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La voz pasiva se usa cuando no es importante quin realiza la accin. Se forma con to be + participio Sujeto paciente + verbo pasivo (to be+participio)+complementos+(complemento agente). Pasos para pasar una oracin de activa a pasiva. 1. Analizar la oracin y buscar CD o CI para que sea sujeto paciente. Suelen aparecer inmediatamente detrs del verbo de la oracin. The fox is following the chickens in the barn SUJ VB CD CCL The chickens ...... SUJ PACIENTE 2. Del verbo tomo dos datos: a. Su tiempo verbal para drselo al verbo to be b. Su forma para ponerlo en participio. The fox is following the chickens in the barn Tiempo presente continuo to be = is being Forma follow participio = followed The chickens are being followed. 3. Pongo el resto de complementos: The fox is following the chickens in the barn SUJ VB CD CCL The chickens are being followed in the barn SUJ PAC VB PASIVO CCL 4. Finalmente ponemos el sujeto activo como complemento agente precedido siempre de la preposicin by. The fox is following the chickens in the barn SUJ VB CD CCL The chickens are being followed in the barn by the fox. C.AGENTE Casos en los que no se pone complemento agente. Cuando el sujeto activo sea: - people: People buy many presents for Christmas Many presents are bought for Christmas. - Pronombre personal: She has corrected the exam The exam has been corrected. - Compuesto de one o body: Someone stole my car yesterday My car was stolen yesterday. - El lgico de la oracin: The firemen put out the fire The fire was put out. PASIVA CON CD Y CI Cuando en la oracin activa hay CD y CI podemos hacer dos pasivas, cada una con un sujeto distinto. They brought me a T-shirt from Dublin. I was bought a T-shirt from Dublin. A T-shirt was brought to me from Dublin. En este caso, si el CD pasa a sujeto, hay que poner to delante del CI. 2

CMO PASAR DE PASIVA A ACTIVA 1. Buscar el complemento agente y convertirlo en sujeto de la oracin. Si no hay C.Agente, significa que se ha omitido, es decir, que es uno de los cuatro casos en los que se omite. Many houses are built nowadays___ They 2. Buscar e identificar el tiempo en el que est el verbo to be. Are = present simple 3. Poner el verbo de la oracin en el mismo tiempo que est el verbo to be. Many houses are built nowadays _____ They build 4. Convertir el sujeto en complement directo. Many houses are built nowadays _____ They build many houses 5. Escribir el resto de la oracin. They build many houses nowadays. A Rewrite the sentences in the passive. Omit the agent when possible. 1. People report many supernatural occurrences each year.

2. It is unlikely that they will ever find an explanation.

3. George Bernard Shaw attended a sance in 1935.

4. Did the inhabitants of Borley Rectory trick the investigator?

5. They promised a full explanation to the residents.

1. They have offered him a new job. 1.The detective was questioning the burglars. 2.He could have deceived you. 3.Tourism has harmed the environment. 4.I heard that someone had stolen his money. B Rewrite the sentences in the passive. Omit the agent when possible. 1. We have just discovered a mouse in our kitchen. 2. Police are watching the suspects.

3. 4. 5. 6.

No one had seen Mary since last October. Someone may have found our dog. The salesman was deceiving you the whole time. He has offered me a job.

EXTRA PRACTISE Rewrite the sentences in the passive. 1. They arrested her last week. 2. John wrote a letter. 3. They invited ten friends to the party. 4. They have just built a new house. 5. The police caught the thieves yesterday. 6. The maid will clean all the house for tomorrow. 7. My brother hit me. 8. They removed two cars from the street. 9. They have just cleaned the room. 10. We will build a new house. MORE EXTRA PRACTISE Rewrite the sentences in the passive. 1. A bus knocked her down. 2. Barriers were keeping back the flood water.

3. I will pay off my bank loan in five years time. 4. Nobody can hold anything against me. 5. Police blocked off the road. 6. The company laid off 3000 of its employees. 7. The draught blew out the candle. 8. The judge let her off with a fine. 9. The police are holding back the protesters. 10. They laid off thirty more people last week. 11. They locked up the criminal. 12. They put forward an idea for discussion. 13. They will make up a story. 14. They're pulling down the old cinema. 15. This money will make up for the inconvenience. 16. We will continue to lend support to our allies. 17. We've never heard of her. 18. You can hang up your jacket over there.

1. The milk mustnt be left out of the fridge.

2. People buy many faked t-shirts in the market 3. These flowers have just been picked up. 4. New teachers will be employed for the new course. 5. Scientists cant explain the origin of the universe. 6. This newspaper isnt read by my family. 7. Her employer had paid her the minimum wage 8. Mr. Jones offered Mike a new job. 9. The article has been based on a report. 10. Many people are employed in the car industry. 11. The report will be published in an important journal. 12. The children have been forced into illegal employment 13. The students results were studied by the headmaster. 14. The government should regulate piercings. 15. This picture had been painted by Picasso, 16. They are going to invest their savings in a flat. 17. She is interviewing the applicants. 18. The truth mustnt be discovered. 19. Jane has sent Peter some postcards.

20. He has written his family a long letter from Brazil. 21. Susan can play the piano with only one hand. 22. The teacher will show the exam results on the notice board, 23. Everybody should have visited the painting exhibition. 24. All the pupils were vaccinated at the school. 25. The Maglev train uses expensive technology, but it saves journey time. 26. Silvio Bedini has just published his discovery in The Popes Elephant 27. Brazil was creating reservations to preserve indigenous cultures. 28. Lewis Morgan drew out Gareths name as the winner. 29. Some reports have linked mobile phone use to possible illness and even brain tumours. 30. Customers can e-mail orders and they receive the milk within 24 hours. 31. Dr. Long has now turned the tunes she created by proteins from various common plants into a 25-minute CD.

32. The new curriculum provides a wider range of activities and should increase participation. 33. A local artist is organizing the exhibition of paintings. 34. The parcel shouldnt be brought today.

35. Carol has bought her mother a skirt in Harrods. 36. I think Pam arrived yesterday. 37. Almodovar is said to have paid for the oscar. 38. They will call an ambulance to the scene of the crime. 39. The manager hasnt promoted anyone in this section. 40. Everybody should visit the painting exhibition.They don' t speak Arabic in Iraq.

STATEMENTS: ORACIONES ENUNCIATIVAS Verbos introductores: o She told me (that) o She said to me (that) o She said (that) Cambios en los tiempos verbales: o Present Past o Past Past perfect o Will would o Can could o May might o Must had to Cambios en las expresiones temporales: o Now then o Today that day o Yesterday the day before o Last week the week before o Tomorrow the following day o Next week the following week o Ago before Cambios en adverbio: o Here there Cambio en pronombres y determinantes o This that o These those Cambios lgicos de la oracin. Ejemplo: Cristina: I am very happy today. Cristina said that she was very happy that day. QUESTIONS: PREGUNTAS Verbo introductor (ms comn): She asked (me) YES/NO QUESTIONS : VERBO INTRO + IF + SUJ + VERB + COMPL Ejemplo: Do you like English? The teacher asked me if I liked English. WH- QUESTIONS: VERBO INRO + WH- WORD + SUJ + VERB + COMPL Ejemplo: What did you do yesterday? Cristina asked me what I had done the day before. COMMANDS: ORDENES VERBO INTRO + TO + INFINITIVO + NOT TO + INFINITIVO Verbo introductor: o She ordered (me) Ejemplo: Open the book. Cristina ordered me to open the book Dont speak in the English class. Cristina ordered me not to speak in class.

SUGGESTIONS: SUGERENCIAS VERBO INTRO + V-ing Verbo introductor: o She suggested (me) Ejemplo: Lets go to an Italian restaurant tonight. Cristina suggested going to an Italian restaurant that night.
Ms verbos introductores: Declare declarar Apologise pedir perdn Explain explicar Announce anunciar Offer ofrecer Reply responder Boast presumir A Choose the correct answer. 1. "I don't know what to wear." Lisa said that she (hadn't known / didn't know) what to wear. 2. "The party is going to be fantastic." They said that the party (is going to be / was going to be) fantastic. 3. "We didn't tell anyone!" Kate and Carol claimed that they (didn't tell / hadn't told) anyone. 4. "Rodney is watching TV." Jackie informed me that Rodney (had watched / was watching) TV. 5. "Some boys broke this window." She told us that some boys (were breaking / had broken) that window. 6. "The 6.15 train is going to arrive late." They announced that the 6.15 train (is going to / was going to) arrive late.

B Change the sentences into reported speech.

1 . "Doug will arrive late tomorrow." I heard that 2. "He closed the shop early." She mentioned that 3. "I am working in a flower shop." Julie said that 4. "We don't know what we will do." They said that



"Ottawa is the capital of Canada." The tour guide told us that

6. "Alison is going to meet me at 9 o'clock." Tommy informed me that 7. "I can't stand these colours." She said that . 8. I bought this shirt last year. She told me that . A Report the questions, orders and suggestions. 1. "Listen to this song!" Laura told me 2. "Have you got enough money?" My mother asked me 3. "Don't do anything until you hear trom me." He told

4. "How many people are coming to the concert?" The singer inquired 5. "Let's go home." She suggested B Write the sentences in direct speech. 1 . Lucy told me that she was looking for her keys. 2. I asked Kevin when he would arrive. 3. John suggested eating at the new Chinese restaurant. 4. She asked me whether 1 was waiting tor the number 15 bus. 5. The lifeguard told me not to swim in the deep water. A Report the questions and orders. 1. "Look at me!" Sarah shouted to us 2. My mother asked, "Where did you put the groceries?" 3. "When does the last train leave for Brighton?" Kathy inquired. 4."Do you know anyone here?" I asked Dennis. 5. "Call us when you arrive in London, Jane," her parents said.


6."Don't open this door!" the lion tamer shouted. 7."Let's listen to my new CD," she suggested.

Write the sentences and questions in reported speech. 1. "The average Briton prefers tea to coffee." The announcer claims that 2."Yo u left a trail of crumbs from the kitchen to your bedroom." Mum complained that . 4."We're coming to terms with this difficult situation." Leslie and Larry said that 5.Did you remember to bring your homework? Betty asked me 6."Help me lift the couch." Mary told me ......................................... . 7."Tim's achievements are very impressive." The boss said that ................................. .


1. The electricity bill must be paid this week , he advised us 2. I had a bad cold last week, the worker said. 3. We are painting our house today, my friend said. 4. The palace will be open to the public tomorrow, the official declared. 5. The boss is examining our work now, the worker said. 6. She didnt leave work early once last week, Tom said. 7. I forgot to take my briefcase, Jim said. 8. The shops werent open yesterday afternoon, the woman said.


9. Eric was studying all day Thursday, John said. 10. I want you to take the car to the garage next Friday, he told his wife. 11. Do you understand me?, the teacher asked the students. 12. Will it rain tomorrow?, he wanted to know 13. Do we have to answer all the questions?, the pupils asked. 14. Is she sleeping?, Mother asked 15. Have you been ill?, my friend wondered. 16. How are you going to pay?, the cashier asked me 17. When will my car be ready?, Mr Green wanted to know. 18. Who is your favourite actor?, she asked me 19. I would like to visit my parents Linda said to David 20. Our teacher said, Try and read this text. 21. You shouldnt eat in the living room, the mother told her son. 22. Their car might have broken down, my husband told me. 23. I have to do my homework now, Penny said to her friend. 24. The Government will have to make new laws, the politician declared. 25. We can save a lot of trees by recycling paper, the ecologist explained. 26. Be sure that everything is ready on time, I advised the children 27. Beth : I wont come to the play because Im ill

28. He asked me not to shout and to say that again. 29. John: Im living in Paris now 30. John: Im working. Why did you ask? 31. Jane: I felt curious. Dont worry 32. Teacher: There will be an exam about it tomorrow 33. Tom: Is Mary coming with us next year, Jane? 34. Carol: Study and dont play with your toys, Tom


35. Laura: you should go with your parents tomorrow, Jane 36. Molly reminded her brother to buy some milk then.Teacher: There will be an exam about this tomorrow 37. Tom: Did you like the book I lent you, Carol? 38. Jane: Study and dont play with these matches, Tom 39. Jim: How much does this book cost today?

REDACCIN - OPINION ESSAY (100 125 words)

Brainstorming Antes de empezar a escribir haz una lista de tus ideas. Despus decide que ideas son importantes y elimina las irrelevantes. Agrupa las ideas que te quedas por prrafos. Organizacin por prrafos Son redacciones en las que tu expresas tu opinin y la defiendes con argumentos. Tiene cuatro prrafos: 1. Opening paragraph: Escribe de forma general sobre el tema que vas a tratar. Puedes incluir tu opinin en la ltima lnea.(3 o 4 lneas). 2 y 3 Body: defiende tu opinin con razones, hechos y ejemplos.. 4 Closing paragraph: Es una parfrasis del primer prrafo, es decir, dices lo mismo con otras palabras. Useful language In my opinion As I see it It seems to me that It is clear that I think / believe / feel that I (strongly) believe Obviously Clearly As far as I am concerned Personally Of course Fortunately / unfortunately En mi opinin De la manera en que yo lo veo Me parece que Esta claro que Yo creo que Yo (firmemente) creo que Obviamente Claramente En lo que a mi se refiere Personalmente Por supuesto Afortunada / desafortunadamente


Finish the following condicional sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. If we had some spare time I will buy something in Harrods . If we had had a lot of money I wouldnt have gone with you .

5. If I had given you the money 6. They will go to Germany . 7. She would come here 8. If I lived in London 9. If they had bought the house . 10. John would visit his family 11. If I had arrived earlier to the party . 12. It will be a nice present 13. She would teach French 14. If I had known the truth Rewrite the following sentences without changing the meaning of the original sentence. 1. The runner twisted his ankle because he fell. If 2. The driver fell asleep at the wheel and caused an accident. If 3. I went to sleep very late last night because I was so excited. If 4. We didnt move to Paris last year and so I didnt learn French. If 5. Diana is late for work because she wakes up late. If 6. We didnt buy the house we wanted because it was too far from the city. If 7. They bought the cheapest computer because the didnt have any more money. If 8. When Anna fell down the stairs, she broke her arm. If 9. He cant finish his maths homework because it is too difficult. If 10. I left five minutes later than usual and I had an accident. If 11. When Tina met the prime minister, she was so shy that she couldnt speak. If 12. I cant visit you tonight because I am too tired. If 13. I didnt get the message because I wasnt at home.


If 14. Harry got drunk because he drank too much wine. If 15. She becomes so tired because she works so hard. If 16. Tom doesnt have an alarm clock so hes always late for school. If 17. She doesnt go to bed early because she has too much work to do. If 18. The girls want to buy expensive clothes but they dont have the money. If



Son oraciones subordinadas que empiezan con un pronombre de relativo y hacen la funcin de un adjetivo modificando a un nombre, junto al que se hallan, y que se llama antecedente. Pronombres relativos Who sustituye a una persona en funcin de sujeto. Que, el cual, la cual.. Whom sustituye a una persona en funcin de complemento directo. Que, el cual Whose sustituye a un posesivo. Cuyo Which sustituye a una cosa. Que, el cual, la cual When sustituye a un complemento circunstancial de tiempo. Cuando. Where sustituye a un complemento circunstancial de lugar. Donde, en el cual..

El tipo de ejercicio ms frecuente es en el que te dan dos oraciones y te piden que las combines con una oracin de relativo. Tienes que seguir los siguientes pasos. 1. Subrayar lo que se repite en cada oracin. Jane is a university student. She wants to become a lawyer. Susan has bought a new house. We lived there in 2004. 2. Tachar lo que se repite en la segunda oracin y sustituirlo por el pronombre de relativo correspondiente. Jane is a university student. WHO wants to become a lawyer. Susan has bought a new house. We lived WHERE in 2004. 3. Mover el pronombre de relativo detrs de lo que se repeta en la primera oracin. 4. Copiar el resto de la segunda oracin, en orden, detrs del pronombre de relativo. Jane, who wants to become a lawyer, is a university student. Susan has bought a new house where we lived in 2004. 5. La oracin de relativo va entre comas cuando el antecedente es un nombre propio o algo nico en su especie. (el antecedente es la palabra que precede al pronombre de relativo). 6. Who/which se pueden sustituir por that slo en las oraciones de relativo especificativas. 7. Atencin a las oraciones de relativo con whose. Whose siempre va seguido de un sustantivo al que determina. ORACIONES DE RELATIVO ESPECIFICATIVAS Y EXPLICATIVAS
Especificativas (Defining relative clauses): me dan una informacin importante para reconocer el antecedente. Explicativas (Non-defining relative clauses): no es importante la oracin de relativo para reconocer al antecedente porque es un nombre propio o el nico en su especie; va entre comas la oracin de relativo. Aaden informacin adicional.


Rewrite the following sentences using a relative pronoun. 1. The bracelet was very old. It was a present from my grandmother. 2. Her salary supports four people. It is not very high. 3. I dont know the man. He was just speaking to you. 4. She will travel with her oldest brother. He is twenty three. 5. Ive never seen Buckingham Palace. The queen lives there. 6. He saw a little boy. His shoes were untied. 7. The university was very prestigious. He went to it. 8. We saw a film with John Cusak. He is my favourite actor. 9. The flat is on Bloor street. He lives there. 10. Diana sat on her favourite armchair. It was pale green and had begun to fall apart. 11. Thats the girl. She invited me to her party last week. 12. The radio programme is a very important one. He is listening to it. 13. Home alone is not a new film. It was made in 1990. 14. The film is a comedy. It stars Macauley Culkin. 15. In the film Culkins parents disappear. They are rich. 16. Thieves try to kill Culkins parents. The thieves want to get their money. 17. Ths film is quite funny. Its ending is a little violent. 18. The hotel was fancy. We stayed in it for a week. 19. The latest John Grisham novel is sold out. Many people have been asking about it. 20. AIDS is one of the major killers in Africa. No one has been able to find a cure for it. 21. The accident was one of the worst in recent years. At least fifty people were injured in it.


22. We used to live in Poplar street. It is in the best part of town. 23. Jason doesnt get along with his neighbours. They are very strange. 24. I remember the good old days. I was living with my parents then. 25. Wouldnt you like to live in Beverly Hills? Many celebrities live there. 26. Sandy is moving into a new flat. I was talking about her yesterday. 27. My father was very poor as a child. Now he is a successful businessman. 28. Come and visit me at lunchtime. Ill have some free time then. 29. Mad Cow disease started in Britain. It spread rapidly to other country. 30. The woman speaks several languages. Her parents are inmigrants. 31. The town is small and sleepy. My grandmother was born there. 32. The Peacok Caf would be perfect for the party. It has got a large outdoor garden. 33. Sejal is from India. Her accent is very interesting. 34. He wants to spend the summer in Guernsey. It is an island off the coast of France. 35. David is my brother. He is an expert in karate. 36. You should talk to Ellen. She is the clubs treasurer. 37. My great-grandfather was born in 1900.He served in two wars. 38. Our car is not working very well. We have just finished paying for it. 39. The flat is very modest. He has lived in it all his life. 40. The red carpet was made in China. They are standing on it. 41. Sally is a very reasonable supervisor. I work for her. 42. A friend has left the country. I once lived in his flat. 1. Richard lives with his parents. Hes a 24 years old computer Programmer. 19

2. My neighbourhood is far from the city centre. I have always lived there. 3. Leonardo Di Caprio has become a famous actor. I admire him very much. 4. Mary has a new boyfriend. His job is engineer. 5. The doctors advised me to be operated. They are completely sure. 6. Mary found a dog. It was lost in the wood. 7. I know the man. My friend is going to marry with him. 8. I know Jack. He is going to marry my friend. 9. The policeman was at the door. We asked him some directions. 10. The house was by the sea. We rented it last year. 11. They visited the village. It is on a hill. 12. They visited the village. Her family was born there. 13. I went to visit my lawyer. He lives in the centre of the city. 14. Mary and Peter bought the big house. Their uncle is very rich. 15. I want to live with tom. I like him very much. 16. I met John yesterday. He is going out with Linda. 17. I met John yesterday. My brother works with him. 18. I met John yesterday. His mother is from London. 19. They discovered Peter in a bar. He is eleven years old. 20. My teacher is a rasta. He likes Bob Marley. 21. The policeman was controlling the traffic. I asked him some directions. 22. John came to visit with a girl. Her parents own a famous restaurant. 23. The school is being remodelled. I studied there in the 70s. 24. The island of Corsica was French since 1768. Napoleon was born there.


25. Peter wants to be a vet. His brother is a vet. 26. Molly earns a lot of money as a chef. My mother taught her how to cook. 27. I have a photograph of the mountain . We climbed it in four hours. 28. Where is the boy? His dog bit me. 29. The soldiers were killed in the second world war. This song was written for them.

WH- WORDS: Who What When Where Which How How long How far How many How much How old How often What time Why ORDEN DE LAS PREGUNTAS EN INGLS: (WH WORD) + AUX + SUJETO + VERBO + (COMPLEMENTOS) ? Where do you go on holiday in summer? Tienes que recordar que para hacer preguntas con los verbos to be y have got, no se utilizan los auxiliares, sino que se invierte el orden en la pregunta. Ejemplo: VERBO + SUJETO + (COMPLEMENTOS) ? Are you happy? Adems, cuando What o who funcionan como sujeto en la oracin, no se pone el auxiliar. Ejemplo: Marc broke the window. Who broke the window? Suj EXERC ISE: Write questions for the underlined words. 1. I want to go to the beach. 2. Ann and Paul arent going to the beach because its raining.


3. Sue went to bed at 9 oclock. 4. I saw your brother yesterday. 5. It rains sometimes in Seville. 6. I lost my wallet yesterday. 7. I lost my leather wallet yesterday. 8. Paul found my wallet. 9. It took me three days to read the book. 10. It takes eight hours to travel from the south to the north of Spain.