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ABSTRACT- In this paper equivalent Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) for a waveguide is designed. Different types of losses in the waveguide and the optimized SIW are calculated theoretically and a comparison is done between the two. The comparison proves that at millimeter wave frequencies the choice of dielectric becomes crucial for a waveguide design and SIW is preferable to be used at these frequencies because the leakage losses decrease significantly.

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Losses in Waveguide and Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) For Ku Band: A Comparison

Sheelu Kumari, 1 Shweta Srivastava2

1

Department of Electronics & Communication Engg.CIT, Tatisilwai, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India 2 Department of Electronics & Communication Engg. BIT, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

ABSTRACT- In this paper equivalent Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) for a waveguide is designed. Different types of losses in the waveguide and the optimized SIW are calculated theoretically and a comparison is done between the two. The comparison proves that at millimeter wave frequencies the choice of dielectric becomes crucial for a waveguide design and SIW is preferable to be used at these frequencies because the leakage losses decrease significantly. Keywords- waveguide; SIW; dielectric loss; conduction loss; leakage loss

I. INTRODUCTION

Conventional waveguides, the first generation of microwave guiding structures had the advantages of having high power carrying capacity and high Q-factor, but also had the disadvantages of being bulky and voluminous. The next generation of microwave guiding elements was the strip-like or slot-like planar printed transmission lines used in Microwave Integrated Circuits (MICs).These were planar low profile structures but lacked the high power carrying capacity and high Qfactor of the conventional waveguides. To bridge the gap between MIC structures and conventional waveguides, Substrate Integrated Circuits (SICs) were developed which are planar low profile structures like MIC structures, also having high power carrying capacity and high Q-factor similar to waveguides[1]. Principle of operation of SIC was to build artificial channels within the substrate to guide the waves. Two techniques are used to build these channels (which are embedded in the substrate).One is to use metallic vias which act as sidewalls. Other technique uses contrast in values of r so that phenomenon of total internal reflection can take place and the wave gets confined within the artificial channel [2]. A Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) is one of the topologies of SIC. The SIW technology has been successfully applied to several microwave and millimeter-wave components, including active circuits, passive components and antennas [3].

SIW consists of substrate with metalized vias acting as two side walls and two metallic walls (upper and lower) as shown in Fig.1b. Its design parameters are the distance between the two rows of vias(a), pitch(p), diameter of each via(d), height of the substrate (w) and dielectric constant r. For a waveguide with width and height h its equivalent SIW [4] parameters can be found using equation (1) which relates different dimensional parameters of waveguide and its equivalent SIW. = a 1.08

d2 p

+ 0.1

d2 a

(1)

d a p w

Figure1b.Topology of SIW

Waveguides have two types of major losses, the dielectric loss (d) and the conductor loss (c). d = (k2 tan)/2 www.ijmer.com (2) 53 | Page

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-53-57 ISSN: 2249-6645 c = R s

(2h2 +3 k 2 ) 3 hk

(3)

where k is free space wave number is phase constant tan is the dielectric loss tangent is the intrinsic impedance of the medium =

0 0 r

Rs=

0 2

is conductivity of metal Rs is surface resistivity of the conductors waveguide = d + c In Substrate Integrated Waveguides, along with dielectric loss (d) and conductor loss (c) leakage loss (l) also exists which has a significant effect on the performance. Equations for d and c for SIW is rewritten as, d = (k2tan)/2kz c =

Rs ae

k2 1 c k2

(4)

ae w

2k 2 c k2

(5)

2

(6) 2

2 ae

(7)

rs is real part of the surface wave impedance [5], a e is the effective value of a and k is the free space wave number, fc is cut off frequency and f is operating frequency.

The waveguide is designed for Ku band (fc=14 GHz) with dimensions =6.86mm. , h=0.5mm. and r=2.33, the parameters of its equivalent SIW are calculated using equation(1) to be a=7.2mm., p=2mm., d=0.8mm., w=0.5mm., r=2.33.The different parameters of the SIW are varied to find the dimensions of the optimal SIW [6]. The dimensions for the optimal SIW obtained after several iterations are a=7.2mm. p=3mm. d=0.8mm. w=0.5mm. r=2.33.

www.ijmer.com

54 | Page

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-53-57 ISSN: 2249-6645 Fig. 4 shows the variation of S11 and S21 for the waveguide and the equivalent SIW which is showing similar performance as the waveguide. Performance of S11 for SIW is a bit deteriorated from waveguide but still it is under acceptable limits (<-10 dB) throughout the frequency range. Dielectric loss (d) and conductor loss (c) for the waveguide are calculated using equations (2) and (3) and their variation with frequency is shown in Fig. 5. Both the factors are decreasing with frequency up to 19 GHz and become constant after that. As frequency increases beyond 23GHz d starts increasing slowly, but c remains constant. The value of d goes higher than c at higher frequency range (>16 GHz). Values of d , c and l for the optimized SIW are found using equations (4) through (7) and their variation with frequency is shown in Fig. 6. The factor l is decreasing; d is increasing slowly and c first decreases in the lower side of the frequency band and remains constant with the increase in frequency in the higher band. 1.6 1.4 Attenuation(Np/m) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 14 19 24 Frequency(GHz) Figure 5. d and c for the waveguide 3.5 3 2.5 2 Attenuation(Np/m) 1.5 1 0.5 0 14 19 24 29 d(SIW) c(SIW) l(SIW) 29 d(waveguide) c(waveguide)

Frequency(GHz) Figure 6. d , c and l for the SIW Fig. 7 shows the variation of different attenuations occurring in a waveguide as well as in a SIW with respect to frequency. The comparative graph shows all the values are lying in the same range except for a very high value of leakage loss in case of a SIW in lower side of frequency range. This results in a very high value of total attenuation t for SIW as compared to the waveguide in lower side of the frequency range. But as we go on increasing the frequency the discrepancy reduces giving comparable values of total attenuations t(waveguide) , t (SIW) for waveguide and the optimized equivalent SIW respectively. As frequency increases beyond 28GHz dielectric loss becomes the most significant loss. This proves that the SIW structures are more useful at millimeter wave frequencies and their losses become comparable to the waveguides. www.ijmer.com 55 | Page

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-53-57 ISSN: 2249-6645 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 14 19 Frequency(GHz) Figure 7. d and c for the waveguide and d , c and l for the SIW 6 5 t(SIW) 4 24 29 d(waveguide) c(waveguide) d(SIW)

c(SIW)

l(SIW)

Attenuation(Np/m)

Attenuation(Np/m)

t(Waveguide) 3 2 1

0

14 19 24 29

Frequency(GHz) Figure 8. t for the waveguide , t for the SIW As the frequency increases total attenuation in SIW t(SIW) approaches the total attenuation in waveguide t(waveguide). In lower side of the frequency range the value of t (SIW) is higher than that of a waveguide which can be attributed to the leakage losses occurring due to gaps between the cylinders of SIW. But as we go on increasing the frequency the discrepancy reduces due to the fall in leakage loss and both the total losses t(waveguide), t (SIW) become almost equal.

IV. CONCLUSION

A SIW equivalent has been designed for a Ku band (fc=14 GHz) waveguide. For a waveguide of width 6.86mm. Height 0.5mm and r=2.33. parameters for the equivalent SIW are calculated to be a=7.2mm., d=0.8mm., p=2mm., h=0.5mm.The optimized equivalent SIW is considered for further analysis. The parameters for the optimized SIW are a=7.2mm., d=0.8mm., p=3mm., h=0.5mm. www.ijmer.com 56 | Page

International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.3, Issue.1, Jan-Feb. 2013 pp-53-57 ISSN: 2249-6645 Attenuation constant is theoretically calculated which are occurring due to dielectric and conductor for the waveguide and due to dielectric, conductor and leakage for the SIW. Total attenuation is compared between the two. It has been concluded that at lower side of the frequency band leakage loss in SIW plays the most significant role. In this range of the frequency band leakage loss in SIW is very high but as frequency increases it falls down to the order of other losses i,e of the order of dielectric and conductor losses and attenuation in SIW approaches to that of waveguide. It is also concluded that dielectric loss slowly increases with frequency and plays the most significant role at upper frequency bands. For a wave guiding structure to work with lower attenuations at higher frequency ranges the choice of dielectric substrate plays the most significant role. We can also conclude that SIW performance comes closer to the waveguide performance at millimeter wave frequencies and so considering all their advantages, it is feasible to use SIWs for higher frequencies.

REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] K.wu, D.Deslandes &Y Cassivi. Substrate integrated circuits A new concept for high frequency electronics & optoelectronics. Proc.6th Int.Telecomm. Modern satellite, Cable, broadcast services Conf., pp 03-10, Oct. 2003 Ke Wu. Towards the Development of Terahertz Substrate Integrated Circuit Technology. Poly grames Research Center, Department of Electrical Engg., Ecole Polytechnique (University of Montreal)Center for Radio Frequency Electronics Research (CREER) Sheelu Kumari and Shweta Srivastava. Notched Folded Substrate Integrated Waveguide (NFSIW) for Frequency Selective Applications. IRE Journal of Communications Antenna and Propagation (IRECAP), August 2012 Vol. 2 N. 4, pp. 259-263. Feng Xu and Ke Wu. Guided wave and Leakage Characteristics of Substrate Integrated Waveguide. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.53, No.1, January 2005 D.Deslandes, K.Wu. Accurate modeling, wave mechanism & design considerations of substrate integrated waveguide. Sheelu Kumari and Shweta Srivastava. Waveguide and Substrate Integrated Waveguide for Ku Band: A Comparison. Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Information Technology, Vol.2, pp.385-388, March 2012

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