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Portfolio Task 1: Read the following article and write down the information you consider worth remembering

(300 words). Also, for the next lecture, choose one of the historical characters presented in the article. Imagine that you were him/her and introduce yourself to the class and provide the most interesting information about ‘yourself.’ (1 minute presentation)

Henry VIII (King of England) Article title: Henry VIII (king of England). Encyclopedia title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. © 2012 The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia © 2012, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. Used with the permission of Columbia University Press. All Rights Reserved. Publisher: The Columbia University Press. Place of publication: Not available. Publication year: 2012. Henry VIII 1491–1547, king of England (1509–47), second son and successor of Henry VII. Early Life In his youth he was educated in the new learning of the Renaissance and developed great skill in music and sports. He was created prince of Wales in 1503, following the death of his elder brother, Arthur. At that time he also received a papal dispensation to marry Arthur's widow, Katharine of Aragón. The marriage took place shortly after his accession in 1509. Reign Wolsey and Foreign Policy As king, Henry inherited from his father a budget surplus and a precedent for autocratic rule. In 1511, Henry joined Pope Julius II, King Ferdinand II of Aragón, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and the Venetians in their Holy League against France. The campaign, organized by Henry's talented minister Thomas (later cardinal) Wolsey, had little success. A more popular conflict, which occurred during Henry's absence, was the victory (1513) of Thomas Howard, 2d duke of Norfolk, at Flodden over the invading Scottish forces under James IV. Rapid changes in the diplomatic situation following the death of Ferdinand (1516) enabled Wolsey, now chancellor, to conclude a new alliance with France, soon expanded to include all the major European powers in a pledge of universal peace (1518). However, with the election of Ferdinand's grandson, already king of Spain, as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1519, England's status as a secondary power was soon revealed. Henry joined Charles in war against France in 1522, but when Charles won a decisive victory over Francis at Pavia (1525), England was denied any of the spoils. Henry and Wolsey tried to curb the alarming rise of imperial power by an unpopular alliance (1527) with France, which led to diplomatic and economic reprisals against England. Domestically, Henry had become less popular due to a series of new taxes aimed at providing revenue to bolster the depleted treasury. Despite the early advice of Sir Thomas More, one of Henry's councillors, Wolsey had remained the country's top minister, and by 1527 Wolsey had been forced to accept much of the blame for England's failures. Divorce and the Reformation Henry, determined to provide a male heir to the throne, decided to divorce Katharine and marry Anne Boleyn. English diplomacy became a series of maneuvers to win the approval of Pope Clement VII, who was in the power of emperor Charles V, Katharine's nephew. The king wished to invalidate the marriage on the grounds that the papal dispensation under which he and Katharine had been permitted to marry was illegal. The pope reluctantly authorized a commission consisting of cardinals Wolsey and Campeggio to decide the issue in England. Katharine denied the jurisdiction of the court, and before a decision could be reached, Clement had the hearing adjourned (1529) to Rome. The failure of the commission, followed by a reconciliation between Charles and Francis I, led to the fall of Wolsey and to the initiation by Henry of an anti-ecclesiastical policy intended to force the pope's assent to the divorce. Under the guidance of the king's new minister, Thomas Cromwell, the anticlerical Parliament drew up (1532) the Supplication Against the Ordinaries, a long list of grievances against the church. In a document known as the Submission of the Clergy, the convocation of the English church accepted Henry's claim that all ecclesiastical legislation was subject to royal approval. Acts stopping the payment of annates to Rome and forbidding appeals to the pope followed. The pope


but this was to come to nothing. and Henry presided over the dissolution of Irish monasteries and assumed (1541) the titles of king of Ireland and head of the Church of Ireland. He married his sixth wife. the use of the English Bible was cautiously increased. a visitation of the monasteries in 1535 led to an act of Parliament in 1536 by which smaller monasteries reverted to the crown. and the destruction of relics and shrines was begun. who in 1537 bore a son (later Edward VI) and died. By distributing some of this property among the landed gentry. At Henry's death. However. He advanced personal desires under the guise of public policy or moral right. but he did agree to the appointment (1533) of the king's nominee. In 1536. In 1534 the breach with Rome was completed by the Act of Supremacy. Edward. was beheaded. In his later years he became grossly fat. Soon afterward. The Church of England during the Renaissance History Origins 2 . Henry authorized the Ten Articles. by an extensive and severe Act of Treason. and by the strict administration of the oath of supremacy. In 1542 war had begun again with Scotland. and he approved (1537) publication of the Bible in English. The navy was organized for the first time as a permanent force. when Henry secured a payment of indemnity for the city. In 1543. was convicted of adultery and incest and beheaded. now completely discredited. as he had hoped. Henry forced the Scots to agree to a treaty (1543) of marriage between Mary Queen of Scots and his own son. the importance of that institution increased significantly during his reign. the Six Articles passed by Parliament in 1539 reverted to the fundamental principles of Roman Catholic doctrine. still controlled through James V by French and Catholic interests.still refused to give way on the divorce issue. the council that he had appointed for the minority of Edward VI leaned toward the new doctrines. in 1543. and unpredictable. Nonetheless he possessed considerable political insight. paranoid. the Six Articles were only fitfully enforced. Wales was officially incorporated into England in 1536 with a great improvement in government administration there. who had given birth to Elizabeth (later Elizabeth I) but failed to have a male heir. and he remained orthodox in his personal doctrinal views throughout his reign. Any effective opposition was suppressed by the Act of Succession entailing the crown on Henry's heirs by Anne. Later Years In 1536. When he died in 1547 he was succeeded. The way had been opened for Protestantism. were executed. Henry once more joined Charles in war against France and was able to take Boulogne (1544). but it was his daughter Elizabeth I who ruled over one of the greatest periods in England's history. Cranmer immediately pronounced Henry's marriage with Katharine invalid and crowned Anne (already secretly married to Henry) queen. and summarily executed many with little excuse. The king then married Catherine Howard. Cromwell. Henry disliked Anne and divorced her almost immediately. The fighting culminated in the rout of the Scots at Solway Moss and the death of James. Another temporary peace (1538) between France and the empire seemed to pose the threat of Catholic intervention in England and helped Cromwell persuade the king to ally himself with the German Protestant princes by marrying (1540) Anne of Cleves. and the pope excommunicated Henry. seizure of church property continued. Character and Legacy Henry was a supreme egotist. Other advances made during his reign were the institution of an effective navy and the beginnings of social and religious reform. However. Anne Boleyn. Church of). but in 1542 she met the fate of Anne Boleyn. Henry had been given the title "Defender of the Faith" by the pope for a treatise against Martin Luther. Meanwhile in 1536–37 Henry had dealt brutally but effectively with rebellions in the north by subjects protesting economic hardships and the dissolution of the monasteries (see Pilgrimage of Grace). thus changing Henry's legacy from one of enlightenment to one of bloody suppression. Henry acquired the loyalty of a large and influential group. Thomas Cranmer. In 1521. However. which included some Protestant doctrinal points. by a son. Although Henry seemed to dominate his Parliaments. The expensive war dragged on until 1546. Catherine Parr. Henry married Jane Seymour. and the others were confiscated within the next few years. and he provided England with a visible and active national leader. Under Cromwell's supervision. including former chancellor Sir Thomas More. which made the king head of the Church of England (see England. forced his ministers to pay extreme penalties for his own mistakes. as archbishop of Canterbury. A number of prominent churchmen and laymen.

C. Under Mary I all the measures that had separated the Church of England from Rome were reversed. revised toward a more Catholic position and reduced to Thirty-nine. and Henry VIII: The King and His Court (2001). produced by Thomas Cranmer. repr. P. Scarisbrick (1968). H. although some Lutheran influence may be detected. and some slight alterations in service.. The great achievement of the conference was the King James. Elizabeth I restored independence. 1899–1910. A.. Haugaard. Augustine of Canterbury arrived (597) to reconvert England. was occasioned by the pope's refusal to grant Henry's request for an annulment of his marriage to Katharine of Aragón. respectively. 1914–1980 (1985). the Roman ritual was brought back. 1965). The Church of England. and a statement of doctrine. but was almost destroyed by the Anglo-Saxon invasions beginning in the 5th cent. The Matrimonial Trials of Henry VIII (1976). was fairly well established in Britain by the 4th cent. Mayfield. 3 . The Reign of Henry VIII (1986). Under James I the steadily rising tide of Puritanism made necessary the Hampton Court Conference (1604). The Church of England (2d ed. Church Embattled (1970). Lloyd. D. rev. The Elizabethan Settlement steered the English church upon a middle course between Roman Catholicism and Calvinism." Thus the Reformation in England under Henry was at first a matter of policy. The first and second Book of Common Prayer. A. the Celtic Church developed practices at variance with those on the Continent. Elizabeth and the English Reformation (1968). and the Forty-two Articles. The prayer book of 1552 was restored. Henry VIII and the Reformation (1948). R. R. were adopted as a doctrinal standard. James gave his decision for the existing doctrine.. and J. Bibliography See biographies by J. J. or Authorized. The national church maintained the historical episcopate and retained its continuity with the early church of Britain and much of the ritualism sanctioned by the older rubrics. a revision of the English translations of William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale. The Act of Supremacy (1534) acknowledged the king as "the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England. S. not doctrine. The Church of England (3d ed. L. the Forty-two Articles. The classical statement of the peculiar Anglican position was made by Richard Hooker. A. Henry authorized the Great Bible (1539). Erickson (1984). J. R. J. Manwaring. E. W.Christianity. repr. which created the Church of England. A Dictionary of English Church History (9th ed. Ollard et al. See W. 1961). W. Under Edward VI changes came rapidly. This led to conflict when St. S. 1900–1965 (1966). Watson. Roman usages were eventually adopted in preference to Celtic ones (see Whitby.. M. From Controversy to CoExistence: Evangelicals in the Church of England.. and the nation was received again into the communion of Rome. chiefly at the hands of Thomas Cromwell. Cox. Creation of the Church During the Middle Ages the church in England was affected by the same clashes that bedevilled the relationship between church and state elsewhere in Europe. 1970). Doran and D. Stephens et al. Version of the English Bible (1611). A modus vivendi was finally achieved in the matter of investiture. The monasteries were suppressed. A History of the English Church (8 vol. Surviving in isolation. The Children of Henry VIII (1996. W. ed. introduced by the Romans. and Protestantism gained ground. Anglicanism (3d ed. Ridley (1985). Bowle (1965). but the English Church remained somewhat isolated until the Norman Conquest. This action. The Divorce of Henry VIII (2012). was drawn up. The English Churches in a Secular Society (1982). Synod of). 1973). Starkey. Crowther. ed. The theology of the new national church as shown in the Six Articles (1539) and the King's Book (1543) was largely unchanged. The Six Wives of Henry VIII (1991). At that conference. Smith. M. were adopted in 1549 and 1552. ed.. 2008). Neill. Starkey. G. but quarrels over the taxes demanded by Rome and appeals going from English courts to Rome were not resolved until Henry VIII broke the union of the English church with Rome. Kelly. Fletcher. 1963).. Weir. By the Act of Supremacy (1559) ecclesiastical jurisdiction was restored to the crown to be exercised by a court of high commission. J. S. C. B. C. when Continental churchmen undertook its reform. Henry VIII: Man and Monarch (2009).