library.
considerations. Passive thermal and electrical energy production . Interior natural lighting .
133
CHAPTER
THE
MATAR
LIBRARY
The building is of a rectangular shape with an orientation, which ensures its PVT facade points in a Southerly direction, enabling maximum solar energy capture. Along the South facing facade, PVT capturing devices are also located on the library with in much the sameway as that of the South facade. roof and operate
Figure 6.1.2 Matar6 Library Entrance Hall Electrical energy production is achieved by way of solar cells located on both the South facing facade and on the roof top modules. Solar heated air is extracted from both facade and modules by way of ventilated chambers located behind the PV elements.
A continuing analysis on the energy performance of the Matar library has been in operation since its construction. It is hoped that this analysis will aid the further
134
CHAI'THR 6
The library interior is furnished in a modern, airy open plan design as shown in Figure 6.2.1 and is constructed of 3 floors. The lowest of these three floors is sunken below ground level but excavations on the East and West sides of the building, adjacent to the lowest floor, assurethat natural lighting is allowed to enter.
Thick internal walls of a reinforced concrete construction have been used extensively within the building fabric, accompanied by bare stone floors to help maintain a cool internal environment throughout the heat of the day. Within the upper two levels of the building, glass walling is used extensively throughout to assure a spacious feel to the building and to allow natural lighting to penetrate into all building zone areas.
Figure 6.2.1 Library Upper Floor (West side) The sunken lower floor provides office spaceand a location for all of the conventional heating and air conditioning equipment for the building.
In the centre section of the building, cutting through all three levels, is a large sloping access ramp, which allows access to all three levels of the building. It also allows
unhindered airflow throughout the entire building volume (Figure 6.2.2). The sunken lower floor has windows along the entirety of its East and West sides but only limited
135
CIIAPTER
THE
MATARO
LIBRARY
&
ITS FACADE
area has been built into the upper two floors (Figure 6.2.3). No windows have window been built into the North facade of the building. Building temperature control is achieved through under floor air ducts, which carry
heated air (by solar thermal devices or natural gas) or electrically cooled air as required to every zone.
CHAPTER 6
6.3 FaVade Multifunctionality Listed below are the most influential facade parameters relating to electrical and thermalenergycapture.
" " " " Size and shapeof ventilation cavity Percentageproportion of opaque (solar absorbing) & transparent material areas Total PV area Cavity air flow rate
The optimum measure of each of these parameterswill inevitably be a compromise of factors including most predominantly site location. The ratio of opaque PV several to that of transparentmaterial over the entire facade area will be directly related to area the following. Electrical energy capture " Thermal energy capture " Building solar gains By increasing the PV area, both the electrical and thermal outputs will be increasedbut the solar gains to the building will decrease.This may lead to the increased use of internal lighting and heating at certain times of the year and hence additional energy If the PV area is reduced, the reverse may be true, leading to the possibility of usage. heating in the building by direct solar gains, leading again to an increasedenergy over use in the form of air conditioning. Other factors requiring consideration include most importantly, the increased cost of material compared to its surrounding glass. Although unrelated to the photovoltaic energy capturing design of the facade, cost will inevitably play an important optimal part in the final facade design due to the high cost of PV material at this time. Aesthetics must also play an important role in this decision as the building will be in public use and the facade is a predominant feature of the building. The chosen facade design can be seen in Figure 5.2.1 where the semi transparency is obtained by a pattern of squaredPV cells that leave a gap between two horizontal lines of 1.4cm, while in the vertical direction the pattern is repeated down the whole facade height. The transparent horizontal stripe is repeated every 10cm producing an original
137
CHAPTER 6
effect which can be seen from the outside as well as from the inside of the building. In using this repeated mosaic pattern of PV cells over the entire facade area, the percentageof PV material on the facadebecomes85%.
138
C'tInPIY. R 6
Tnr: Mnrnk6
6.4 Electrical
Energy Capture
Unlike direct solar gains into the building through the facade, both the facade and the roof modules generate thermal and electrical energy. There are considerable differences between these two energy capturing devices, both in their design and their composite materials.
of 1.1 x 2.15m2 PV modules semitransparent modules, consisting silicon cells. The peak electrical power output
from the facade is rated at 20.088 kWp, constructed from 108 semitransparent modules having a maximum potential rating of 75V. The roof top modules face in the same orientation as the South facade but are inclined at an angle of 370 to the horizontal. These photovoltaic skylights are arranged on the
building roof in four rows, each measuring 2.52m x 37.50m (= 94.50m2). Vertical rear panels on each of these four rows of modules are constructed from glass, allowing diffuse light from the North to enter the building.
139
CWAPTGk 6
Tm: MATAk(i
150
81.5
82.5
6.900
96
52.1
68.0
2.400
The roof top modules are constructed from three different types of photovoltaic
cell.
The combined total areas and peak power outputs from these three PV materials are summarised in Table 6.4.1. The construction of one of the four rows of roof top modules can be seen in Figure 6.4.1.
140
C'IIAPl1fR G
The dark PV material has a high solar absorptance. The absorbed solar energy increases the cell temperature, creating the potential for heat reclamation by heat transfer to a convecting fluid. This in turn has the potential to reduce the PV temperatureand increasesits efficiency.
Through this cavity, air is allowed to flow in either an unaided manner (allowing convection to be the prominent heat transfer process) or under the influence of natural (by which heat transfer will be acquired through forced convection). an external means
Heated air is captured at the top of the facade through air ducts which transport the air via fans, to the air conditioning unit for use either directly within the building or as
Behind each row of roof top modules, there is a void in which air is heated by the process of natural convection. These ventilation chambers are closed to the inside
141
CHAPTER 6
environment by way of either opaque insulating panels or transparent glass panels below the semitransparent sections of the skylight. Air supplied to these chambers comes directly from within the building where, after heating within the skylights, it is extracted by fans into the same air ducts as are used to transport the heated air from the South facade.
142
C'IIAPIItR 6
"Ii ut M\IARO
application reduces to a compromise between energy requirement and the capacities of production. The Pompeu Fabra library has been fitted with the PV capability to
hours of service .
[31
Becauseof this over specification, at certain times of the year the combined electrical from the facade and roof top PV modules will be greater than that required by output the building itself. To ensure full use is made of any excess electrical production, the library utilises the grid as a form of storage, selling to it in times of over capacity and buying from it when demandexceedsproduction.
The complete PV system on the library, having a maximum power of 52.788 kWp, is segregated into eight fields and connected to the grid via DC/AC manner described by Table 6.6.1. inverters, in the
143
CHAPTER 6
144
('IIAI'I'FR
TIII' MnrAKl)
& Retrieval
and other measuring devices was achieved through opening the inner double glazing panel, giving direct access to the facade cavity [Figure 6.7. I ]. The facade cavity is sectioned across its width into I meter segments, each of which captures thermal energy independently from all the others. All of the experimental measurements made while analysing the performance of the facade were taken at a single location, situated centrally across the complete facade width.
Facade performance data and anemometer weather data were gathered together in a single junction box located on the roof of the library (Figure 6.7.2). From here
captured data was fed to a central computer located on the underground floor of the building where all the data processing and storage was performed.
145
CHAPTER 6
6.8 Bibliography 1 (Nice, EuropeanPhotovoltaicSolar Energy Conference M. Chantant, al., 131h et i MultifuncionalsSA (TFM SA), Barcelona,1995), France), (Teulades Facanes pp. 22062208.
2 ENERGIA demo, "new technologies in energy saving and efficiency, Building Equipped with Multifunctional Photovoltaic Modules  'Pompeu Fabra' Library in Matar. (ENERGIA demo, Barcelona, 1997). 3 Lloret, A Technical Description of the Pompeu Fabra Library of Matar6. (CNRS, France,, 1996). 4 R.K. Agarwal & H. P.Garg, "Study of a photovoltaic/thermal system solar cells", Energy
thermosyphonic solar water heater combined with Conversion & Management, 35,7 (1994).
146
7.1 Introduction
A model of the Matar library has been created for the purpose of simulating its energy performance, using a combination of prewritten TRNSYS components and additional userwritten components,as required.
It was recognised from at early stagethat the way in which datawas transferred between prewritten and userwrittencomponents was of crucial importance.Each relied on the informationfrom the other.The TRNSYS software continualupdateof newly calculated betweencomponents often but allows the userto build in thesecommunication channels haveto be introduced. approximations
The complete building model is described in the following chapter, along with the facade and building model interconnections as they occur on the TRNSYS deck. Simulations were performed using the interconnected facade and library models within TRNSYS and the simulated data comparedwith raw experimental data taken from the Matar library.
147
Volume [m31
Capacitance [kJIC'I*'
AUDINFI
MAGAT2
3170
5230
3804
6276
3 4 5 6 7
The zone capacitance's listed here have been derived automatically by PREBID and are calculated as an averagecapacitanceper m3 of zone space.
Adjacent zones having accesswalk ways between them will at times be subject to zone Table 7.2.2 summarises details of adjacent zones within the building coupling airflow. and the respective number of doorways between them (figures in squarebrackets).
Also shown in Table 7.2.2 are the interaction areas of respective zones with the Thesedetailsareshownpictorially in Figure7.2.3. multifunctionalSouthfacade.
148
('IIA
PIIH
71
567 24.9

25.0
15.10
2
3
4121 *1
6
7 25.0
137.3
52.8
65.0
49.2121
97.51'
Zone 4 also has it doorway opening to the external environment (e. g. the main entrance doors shown in Figure 7.2.1)
*' The 'Adjacent South Facade Area' describes the South facade wall area located within each
zone * Superscript figures shown in square brackets indicate the number of doors between the zones in question
149
7.3 Schedules The building schedules describethe extentto which the building and its appliances are usedat any time of the day or night on any givenday of the week. The library building is closedon Mondaysand Sundays also in the afternoons during and siestatimes.Table's 7.3.1,7.3.2 & 7.3.3 show the usageof the building for all times of eachday and for eachday of the week.
*1 Building preparation representtimes of the day when only staff occupy the building
*2 Magnitudes schedules definedas being fully on (=1.0), fully off (=0.0) or partially on of are (=0.10)
Stop Time
24.00hrs
Magnitude
0.0
Comments
Building Closed
Library State
Closed(seeTable 7.3.2) Closed(seeTable 7.3.2)
ISO
Tuesday
Wednesday
Open(seeTable 7.3.1)
Open (see Table 7.3.1)
151
CHAPTER BUILDINGMODELLINGRESULTS 7,
7.4 Gains Dominantthermalgainsin a typical library buildingoriginatefrom the following. People "
Computers " Photocopiers " Lights " From considerations of the total building floor area and the seating arrangementswithin each building zone, an estimate was made of the occupancy, the number of computers, the number of photocopiers and the lighting requirements at times when the library is open to the public. Energy emissions from each of the sources above were quantified for the library environment using standard tables from the CIBSE Guide, a summary of which is shown in Table 7.4.1.
PeopleGains
Thermalemissions from peopleare quantifiedusing standard In tablesfrom ISO 77301s1. the caseof a working library, activity level 4 [seated,light work, typing  150 Watts total] was chosenfor the occupants. The stateof occupationis controlledby the weekly described Table7.3.3. in schedule
Gain Average No. People [Table 7.4.]] x Sched' Mag' [Table 7.3.31 152
Computer Gains
Computer gains were added to the model using standard data from the CIBSE Guide (1988), Section A, Table A7.9, from which each computer within the library was assumedan operating power of 200 Watts (720 KJ/hr). The rate of computer use is again controlled by the weekly scheduledescribedin Table 7.3.3. Gain = No. of Computers [Table 7.4.1] x Sched' Mag' (Table 7.3.3]
Photocopier Gains
Gains from photocopierswere treated in the same way as those from computers. Adopting data from the CIBSE Guide (1988), SectionA, Table A7.9, a value of 300 Watts (10800 KJ/hr) was attributedto eachphotocopierwithin the library. The rate of in described Table7.3.3. is againcontrolledby the weeklyschedule photocopier use Gain = No. of Photocopiers [Table 7.4.1]x Sched'Mag' [Table 7.3.3]
Lighting Gains
Gains from artificial zone lighting were treated in a slightly different way from the gains described above. Data from the CIBSE Guide suggests that a lighting level of approximately 500 lux would be suitable for a library environment (CIBSE Guide, Section A, Table A1.6). To achieve this lighting level, the magnitude of lighting from a tubular fluorescent construction would have to produce a power of between 14 and 30 Watts/m2 of floor area (CIBSE Guide, Section A, Table A7.4). Assuming this level is throughout the library, Table 7.4.2 summarises the lighting energy required in required each zone. The amount of lighting in use is again controlled by the weekly schedule describedin Table 7.3.3.
Gain = Lighting Energy[Table 7.4.2]x Sched'Mag' [Table 7.3.3] Thermal gains from natural day lighting through the facadeare discussed later in this work.
153
Zone
Radiation Enemy (KJhr 1*2b 19511 13653 8081 7886 11651 17480 6580
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
*1
The total Wattagerequiredis basedon a conversion 20 W/m2to achievea lighting level of of 500 lux which is a level suitedto a library environmenttst.
Convective and radiative energy flows from tubular fluorescent lights, of the total Wattage stated above, are obtained from the CIBSE Guide (Section A, Table A7.4, ) in which the following energy distributions are suggested.
*2
154
7.5 Infiltration & Ventilation Followingthe guidelines building infiltration outlined in the CIBSE Guide (SectionA, on Table A4.12), the allowable infiltration rates for libraries is sectionedinto two parts; than4m andthoselessthan4m in height. roomswith heightgreater
" Rooms > 4m, allowable infiltration ='/nch " Rooms < 4m, allowable infiltration = 3/ach Adapting this same convention to the 7 zones making up the complete building model, the values shown in Table 7.5.1 are obtained.
Superscripts shown by each infiltration rate are the maximum infiltration rates for the respective zones.
3& The CIBSE Guide(SectionB, Table B2.3) recommends ventilationrate of between a 4 ach for librariesbuildings.Within the building model, a ventilation rate of 3.5 ach is for assumed eachof the 7 zoneseventhoughit is known that different roomsareassigned to different activities,where different equipmentwill be in use and different ventilation ratesrequired.
155
CHAPTER BUILDINGMODELLINDRESULTS 7.
Within the building model, ventilation is controlled by the weekly schedule described in Table 7.3.3. Zone Ventilation = Ventilation Rate [Table 7.5.1] x Sched' Mag' [7.3.3]
156
7.6 Cooling & Heating In each of the simulationsundertakento look at the buildingfacadeinteraction,the heating and cooling loads given to all zoneswere provided under one of either of the following two zoneair temperature control strategies.
1. PassiveOperation (no auxiliary heating or cooling power applied) 2. Constant Temperature(no upper limit applied to the heating or cooling power)
157
l'ILV'I
IH
71
IIIII
OINU MIIIII
II IN(. RI SUI IS
7.7 Building
Wall Constructions
The diagrams below describe the composite wall materials and construction used For the 'IYI'h 56 building model. The materials were chosen From the inbuilt 'I'RNSYS
materials library to have the closest match to that ol'the actual building construction. External IFAT Internal Air I: X'I't: RNAL I?NVIRONMF, NT Air
Air Gap
Steel Shell
01,
I
NT
Fiber Board
Fiber Board
159
lll
\I'I}N
Iil'll
I)IN(.
Polystyrene
Clllll'fl'ic

Concrete
159
CHAPTER BUILDINGMODELLINGRESULTS 7.
7.8 The BuildingFacade Interface Figure 7.8.1 showsthe completeTRNSYS deck in the IISIBAT environmentwherethe in described Table7.8.1havebeenlisted. components Within the TYPE 56 library building descriptionfile no information is providedon the facadeor its operation.The facadeand building models are treatedas multifunctional as components shownby Figure7.8.1. entirelyseparate Table 7.8.1 TRNSYS Deck Component Descriptions
TYPE Name
WeatherD
TYPE Ntuber
9
Description
datafrom Weatherdatafile containingall requiredmeteorological the library locationin Matard, Barcelona Radiationprocessor calculatinglibrary surfaceinsolationfrom madeof horizontalinsolationonly measurements The new type component which simulatesthe operationof the multifunctional facade Component containingthe BID descriptionof the completelibrary building model Printeroutput components which write simulationresultsto files prescribed
Insol
32
Fagade
70
56
25
betweenthe two modelsis thereforeessentialin order for them to Good communication up to date calculated information relating to changing heat flows and zone share temperatures.
160
CILAPfIiR
7.
li(III.
UIN(I
MUUYLIINII
I(ISUI:
fS
r I
Fd.
oucpucal
([
.chD U..
Insol
a )1 Liby
Ducpucs2
.1l
.6
to the relevant building model zones in the TYPE 56 component as radiation passed on heating/cooling convective loads. The two energy transfers treated in this gains and air below. manner, are shown
Solar insolation through facade fenestration Heat conduction through the l4ade fabric (into or out of each respective zone)
The data transferred from the facade model to building zones is shown in Table 7.8.2 and the returned data from building zones to facade model is shown in Table 7.8.3. Convective heat flows into or out of each respective zone through the facade construction (Table 7.8.2, facade model outputs I to 8) are allocated as HEATING/COOLING
161
Radiative heat flows into each respective zone through the facade construction (Table 7.8.2, facade model outputs 9 to 12) are allocated as GAINS of 100% radiative nature to the TYPE 56 building model.
Description*'
heatloss from Zone I heatloss from Zone3 heatlossfrom Zone4 heatlossfrom Zone5 heatgain to Zone I heatgain to Zone 3 heatgain to Zone4 heatgain to Zone 5 direct solar gainsto Zone I direct solar gainsto Zone 3 direct solar gainsto Zone4 direct solargainsto Zone 5
Type
convective convective convective convective convective convective convective convective radiative radiative radiative radiative
Units
Uhr' klhr' Uhr'
klhr'
klhr' klhr' klhr' klhr' klhr' klhr'
klhr'
klhr'
" The magnitude convective radiativeheatgainsor lossesto or from eachof the facadeof and building interactingzones(zones1,3,4 & 5) dependon the temperature differencebetween the inner facade glazingsurface respective and zoneair & surfaces.
162
Description of meanair temperature Zonc I of meanair temperature Zone 2 of meanair temperature Zone 3 of meanair temperature Zone4 of meanair temperature Zone 5
mean air temperature of Zone 6
Units K K K K K
K
163
CHAPTER BUILDINGMODELLINGRESULTS 7.
The facademodel operatesin much the sameway as that of the TYPE 56 window, calculating the transmission, reflection and absorption of solar radiation by its But it is not possible to couple the facade model energy flows to the construction. building zonevia the in built star networkand thereforethe model is unableto calculate in the exchange radiationenergywith otherzonesurfaces an appropriate of manner.
Taken from Appendix F, Equation 7.9.1 is used by the TYPE 56 component to calculate the total convective energy flow to or from each zone in order to calculate the node air temperature.
Qi R. arf, i + Qo. inf. i + Qc, + Q4o. + no, ooup i 4.i van6i
Equation7.9.1
164
where = total convective heat flow [kihr" ] Q,. surfaceconvective heat flow [kihr" ] W, = Q,
(r. b [U.,.u,, ua Aw. =  T.v 1 Q, = infiltration gains[Uhr '' ] r (TowideTait)] CP =I VP IVP CP(Tventa.  T. )] = ir roo
Again taken from Appendix F, Equation7.9.2 is used by the TYPE 56 component to by the calculate radiativeenergyflows received eachzonesurface. S6I
= nr. 1.16i + Qr. wl. s.i + Qr. lona kl + Qr. wy.a.l
Equation7.9.2
If the facade model were integrated as part of the star network model, then the radiative energy gains it exchangeswith the surfaceswithin each zone would be introduced as part of Q,,30:,,,,
The actual radiative energy from the facade is added to each respectivezone as an internalradiativegain which is introduced part of Q,, Thus, there is not expected to as g.,,,. be any significantdifferencebetweenthis methodof distributing radiativegainsand the internalmethodusedby TRNSYS. The distributionof theseradiativegains on the internal surfaces will be identical to the direct solarradiationthroughthe facadeis distributed.But due to the absence the of way facadein the star network model, none of the reradiationeffects resulting from these The samewill be true of internalgainswill be attributable the internalfacadesurface. to causinga nonuniformspread radiation of emittedfrom otherzonesurfaces, any radiation aroundthe zone. The total radiationgain enteringa zonewill be distributedaccordingto the absorptanceThereforethe fraction of incoming short the internal surfaces. weightedarea ratios of by by F.,, solarradiationabsorbed any surface will be calculated Equation7.9.3. wave a. A. l  pd, $1,
Equation 7.9.3
where [n] a, = solarabsorptance thesurface of for p, 1= surface reflectance diffusesolarradiation[n] A, = surface ] area(m2
The fraction of internal long wave radiative gains absorbedby a perfect black body F1,,,canbe foundEquation7.9.4. surface F,,
=
A$
surface
Equation 7.9.4
A.
Due to the building model neglectingthe facadeconstructionthe sum of the wall areas enclosingeach of zones 1,3,4 and 5 will be under calculated,resulting in an over calculationof shortandlong waveradiationdistributionon the non facadesurfaces. 166
Using the userspecifiedwall gain heatflow, Qr, i from Equation7.9.2 to introducethe WQ,., facaderadiativegainsto a zonemay createa more attractivesolution to the distribution the of direct gainsto the zone.This being because direct gainsfrom the facadewill have a greater density on the floor area rather than the under calculatedwall area. The differencebetweenthesetwo methodsof adding radiativegains into the building is not to expected be significant.
167
7.10 Experimental Analysis The validity of both facadeand building models has been scrutinisedby way of six TRNSYS simulations.Facadeand building model outputs from thesesimulationshave been comparedand contrasted with equivalentraw experimentaldata from the Matar6 library monitoring system.The model parameters validatedwithin thesesix simulations are listedbelow.
1. Building mean air temperaturefluctuations
fluctuations building zones 2. Freefloatingair temperature of facade fluctuations 3. Building air temperature with opaque 4. Building heatingandcoolingloads
5. FacadeBuilding energy transfers 6. Facadeenergy replacement
Immediatelybelow are described procedures the usedwithin this experimental analysis. havebeenincludedat the endof section7.10. All of the referenced graphs
To enable simulations of the free floating building internal air temperature to be made, the heating and cooling loads to the building were turned off for a duration of 4 days. The data recorded by the library data logging system throughout these four days was then raw used as inputs to facade model and simulations carried out. The simulated internal air temperature resulting from these conditions was then compared with that of the recorded temperatureunder the same conditions.
from each of the 7 building zones were used to Simulated internal air temperatures Ta in the calculatea volume weightedmeaninternal air temperature, nRmean way shown by Equation7.10.1.
Ta,
inl, w+un _
Equation7.10.1
168
CHArrER 7. DUILDINOMODELLINURESULTS
where Ta. O = meanair temperature zonen [K] mn., of Vmn, volumeof zonen [m'] 11 = The weatherdata file usedwith this simulationcontainedthe following datatypes for a between the total of 92 hoursat a time interval of 1 minute(app.0.0167hours),recorded datesof September and6`h1999.Detailsof this datafile canbe seenin Table7.10.1. 3`' Table 7.10.1 Simulation Input Data for Building Air Temp' Evaluation
1
Time
2
Insolation (horizontal) Wm
3
ExternalAir Temperature Kelvin
4
InternalAir Temperature Kelvin
5
Cavity in Air Temperature Kelvin
6
Cavity air velocity facadetop i ms
7
External
hours
WindSpeed I I i ms
The facade cavity air velocity was again assumedequal to the cavity air velocity under convection at the top of the facade (column 6 in this data file) and the internal air natural velocity was assumedto be at a constant 0.1 ms''. The mean building internal air temperatures,calculated from Equation 7.10.1, were then compared with input 4, the recorded internal air temperature. The results obtained from this experiment are shown in Graphs 7.10.1 to 7.10.4, as detailed in Table 7.10.2.
Table 7.10.2 Graphical Results from Facade & Building Model Experimental Assessment
Graph No. T 101 . .
7 10 2 . . 7 10 3 . . 7 104 . .
Graphical Title
& Recorded SimulatedMeanBuilding Air Temperature 3rd (Day 1, September 1999) Recorded SimulatedMean Building Air Temperature & 4th (Day 2, September 1999) Recorded SimulatedMean Building Air Temperature & (Day 3, September 1999) S'" Recorded SimulatedMeanBuilding Air Temperature & (Day 4, September ih 1999) 6
169
in In a similar process that described simulation 1, typical meanyear (TMY) weather to data for the location of Barcelonawas generated hourly intervals using the software at by Meteonorm asdescribed the datain Table 7.10.3. 97, Table 7.10.3 Meteonorm Weather Data File for Barcelona
Day Month ! four hourly Direct
Horizontal Radiation
Hourly Diffuse
Horizontal Radiation
ExternalAir
Temperature
External
Wind
Relative
Humidity
Speed
Wm 2
Wm
Celsius
ms"
The TRNSYS deck was set up in such a way that no heating or cooling loads were the building zones other than those resulting from the facadeallowed within any of building interface and through accidental gains (e.g. people etc).
The meancavity airflow ratewas kept at a constant0.4 ms'' which represents average an in from the datafile described simulation2. flow ratecalculated
Each zone temperature was allowed to fluctuate passively, solely under the influence of the inputted weather data values. The simulated results of this investigation can be seen at the end of this section and include the following. graphically
Graph Title
Zone Air Temperature Without Building I Icating or Cooling Loads Fluctuations (JanuaryWeek 1) Zone Air Temperature Without Building I cating or Cooling Loads Fluctuations (April Week 1) Zone Air Temperature Without Building heating or Cooling Loads Fluctuations (July Week 1) ZoneAir Temperature Fluctuations Without Building I cating or Cooling Loads (OctoberWeek 1)
7 107
7 10 8
170
A TRNSYS deck was createdand onto which the multifunctional facademodel was by an opaquewall having an identical constructionto that of other external substituted building walls in the building model.The conductionand radiationthermalenergyflows into and out of the building werenow suppressed could be compared with the results and of of simulation3 to obtain an assessment the direct impact of the facadeon the energy flows from andto the internalenvironment.
Using the same weather data file as described in Table 7.10.3, a full years simulation was out, providing the graphical outputs described in Table 7.10.5. carried
Graph Title
With & Without Facade Interaction Mean InternalAir Temperature (JanuaryWeek 1) Interaction With & Without Facade Mean Internal Air Temperature (April Week 1) Interaction With & Without Facade Mean Internal Air Temperature (July Week 1) Interaction With & Without Facade Mean Internal Air Temperature (OctoberWeek 1)
7 10 10 . . 7 10 11 . . 7 10 12
The TYPE56 library building model was forced to maintain a constant internal temperature 20 Celsiusthroughapplyingan unlimited amountof heatingand cooling of By running simulationsunderthis conditionin an identicalmannerto simulation power. 3, it waspossible obtainthe heatingandcoolingload requirements the building. to of datafile described Table 7.10.3was againusedfor this simulationandthe in The weather in are resultsobtained summarised Table7.10.6.
171
CHAPTER BUILDINGMODELLINGRESULTS 7.
Graph Title
Building }lcating & Cooling Requirements (JanuaryWeck 1) Building Heating& Cooling Requirements (April Weck 1) Building Heating& Cooling Requirements (July Weck 1) Building Heating& Cooling Requirements (OctoberWeck 1)
Differencesbetweenthe energyrequirement the library building without the facade of (simulation4) and that with, originatefrom the incidentalenergygainsoriginating from the facade from its relatively lightweightconstruction. the transparent and natureof
Simulation 6 has been conducted in an effort to quantify the energy flows between the facade the enclosing building. Table 7.10.7 summarises the results produced in this simulation.
Graph Title
EnergyFlows To & Fromthe Building Throughthe Facadc (JanuaryWeek 1) EnergyFlows To & From the Building Through the Fagadc (April Week 1) EnergyFlows To & From the Building Throughthe Facadc
7 10 18
. .
7 10 19
. .
(JulyWeek1)
EnergyFlows To & From the Building Through the Facadc (OctoberWeek 1)
7.10.20
172
This final simulation replicatesthe way in which the multifunctional facadehas been intendedfor use.Thermalenergycaptured the facadeis utilised for the replacement by of conventionalbuilding heating in order to produce a net saving in energy use. The availability of thermal energy producedin this way, at the location in Barcelona,is knownto be largeandout of phase with demand. Resultsfrom this simulationwould indicatethe usefulness the thermalenergycapture of for the replacement conventional of energywithin the library building.
Table 7.10.8 summarisesthe graphical results produced in this simulation.
Graph Title
Conventional EnergyReplacement Facade Heating by Air (January Week 1) ConventionalEnergyReplacement Facade Heating by Air (April Week 1) ConventionalEnergyReplacement Facade heating by Air (July Week 1) ConventionalEnergyReplacement Facade heating by Air (OctoberWeek 1)
7 1022
7.10.23
7.10.24
173
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7.11 Discussion
Simulation 1 The poor quality of experimental data used within this simulation can be clearly seen in each of Graphs 7.10.1 to 7.10.4. On days 1,2 and 3 erratic spikes arc observed in the recorded internal air temperature of the building. Because this data is not used directly in the simulation, it is not expected to have any impact on the simulated results.
But it is likely that otherdatafields in this datafile will containinaccurate datavalues, which may havea more significanteffect on the simulationresults.It is not known to data what extentany erroneous from this datafile hashadon the simulatedresults.
The recorded internal air temperature on days 1 and 4, as seen in Graphs 7.10.1 and 7.10.4, show very irregular traces within the second half of each day. Both graphs show a sharp decreasein recorded internal air temperature, which is not reconstructed in the simulated temperature trace. Such dramatic decreases in the recorded air temperaturesare not likely to have been measured within the building. It is therefore assumedthat the data at these times does not show a true representation of the actual internal air temperature and that this data is a consequence of a data logging inaccuracy. A common starting temperature was enforced at the beginning of each of the 4 days, equal to that of the recorded temperature. The single location, at which internal air temperatureswere recorded for this data file, is known to be within close proximity of the south facing facade, on the middle floor of the building construction. This location is used for convenience,but it is expected that the air temperature at this point will be higher than the true mean building air temperature when taking into account the temperature stratification towards the North wall and the significantly underground level. cooler
The data shown for eachof the four simulationsin this work is seento have strong similarities between recorded and simulated temperatures, with the simulated air beingbelow that of the recorded temperature 1 or 2 degrees by temperature Celsius. air
198
This may well be explainedby the locationof the temperature thermocouple nearthe innerfacade surface.
The temperatureprofiles seenon days 2 and 3 (Graphs 7.10.2 and 7.10.3), show a time difference between peak simulated and recorded temperatures around 3pm. This time difference looks to be approximately equal to 1 hour, with the recorded temperature peaking before the simulated temperature. This time delay in peak simulated air temperature may be explained by an over estimate of the thermal capacitance of the building fabric and contents. TRNSYS has its own method of estimating the thermal capacitanceof a building zone, which it calculates from the total zone volume. In each of the simulations carried out in this work, the automatic capacitanceevaluatedby TRNSYS has been employed which, becauseof the open plan structure of the library, may well have been overestimated.
Simulation 2
The zone with the lowest simulated internal air temperature is consistently seen to be that of zone 2. Within the building volume, zone 2 lies entirely beneath ground level and is therefore shelteredfrom solar insolation throughout most of the day. But Zone 2 has a large glass wall facing East which on some days of the year is seento increases internal temperatures above the building average temperature during the hours, which can be seen clearly in the simulated results from July, week 1, morning day 1 (Graph 7.10.7). The zone that is seen to be influenced the greatestby changes in ambient temperature and solar insolation is zone 5. On most days of the year, the temperature of zone 5 can be seen to increase disproportionately faster then other zone temperatures during the first half of the day. Yet during the times of late afternoon, its temperature is seen to fall with the same haste. Zone 5 is known to have the greatest zone interaction area the facade,which would explain the influences describedabove. with The facade model treats the long wave solar radiation emittance from the dark PV material into the building as negligible. The effect of which would be to increase internal surface temperatures. The significance of this emitted radiation is unknown
199
but may explain why there is only a small different between internal building temperaturesobservedbetween simulations with and without the facade. It has to be noted that the zone air temperature recorded in each of these simulations is the mean air temperature of the entire zone volume. There will inevitably be stratification through the air space within each of the zone volumes due to the following. Radiation emittance from the PV cells (longwave radiation) " Direct solar gains (shortwave radiation) " Convective heat gains from the inner glazing "
During the times of low externaltemperature and insolation the oppositewould be because the following. of expected
Radiation emittance from inside to outside " Down draft " Convective heat lossesto the inner glazing "
Simulation 3
Thermal gains and losses are used by the facade model to influence the building zone temperaturesin the following ways. Direct solar gains are added to the relevant building zones as 100% radiative thermal gains
Convectiveheat transferfrom the inner facadesurfaceis addedto the relevant " building zones 100%convective thermalgains. as building zonesascooling loads. Air cooling,which is attributed relevant to
The net internal temperature of each zone will therefore come as the resultant of the internal heating or cooling load, the direct solar gains, the convective heat transfer from the facade surface and the convective losses. No account is made within the facade model to simulate the long wave radiation exchange between inner building zone surfaces. When a massive wall having a significant thermal capacitance replaces the facade, it be clearly seen from Graphs 7.10.9 to 7.10.12, that the zone temperature can 200
fluctuations are suppressed.Replacing the multifunctional facade with an opaque, therefore reducesthe extremesof changesin internal air temperature. massive wall
Simulation 4
Throughout the entirety of this experiment, the internal air temperature was held at a 200 Celsius and unlimited heating and cooling loads were applied in order to constant meet this requirement. The considerable variation in building heating loads required in winter (350kW for January week 1, day 6, Graph 7.10.13) and cooling loads required in summer (500kW for July week1, day 1, Graph 7.10.15) are clearly evident. Throughout every day of all four analysed weeks of the year, the heating or cooling loads are both seen to drastically diminish near the middle of each day, only to increase again towards late afternoon. During winter, when the building heating loads are at their greatest and the sun is low in the sky, the maximum solar heat gains within the building occur around the middle the day, reducing the required conventional heating load at this time. This is clearly of seenin the heating requirement of the building in January (Graph 7.10.13). During summer, when the suns trajectory is higher in the sky, the opposite will be true in solar heating of the building will occur around midday. Thus the and a reduction requirement of the building will also be reduced at this time, explaining the cooling in simulated building cooling load around mid day, as seen in the simulated reduction for July (Graph 7.10.15). results
Simulation 5
Within this simulation, as with simulation 2, the 7 zone air temperatureswere allowed to fluctuate freely under the enforcing solar radiation and external air temperature. The heat losses simulated between the inner glazing surface and the internal environment are made assuming that the inner glazing (glazing 5) is at a single temperature over the entirety of its surface. In general, it is known that this uniform not representthe true situation and a temperature gradient will be imposed over its will full height. There will therefore be varying amounts of heat transfer to and from zone 201
depending the height with which eachzone interactswith the facadeand on volumes specificzoneair temperatures.
Solar gains into the building through the facade are seen to be at their highest during the months of April and October due to a low solar trajectory (Graphs 7.10.18 and 7.10.20). In contrast, gains may be expected to be greater during January due to the lower solar trajectory at this time of year, but the effects of increased cloud cover during the winter months may be having a detrimental effect on these expected solar gains. If the internal air temperature for all zones was fixed at a constant 200 Celsius, rather than free floating, a much more dramatic increasein heat flow into the building would be seen through the summer seasonand a larger amount of heat loss would be seen during the winter months.
Simulation 6 All zone temperatureswere again held at a constant 200 Celsius and simulations run in order to calculate the building heating and cooling loads required to maintain this internal temperature. The heat extracted by the air from the facade cavity was calculated using Equation 7.11.1.
QavailableTr )c Tair out zone Pair Vair cav
Equation7.11.1
[K] T,; = temperature air comingout of the facade of ra,, T,; = temperature theinternalzoneair [K] of r zone
Cp = specific heat of air [JKg''K'' ] p,;, = air density [Kgm'']
202
from the facadecavity than is requiredby the building then heatis extracted If excess this heatis classed unusable is simplyventedto atmosphere. and as
Throughout the week's simulation in January (Graph 7.10.21), it is seen that almost no heat is available from the cavity air for replacement of conventional heating. During the simulation for April (Graph 7.10.22), it can be seen that almost all the useful cavity heated air is acquired in the middle of the day when little or no conventional heating is This heat has thus to be dumped. During the first week in July (Graph required. 7.10.23), no building heating is required and all of the heat available from the facade cavity air has to be dumped. Finally, in the first week in October (Graph 7.10.24), the heat available from the cavity air is again limited at times when it is needed for space heating. In order to obtain an idea of the thermal energy savings available from the facadeover a1 year period operation under averagemeteorological conditions, the following three simulations were carried out and their results compared.
in The resultsfrom thesethreeexperiments summarised Table7.11.1. are Table 7.11.1 Yearly Building Heating & Cooling Loads for Matard Building With & Without Multifunctional Facade
Heating Load Total (k1Vh] Building Without Facade Building With Facade Building With Facade& Heat Recovery 283150 280224 278983 Peak JAI" 446.2 Cooling Load Total kWh) 439749 Peak IM 1 608.6
446.2
432528
595.1
446.2
432528
595.1
203
Analysing the above figures shows that the addition of the facade on the library building decreases building heatingandcoolingloads. the in Decrease heatingload= 283150 280224= 2926 kWh [e.g. 1.0 % saving]
[This figure represents the average yearly saving in conventional heating, which the building receives through the facade (e.g. solar radiation gains and convected heat transfer) which it wouldn't do if thefacade were replaced with a conventional opaque wall construction]. The figure is small because of the out of phase nature of the thermal capture of the facade with demand from the building. With the addition of thermal storage (long term term storage) the presented figure representing the percentage saving in or short building heating by way of the heatedfacadeair, is likely to increasesignificantly.
in Decrease coolingload= 439749 432528= 7221kWh [e.g. 1.6 % saving] [Thisfigure represents averageyearly saving in conventionalcooling, which the the heat losses)which it wouldn't do building receives throughthefacade (e. convective g. if thefacade werereplacedwith a conventional opaquewall construction].
Again this figure is small and shows that the facade construction has similar heat loss characteristicsto those of the wall, which replacesit in the presentedsimulation. Therefore along with a 1.0 % saving in yearly building heating, a 1.6 % saving is made on yearly building cooling, providing a combined yearly energy saving (heating plus of. 2926 + 7221 = 10147 kWh for an averagemeteorological year. cooling) It is interesting to note that the peak cooling demand of the library building is also by the introduction of the multifunctional facade. Although the reduction in reduced this peak cooling demand is not great enough to warrant the replacement of the present air conditioning unit with a cheaper,lower peak output unit.
With the introductionof heat recoveryfrom the facadecavity, further energysavings building heatingload (Table7.11.1). canbe madeto the conventional in Decrease heatingload= 280224 27898= 1241kWh [e.g. 0.4 % saving]
This saving is rather small and reflects the warm climatic conditions of Barcelona heating is only required for short periods of the year. where
204
Table 7.11.2 summarisesthe total electrical output from the facade PV cells over the period of a typical year and the total amount of excessthermal energy produced by the facade,which required dumping.
Table 7.11.2 Yearly Facade Electrical Output & Dumped Facade Heat
Total IkWVhj PV Electricity ExcessBeat Production 18917 49044 Peak JA III 18.6 69.0
From the above figures it can be seenthat the total heat rejected from the facade over a period of a typical year amounts to approximately 17.5 % of the total yearly building heat requirement after utilising the maximum amount of heat recovery available from the facade within the building (without storage). This figure is very high and reflects the need for thermal storage. The facade yearly electrical output amounts to some 4.4 % of the total yearly air conditioning energy required by the building. Due to the warm location of the library and the inphase nature of PV electrical production for cooling, it is likely that all of this electrical energy could be utilised for aircooling within the building without the for storage. need
The abovefigures for 'ExcessiveHeat Production'shown in Table 7.11.2were made that air assuming the efficiencywith which the heated from the facadewas suppliedto the building with 100%efficiency and that no thermal storagewas available.Losses this throughleakage thermalconduction inevitablyreduce efficiency. and will
When supplying the heated cavity air to the building there are other considerations to be made prior to making any accurate energy analysis. It is expected that the heated cavity air will be introduced into the building as replacement space air without any kind of heat exchanger. Therefore filters will be required at some stage to ensure air quality, which will inevitably use energy for their operation and hence reduce efficiency. The air coming out of the cavity may also require mixing with cooler air to the internal temperature before utilisation within the building. A complex and required
205
consumingcontrol systemmay thereforebe required to ensurethe correct energy internalair temperature air change and rate.
The energy requirements of these pieces of equipment and additional supply fans, need to be considered alongside the energy saving thermal and electrical outputs from the facade operation. Within this work no consideration has been given towards optimising or trying to increase the electrical output form the PV material through the reduction of its temperature. To achieve this, heat would have to be dumped from the PV material to the external environment, which would inherently reduce the heat available for recovery. Alternatively, heat extraction by the cavity air could be increasedthrough the increase of convection heat transfer within the cavity. No assessmentof this kind has been made in this work, such that the PV electrical output from the facade is importance to air heating. consideredas secondary
figures abovesuggest The presented that the thermal energy capturingability of the facade havinga limited impacton the conventional is energyusingof the building.The for to reasons which canbe attributed the following.
" " The out of phasenature of available solar thermal energy and building demand The building location (e.g. hot Mediterranean environment requiring more cooling than heating) Yet because the facade airflow rate is less than the required ventilation rate for the building, preheating of the ventilation air by the facade should save significant energy. A suitable control system for this application would use a method of temperature control demonstratedby Figure 7.11.1. The addition of thermal storage will significantly add to the usefulness of the facadeheated air, with longterm storage bringing more potential for conventional energy replacementthan shortterm storage. Greater energy savings could be made through the addition of coolth storage (by latent heat transfer from the heated cavity air) due to the hot environment in which the building is located. But this will bring with it more expense and hence a possibly longer pay back time. Using the new facade model presented in this work creates a convenient meansby which this option could be evaluatedprior to implementation.
206
air conditioning
T3 no heating
T2 facadeheating only
Comfort Zone
207
7.12 Bibliography
1 R.K. Agarwal and H. P. Garg "Study of a photovoltaic/thermal system, thermo, syphonic solar water heater combined with solar cells", Energy Conversion and Management, 35,605620 (1994) 2 J.A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman, "Solar Energy Thermal Processes",(John Wiley & Sons,Inc., London), (1974) 3 F.P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt, "Introduction to Heat Transfer  Second Edition", (John Wiley & Sons,New York), (1990) S.A. Klein et al, "TRNSYS 14.2 for Windows A transient Simulation Program for Windows", (SEL, Wisconsin), (1996) CIBSE, "The CIBSE Guide  Volumes A, B and C", (Staples Printers, St Albans), (1988) D. Loveday, "Energy & Buildings", MSc course notes, CREST, Loughborough University, (1995) 8 D. G. Stephenson and G.P. Mitalas, "Calculation of Heat Conduction Transfer Functions for MultiLayer Slabs", ASHRAE Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., August 2225, (1971) 9 J.E. Seem, "Modelling of Heat in Buildings", PhD Thesis, Solar Energy Laboratory, Universtity of Wisconsin Madison (1987)
208
8 CONCLUSIONS ON RESEARCH
8.1 Introduction
A method for evaluating the thermal and electrical energy flows within a
multifunctional (PVT) facade has been presentedthrough the adaptation of an existing solar thermal collector model. The presented thermal model simulates all the energy transfer processeswithin a facade, while convective, conductive and radiative taking into account its full functionality as a barrier between external and internal environments. This theoretical facade model has been developed into a fully working FORTRAN program and adapted for use within the TRNSYS simulation environment. A seven zone Matar library building model has also been constructed in TRNSYS using measured physical data of the building and operational standards taken from reliable publications. The building and facade models have been adjoined in a suitable manner and simulations carried out on the complete building with facade construction in an attempt to evaluate a system as close as possible to the actual operation of the Matard building. The fully working 'facade plus building' model has then been validated against data taken directly from the Matarb library and discussions made on any experimental significant differences observedwithin the model. Discussions are also provided on the facade parameterswhich are not included in the but which are known to influence the functioning of the Matard simulation model facade,and evaluations made of their expectedeffect on simulated results. Through a comparison of the simulated facade data with experimental data from the Matar multifunctional facade, it is evident that the presented model simulates very the real facade energy flows while also taking into account the external air well 209
variations. Any observed differences in performance can be explained pressure 5. throughthe discussions madeat the endof Chapter It is foreseen that this research materialand the facademodel will be of considerable in in predicting the changes performance the Matar6 library building after of value developments madeto the facade intended construction statedbelow. are as
addition of heat/coolth energy storagefacilities thermal capturing deviceson facade " additional The out of phaserelationship between the availability of solar heat from the facade and the building heating requirements, suggests that thermal storage could have a significant improvement on the conventional energy replacement potential of the facade. Through the use of a coolth storage device, this conventional energy replacementwould be expectedto be even greater. It is known that with the present design of PVT facade, the output air temperature is high enough for it to be used directly within the building, requiring additional not heating from conventional sources.Through the increase of solar thermal capture area thermal insulation on the facade; the exiting air temperature could be increasedto and a value, which could be used immediately within the building.
210
8.2 Attributes of Building Model When calculatingthe energyflows betweenthe facadeand building zone, a possibly to zoneheating,ignoredin the analysisof Chapter7, is that of significantcontribution from heated facade long waveradiationemittance glazingsinto building zones.
In the proposed model, glazing 4 (Figure 5.2.1) is assumedto be a perfect black body into which all of the long wave radiation emitted from glazing 3 (conducted from the solar heated PV material) will be absorbed. In reality, the glass constructions of glazings 4 and 5 will be transparent to a small percentageof the long wave radiation from glazing 3 that will enter respectivebuilding zones and add to the heating emitted effect of the building by the facadeconstruction. Norton[') quotes a value for the transmittance of long wave (infrared) radiation through glass of 1% which, when applied to the double glazing construction which separates 3 with the internal environment, means only 0.01% of the emitted long wave glazing from glazing 3 will enter the building. radiation If glazing 3 (the solar absorber) is at a temperatureof 50 Celsius (323 K) and the inner wall surfaces of the building have an average temperature of 20 Celsius (293 K) then the radiation exchangeto the room walls from glazing 3 can be found from Equation 8.2.1.
Equation8.2.1
Thus, after passing through two panes of glass (glazings 4 and 5), this radiative heat transfer will only amount to 1.793 Wm'2K', which will not have a significant heating effect within the building. The radiation emitted into the building from glazing 5 (the inner glazing) can be estimated if the mean glazing 5 temperature is assumedto be 25 Celsius (298 K) and the inner wall surfacesare again assumedto be 20 Celsius (293 K). Then the radiation to the room walls from glazing 5 will be the following. exchange )(298 293X298 h, = 5.67x10 0.9 2982+ 2932 293) + 26.33 Wm'2K'' = Equation 8.2.2
211
This magnitude of radiation gain into the building is much more significant than that from glazing 3. Through its exclusion from the facadebuilding heat transfer calculations, an underestimate of the total thermal energy inputs into respective building zoneswill have most likely been introduced. To understand the significance of this radiation exchange an examination of the convective energy transfer into the building needs to be conducted. An estimate of these convective energy flows can be obtained using Equations 2.1.1 and 2.6.1.5 and assuming a constant internal wind speed of 0.1 ms's. Using the same internal and 5 temperatures,Equation 8.2.3 can be derived. glazing
Equation8.2.3
These rough calculations demonstratethat the radiative energy flows from the facade into the building are comparable in size to those of convective heat lows. Neglecting these from the analysis will therefore inevitably result in an underestimate of the magnitude of passiveheating within the building. The convective and radiative energy exchangesfrom the facade surface to the building volume are treated by TRNSYS as mean temperature increases which are averaged the entire respective zone volume or zone internal surface areas. This suggests over that thermal impulses attributed to a zone act to change the zone air and surface temperaturesin a uniform manner. This is known not to be a realistic interpretation of the heating effects within a building zone. The library building will inevitably be subjected to an amount of temperature stratification, predominantly between the South facing facadeand North facing external walls. Zone air and surface temperatures at the location of the facade, will be of greater susceptibility to changes in environmental conditions and may thus require additional heating and air conditioning facilities to maintain a workable environment at these locations.
212
8.3 Attributes of Facade Model In order to reduce the complexity of the facademodel, only one source of solar is providedas an input to the simulationmodel.This single radiationsource radiation is calculated a combination the direct, groundreflectedand sky diffuse radiation of as havinga singleangleof incidence equalto that of the direct insolationangle. sources
As such, the diffuse (nondirectional) nature of scattered sunlight on the facade is lost and the sky is assumedto be fully anisotropic. Becauseof the high proportion of clear conditions that are experienced at the Mediterranean location of the library sky building, it is felt justified to use this approximation. A possibly more significant indirect incident solar radiation on the facade, originates from the solar source of reflections from surrounding buildings. The South facade of the Matar library is completely surrounded by buildings of approximately equal height to that of the library and, because of the intensity of sunlight at this location, many of these buildings are painted white to reflect solar rays reduce passive heating. The solar reflections from these whitewashed buildings and inevitably increase solar gains to the library building but no evaluation of these will gains has been made within the `building & facade' model. Perhaps the most significant approximation to be placed on the facade construction was that of "smearing" (averaging) the opaque mosaiced areasof PV material over the entire facade area. In doing this, a uniform, semitransparent facade construction is This approximation was assumed to have little impact on the overall created. performance of the facade due to the closely meshed,evenly spacedarray of small PV elements within the facade construction. The direct solar gains propagating through the facade through the "smearing" the PV material, also hides the fact that there will be localised areas of direct sunlight entering the building causing local hot spots which could be uncomfortable for the occupants. Temperature measurementsof the air feed to the facade cavity during day light hours have consistently disclosed an inflated temperature above that of the true external air. It has been postulated that this increase in temperature is due to additional heating of
213
the air through radiation exchange with external building walls and ground preheating. In chapter 4, the external pressure coefficients calculated on the facade of the library have indicated that a net downward pressure distribution is present across the facade under a normal wind direction. Similar conclusions have been derived by surface & Eaton(2)who present a review of pressure distributions on buildings of a Newbury shape to that of the Matar library. Thus, it is postulated that, due to the similar distribution on the external surface of the facade, air will be forced in a pressure downward direction, by which the air will gain heat through convective heat transfer the external glazing. As this heated air reaches the bottom (entrance) of the with facade, it is anticipated that it will be taken up by the in flowing cavity air and thus the elevated air temperature measurementsand loss of thermal energy to the explain building.
214
8.4 Development Work As introducedat the beginningof this Chapter,there are two modificationsintended for development the library facade to construction.
addition of solar air heating element on PVT facade " construction of thermal/coolth storagefacility " The top section of the library facade (nonPV area) is constructed as an insulating layer between the external environment and the facade cavity. Lower than anticipated temperature measurementstaken on the exiting facade cavity air have highlighted the limited use of this air for direct spaceheating of the library building. With the present facade construction, the heated cavity air temperaturesavailable are only suitable for preheating applications. It has been postulated that, in order to allow for thermal energy losses in transportation the heated cavity air to the building zones, only a cavity exit air temperature of 40 of Celsius and above can be regarded as useful for direct distribution to the buildingl31. From the simulated results shown in Chapter 7, it is evident that the cavity exit air temperature only reaches 40 degrees Centigrade during the summer months when, without thermal storage,the air will require vented to atmosphere.
In an effort to increasethe percentage time during which the exiting cavity air of 40 top temperature reaches Celsius,the insulated sectionof the facadewill be replaced air a dedicated solarabsorption heater. with
The net effect of this on the Matard facade performance could be simulated using the facade model created in this work with an adaptation to allow for this modification. Various design strategiescould therefore be quickly and simply evaluated through the use of the 'facade plus building' TRNSYS simulation model. The second, and significantly larger project on the library building involves the of an onsite thermal storage facility. Decisions have yet to be made as to construction this facility will be available for the storage of coolth or heat and hence the whether type and size of storagemechanismrequired. Graphs 7.10.13 to 7.10.16 show simulated heating and cooling loads required by the library building for the first week in the months of January, April, July and October.
215
Of these four analysed weeks, the maximum heating load is seen to be required in January, day 6 ( 350 kW) and the maximum cooling load is seen to be required in July, day 1 ( 500 kW). It is seen from Graph 7.10.13 that throughout the whole of the first week in January, heating is required constantly day and night to maintain a constant comfortable internal temperature. The same can be said of the cooling requirement for July, as shown in Graph 7.10.15. Thus, it is likely that throughout the entirety of these months, long term storage of coolth or heat will be required if energy storage is to make any impact on the reduction of building load. During the months of April (Graph 7.10.14) and to some extent October (Graph 7.10.16), both heating and cooling loads are requirements for the library building on a daily basis. Thus, it is very likely that the implementation of shortterm coolth/heat be adequateto fulfil this requirement. energy storagewould Becauseof the location of the library building in the Mediterranean, the yearly cooling requirement for the building would be expected to be significantly greater than that of the heating requirement. The simulated mean heating and cooling loads for the library building are shown in Table 8.4.1.
Table 8.4.1 Yearly Mean Matarb Library Heating & Cooling Loads
Energy Type
Heating
Cooling
432529
The decision between heat or coolth storage involves the consideration of many factors of which the most significant will be capital cost and duration of cost reclamation. It from Table 8.4.1 that the greatest monetary savings would be made would seem through the storage of coolth because at present, all of the yearly average cooling demand shown in Table 8.4.1 will have to be converted from electricity. TRNSYS includes several prewritten thermal storage models, all of which could be linked into the fagade and library building models constructed in this conveniently research. Thus adding a thermal storage model (coolth or heat) to the `fagade plus
216
building' model already written, provides the opportunity to fully investigate the pro's and con's related to numerous storageconfigurations.
217
218
8.6 Bibliography
1 B.Norton, "Solar energy Thermal Technology", (SpringerVerlag London Limited), 1992. 2 C.W.Newberry & K. J.Eaton, "Wind Loading Handbook", Building Research Establishment (BRE) Report, (Crown Copyright) 1974. 3 Loughborough University, "Design Study & Experimental Evaluation of an Integrated Solar Facade", (Joule11Project Report for Matar6 Library Project, JOU2CT920046), 1997.
219
(pu)+
a(
)dx1
J
dy
EquationA1.1
Using a similar result for the y direction, the conservation of mass requirement becomes Equation A1.2.
EquationA 1.2
a(pu)+a(pv)=0 ax ay
Equation A1.3
Equation A1.3 is more formally known as the `continuity equation' and is a general the mass conservation requirement and must be satisfied at every point expression of in the velocity boundary layer.
220
APPENDIX A
The second fundamental law that is pertinent to the velocity boundary layer is Newton's second law of motion. Considering the same control volume, this requirement states that the sum of all forces acting on the control volume must equal the net rate at which momentum leavesthe control volume. Two kinds of forces act on the control element within the boundary layer; body forces, which are proportional to the volume, and surface forces which are proportional to the area. Body forces are attributed to gravitational, centrifugal, magnetic and electric fields whereas surface forces originate through fluid static pressure, as well as to viscous stresses.At any point in the boundary layer, the viscous stress(a force per unit area) may be resolved into two perpendicular components,which include normal stress ail and sheer stress ry. Where the first of the two subscripts used here specifies the surface orientation by providing the direction of its outward normal, and the second subscript indicates the direction of the force component. Therefore, for the x surface of Figure 2.3.1 the normal stress o corresponds to a force component normal to the
surface, and the sheer stress r, ), corresponds to a force in the y direction along the surface. Each of the stressesmay change continuously in each of the coordinate directions. Using Taylor series expansion for the stresses,the net surface force for each of the two directions may be expressedas the following.
Equation A1.4
Fs. y
]dxdY
Equation A1.5
To use Newton's second law, the fluid momentum fluxes for the control volume must also be evaluated. Considering again the two dimensional fluid element, contributions to the total fluid momentum flux in the x direction come from mass flow through both the x surface and the y surface of the element. Mass flux through the x surface has a 221
APPENDIX A
magnitude of (pu), and a corresponding momentum flux of (pu)u, while the mass and momentum fluxes through the y surface have magnitudes of (pv) and (pv)u respectively. These fluxes may change in each of the coordinate directions, and the net rate at leavesthe control volume is: which x momentum
a[(
)dx(dy)+
a[(
ay
dy(dx)
EquationA1.6
Equating the rate of change of x momentum of the fluid to the sum of the forces in the direction, the following is obtained. x
a[(PuM
a[(P') +
aQ. _
ax
ay
"z,.+x _ + ay ax ax
ap
Equation A1.7
Expanding the derivatives on the lefthand side of the above equation and substituting the continuity equation [Equation A1.3], the following is obtained.
Du au
Pu ax
+''
ayy
ax
a (a.
az P +
a+
Equation A1.8
au av (Q3, p) +Y U +v = +a ax ay ax ay
where Y= componentof body force in the y direction
azY
1.9 Equation
The above two equations must be satisfied at each point in the boundary layer, and with the continuity equation [Equation Al. 3] they may be solved for the velocity field. For a Newtonian fluid, the stressesare proportional to the velocity gradients, where the proportionality constant is the fluid dynamic viscosity, Pf.. It has been demonstrated that the following relations for fluid normal viscous stresses(ate, ayy) and angular (zxy)hold trues1. sheer stresses au 2 au av
'2ax3
ax+ay
EquationAl. 10
222
APPENDIX A
av 2 (au av ri2y3x+y
(au av zXY =TA = ay+x
equationsbecomethe following. momentum
EquationAl. 11
EquationA1.12
Substituting Equations A1.10, Al. 11 & Al. 12 into Equations A1.8 &A1.9, the x andy
II
1nI11111
1
IFI.
L.
1
\1
L.
/JJ
'
\
Equation A1.13
P u+v
av
av
ap
Tx ay
ay
where
+
ay
p[2 
av
ay
2 au +3 ax
av
a ++ay ax ay ax
au
av
+Y
EquationAl. 14
fluid velocty in x direction [ms" ] u= massaverage massaveragefluid velocity in y direction [ms'] v= p= fluid pressure[Nm"'] p= fluid massdensity [Kgm''] = fluid viscosity [Kgs"'m'' ]
X=x component bodyforceper unit volume[Nm'] of Y=y component body forceper unit volume[Nm*] of
Equations A1.3, A1.13 & A1.14 provide a complete representation of conditions in a twodimensional velocity boundary layer whereby the velocity field in the boundary layer may be determined by solving these equations.
223
APPENDIX A
V2
[pu(e+ V2 ]dxldy
pu e+
=
e+
22
dxdy
EquationA2.1
where Eodv net advection energy flow [Wm'] = Energy is also transferred across the control surface by conduction, such that the net transfer of energy by conduction into the control volume is the following.
Econa, x Eeona,
DT
z+dx
aT
=kTyk ax
ak ax
ax
ax
dx dy
=ak ax
where Erod
aTdxdy ax
Equation A2.2
Energy may also be transferred and from the fluid in the control volume by work to interactions involving the body and surfaceforces.The net rate at which work is done on the fluid by forces,in thex direction,may be expressed the following. as x [(axx (iu)dxdy W,, = (Xu)dxdy+  p)u]dxdy + et. x EquationA2.3
Using EquationsA2.1, A2.2 & A2.3, as well as the analogousequationsfor the y direction,the energyconservation requirement maybe expressed EquationA2.4. as
224
APPENDIX A
aax pu e+V2
+Q, v) +9=0
for form for the energyconservation This expression requirement providesa general the thermalboundarylayer.
BecauseEquation A2.4 representsthe conservation of mechanical and thermal energy, it is rarely used in solving heat transfer problems. Instead, a more convenient form, which is termed the thermal energy equation, is obtained by multiplying Equations A1.6 & A1.7 by u and v, respectively and subtracting the results from Equation A2.4. After considerablemanipulation, if follows that:
pu+pv=k
ae
ae
LT
ax
ay ax ax ay ay
2+2
a k)P aT +
U+2vv)
ax ay
2_2
++q
EquationA2.5
uu ay
Dv +
ax
2+ au
ax
av
ay
au a ax +ay
accounts for the rate at which mechanical energy is irreversibly converted to and thermal energy due to viscous effects in the fluid. On occasions,it is more convenient to work with a formulation of the thermal energy equation which is based on the fluid enthalpy i, rather than its thermal energy e. The definition of enthalpy is shown by Equation A2.6. i=e+p p Substituting Equations A2.6 & A1.1 into Equation A2.5, gives the following: Equation A2.6
APPENDIX A
To express the lefthand side of the thermal energy equation in terms of the it is If temperature, is necessary specifythe natureof the substance. the substance a to the perfectgas,di=cpdTthenEquationA2.7 becomes following:
ap+ap
226
APPENDIX A
The results from such an experimentmay look like Figure A3.1, plotted againstthe root of the Reynoldsnumber.
1.0
I P''Iy
Rso s
P, 7 !
0.9
OR
0.8
0.7
"'
TT,
0.6
T.
TS
0.1
0.0 0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.2
3.6
4.0
Yx
Figure A3. I Temperature Distribution in a Fluid Flowing Over a Heated Plate For Various Prandtl Numbers
It has been shown by Kreitht151 that the characteristics of fluids with differing Prandtl be compared with each other by the use of a correction factor. numbers can The dimensionless Prandtl number describes the ratio of temperature distribution to velocity distribution in the boundary layer such that, a fluid having a Prandtl number of unity, has velocity and thermal boundary layers of the same size. Fluids having a Pr number less than unity have a thermal boundary layer larger than their hydrodynamic 227
APPENDIX A
boundary layer and vice versa for fluids having a Pr number greater than unity. Experimentalresults describedby Kreithl'51 have concluded that the relationship betweenthermal and hydrodynamicboundarylayer sizes in fluids is approximately by modelled the following expression.
S= S, ti
Prtl3
where S= hydrodynamic boundary layer size [m] 8sh= thermal boundary layer size [m] Using this same correction factor, i. e., Pr1/3, any distance from the bounding surface, at the curves shown in Figure A3.1 can be replotted to form the curve shown in Figure A3.2.
0.332 =
0.8
i ",
T T, T_ T,
04 .
i ".
""' ,.
0.2
0.0 0
Y x
Pr'"
Figure A3.2 Dimensionless Correlation of Temperature Profiles for Flow Over a Flat Plate at Constant Temperature
228
APPENDIX A
As can be seen on this graph, the gradient of the temperature distribution at the plate surface is 0.332. This is the dimensionless temperature gradient at the plate surface, from which the Nusselt number can be evaluated. The dimensionlesstemperaturegradient, shown on Figure A3.2, is: a aY z TT, T T Re, Pr"'
Y. 0
= 0.332
and the local rate of heat transfer by convection per unit area becomes,on substituting the above equation into Equation 2.1.2,
kaT ay
The total rate of heat transfer from a plate of width W and length L, obtained by integrating q in the above equation betweenx=0 and x=L, is:
q=0.664kReL'/=Pr'" W(TT_
where
Rey =v
u_L
T, AqT..
Pr  0.332 Rez1/2 3 ) x
EquationA3.1
Equation A3.2
APPENDIX A
The average Nusseltnumberis obtainedby integratingthe right handsideof Equation A3.1, betweenthe limits of x=O and x=L and dividing the result by L to obtain the average valueof h,,. Multiplying the average valueof h,Xby L/k gives: Nuc = 0.664Re.1/2 Pr'"
Equation A3.3
It can be seen that the averageNusselt number of the plate is therefore twice the local value of Nu., at x=L.
230
B1 The Velocity Boundary Layer Consideringthe boundary layer element shown in Figure 2.4.1, under steady state flow rateinto the controlvolume,throughfaceab is: conditionswherethe mass
'PudY J0
where fluid velocity [ms's] u= p= fluid density [Kgm'' ]
The massflow rate out of the control volume,throughthe facecd, is: (Jop"dy) JoP"dy+dx flux throughfacecd, is: the momentum and
(fI J0pv2dy+ pu2dy
dz
No mass can enter the control volume through the plate such that the difference in the mass flow out through surface cd and the mass flow in through ab must therefore, enter through the upper face bd. Since the velocity at,y=1 is approximately equal to the free stream velocity, u.., the xmomentum flux associated with the fluid entering through face bd is:
231
APPENDIX 13
(f
u pu dyl dx  u_
f(fu
dy1dx
EquationB 1.1
The second term in this expression can be manipulated into a more useful form by using the socalled "product formula" of integral calculus, defined as:
EquationB 1.2
dy opu
(x) is treated as the q function in Equation B I. 2 and the freestream velocity u0. is treated as the r function, then:
u"dx(JopudyJ
f(U..
ddx f0PUdY)dX_(f0PUdY)dX
But since u(x) is not a function of y, it can be placed under the integral sign and this gives:
d(r'dYldx= u dx\"o`
The increasein xmomentumflux is equal to the summationof the forces in the x directionactingon the surfaceof the controlvolume.Theseforces,considered positive in the directionof flow areasfollows. 1. The sheering stress the bottom surface, at ad zdx
dz
ay
Equation B 1.3 y. o
232
APPENDIX B
where z, = shearstress[NM2]
f opdy
where pressure[Nm2] p=
Equation B 1.4
Since the velocities on both sides of the face be are equal, no sheering stressexists on this face. Equating these three forces [Equations B 1.3, B 1.4 &B1.5] to the rate of xmomentum increase [Equation B 1.1], gives the following.
z, +(fopdy)=
foPu(u"u)dy
S,
dx
foPudy
S,
Equation B1.6
flow, a relationshipbetweenu. and p.. can be obtained from For incompressible definedas. Bernoulli's equation,
Puz "= constant p.. + 2g, or dp dx _ pu du g dx
EquationB 1.7
Since the boundary layer is thin, it may be assumedthat the pressure at any x location is constant throughout the boundary layer, i. e. p(x)=p. (x), and 233
APPENDIX B
fy= fod
P d fu_dy dy=
EquationIIl. B
,
Equation B 1.9
Substituting Equation B 1.8 for the pressureterm in Equation B 1.6, gives: du" fI (u f'Pu (u z, =d  u)dy  u)dy +P dx dx 0 ge 0 g,
Since the integrals in both terms on the right hand side are zero for y>S, their upper limits can be replacedby S. For flow over a flat plate u does not vary with x and:
dudx=0= J, d
dy y
Equation B 1.10
If a physically reasonablevelocity distribution in the boundary layer is assumed,then the momentum integral equation [Equation B 1.11] can be used to determine the boundary layer thickness and the wall friction for specified geometry's and flow conditions.
234
APPENDIX B
B2 The Thermal Boundary Layer ConsideringFigure 2.4.2, the energy flow rates acrossthe individual faces of the in TableB2.1. controlvolumearesummarised Table B2. I energy flow rates through control volumet151
Face Heat Flow Rate
ab
pc
ouTdy
be
pcpdx
fuT_dy
(fou T.dyldx
cd
pcpfOUTody+pcP
da
kaT DYy.
dx
To satisfy the principle of conservation of energy under steady state conditions, the influx must equal the rate of energy efflux. Equating the net rate of rate of energy to the net rate of heat inflow by conduction [i. e. ab + be + convective energy outflow da = cd], gives the following.
Equation B2.1
Since the fluid temperature Tf equals the freestream temperature T. outside the thermal boundary layer (i. e. y>S, h), the integrand becomes zero for values of y larger than S, The upper limit of the integrand, 1, can therefore be replaced by S, h. h.
A suitabletrace for the convectiveheat transfercoefficienthas now to be determined Thesearesummarised follows. the as which meets physicalboundary conditions.
Near the surface at y=0, where the heat flows by conduction, the temperature gradient should be linear and the fluid temperature should be equal to the plate temperature.
235
APPENDIX B
aTyf =C
and
(TfT, )=O
At the edge of the thermal boundary layer at y=5, approach the freestream temperature, i. e. (TfT, ) ) and =(T_ T,
a(TaT')at y=Sti =0
y
A cubic parabola of the following form satisfies these boundary conditions, if the constants C, and C2 are selectedappropriately. Tf T, = Ciy+Czy3 Equation B2.2
The conditions at y=0 are automatically satisfied for any value of C, and C2. At y=S, h the following holds true.
a(Tf T,
)
y. d
ay
following:
Solving for C, and C2, and substituting these expressions in Equation B2.2 gives the
Tf  T,
y1y' 3 S, T T, 2 2 S, ti ti
Equation B2.3
Using Equations B2.3 & 2.4.2 for (TjT3) and u respectively, the integral in Equation B2.1 can be written as the following. 5(r _T ~ dy=fol*[(T~ T)(T.
3
T,
)]udy
ra i3y+
1y3(.
2Srh 2Srh
2S
L)!
(Y)3]d
2S
236
APPENDIXB
T, x 
a,. Jo 23
3_92
433, ti
)y4_ +(24SS1ti
1,
26 3
+3
46, 3 ti3
4_
16
461h33
3
dy
8,
h2
3,h2
IS
h4
20T
8 S'
3th4
13 rh4
20 S'
28 S'
2804
Equation B2.4
For fluids having a Prandtl number approximately equal to or larger than unity, is less than unity and the second term in the bracket can be neglected, equal to or to the first. This basically eliminates liquid metals from this expression as compared liquid metals, generally have Pr 1. Substituting the approximate form of equation B2.4 for the integral in Equation B2.1, the following. gives
20
u(Ts'T..
W= 2
aX
aTf
ay 0 y.
Tf  T
_32a
or
SC
10u.
'S
as =a
EquationB2.5
Considering laminar flow over a flat plate in which the velocity boundary layer distribution is of the cubic form shown by equation B2.6, Kreithl'5 showed using Equation B 1.6, that the boundary layer thickness can be describedby equation B2.7.
uSS
C.YC2y'
Equation B2.6
237
APPENDIX B
4.64x
Rex
Equation B2.7
EquationB2.9
238
U=
Where 0* is a time interval which is large compared to the period of the fluctuations. The fluctuating velocity components continuously transport mass, and consequently across a plane normal to the y direction. The instantaneousrate of transfer momentum, in they direction of xmomentum per unit area at any point is: (Pv)lu+u') Where the minus sign takes account of the statistical correlation between u' and v'. The time average of the xmomentum transfer gives rise to an apparent turbulent sheer (Reynolds stress), rr, defined by: 9"Z,
(pv) r+
u')dO
EquationC1.2
where factor[kgmN sZ] conversion g, = dimensional If EquationC1.2 is brokendown into its two parts,the time average the first is seen of to be zero. * Jo*(pvyud0 =0
239
APPENDIX C
where u= constant (pv)'= 0, when averagedover time Integrating the secondterm gives the following.
goZr=8**Ju,
(Pv'u'de
= pv u'
if p is a constant: or
gZr=Pv7u,
According to Prandtl's conceptof mixing length', if a fluid particle travels from the layery to the layery+1: ,=, du
With this model the turbulent sheering stress can be written in a form analogous to the laminar sheeringstressas: gcz, = _Pvlul du _pEM dy
Equation C 1.3
Where EM is the eddy viscosity or the turbulentexchange coefficient for momentum andis definedas:
EM=v'1
The fluid mixing motion in turbulent flow can be describedon a statistical basis by a method similar to that used to picture the motion of gas molecules in the kinetic theory. i.e. macroscopic 'blobs' of fluid travel an averagedistanceI perpendicularto mean streamvelocity before coming to rest in anothery plane.
240
APPENDIX C
du z_pvdu+pEA, dy g, dY g,
Equation C 1.4
where
gC t
= absolute viscosity [Kgs''m1] pf= dynamic viscosity [Nm's] Or in descriptive form: viscous force unit area + turbulent momentum flux ge
In turbulent flow, EM is much larger than v and the viscous term may therefore be neglected.
241
APPENDIX C
C2 The Thermal Boundary Layer transportfluid particlesand hencethe Fluctuatingvelocity components continuously in them, acrossa planenormalto they direction.The instantaneous rate energystored transferper unit areaat any point in they directionis: of energy
(pv'XccT)
where T =T+T' The time average transferdue to the fluctuations,called the turbulencerate of energy heattransferqj, is definedasthe following. q, =0 foe ** (pv'XcPT) EquationC2.1
fluctuation can be related to the time mean temperature gradient by Equation C2.3.
dT T,=1 dy
EquationC2.3
Therefore, when a fluid particle migrates from the layer at position y to another layer at distance I above or below, the resulting temperature fluctuation is caused a by the difference between the timemean temperaturesin the layers. predominantly
Combining EquationsC2.2 & C2.3, the turbulent rate of heat transfer per unit area becomes following. the
9 = c pvT' d Y Where the minus sign is introduced through convention. To express the turbulent heat flux in a form analogous to the Fourier conduction equation (Equation 2.1.2), a 242 Equation C2.4
APPENDIX C
the turbulent exchange coefficient for temperature (or eddy diffusivity quantity called of heat, or eddy heat conductivity), EH, needsto be defined, where:
EH= V"
dT q, __ cPPEH dy A
Equation C2.5
Combining the Fourier heat conduction equation to Equation C2.5, the total rate of heat transfer per unit areanormal to the mean stream velocity can be written as:
dT k
_c
PP
EX
243
APPENDIX C
EquationC3.1
This equation describes the Reynolds analogy and is a good approximation to any describes a turbulent flow. But it does not hold true within the laminar system which be used to calculate heat transfer for fluids having a Pr number sublayer and can only of unity. To determine the rate of heat transfer from a flat plate to a turbulent flowing fluid with Pr1, Equation C3.1 can be transformed into the following, assuming that q and r are constants. q, du = dT Az, cpgc Equation C3.2
Where the subscript s is used to indicate that both q and z are taken at the surface of the plate. Equation C3.2 can then be integrated between the limits of: when Tf = T. and u= u when Tf= T u=0 Giving Equation C3.3. q, u_ =(T, T Az, cpgc By definition, h q, _ Pu2 and z =C fX 2gc
EquationC3.3
244
APPENDIX C
Equation C3.4
where Cfr = dimensionlesssurfaceshearstrees(coefficient of friction) [n] It has been shown by Kreith[151 that for Pr numbers between 0.6 and about 50, greater accuracy in evaluating convection coefficients can be obtained using the following equation.
Pr2/3 = 2 RexPr
Nux
Cfx
Equation C3.S
Where the subscript x denotes the distance from the leading edge of the plate. For turbulent flow over a plane surface, the empirical equation for the local friction coefficient is:
Equation C3.6
Combining Equations C3.5 & C3.6 yields the local Nusselt number at any value of x larger than x,,
Nux
h,,x k
ux = 0.0288Pr"3 .
EquationC3.7
This equation shows that, in comparison with laminar flow, where k. the heat'1/x'/2, transfer coefficient in turbulent flow decreases less rapidly with x and that the turbulentheattransfer coefficient is much larger than the laminar heattransfer coefficient at a given value of Reynolds number. The average conductance in turbulent flow over a plane surface of length L can be calculated to a first approximation by integrating Equation C3.7 between x=O and x=L, or
245
APPENDIX C
hLJoh,,, dx
In dimensionlessform this is the following. NuL = hcL k Equation C3.8
246
EquationD1.1
EquationD1.2
1 (T
g3
g2
T)+ g
(T h2 a,cavl
T)+ S7
(T hr Y4
T= Y3
Equation D1.3
(T, h, Ta,cavi)+h2(7 94
93
T7.cavi)=
Qu
Equation D 1.4
dx
Equation D I. 5
247
APPENDIX D
Usefulheatgainfrom cavity:
II UL ( Q. = F'1S(m) `T.,cavl 1I Ta, I1 egv
Equation Di
.6
248
APPENDIX D
Equation D2.1
S(Ta) T82 _
+ UextTo.+ Rg3T8
eqv
Equation D2.2
Uaf+ RY3
T83 
Rg3+h2+ hr
Equation D2.3
U'nTp.
Tg, a=
+h, eQY
+" Tg3
ITa. cavl
U;,,, h, + h, +
Equation D2.4
T9 =1iE. 5, 
1
CGVL
Equation D2.5
249
APPENDIX D
"[
I(
(Uext
R8; \Uint
+ h2 + hr
)+
)+ )+ (hr )+ hl hrh2 + hlh2 + hlhr Uext Uext// hrh2 + hlh2 + hlhr + \Uint (h2 + hr
Equation D3.1
If Equation D2.2 is substituted into equation D2.3 (as before) to eliminate T. 2, and Equation D2.1 substituted for Tg4in this new expression,an equality for Tgj in terms of T.,,,,,, can be found. Again, after some manipulation, the following can be derived:
V83
T"')=
S(ra)Rg3 (U Rg3 mt (U
+ hr +hl) `Uint +U
ext +h 2r +h
+h h
Equation D3.2 Substituting the above Equations D3.1 and D3.2 into Equation DIA following. gives the
250
APPENDIX D
Qu =
(. (Y, R83 + A3Ua + A3A, + 13AI (UanUi1 R) )' ewl (Ar (UdU(AI _ rbp + U.. )+ + A1 4RR) UAY (A + A3 + A3 + Y3 )+U. (AIF, 13A, + AIA3 )+ UmUhl (A3 A Ulm + Ar )+ (, Ih3 + FIF, + A3A, Uag (ArA3 )) A UmOy ) (AI13 A AIA A3Ai J
+ A1A3 + IIAi
+ IIA3 + AIAr
Equation D3.3
251
APPENDIX D
F1=
(h,h, +h, U, +h, h, +h, h, ) R93 (u U;, (h, +h, )+ U +h2 )+ h,h?. h,h=+h ,h, )+ U, Uk, (h2+h, )+ U., (hh, +h, h2+hh + W ,(h, ,, , 93 Q, w+U,, ])
Equation D4.1
[i(Uin.
ft
FU
83(h1
wM
= [I(UU
R3
Equation D4.2
where
UL FUL F'
Equation D4.3
252
APPENDIX D
g4 __ T cavl
Equation D5.1
(T93 , cavl)
S(ra)C EE
cavl
egv
Equation D5.2
cavl
egv
Equation D5.3
I
, cavl
T,
eqv
d ,
dx FTh, maCpa
Equation D5.4
B+ h2D
TaeqvhB+h2DJ+S(za)(h, A+h2C) ID ,
cavl
h B+h 1 2D
_xh1B+h2D EmaCPa
+]n K
Equation D5.5
253
APPENDIX D
At the facade air inlet position, x=0 and Ta, Therefore the integration =Ta, cavi eq,. constant is evaluatedas the following.
S(, + h2C)  ra)h1A lnl "' ' I=1nK h1B+ h2D h1B h2D) ]
Equation D5.6
Therefore.
T, ln a, cavl
Equation D5.7
(h1B+h2D
EmaCra
EquationD5.8
Giving the facade cavity air temperature at any height x, up the facade, as the following.
xh B+h D EmaCPa 1 e
Equation D5.9
254
APPENDIX D
J
Ta. cavl 0
IF.;,
r
[7'
_ T= a, cavl
o envlxr
[,,, a Pa
1 R
xh B+h D EmaC pa

11
vw_vw
HH
Equation D6.1
Ta. rnvl
Ta. e9v
S(,.)(h,,A+hc2C) I+ h,,B + k2 D)
HhB+hc2D Em,CP.
]l
Equation D6.2
255
Temperature T T.
To
Z
Time t
A mathematical representation of Figure El. 1 is derived through the Hammerstein Paradigm, shown by Equation E1.1. dT (T =1 (T_ dt z To) TT) Equation E1.1
256
APPENDIX E
T=T(TTo)eT
Equation E1.2
This expression is used directly within the facade model for correcting glazing temperature calculations.
257
BUILDING
SURFACES
258
APPENDIX F
S,,; = absorbedradiation heat flux on internal surface [klhr'' ] S,, = absorbedradiation heat flux on external surface[kJhr" ] 0 &,; 4r, = net radiation heat transfer with all other zone surfaces[klhr'' ] 4,5,0= net radiation heat transfer with all other external surfaces[kJhr'' ] qW&; user defined heat flux to the wall surface[klhr"l ] = q heat flux from inside surface [klhr'' ] = conduction
48,0= conduction heat flux from external surface[klhr'' ] qr.,; = convection heat flux from internal surface to zone air [klhr"l ] 4C,,, = convection heat flux from external surface to ambient [Uhr"'] o T,.; = internal surfacetemperature[K] T,. = external surfacetemperature[K] o T; = zone air temperature(air node) [K]
For internal surfaces,Ss,;representsboth direct solar radiative and longwave radiation from internal objects such as people or furniture. In general, the total generated heat flows to internal walls and windows can be calculated from Equation radiative F1.3.
Ss. i Qr, g,s,i + Qr, sol,s,i + Qr, long,s,i + Qr, wg,s,i
Equation F1.3
Q, s,, Q,,,
where internal radiative gains [kJhr'' ] = = direct solar gains [kJhr" ] longwave radiation exchangewith other walls & windows [kfhr'' ] user specified wall gain [kJhr' ]
The user specified wall gain is an energy flow to the inside wall surfaceswhich can be used to describe the changing solar gains throughout the day due to different sun
259
APPENDIX F
or might be used as a simple way to model a floor heating or a ceiling positions cooling system. Any solar radiation entering a zone through a window is treated within TRNSYS as if it were distributed evenly over the entire inner wall and window surface areas.
260
APPENDIX F
Equation F2.1
where total convective heat flow [kJhr"' ] = surfaceconvective heat flow [klhr' ] =
=
IU, Va,
(TWai, i i, iAwau, i
Ta; r
ventilationgains[klhr' ] = gym,;
)] Tair
Q,
261
APPENDIX F
and V= air volume [m'] p= air density [kgm' ] Cp = air specific heat [Jkg'K T= temperature [K] ']
A= wall area[m']
Qc, inf, i + Qc, + Qc, + Qc,
vent, i
g, i
cuup, i
ZONEi
Surface I
SS, II
Rstar
{
T,
Requ,
Ss,
Surface 3
i3
4s. ll
lir
, jI
Re9u, 1
16

3
T s,13
Ttar
Requ, 2
Ss. i2
Surface 2
convective heat flux transfer between the inside zone surfaces and the zone air. The `Star Network' method uses an artificial temperature node (Tstar) to consider both
the convective energy transfer from a wall surface to the air node and the radiative energy transfer from the same wall to other wall and window zone elements. This calculational process can be described through the consideration of a single zone (Zone i) in which there are three surfaces, numbered 1,2 & 3. The situation can be
262
APPENDIX F
in Figure F2.1, where the equivalent resistance Req and the star seen pictorially RSA are both calculated using surface area ratios to find the absorption resistance factors between all inner zone surfaces [4]. A more detailed discussion of which can be found in the work of Seem [8]. Rmu&Requ=. fA(ai, Awi) Once these resistanceshave been found, the star temperature (T.w) can be used in the following way to calculate the net radiative and convective heat flux's from the inner wall surface. The combined convective and radiative energy flows from each of the three walls in Figure F2.1 can then be calculated from Equation F2.2.
rr
+ C]r. JR lqc. s.i s,i
11
A,,
((
\Ts, i 
Titar.
EquationF2.2
eggi
The internal zone temperature, Ti, can then be calculated using Equation F2.3, which is derived through an energy balanceon the star node in Figure F2.1. 1 (T, ,; R ,w, Equation F2.3
263
264
>;
I' ll
O N 666
00
C0
VN OOOO
O00 _O
0
CD
v 0 0
N O
C5
CD 0
C? ,It
0
Cl)
O N
i
x xx
c ;< c x
4
0 N
O
*x*x
C2
C5
to
N0 OO
34 00
c
CO N 0 6
CD Cl 6
0 C5
CD
N
0
O N CD (D
C5
CD
co
(D
N0 N OO 0 OO
O V
P N
ol
14
:<
x0
x
0
(x 11lo
(p OO
O N
O
2
0
OOOO
N_
ON
v 0 00
N 0
0 0
0
N
>:
x Q
O OOO
Co _CD
O _N OOOOO
00 O
N O 6
x<
C) M
x:
x: k x
xx
C)
N
xx
xx
x Q
xx
A
x x x x
o NO0O m_
OOOOOOOO
(D
VO
t0
cp
N O O
C) 0
0

LO
N X
x
X
Cl N
)C
x
X
x x xx
X
x Xx
X X X
Xx
x x
xXxx
x
xx xxx t X
01
X
x
XX
xxM.
l
X f 
1x 14
x0
XXX
Ig
I
O
Ljr) x x x
XX
Xv X
I x
C) N
O
00 17 C)
DNON
OO
[`5w] aIea
M01=1
h
Hi
OOO
x
0
O 0
CD
J!d IineC)
C) CD (''')
LO
TM
C) ti N
H
LO N N
ii
0 OD
1
LC) Cl)
0 Q)
0
00 CD NO N
The following are descriptions of experimental procedures used for the `Predicted Response'validation of the facademodel outlined in Chapter 5.6.
Experiment A This first experiment investigatesthe facaderesponseto the following conditions. External air temperaturelower than the internal building air temperature " Cavity air feed temperaturelower than the internal building air temperature " Table H1.1 lists the facade model parametersand inputs used within this evaluation. All glazing and air temperatures were initially set to 0 Celsius (time=0) and then by a step increase in respective internal and external air temperatures.The stimulated simulated dynamic responses of the composite facade glazings and cavity air temperature was then analysed over a period of time until steady state conditions were achieved. The results obtained from the above outlined experimental procedure are shown graphically in the following. Graph 5.6.]A1 Facade Dynamic Temperature Characteristics Graph 5.6.1A2  Facade SteadyState Temperature Characteristics
273
APPENDIX I
Units in in m m
in m
7 8 9 10
II
Glazing5 thickness Cavity I depth Cavity 2 depth Percentage facade of covered with PV
Glazing I emittance
in m in
%
12
13 14
Glazing2 emittance
Glazing 3 emittance Glazing 4 emittance
0.7
0.8 0.8
IS 16 17
18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31
Glazing4 refractiveindex Glazing5 refractiveindex GlazingI extinctioncoefficient Glazing2 extinctioncoefficient Glazing3 extinctioncoefficient Glazing4 extinctioncoefficient GlazingSextinctioncoefficient GlazingI thermalconductivity Glazing2 thermalconductivity Glazing3 thermalconductivity Glazing4 thermalconductivity
Glazing S thermal conductivity PV efficiency at STC
1.526 1.526 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 1.05 0.10 1.05 1.05
1.05 13
32
33
PV materialemittance
PV material absorptance
0.95
0.9
34 35
36 37 38 39 40
PV materialreflectance PV materialtransmittance
Glazing 2 (facade) mean temperature Glazing 4 mean temperature Air refractive index Gravitational constant StefanBoltzmann constant
0.1 0.0
273.00 273.14 1.0 9.810 5.67E8 K K
i my Wm=K'
274
APPENDIX I
Input No.
Description
Value
Units
1 2 3
4 5
6
7 8
273.14
0.10 20
9
10
293.14
293.14
K
K
I1 12 13 14 15
Zone3 air temperature Zone4 air temperature ZoneSair temperature Zone6 air temperature Zone7 air temperature
K K K K K
Experiment B This second investigation follows precisely the same experimental procedure as describedin Experiment A, under the following conditions. External air temperaturehigher than the internal building air temperature Cavity air feed temperaturehigher than the internal building air temperature The same model parameterswere assignedto Experiment B as shown in Table H1.1 but the changesdescribedin Table H1.2 were made to the input data file. The results obtained from this experimental procedure are shown graphically in the following. Graph 5.6.JBJ  Facade Dynamic Temperature Characteristics Graph 5.6.1B2  Facade SteadyState Temperature Characteristics
275
APPENDIX I
5.6.2 step response to changes in incident solar Insolation Experiment C The following investigation was performed to evaluate the response of the facade to step changes in magnitude of incident solar insolation. The starting point model (t=0) for each of the two evaluations within this section is defined as the point at which state conditions were observed within the previous section 5.6.1. For steady Experiment C, the steady state conditions of Experiment A are adopted as the starting point of the simulation. Using exactly the same model parametersas those for Experiments A and B, graphical the alterations listed in Table H1.3 to the component input results were produced using file. The results obtained from the above are shown graphically in the following. Graph 5.6.2C1 Facade Dynamic TemperatureCharacteristics Graph 5.6.2C2  Facade SteadyState TemperatureCharacteristics
Experiment D This investigation follows an identical procedure to that of Experiment C where to the input file are listed in Table H1.4. alterations made The results obtained from the above are shown graphically in the following. Graph 5.6.2D1 Facade Dynamic Temperature Characteristics Graph 5.6.2D2  Facade SteadyState Temperature Characteristics
276
APPENDIX I
I 3 6
Wm = K K
5.6.3 facade energy flows Experiment E In the first of these three experiments (E, F and G) undertaken to analyse the steady in facade energy with respect to insolation angle, the steady state state variations Experiment B were used for the starting conditions while making conditions of to the input data file describedin Table H 1.5. adaptations The results obtained from this experimental procedure are shown graphically in the following. Graph S.6.3E  Facade SteadyState Energy Flows (10 insolation angle)
Description
Total solar insolation
Value
1000
Units
Wm 1
3 6 8 9 to 15
K K degrees K
Experiment F The same experimental procedure is adopted here as used in Experiment E but with to the input data file as shown in Table H1.6. adaptations The results obtained from this experimental procedure are shown graphically in the following. Graph 5.6.3F Facade SteadyState Energy Flows (60 insolation angle) 277
APPENDIX I
1 3 6 8
19 to 15
Wm': K K degrees
K
Experiment G The same experimental procedure is adopted here as described in Experiment E but to the input data file as shown in Table H1.7. with adaptations The results obtained from this experimental procedure are shown graphically in the following. Graph 5.6.3G  Facade SteadyStateEnergy Flows (800insolation angle)
Description
Total solar insolation
Value
1000
Units
Wm 2
3 6 8 9 to IS
K K degrees K
278