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Thut ng vit tt .3 Danh mc hnh v .4 LI NI U ..5 1.Gii thiu chung v ATM .6 2.

KIN TRC CHUNG CA H THNG CHUYN MCH BNG RNG ATM......................................................................................................7 2.1.M un iu khin u vo (IM).............................................................8 2.2. M un iu khin u ra (OM).............................................................9 2.3. Khi iu khin chp nhn kt ni (CAC) ............................................9 2.4. Khi qun l h thng (SM) ..................................................................9 2.5. Khi chuyn mch t bo (CSF) ...........................................................9 3. NGUYN TC CHUYN MCH V NH TUYN ...........................10 3.1. Qu trnh chuyn mch v x l gi qua cc h thng chuyn mch ATM............................................................................................................10 3.2. Nguyn tc nh tuyn trong chuyn mch ATM ...............................12 4. HOT NG CHUYN MCH ATM ....................................................14 5. CC YU CU I VI H THNG CHUYN MCH BNG RNG ATM ...............................................................................................................15 6.Giao Tip ATM............................................................................................16 7. Lin Kt Dng Mng ATM: .......................................................................17 8. Kt Ni Cc Mng LAN C Vo ATM......................................................18 9. Cch Thay i Trn ATM..........................................................................20 10. Kt Lun....................................................................................................21 CHNG II : ng Dng ATM..............................................21 1.Tng vt l................................................................................................22

2.Tng ATM................................................................................................22 3.Tng Thich nghi ATM..............................................................................24

Thut ng vit tt : ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) : Ch truyn khng ng b CAC :iu khin chp nhn kt ni SM: qun l chuyn mch OC : module iu khin u ra IM : M un iu khin u vo CSF : Khi chuyn mch t bo SVCs: kt ni o chuyn mch Routing Information Table RIT :bng nh tuyn VPI :nhn dng lung o VCI: nhn dng knh o VCC :kt ni knh o VPC :kt ning o PVC :knh o c nh (Permanent virtual circuit) SVC : knh o chuyn mch UNI (User Network Interface ): Giao din Mang Ngi dung LAN (local area network) :mng cc b WAN (wide area network) :mng din rng ARP (Address Resolution Protocol )- Giao thc Phn giai ia chi

Danh Mc Hnh V
Hnh 2.1 Kin trc chung ca chuyn mch ATM Hnh 2.2 S khi chc nng ca mt h thng chuyn mch ATM Hnh 2.3 S khi module u vo (a) v m un u ra (b) Hnh 3.1 Qu trnh x l t bo Hnh 3.2 Nguyn tc t nh tuyn Hnh 3.3 Nguyn tc bng iukhin Hnh 4.1 PVC Mng ATM Hnh 4.2. SVC mng ATM

LI NI U Ngy nay , cng vi s pht trin v kinh t- x hi, nhu cu trao i thng tin ca con ngi ngy cng cao. Bi vy cng ngh in t vin thng c vai tr c bit quan trng nht l trong giai on bng n thng tin nh hin nay. Cc h thng in t vin thng l phng tin rt hu ch phc v cho nhu cu trao i thng tin mt cch cp thit. U ban t vn vin thng quc t CCITT a ra m hnh mng vin thng s ho a dch v bng rng B-ISDN ( Broadband Integrated Service Digital Network). B-ISDN c xy dng trn c s ca mng cp quang ng b , mng thng minh ( IN)v cng ngh chuyn ti khng ng b (ATM) cho php truyn ting ni, hnh nh, d liu trn cng mt mng duy nht. ATM l mt cng ngh mi da trn cu trc t bo ATM, n kt hp c cc c im k thut gia chuyn mch c in ca mng in thoi vi chuyn mch gi p ng c nhu cu thng tin ca con ngi mt cch ton din. C th ni h thng chuyn mch ATM l phn quan trng nht ca cng ngh ATM v th vic i su nghin cu s nh hng ca cu trc phn cng chuyn mch ATM n cht lng dch v l mt vn rt quan trng v rt cn thit. Vi nhng nhn nh trn chng em tp trung tm hiu v ch chuyn mch ATM v ng dng. Mc d cc thnh vin trong nhm tch cc tm hiu nhng bi bo co cng khng trnh khi nhng thiu st,rt mong thy v cc bn gp bi bo co ca chng em t kt qu cao.Chng e xin chn thnh cm n thy L Nht Thng hng dn chng em lm ti ny !

CHNG I: CHUYN MCH ATM 1. Gii Thiu Chung V ATM - Da trn kiu truyn khng ng b ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) cung cp nhiu loi dch v trn mt mng truyn thng duy nht. ATM c xem l k thut chuyn mch chn gi tc cao c xy dng trn c s t hp cc u im ca chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh. ATM c kh nng cung cp nhiu loi dch v vi cc yu cu khc nhau v QoS nhng vn m bo hiu qu s dng ti nguyn mng. T bo * Cell ) l n v thng tin c bn trong ATM, c di c nh 53 byte, bao gm 48 byte thng tin v 5 byte tiu cha cc thng tin lin quan thit lp v iu khin kt ni .Cc dch v trong mng ATM gm: CBR (Constant Bit Rate), rt-VBR (real time - Variable Bit Rate ), nrt-VBR (non real time - Variable Bit Rate), ABR (Avalible Bit Rate ), UBR (Unspecific Bit Rate). Cc dch v ny c th phn thnh hai loi l dch v thi gian thc (CBR v rt-VBR) v dch v khng theo thi gian thc (nrt-VBR, ABR v UBR).ATM co cac tinh nng QoS (quality of service - cht lng dich vu), cho phep khach hang chon kiu lu thng cn u tin, nh cho ting noi va video phai n ung luc, am bao rng thng tin it quan trong khng chim linh dong lu thng thi gianthc. No la mt cng ngh co th m rng, vn hanh t 25 Mbits/sec n 2.46 Gbits/sec, no co th d dang tich hp vi cac mang cua cac hang truyn tai, va no h tr vic tich hp vi cac cng ngh co sn (vi nhng s iu chinh phu hp).Kha nng m rng cua ATM co y nghia quan trong i vi nhng cng ty ang phat trin.

2. KIN TRC CHUNG CA H THNG CHUYN MCH BNG RNG ATM


ATM l mng kt ni nh hng, tt c cc t bo ATM trong mt kt ni thc t c truyn theo mt tuyn ng nh sn. Nhng t bo thuc v mt u ni c xc nh bi trng nhn dng ng o v knh o VPC/VCI. Cc chuyn mch gi thng thng hot ng trong di 1 4000 gi tin/giy, trong khi , chuyn mch ATM cn phi x l s lng gi tin rt ln t 100 000 n hng triu gi tin trong mt giy. V c bn, mt nt chuyn mch ATM phi thc hin ba hot ng: nh tuyn, xp hng v bin dch tiu ca cc t bo. Qu trnh nh tuyn l xc nh r t bo c chn ng no t mt u vo n mt u ra yu cu. Vic xp hng c s dng gii quyt vn xung t khi ti mt thi im c hn mt u vo c cng mt u ra yu cu. Trn thc t c nhiu thit k khc nhau cho cu trc chuyn mch ATM. Tuy nhin, m hnh chc nng chung ca mt h thng chuyn mch ATM thng bao gm ba phn chnh l: * Giao din chuyn mch: Gm mt module iu khin u vo (IC) v mt module iu khin u ra(OC). * Trng chuyn mch t bo * B x l iu khin: Bao gm hai phn chnh l iu khin chp nhn kt ni (CAC) v qun l chuyn mch (SM).

Hnh 2.1 Kin trc chung ca chuyn mch ATM H thng chuyn mch ATM c chc nng: Chuyn tip cc t bo d liu ngi dng t cc cng u vo n cc cng u ra thch hp. H tr cc chc nng tng ng trong mt phng iu khin v mt phng qun l ca m hnh tham chiu giao thc B-ISDN. Cc h thng chuyn mch ATM c th gi vai tr nh cc cng giao tip vi nhng mng khc nh N-ISDN, LAN Ngoi ra, n cn cha cc giao din khc trao i thng tin iu khin v qun l vi cc mng c mc ch c bit nh mng thng minh (IN) v mng qun l vin thng (TMN).

Hnh 2.2 S khi chc nng ca mt h thng chuyn mch ATM H thng chuyn mch ATM gm 5 khi chc nng c bn: M un u vo (IM), m un u ra (OM), iu khin chp nhn kt ni (CAC), qun l h thng (SM) v khi chuyn mch t bo (CSF). Hot ng ca IM v OM c th c m t tng quan nh hnh v

Hnh 2.3 S khi modul u vo (a) v m un u ra (b) 2.1.M un iu khin u vo (IM) Thc hin chc nng tch lung ATM khi khung truyn dn v x l cc chc nng sau i vi mi t bo ATM: Kim tra li tiu t bo s dng trng HEC Bin dch cc gi tr VPI/VCI. Xc nh cng u ra Chuyn t bo bo hiu n CAC Thc hin iu khin tham s ngi dng/mng (UPC/NPC) cho mi 8

kt ni knh o/ng o (VCC/VPC) - Thm vo t bo d liu ngi dng cc bt a ch b sung (c gi l th nh tuyn) trn c s trng VPI/VCI trong tiu t bo. Th ny sau c CSF s dng thc hin chc nng nh tuyn v b loi khi ra khi CSF. 2.2. M un iu khin u ra (OM) Thc hin vic phn phi t bo n ch hoc ti mt cng u vo ca mt nt chuyn mch khc sau khi bin dch t bo. N thc hin cc chc nng sau: - Loi b th nh tuyn c gn IM. - C th bin dch cc gi tr VPI/VCI. - To trng HEC mi. - Chn cc t bo qun l v iu khin (nhn c t CAC v SM) vo lung t bo u ra. - Thch ng lung t bo vo khung truyn dn. 2.3. Khi iu khin chp nhn kt ni (CAC) CAC c chc nng thit lp, gim st v gii phng cc kt ni o. CAC nhn t bo bo hiu t IM, tch ly thng tin bo hiu, bin dch v cp nht. Cui cng CAC to ra t bo bo hiu mi v gi chng n OM. 2.4. Khi qun l h thng (SM) Cc chc nng qun l gm qun l li, qun l hiu nng, qun l cu hnh, qun l tnh cc, qun l bo mt v qun l lu lng. thc hin cc chc nng ny cn rt nhiu s truyn thng bn trong chuyn mch gia SM v cc khi chc nng khc. - X l OA&M lp vt l - OA&M lp ATM - Qun l cu hnh cc thnh phn chuyn mch - Kim sot bo mt cho cc c s d liu chuyn mch - o lng mc s dng cc ti nguyn chuyn mch - Qun l lu lng - T chc thng tin qun l, - Qun l khch hng - mng, - Giao din vi h thng vn hnh - H tr qun l mng. 2.5. Khi chuyn mch t bo (CSF) L phn trung tm ca h thng chuyn mch ATM, thc hin chc nng chnh l nh tuyn cc t bo d liu (c th bao gm c cc t bo bo hiu v nh tuyn) t IM n OM thch hp. V mt s chc nng khc bao gm: 9

- m t bo - Multicast/Broadcast - Dung sai, lp lch t bo trn c s cc u tin v tr. - Gim st tc nghn v kch hot ch th tc nghn chuyn tip ngay lp tc (ECFI).

3. NGUYN TC CHUYN MCH V NH TUYN


3.1. Qu trnh chuyn mch v x l gi qua cc h thng chuyn mch ATM Giao thc ATM tng ng vi lp 2 nh nh ngha trong m hnh tham chiu (OSI) cc h thng m. ATM l kt ni c hng, mt kt ni cui- cui (hay knh o) cn c thit lp trc khi nh tuyn cc t bo ATM. Cc t bo c nh tuyn da trn hai gi tr quan trng cha trong 5 byte mo u t bo: nhn dng lung o (VPI) v nhn dng knh o (VCI), trong mt lung o bao gm mt s cc knh o. S cc bit dnh cho VPI ph thuc vo kiu giao din. Nu l giao din ngi s dng (UNI), gia ngi s dng v chuyn mch ATM u tin, 8 bit c dnh cho VPI. iu ny c ngha l c ti 28 = 256 lung o sn c trong im truy nhp ngi s dng. Mt khc nu n l giao din node mng (NNI), gia cc chuyn mch trung gian ATM, 12 bit s dnh cho VPI. iu ny cho thy c 212=4096 lung o c th c gia cc chuyn mch ATM. Trong c UNI v NNI, c 16 bit dnh cho VCI. V th c 216=65 536 knh o cho mi lung o. S kt hp c VPI v VCI to nn mt lin kt o gia hai u cui. Thay v c cng VPI/VCI cho ton b lung nh tuyn, VPI/VCI c xc nh trn mi lin kt c s thay i vi mi chuyn mch ATM. Mt cch c th, ti mi lin kt u vo n mt node chuyn mch, mt VPI/VCI c th c thay th bng mt VPI/VCI khc ti u ra bng s tham chiu ti mt bng gi l bng nh tuyn (Routing Information Table -RIT) trong chuyn mch ATM. Vi bng nh tuyn mng ATM c th tng s lng cc ng nh tuyn. Mi chuyn mch ATM c mt bng nh tuyn cha t nht cc trng sau: VPI/VCI c, VPI/VCI mi, a ch cng u ra, v trng u tin (tu chn). Khi mt t bo ATM n mt ng u vo ca chuyn mch, n b chia thnh 5 byte mo u v 48 byte ti trng. Bng cch s dng VPI/ VCI cha trong phn mo u nh gi tr VPI/VCI c, chuyn mch tm trong bng nh tuyn VPI/VCI mi ca cc t bo ang i n. Khi tm thy, gi tr VPI/VCI c s c thay th bng VPI/VCI mi. Hn na a ch cng u ra tng ng v trng u tin c nh km trong 48 byte ti trng trc khi n c gi n kt cu chuyn mch. a ch cng u ra ch ti cng u ra no m t bo c nh tuyn. C ba kiu nh tuyn trong kt cu chuyn mch: ch unicast l ch m mt t bo c nh tuyn ti mt cng 10

u ra xc nh, multicast l ch mt t bo c nh tuyn ti mt s cc cng u ra, v broadcast l ch mt t bo c nh tuyn ti tt c cc cng u ra. Trng u tin cho php chuyn mch truyn cc t bo mt cch c la chn ti cc cng u ra hay loi chng khi b m b y, tu theo cc yu cu dch v. Cc kt ni ATM c thit lp trc hoc thit lp mt cch linh ng theo bo hiu c s dng, ging nh bo hiu UNI v bo hiu nh tuyn giao din mng - mng ring (PNNI). Thit lp trc c tham chiu ti cc kt ni o c nh (PVCs), thit lp linh ng c tham chiu ti cc kt ni o chuyn mch (SVCs). Vi cc SVCs, bng nh tuyn c cp nht bi b x l cuc gi trong sut qu trnh thit lp cuc gi. Qa trnh thit lp cuc gi s tm mt ng nh tuyn ph hp gia ngun v ch. VPI/VCI ca mi ng dn dc theo tuyn, cc a ch cng u ra ca cc b chuyn mch v trng u tin c xc nh v c b x l cuc gi in vo bng. B x l cuc gi phi m bo rng ti mi chuyn mch, VPI/VCI ca cc t bo ang n t cc cng u vo khc nhau c cng mt cng u ra l khc nhau. Mi chuyn mch ATM c mt b x l cuc gi. Hnh sau ch ra mt b x l cuc gi cp nht bng nh tuyn trong chuyn mch.

Hnh 3.1 Qu trnh x l t bo hnh v ny, khi mt cuc gi c thit lp thnh cng ngun bt u gi t bo c VPI/VCI c ghi l W. Ngay khi t bo ny n chuyn mch ATM u tin, ng vo bng nh tuyn c tm kim. Li vo thch hp c tm thy vi VPI/VCI mi c gi tr X, thay th gi tr W. a ch cng 11

u ra tng ng (c gi tr 100) v trng a ch c nh km ti t bo v th t bo c th c nh tuyn ti cng u ra 100 ca chuyn mch u tin. Ti chuyn mch ATM th hai, VPI/VCI ca t bo m gi tr X c cp nht vi gi tr mi Y. Da vo a ch cng u ra t c t bng, t bo ang n c nh tuyn ti cng u ra 10. Hot ng ny c lp li trong cc chuyn mch khc dc theo ng ti ch. Khi kt ni kt thc, b x l cuc gi xo li vo lin kt trong bng dc theo ng truyn. Trong trng hp multicast, mt t bo c sao chp thnh nhiu bn, v mi bn sao c nh tuyn ti mi cng u ra. V VPI/VCI ca mi bn sao ti cng u ra c th khc nhau, s thay th VPI/VCI thng c thc hin ti cc cng u ra thay v cng u vo. Kt qu l bng nh tuyn c chia lm 2 phn, mt ti u ra v mt ti u vo. Ti u vo c hai trng trong bng nh tuyn: VPI/VCI c v N bit thng tin nh tuyn. Ti u ra c ba trng trong bng nh tuyn: S cng u vo, VPI/VCI c, v VPI/VCI mi. S kt hp ca s ca cng u vo v VPI/VCI c c th nhn dng duy nht kt ni multicast v c s dng nh mt ch s nh v VPI/VCI mi ti cng u ra. Khi nhiu VPI/VCI t cc cng u vo khc nhau c th hp li ti cng cng u ra v c gi tr VPI/VCI c ging nhau, v th n phi s dng thng tin thm nh phn ca ch s cho bng nh tuyn. S dng s cng u vo l hp l v l cch d dng. 3.2. Nguyn tc nh tuyn trong chuyn mch ATM C hai phng thc nh tuyn c s dng trong chuyn mch ATM, l nguyn tc t nh tuyn v nh tuyn dng bng nh tuyn. a. Nguyn tc t nh tuyn

Hnh 3.2 Nguyn tc t nh tuyn Theo nguyn tc ny: Vic bin dch VPI/VCI cn phi thc hin ti u vo ca cc phn t chuyn mch sau khi bin dch xong t bo s c thm phn m rng bng mt nh danh ni b th hin rng x l tiu ca t bo. Tiu mi ca t bo c t trc nh ni dung ca bng bin dch, vic tng thm tiu t bo y yu cu tng thm tc ni b ca ma trn chuyn mch. Ngay sau khi t bo c c nh danh ni b, n c nh hng theo nguyn tc t nh hng. Mi cuc ni t u vo ti u ra c mt tn ni b nm trong ma trn chuyn mch xc nh. Trong cc cuc ni a im VPI/VCI c gn tn ni b nhiu chuyn mch do c 12

kh nng cc t bo c nhn bn v nh hng ti cc ch khc nhau ph thuc vo tn c gn. b. Nguyn tc bng nh tuyn Theo nguyn tc ny, VPI/VCI trong tiu t bo c bin dch ti mi phn t chuyn mch thnh mt tiu mi v m s cng u ra thch hp nh mt bng nh tuyn gn vi phn t chuyn mch ny. Trong giai on thit lp cuc ni, ni dung ca bng c cp nht.

Hnh 3.3 Nguyn tc bng iukhin

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4. HOT NG CHUYN MCH ATM


Ta hy xt mt v d ng dng ca ATM cung cp dch v cho ngi dng. Thu bao ATM c th nhn c dch v bng hai cch sau : Qua knh o c nh PVC (Permanent virtual circuit) v Qua knh o chuyn mch SVC (Switched virtual circuit) PVC : Knh o c nh Cc thnh phn c bn bao gm PABX l tng i ATM dng ring h tr cho cc dch v in thoi. Router l b nh hng dng kt ni cc mng LAN qua mng chuyn mch. MUX thc hin chc nng ghp knh cc t bo ATM. Ngi iu hnh mng (Network Operator) c chc nng h tr cho vic thit lp/Gii phng cc knh o c nh.

Hnh 4.1 PVC Mng ATM Vic thit lp knh PVC theo th tc sau tng t nh knh cho thu: 1. Thu bao gi nh cung cp yu cu knh PVC 2. Thu bao a a ch ch, tc bit yu cu v thi gain s dng 3. in thoi vin (Network Operator) a cc thng tin ny qua thit b kt cui (Terminal) thit lp knh tng t nh in thoi vin bnh thng 4. Knh ni c thit lp. 5. Thu bao tr tin theo qui nh thu knh hay theo chi tit cuc gi. Nh vy i vi hnh thc PVC tng t nh th tc thu knh truyn thng nhng n c cc u im sau : Gn nh thi gian thc rng bng theo yu cu Khng c th tc thit lp cuc gi Nailed-up connection ngha l lun lun c mch ni gia cc im yu cu D m rng hay gii phng ng ni 14

SVC : Knh o chuyn mch i vi phng thc ny, khi cuc gi thit lp, gi tr mc nh hoc theo nng lc hay gn tc l 64 kb/s v ngay khi cuc gi thit lp mch s c gn cho ngi dng v dnh ring cho ngi dng (in thoi thng thng). Hnh v di y minh hot hot ng ca mng ATM phc v cho mt cuc gi.

Hnh 4.2. SVC mng ATM Thu bao ch gi nhc my v quay s, cuc gi hng ti ATM-Hub (Trung tm ATM), n thch ng cc thng tin bo hiu vo t bo ATM. ATM-Hub kim tra tc bit yu cu, dng cc thng tin cha trong phn ti tin ca t bo ATM. Cc t bo ATM bo hiu qua mng ti ch thit lp ni. Khi t bo ti ch, ATM Hub pha ch s gii cc t bo ngc li vi cc thng tin v knh o thit lp knh n. Khi cc t bo ny ti ch gi, ATM-Hub gn cho cc t bo gi tr VCI thch hp v mng by gi bit nh tuyn c th th no. Khi thit lp ni xong, tin ca ngi dng trong t bo cha VPI/VCI trong tiu . Khi pht t bo ATM bo hiu t ch gi c cha a ch ch. Ti cc tng i ATM pht cc t bo ny theo kiu qung b. Ti cc cc ch chng c kim tra, nu ng ch thc s th ch s pht ngc li. Trn ng i s gn cc gi tr VPIi/VCIj v a vo phn ti tin ca t bo ATM. T bo no tr v thu bao ch gi u tin chnh l ng i ngn nht.

5. CC YU CU I VI H THNG CHUYN MCH BNG RNG ATM


Nh bit, mng ATM h tr cho cc dch v bng rng. Mi mt dch v c yu cu tc bt khc nhau ( CBR,VBR), Tnh trong sut(T l mt mt t bo, li bt), v trong sut v thi gian ( tr, trt thi gian). V vy chuyn mch ATM c thit k tho mn cc yu cu i hi. Tc bt yu cu cho cc dch v bng rng thay i theo tng dch v, thng thng thay i t vi kb/s ti 150 Mb/s. Tc truyn dn ti thiu ca truyn dn SDH l 155Mb/s, v vy tc ti thiu ca ng dy h tr bi chuyn mch ATM l 155 Mb/s. 15

S lng cc cng h tr bi chuyn mch c gi l dung lng ng dy ca chuyn mch. Trong mng cng cng B-ISDN, chuyn mch ATM c th yu cu ti thit 1000 cng cho cc u ni thu bao v trung k. Tch s ca tc ng V v dung lng ng c gi l thng qua ca mt chuyn mch ( thng qua = VN). N rt d dng tnh thng qua ca trng chuyn mch phi ln hn 150 Gb/s. Trong mng B-ISDN mt s dch v yu cu phn b, v vy trng chuyn mch ATM phi c c chc nng multicast v qung b. Hiu nng ca trng chuyn mch c c trng bi kh nng nghn (phong to) u ni v tr chuyn mch. Mt vi chuyn mch c tnh cht khng tc nghn hon ton, n th hin khng c s tranh chp trong trng chuyn mch. Vi cc chuyn mch c nghn, kch thc mng v, ch nh ngun ti nguyn l cc yu t quan trng trnh tc nghn. S mt mt t bo cng do nguyn nhn trn b m. Thng thng, cc gi tr ca xc sut mt mt t bo trong cc trng chuyn mch ATM cho php trong khong 10-8-10-11. Tr chuyn mch nh hng ti tnh trong sut ca thi gian v thng thng t 10-1000 micro giy, vi trt thi gian khong vi trm micro giy hoc nh hn. Di y l 3 tham s c bn nh gi hiu nng ca trng chuyn mch ATM: Kh nng thng qua ca trng chuyn mch : l lu lng truyn qua trng chuyn mch, c nh ngha nh l xc sut mt gi tin truyn trong mt khe qua trng chuyn mch ti u ra. thng qua ti a ca trng chuyn mch thng c gi l dung lng chuyn mch, ch th mc ti thc hin c khi u vo c mc ti cao nht. tr trung bnh ca gi: S lng thi gian trung bnh yu cu ca chuyn mch chuyn cc gi t u vo ti u ra theo yu cu. Xc sut mt t bo : N c nh ngha nh l xc sut m cc gi nhn c trong u vo mt trong trng chuyn mch v trn b m hoc do tranh chp. Mt h thng chuyn mch l tng cn phi chuyn tt c cc gi m khng gy mt mt vi tr truyn c th nh nht, vi th t gi n nh

6.Giao Tip ATM


Co mt s cach ni kt cac mang ATM. - UNI (User Network Interface - Giao din Mang Ngi dung).inh nghia kt ni gia thit bi ngi dung va thit bi ATM. Khi c kt ni n

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mt ATM WAN, UNI la ng truyn thu bao gia ia im khach hang va im truy cp cua hang truyn tai. No co th la mt ng T1 hay mt ATM - FUNI (Frame UNI). ng truyn FUNI truyn cac khung n mang ATM, tai o chung c chuyn thanh cac cell bi hang truyn tai. FUNI co th giam nhng chi phi phn cng. - NNI (Network-to-Network Interface - Giao din Mang-n-Mang) y la giao din gia cac thit bi ATM. - ICI (Intercarrier Interface - Giao din gia cac -hang truyn tai).y la giao din gia cac im kt ni ATM gia cac mang cua hang truyn tai khac nhau. - DXI (Data Exchange Interface - Giao din Trao i D liu) Phng phap ny cung cp mt giao din cho thit bi cu dung lai nh cac b inh tuyn va ATM bng phng phap tao khung HDLC (High-level Data Link Control - iu khin Lin kt d liu Mc-cao). Cac goi d liu, khng phai cac cell, c truyn n giao din ATM.

7. Lin Kt Dng Mng ATM:


- Hu ht nhng thao lun trn y lin quan n vic dung cac mang ATM cua hang truyn tai xy dng cac WAN, nhng ATM cung co th c dung xy dng cac mang dung ring. Mt LAN ni b co th c xy dng hoan chinh bng ATM bng cach cai t cac ATM NIC trong cac may tram va kt ni cac may tram ny n mt b chuyn mach ATM. Tuy nhin, mang thun tuy ATM la him. Mt kich ban ph bin hn la lin kt cac mang kiu khung nh Ethernet n mt ng truc cua ATM hay xy dng mt mang chuyn mach. - Ngay nay, moi ngi co th goi trc tip cho nhau ma khng cn s giup cua iu hanh vin. y la muc tiu cua ATM cho phep mt ngi 17

dung kt ni vi bt ky ngi dung khac qua mt mang ATM cuc b hay din rng. Yu t quan trong la ngi dung (hay cac ng dung ngi dung) co th yu cu ro cac thng s cht lng dich vu QoS cua ATM. Noi cach khac, nu mt ngi dung cn mt tc bit khng i cho video, thi anh ta hay c ta co th yu cu mang ATM ap ng iu o (hay ng dung se yu cu). Vn duy nht la nhng chin lc gia lp LAN hin tai co khuynh hng du khng cho cac giao thc va ng dung tng cao hn chay trong may tinh cua ngi dung bit v ATM. Vi iu ny, cac ng dung khng co cach nao yu cu ro QoS. Tuy nhin, nha cung cp va cac ATM Forum (Din an ATM) ang phat trin nhng chin lc mi cho phep iu ny.

8. Kt Ni Cc Mng LAN C Vo ATM


- Vic kt ni cac mang LAN cu dung lai vao ATM thi kho khn. Mt ly do la cac mang LAN truyn thng la cac mang phi kt ni con ATM la hng kt ni. Khi mt tram Ethernet thc hin truyn, tt ca cac tram khac trn mang co th thy thng ip, nhng chi co tram ma thng ip c inh ia chi n mi ap ng. Nhng nu mang c xy dng vi mt b chuyn mach ATM, cac tram co kha nng ni kt vi nhau qua cac mach ao ATM thay cho mi trng dung chung phat tan thng tin. - Bng cach nao mt tram bit c mach cn dung khi gi mt thng ip n mt tram khac? Cac mang IP giai quyt vn ny bng ARP (Address Resolution Protocol - Giao thc Phn giai ia chi). Mt may chu gi mt thng ip n tt ca cac tram hoi v ia chi IP cua tram o. Mt ia chi MAC (Medium Access Control - iu khin Truy cp Phng tin) c tra v bi tram s hu ia chi. - Phng phap ny khng lam vic trn ATM bi vi ATM khng h tr ky thut broadcast. Mt tram se cn gi mt yu cu nh vy ln moi mach. iu ny gy lang phi bng thng. Vn a c giai quyt bng cach a 18

ra mt phng phap gia lp mt LAN cho ATM. ATM Forum (Din an ATM) a inh nghia qui cach ky thut LAN 1.0 (LAN Emulation - Gia lp LAN) vao nm 1995. Nhng v c ban LAN thc hin hai vic sau: + No cung cp mt phng phap c lp vi giao thc cac thit bi cua mt LAN phi kt ni, da trn khung, lin lac qua mt mang hng kt ni, da trn cell. No inh nghia cach cac client c gn vao-LAN co th lin lac vi nhng server c gn vao mt ATM nhng khng cn thay i phn mm ng dung. + giai quyt vn tim kim ia chi mach tng ng vi cac ia chi IP, LANE inh nghia mt LES (LAN Emulation Server - Server Gia lp LAN). Server duy tri mt bang ghi nhng ia chi mach tng ng vi cac ia chi IP. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force - Lc lng c nhim Ky thut Internet) cung chp nhn m hinh ny n mt mc nao o va a goi LES Server la ATM-ARP server (ATM Address Resolution Protocol - Giao thc Phn giai ia chi ATM). - Vn con mt vn khac la cac mang Ethernet dung ky thut broadcast hay multicast (gi n tt ca hay nhng tram c chon, th t tng ng) thi hanh nhiu tac vu. Nu ban d inh ni kt Ethernet va ATM vi nhau, ban cn h tr nhng tac vu ny. Trong trng hp ny, mt BUS (broadcast/unknown server) c a ra. No duy tri mt s kt ni n moi tram va co th thi hanh cac tac vu broadcast hay multicast. - LAN khng cung cp mt giai phap y u cho vic co c kha nng kt ni ATM xuyn sut. Mt khi cac LAN client cu dung lai c kt ni n ng truc ATM ny, chung vn cn tim cach c ta c QoS cua ATM. Nh a c cp, LAN co khuynh hng du khng cho ATM bit v cac ng dung do o cac client cua Ethernet va Token Ring ang dung co th chay binh thng. Tuy nhin cac ng dung chi thy LAN da trn-khung 19

va khng co cach nao noi chuyn vi mang ATM, do vy chung khng bit cac mc QoS hin co cua ATM. ATM Forum (Din an ATM) ang lam vic iu chinh vn ny bng LAN version 2.0. - Trong khi ch i, nhng giai phap nh PACE cua 3Com (priority access control enabled - cho phep iu khin s truy cp co u tin) co th m rng QoS n vi may tinh ban. Cung xem IP over ATM. - Mt giai phap khac c goi la Cells in Frames (Cac cell trong khung), a vt qua ca quang ng dai inh nghia cach thc cho phep may tinh ban dung ATM. Phng phap ny gia lp ATM bng cach mang cac cell trong cac khung - Vn con mt giai phap khac la a s h tr ATM vao cac API, va cac API c s dung bi cac lp trinh vin phat trin cac ng dung. WinSock Group a thm QoS vao Windows API, va X/Open ang cai tin tp UNIX API. Nhng s nng cp se co dung di dang cac driver (trinh iu khin) co th cai t. V c ban, Mt ng dung tng thich QoS se co th chuyn mt yu cu mach ao n mt ATM driver vi cac thng s cu th v dich vu, bng thng, va cac c tinh tri hoan. ATM driver n phin no se thng bao n mang ATM thit lp mach ao.

9. Cch Thay i Trn ATM


- ATM a co mt thi gian dai va nhiu s phat trin ang din ra trong o ngi ta bo qua mt s tiu chun co th h tr cho cac mang va giao thc cu dung lai. Nhiu nha cung cp ang tp trung vao vic cai tin cac b inh tuyn cua ho. Bay Networks va Cisco co cac b inh tuyn nhiu cng trong o mi cng co b x ly ring cua no inh tuyn cho thng tin vi tc ln n 100,000 goi d liu trong mt giy. iu ny nng nng lc x 20

ly goi tng cng cua nhng thit bi nh vy ln hn 1 triu goi d liu trong mt giy. - Cac giai thut NetFlow cua Cisco co th inh danh nhng dong goi dai hoc tun hoan gia ngun va ich, va thit lp nhng phin lam vic hng kt ni cho nhng dong ny. Thay vi phai xem xet tiu hoan chinh cho moi goi d liu, va se mt nhiu thi gian x ly, chi goi d liu u tin c oc, va dong goi d liu c thit lp t thng tin trong goi d liu o. Di nhin, khng phai tt ca nhng s trao i thng tin u co th c xem nh dong goi u ln thit lp cac phin lam vic dong.

10. Kt Lun
- ATM c xem nh l mng ca tng lai c kh nng tch hp mi dch v cng nh cc c tnh cn phi c, ATM thit k ch yu cho x l thi gian thc nh ting ni, m thanh v hnh nh, ATM cung cp mt mng thng nht cho mi loi s liu: ting ni, d liu, video v d liu a phng tin. ATM cho php tch hp cc mng vi vic tng cng tnh hiu qu v kh nng qun l mng v cung cp cng ngh lin mng chung thc hin cc mng ring v cc mng cng cng.

CHNG II : ng Dng ATM


- Tng vt ly inh nghia giao din in t hoc vt ly, cac tc ng truyn, va nhng c tinh vt ly khac. ATM c lp vi bt ky phng tin truyn nao.

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- Tng ATM inh nghia inh dang cell, cach thc cac cell c truyn, va cach x ly tt nghen. No cung inh nghia s thit lp va huy bo mach ao. - Tng thich nghi ATM inh nghia qui trinh chuyn i thng tin t nhng tng cao hn thanh cac ATM cell. Trong mi trng mang, no cung cp giao din cho vic chuyn cac khung thanh cac cell cho Ethernet, Token Ring, va nhng giao thc mang khac. 1.Tng vt l - Tng vt ly cua ATM khng inh nghia bt ky mt phng tin ring nao. Cac LAN a c thit k cho cap ng truc hay dy xon-i va co nhng qui cach ky thut cng nhc inh ra bng thng chinh xac. Nhng qui cach ky thut a c thit lp phu hp vi nhng thanh phn in co sn tai thi im thit k. ATM h tr nhiu phng tin khac nhau, bao gm ca nhng phng tin hin co c dung trong nhng h thng lin lac khac. - Cac nh cng nghip co xu hng chp nhn SONET (Synchronous Optical Network - Mang Quang ng b) nh phng tin truyn vt ly ATM cho ca cac ng dung LAN va WAN. ATM Forum (Din an ATM) thi ang nghi dung FDDI (100 Mbits/sec), Fibre Channel (155 Mbits/sec), OC3 SONET (155 Mbits/sec), va T3 (45 Mbits/sec) lam giao din vt ly cho ATM. Hin tai, hu ht cac hang truyn tai ang cung cp cac ng ni T3 vao cac mang ATM cua ho.

2.Tng ATM - Tng ATM inh nghia cu truc cua ATM cell. No cung inh nghia vic inh tuyn va knh ao, cung nh kim soat li. - ATM cell co hai dang tiu (header). Mt la UNI (User Network Interface - Giao din Mang Ngi dung), c dung trong nhng cell do ngi dung gi, va tiu th hai la NNI (Network-to-Network Interface 22

Giao din Mang-n-Mang), c gi bi nhng b chuyn mach n cac b chuyn mach khac. NNI cell khng co trng GFC (Generic Flow Control iu khin Dong Tng quat). - ATM cell dai 53 byte; 48 byte dung cho d liu va 5 byte dung cho thng tin tiu . Chu y rng thng tin tiu chim gn 10 phn trm cell, tao chi phi phat sinh ln trn nhng ng truyn dai. Cac ATM cell la nhng goi thng tin cha d liu va thng tin tiu , trong o thng tin tiu cha thng tin knh va thng tin ng i giup inh hng cell n ich cua no. Thng tin c cha trong mi trng (field) cua tiu c nh nghia nh sau : + GFC (Generic Flow Control - iu khin Dong Tng quat) Trng ny vn cha c inh nghia trong tiu UNI cell va ngay ca trong tiu NNI cell. + VPI (Virtual Path Identifier - Phn t inh danh ng Ao) inh dng nhng ng ao gia cac ngi dung hay gia cac ngi dung va cac mang. + VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier - Phn t inh danh Knh Ao) inh dng knh ao gia cac ngi dung hay gia ngi dung va mang. + PTI (Payload Type Indicator - B chi thi Kiu Tai-thu) Chi ra kiu cua thng tin trong vung d liu cua cell, cho bit o la thng tin cua ngi dung, thng tin mang, hay thng tin quan ly. + CLP (Cell Loss Priority - Quyn u tin Huy Cell) inh nghia cach thc huy bo nhng cell nao o nu tc nghen mang xay ra. Trng ny cha nhng gia tri u tin, vi 0 chi ra rng cell co u tin cao nht.

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+ HEC (Header Error Control - iu khin Li Tiu ) Cung cp thng tin cho vic phat hin va sa sai nhng li n bit. 3.Tng Thich nghi ATM - AAL tp trung cac goi d liu t cac tng cao hn vao cac ATM cell. Cho vi du, trong trng hp cua mt goi d liu 1K, AAL se phn no thanh 21 phn va t mi phn vao mt cell chuyn i.

- AAL co nhiu kiu va tng iu hanh dich vu khac nhau phu hp vi nhng kiu lu thng khac nhau. Cac tng dich vu phn loai cac ng dung da trn phng phap cac bit c truyn, bng thng va nhng kiu kt ni oi hoi. Kiu 1. Mt dich vu CRB (constant bit rate - tc bit khng i) hng kt ni vi vic qui inh thi gian cho cac ng dung audio va video. Kiu 2. Mt dich vu VBR (variable bit rate - tc bit thay i) cho cac ng dung thi gian thc trong o nhng mt mac nho la co th chp nhn, va cho nhng ng dung khng-thi gian thc, nh x ly giao dich. Kiu . Mt dich vu ABR (available bit rate - tc bit co sn) cho cac ng dung khng-quan trong-v-thi gian nh lin mang LAN hay gia lp LAN. Mt mc dich vu c ban lun lun sn sang, va bng thng d phong cho nhng cao im lu thng, nu bng thng mang vn con. Kiu 5. Mt dich vu UBR (unspecified bit rate - tc bit khng c chi ro) cung cp bng thng ranh cho nhng dich vu khng quan trong nh truyn tp tin. Cung co nhng thng s lin quan n nhng iu sau: - iu khin l phi: Vi cac knh chuyn mach, y la kha nng kim soat mach da trn 24

tng cua ngi dung. Khi mang bn, nhng ngi dung tng cao hn c quyn u tin mach, nhng phai tra phi cho s u tin ny. - iu khin tt nghen: iu khin ny lin quan n nhng mang bi tc nghen ni o cac cell ang bi bo ri. V c ban, cac tram gi thng tin co quyn u tin-thp bi yu cu tam hoan nhng thng tin co quyn u tin cao hn co th i qua v Cht lng dch v QoS c xc nh thng qua cc tham s c trng nh t l tn tht t bo CLR (Cell Loss Rate), t l li t bo CER (Cell Error Rate), t l t bo n nhm a ch CMR (Cell Misinsertion Rate ), tr truyn t bo cc i Max-CTD, tr thay i nh/nh P2P-CDV, bin ng tr (Jitter Delay) ... Cc tham s ny c chia thnh 2 nhm l tr v tn tht. Mi loi dch v trong mng ATM c yu cu khc nhau v tr v tn tht. V d, i vi cc dch v thi gian thc nh thoi, truyn hnh theo yu cu yu cu tr nh nhng c th chu c mt t l tn tht nht nh. Ngc li, cc dch v truyn s liu nh ftp, email th t l tn tht quan trng hn thi gian tr. Ngoi ra, c mt s dch v yu cu cao c v tr v tn tht. - Trong mng ATM, ngi s dng v mng tho thun vi nhau qua hp ng lu lng. Qua , mng phi m bo QoS cho ngi s dng mt khi kt ni c thit lp. y chnh l u im v cng l thch thc t ra trong vic iu khin lu lng v qun l ti nguyn mng. gii quyt vn ny, mng ATM c nhiu c ch iu khin nh iu khin UPC/NPC, iu khin chp nhn cuc gi CAC, iu khin u tin PC,... Nh a cp, ATM la mt cng ngh hng kt ni, nghia la no thit lp nhng mach ao lin kt cac h thng cui. Cac cell co th c truyn tip mt cach nhanh chong qua mang, va oi hoi rt it vic x ly bi cac tram trung gian doc ng. VC (virtual channel knh ao) Nhng cu ni lgic gia cac tram cui.VP (virtual path - ng ao) Mt bo cac VC. 25

- Co th tng tng mt VP nh mt cap cha mt bo dy. Cap kt ni hai im, va cac dy bn trong cap cung cp nhng mach ring le gia hai im. Li ich cua phng phap ny la nhng kt ni dung chung mt ng xuyn qua mang c nhom vi nhau c quan ly chung. Nu mt VP a c thit lp, d dang thm mt VC mi do a co sn inh nghia ng i, chi cn thit lp cac im cui cn la xong. Ngoai ra, trng hp cn chuyn mt VP tranh tc nghen hay do mt b chuyn mach khng lam vic, tt ca cac VC (co th ln n hn 65,000) bn trong VP c thay i theo. - Trong phn tiu cua ATM cell, VPI (Virtual Path Identifier - Phn t inh danh ng ao) inh danh mt lin kt hinh thanh bi mt ng ao va mt VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier - Phn t inh danh Knh ao) inh danh mt knh bn trong mt ng ao. VPI va VCI c inh danh va tng ng vi cac im kt thuc tai nhng b chuyn mach ATM. - ATM h tr ca cac PVC (permanent virtual circuits - cac mach ao c inh) va cac SVC (switched virtual circuits - cac mach ao chuyn mach). Cac PVC lun lun co sn con cac SVC oi hoi phai thit lp mi ln chung c dung. - Cac b chuyn mach thng lng vi nhau xy dng cac VC, va khng co d liu nao c truyn n khi VC a c thit lp mt cach hoan chinh ngang qua mang. Di nhin, thit lp cac VC tng i mt thi gian, do o nhiu b chuyn mach a c anh gia theo thi gian thit lp cuc goi cua chung. Mt b chuyn mach kiu mu co th thit lp ln n t 100 ti 200 VC/giy. iu ny khng phai mt vn trong mi trng cuc b, nhng la mt vn trong truyn tai ng dai. 4.Kt Lun ATM khi u c thit k nh mt phn cua tiu chun B-ISDN (Broadband-Integrated Services Digital Network - Mang S Dich vu Tich 26

hp-Bng tn Rng). B-ISDN la mt tiu chun mang vin thng s cng cng, c thit k cung cp mang multimedia u cui mc cao (highend), truyn hinh, m nhac cht lng-CD, d liu, va nhng dich vu khac cho nhng ngi dung cng ty va gia inh. ATM la cng ngh mang nn, giup cho vic hin thc thanh cng B-ISDN.

Ti liu tham kho: [1] Kari Melkko Asynchronous Transfer Mode department of computer Science and engineering Helsinki university of Technology. [2] C s k thut chuyn mch Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng [3] Cng ngh ATM Gii php cho mng bng rng. [4] Tng quan v mng B- ISDN Nguyn Hu Thanh _______________________________________

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