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Design of Shear Wall Coupling Design of Shear Wall Coupling

Beams Using High Beams Using High--Performance Performance Beams Using High Beams Using High--Performance Performance
Fiber Fiber- -Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete
J ames K. Wight J ames K. Wight
F E Richart J r Professor F E Richart J r Professor of Civil Eng of Civil Eng University University F.E. Richart, J r. Professor F.E. Richart, J r. Professor of Civil Eng of Civil Eng. University . University
of of Michigan Michigan
Co Co--Investigator: Prof. Gustavo Parra Investigator: Prof. Gustavo Parra--Montesinos Montesinos
Graduate Students: Remy Lequesne and Monthian Setkit Graduate Students: Remy Lequesne and Monthian Setkit
Presentation Outline Presentation Outline Presentation Outline Presentation Outline
RC C l d RC C l d W ll S t W ll S t RC Coupled RC Coupled--Wall Systems Wall Systems
Coupling Beams: Design Requirements Coupling Beams: Design Requirements
Use of diagonal reinforcement Use of diagonal reinforcement
Design, detailing and construction issues Design, detailing and construction issues
Design Modifications and the use of Design Modifications and the use of
HPFRC HPFRC
Conclusions Conclusions
RC Coupled RC Coupled--Wall Systems Wall Systems RC Coupled RC Coupled--Wall Systems Wall Systems
Core Core--wall systems popular in moderate to wall systems popular in moderate to Core Core wall systems popular in moderate to wall systems popular in moderate to
high high--rise structures rise structures
Architectural requirements lead to repeated Architectural requirements lead to repeated Architectural requirements lead to repeated Architectural requirements lead to repeated
openings from floor to floor openings from floor to floor result is result is
isolated walls connected by coupling beams isolated walls connected by coupling beams isolated walls connected by coupling beams isolated walls connected by coupling beams
RC Coupled RC Coupled--Wall Systems Wall Systems RC Coupled RC Coupled--Wall Systems Wall Systems
L t l tiff d t th f t L t l tiff d t th f t Lateral stiffness and strength of system Lateral stiffness and strength of system
significantly influenced by design of coupling significantly influenced by design of coupling
bbbeams beams
Can be designed to spread plasticity over Can be designed to spread plasticity over
height of system height of system
Designed/detailed to retain strength and Designed/detailed to retain strength and g g g g
significant percentage of stiffness during significant percentage of stiffness during
large deformations into plastic range of large deformations into plastic range of g p g g p g
behavior. behavior.
Behavior of RC Coupling Behavior of RC Coupling Behavior of RC Coupling Behavior of RC Coupling
Beams Beams
Observed response of RC coupling beams Observed response of RC coupling beams
during 1964 Alaska Earthquake was non during 1964 Alaska Earthquake was non-- during 1964 Alaska Earthquake was non during 1964 Alaska Earthquake was non
ductile ductile
(http://www.nisee.org)
Use of Diagonal Reinforcement Use of Diagonal Reinforcement
Proposed by Thomas Paulay and others;
Diagonals carry all shear and all flexure
A
sd
Test Using Diagonal Reinforcement Test Using Diagonal Reinforcement
Construction Issues and Construction Issues and
System Design Changes System Design Changes
D i f di l i f t i D i f di l i f t i Design of diagonal reinforcement is easy Design of diagonal reinforcement is easy
construction is NOT construction is NOT
Trend in the USA is to use more slender Trend in the USA is to use more slender
coupling beams, i.e. a larger length/depth ratio coupling beams, i.e. a larger length/depth ratio
Should we change our design approach? Should we change our design approach?
Diagonal reinforcement is not as efficient at Diagonal reinforcement is not as efficient at gg
shallow angle shallow angle
Use of HPFRC can reduce need for diagonal and Use of HPFRC can reduce need for diagonal and gg
confinement reinforcement confinement reinforcement
Construction Issues
Coupling Beam Design: p g g
Mechanism Analysis of Coupling Beam
V
j
M
pj
M
pj
2
pj j n
M V =
V
M
pj

or
pj j
j n
V
M

=

V
j
n

or,
2
pj
M
*
Assume, ( )( )
p s y
M A f jd =
p y
Coupling Beam Design: p g g
Flexural Design of Coupling Beam
(assume combination of diagonal and longitudinal steel) ( g g )
A
ss
A
sd
o
Coupling Beam Design: p g g
Flexural Design of Coupling Beam
(assume combination of diagonal and longitudinal steel) ( g g )
( )
cos ( )(0.9 )
p n s sd y
M M A A f d o ~ = +
( )
p y
( )
Solve for, cos
(09 )
p
s sd
M
A A
f d
o + >
( )
(0.9 )
s sd
y
f d
Do not use capacity reduction factor | Do not use capacity-reduction factor, |
Coupling Beam Design: p g g
Shear Design of Coupling Beam
(Required strength V ) (Required strength, V
n
)
, where 0.85
u
n
V
V |
|
> =
( )
,
n
n c cf sd s
V V V V V
|
|
= + +
( )
n c cf sd s
For reinforced concrete, use 0
c
V =
For fiber reinforced concrete, use 4
cf c w
V f b d
'
=
Coupling Beam Design: p g g
Shear Design of Coupling Beam
(contribution from diagonal reinforcement) (contribution from diagonal reinforcement)
A
s
AA
sd
o
( )
2 i V A f
( )
2 sin
sd sd yt
V A f o =
Coupling Beam Design: p g g
Shear Design of Coupling Beam
(contribution from vertical reinforcement)
A
s
A
v
s
v yt
A f d
V
s
y
s
V
s
=
High Performance Fiber High Performance Fiber-- gg
Reinforced Concretes Reinforced Concretes
D fi iti f hi h D fi iti f hi h f fib f fib Definition of high Definition of high--performance fiber performance fiber--
reinforced concrete typically means the reinforced concrete typically means the
t i l h t i t i l h t i h d i b h i i h d i b h i i material has a strain material has a strain--hardening behavior in hardening behavior in
tension. tension.
Example of steel fibers Example of steel fibers Example of steel fibers Example of steel fibers
TensionTesting of Fiber Concrete Tension Testing of Fiber Concrete
Regular FRC HPFRC
Earthquake-Resistant Design
Applications
The ductility, stiffness retention and
fi i f HPFRC confinement properties of HPFRC
members under inelastic load reversals
k th ll t did t f make them an excellent candidate for
use in earthquake-resistant design of
i f d t b ildi reinforced concrete buildings.
Research Objectives Research Objectives
Investigate the use of precast HPFRC
coupling beams in earthquake-resistant
coupled wall systems
Reduce (eliminate) transverse and
diagonal reinforcement requirements in
coupling beams
Develop information on shear strength
and damage tolerance of HPFRC members
subjected to large displacement reversals subjected to large displacement reversals
Cracking Pattern at Low Drift
(Span/depth ratio of 1.2)
SP-1 vs. SP-4 at 1.5% Drift
SP-1 SP-4
Shear Stress vs. Beam Drift Response
SP 1 vs SP 4 SP-1 vs. SP-4
10
4
6
8
a
)
0
2
4
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
-4
-2
S
h
e
a
r

S
SP-1
-10
-8
-6
SP-4
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
Drift(%)
Construction of Coupled Wall System Construction of Coupled Wall System
CB-2 design (L/d = 1.75) g ( )
Precast shaded region
Precast Coupling Beam Precast Coupling Beam
Component Test Setup
Actuator
W ll Bl k
Precast Coupling
Beam
Rigid Links
Wall Block
Beam
Wall Block
CB-2 behavior CB 2 behavior
CB-2 Testing Images CB 2 Testing Images
3% Drift
5.5% Drift
Four story Four story
coupled-wall
i specimen
Precast Beam Casting
Coupled Wall Construction
Coupled Wall Construction
RC Wall Behavior
Additional Coupling Beam Tests Additional Coupling Beam Tests Additional Coupling Beam Tests Additional Coupling Beam Tests
Three beams, span/depth ratio of 2.75 Three beams, span/depth ratio of 2.75
T h ACI li i T h ACI li i Target shear stress at ACI limit Target shear stress at ACI limit
Specimen Diagonal Reinf. Material
2 Yes HPFRC
4
6
Concrete
HPFRC
Yes
N
6 HPFRC
No
Reinforcement Pattern for Specimen 2 Reinforcement Pattern for Specimen 2
Specimen 6
HPFRC and No Diag Reinf
Specimen 2
HPFRC and Diag Reinf
HPFRC and No Diag. Reinf.
HPFRC and Diag. Reinf.
Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions
For coupling beamspan/depth ratios between For coupling beamspan/depth ratios between For coupling beam span/depth ratios between For coupling beam span/depth ratios between
2.0 and 4.0, the use of 2.0 and 4.0, the use of only only diagonal reinforcement diagonal reinforcement
is unreasonable is unreasonable Thus, use combination Thus, use combination of of ,,
diagonal and longitudinal steel for flexural strength diagonal and longitudinal steel for flexural strength..
UUse se of HPFRC of HPFRC allowed allowed elimination of transverse elimination of transverse
reinforcement requirements for diagonal bars reinforcement requirements for diagonal bars
SSignificantly simplified ignificantly simplified the beam the beam construction. construction.
We recommend to use a combination We recommend to use a combination of diagonal of diagonal
reinforcement, reinforcement, vertical vertical stirrups, and HPFRC stirrups, and HPFRC for for
h t th h t th shear strength shear strength..
Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions
Coupling beams constructed with HPFRC showed Coupling beams constructed with HPFRC showed Coupling beams constructed with HPFRC showed Coupling beams constructed with HPFRC showed
superior damage tolerance at low to moderate drift superior damage tolerance at low to moderate drift
level compared to RC coupling beams. level compared to RC coupling beams. p p g p p g
Supplemental diagonal reinforcement is required in Supplemental diagonal reinforcement is required in
short coupling beams to achieve large drift short coupling beams to achieve large drift g g g g
capacities, stiffness retention and adequate energy capacities, stiffness retention and adequate energy
dissipation. dissipation.
Use Use of a precast coupling beam is a practical of a precast coupling beam is a practical
alternative alternative..
Thank You Thank You Thank You Thank You