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PASSIVE VOICE

Como en espaol, la voz pasiva se forma con el verbo 'to be' (ser) y el participio pasado. They made this car in 1963. (active) This car was made in 1963. (passive)

El sujeto de un verbo en pasiva corresponde al objeto de un verbo en activa. Spanish is spoken in Argentina (sujeto) Argentinians speak Spanish (objeto) Estudia la siguiente lista de las formas del verbo en pasiva. (pp = participio pasado)
Verb Tense PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS FUTURE (WILL) FUTURE (GOING TO)

PASIVA

ACTIVA

Structure
am/are/is + pp

Example
Spanish is spoken here.

am/are/is being + pp Your questions are being answered. will be + pp Itll be painted by next week.

am/are/is going to be Terry is going to be made redundant next year. + pp was/were + pp was/were being + pp have/has been + pp had been + pp will have been + pp We were invited to the party, but we didnt go. The hotel room was being cleaned when we got back from shopping. The President of America has been shot. When he got home he found that all of his money had been stolen. Our baby will have been born before Christmas.

PAST SIMPLE

PAST CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT

FUTURE PERFECT

En las formas del future progressive (will be being + pp) y perfect progressive (has been being + pp) no es muy comn su uso. Para decir quin haca la accin o qu la causaba, usa 'by'. This house was built by my mother. / Esta casa fue construida por mi madre. Washington was bombed by Pakistan. / Washington fue bombardeado por Pakistn. La voz pasiva se suele utilizar cuando se desconoce o no interesa mencionar quin o qu hace la accin. Es ms normal encontrar en espaol formas con se, por ejemplo: se habla, se alquila o verbos en plural como venden, compran. German is spoken here / Aqu se habla alemn When was this house built? / Cuando se construy ( fue construida) sta casa? A lot of songs have been written about love / Se han escrito muchas canciones sobre el amor

Conditional
In English, there are many different ways of making sentences with if. It is important that: 1) You understand the difference between sentences that express real possibilities, and those that express unreal situations. 2) You learn which tenses follow each conditional

a) Zero Conditional We use the zero conditional to express a situation that is always true. Present simple + present simple If I read too much, I get a headache b) First Conditional We use the first conditional to express real possibilities. Present simple + future If I go to the concert, I'll see Ricky Martin c) Second Conditional We use the second conditional to express an unreal situation. The situation or condition is improbable, impossible, imaginary or contrary to known facts. Past simple + would (conditional) If I won the lottery I would buy a house d) Third Conditional We use the third conditional to imagine the consequence of events that happened or began to happen in the past. Past Perfect + would have + past participle If I had known, I would have gone to visit you e) Mixed Conditional (2nd & 3rd Conditional) The mixed conditional is a mixture between the 2nd and 3rd conditional.
If the weather had been better, we would go back next year

Despite
En ingls, hay dos formas de decir "a pesar de". Primero nos centraremos en "despite" que se pronuncia "dispayt" y no "despite". Al contrario que en espaol y que su sinnimo ingls, no lleva preposicin. Empezamos con ejemplos seguidos por sustantivos.

A pesar del calor, fueron a dar un paseo. A pesar de mi acento, me puedes entender. A pesar de la demora, llegaremos a tiempo. A pesar de las quejas, no dejaron de construir. A pesar de todos los problemas, lo hiciste.

Despite the heat, they went for a walk.

Despite my accent, you can understand me.

Despite the delay, we'll arrive on time. Despite the complaints, they didn't stop building. Despite all the problems, you did it.

Ahora lo difcil. Cuando a "despite" le sigue un verbo (normalmente con un sujeto distinto al que aparece en la siguiente clusula) hay que decir "despite the fact that" + sujeto + verbo. Los angloparlantes tendemos a emitir estas cuatro palabras como si fuesen balas de metralleta; as que hay que practicar los ejemplos 55 veces para poder decirlas de forma natural.

A pesar de que haca calor, fueron a dar un paseo. A pesar de que tengo acento, me puedes entender.

Despite the fact that it was hot, they went for a walk. Despite the fact that I have an accent, you can understand me.

A pesar de que mi equipo era el favorito, Despite the fact that my team was the el equipo de mi hermano gan el partido. favourite, my brother's team won the match. A pesar de que el director estaba en contra, la huelga se celebr. A pesar de que est lloviendo, voy a trabajar en el jardn. Despite the fact that the director was against it, the strike went ahead. Despite the fact that it's raining, I'm going to do some gardening.

To manage
Hablaremos de "To manage" en la siguiente leccin. En la ltima leccin hemos visto "to get". Por otro lado "conseguir hacer algo" tambin significa "to manage to do something". Ojo con la pronunciacin! No se dice "manall" sino "manich" y para el pasado del verbo (managed), "manich t(a)" (la "a" final apenas se oye). Ella consigue ver a sus padres una vez cada quincena. Logr terminar el informe a tiempo para la reunin. Conseguimos hablar con la persona responsable del proyecto. Consiguieron impedir que se construyera la autopista. Despus de buscar durante tres horas, consegu encontrar las llaves de mi coche. She manages to see her parents once a fortnight. I managed to finish the report in time for the meeting. We managed to talk to the person in charge of the project. They managed to stop the motorway from being built. After searching for three hours, I managed to find my car keys.

Cuando utilizamos esta expresin en el interrogativo muchas veces es simplemente una forma de preguntar con un poco ms de insistencia si una cosa se hizo o no.

Hablaste por fin con los abogados? Encontraron por fin un piso en esa zona? Terminaste la contabilidad la semana pasada? Conseguiste reparar tu reloj al final?

Did you manage to speak to the lawyers? Did they manage to find a new flat in that area? Did you manage to finish the accounts last week? Did you manage to repair your watch in the end? Did you manage to solve the problem in the end

Resolviste el problema al final?

To Get
"To manage" y "to get": dos verbos que significan "conseguir" en ingls. La eleccin de uno u otro depende de si estamos hablando de conseguir algo o de conseguir hacer algo. Cuando conseguimos un objeto el verbo que usamos es "to get". Hablaremos de "To manage" en la siguiente leccin. l consigui las ltimas dos entradas que quedaban. Consigue los ltimos xitos en este fantstico disco recopilatorio! Ella consigui lo que quera. Al final consiguieron un descuento brbaro. Consiguieron lo que se merecan.

He got the last two tickets left. Get the latest hits on this great compilation album! She got what she wanted.

They got a massive discount in the end.

They got what they deserved.

Probemos ahora con el interrogativo, centrndonos sobre todo en la expresin "conseguir lo que.": "to get what."

Conseguiste lo que estabas buscando?

Did you get what you were looking for?

Ella consigui lo que peda?

Did she get what she asked for?

Consiguieron lo que queran?

Did they get what they wanted?

Consiguieron los libros que buscaban? Conseguiste el disco que estabas buscando?

Did they get the books they were after?

Did you get the record you were searching for?

Agilidad Verbal
Hay una forma muy equivocada de aprender los verbos irregulares. Es aprenderlos al estilo "come-came-come". Esta frmula estorba porque se tiende a consultarla antes de hablar. Para conseguir realmente la agilidad deseada, es mejor practicar dentro del contexto de frases hechas, como vemos a continuacin. I went to the cinema but I didn't go to the supermarket. I spoke to him over the phone but I didn't speak to him in person. Fausta sold her car but she didn't sell her soul. I sent him a fax but I didn't send him an email. I bought a bike but I didn't buy a car.

Fui al cine, pero no fui al supermercado. Habl con l por telfono, pero no habl con l en persona. Fausta vendi su coche, pero no vendi su alma. Le envi un fax, pero no le envi ningn correo electrnico. Me compr una bici, pero no me compr un coche.

De esta manera lo ejercitamos continuamente, saltando del verbo en pasado simple afirmativo al negativo de una forma ms natural. He became a monk but he didn't become an abbot. She heard what he said but she didn't hear what they said. I understood the gist but I didn't understand every word. He wrote an article but he didn't write a novel. She drew a horse but she didn't draw an elephant.

Se hizo monje, pero no lleg a ser abad. Ella oy lo que dijo l, pero no oy lo que dijeron ellos. Entend el sentido general, pero no entend cada palabra. l escribi un artculo, pero no escribi una novela. Ella dibuj un caballo, pero no dibuj un elefante.

Must
Se trata de un verbo modal que expresa la idea de obligacin pero desde un punto de vista subjetivo. (Para obligaciones incontestables como leyes, hechos, situaciones usamos "have to"). Le sigue siempre el verbo bsico. Tengo que cortarme el pelo. (Porque me lo digo yo). Mi oculista dice que debo llevar gafas para leer. (Porque lo dice ella). Tienes que ver aquella pelcula; es genial. (Porque lo digo yo). Tengo que ordenar mi mesa; est muy desordenada. (Porque me lo auto-impongo). Debes hacer un mayor esfuerzo con tu ingls! (Porque lo digo yo).

I must get my hair cut. My optician says I must wear glasses for reading.

You must see that film; it's great.

I must tidy my desk; it's a real mess.

You must make more of an effort with your English!

Por cierto, en todos los ejemplos citados podramos cambiar "must" por "have to". Tambin podemos emplear "must" respecto al futuro como ahora veremos. Sin embargo, "must" no se emplea en el pasado. Tengo que recordar llamar a mi madre maana. Tenis que venir a vernos cuando estis en Espaa. Tengo que estar en la entrevista a las 12.00 en punto. Tienes que recordrmelo cuando nos veamos la semana que viene. Tenemos que juntarnos durante las vacaciones. I must remember to phone my mother tomorrow. You must come and see us when you're in Spain. I must be at the interview at 12:00 a.m. sharp.

You must remind me when I see you next week.

We must get together over the holidays.

Ever
Cuando queremos decir "never" con el verbo en el negativo, empleamos "ever". Como en frases negativas siempre hay un auxiliar en juego ("do" o el auxiliar en s). "Ever", como todos los adverbios de frecuencia, se coloca despus del auxiliar y de la palabra "not".

No recuerdo haber prometido eso!

I don't ever remember promising that!

l nunca habla.

He doesn't ever speak. They aren't ever there when you need them. They probably won't ever get married.

Nunca estn cuando los necesitas.

Probablemente nunca se casarn.

Nunca hacen cosas de ese estlo.

They don't ever do things like that.

Utilizamos "ever" para formular preguntas pero entonces significa "alguna vez". Se coloca despus del auxiliar y del sujeto. Hablas alguna vez con tus amigos en Canad? Has ido alguna vez a Guarromn? Do you ever speak to your friends in Canada?

Have you ever been to Guarromn?

Ests en casa alguna vez los martes?

Are you ever at home on Tuesdays?

Alguna vez l dice algo interesante?

Does he ever say anything interesting?

Ganar Espaa alguna vez el Mundial?

Will Spain ever win the World Cup?

Ask for
Mucha gente tiene dudas con los verbos "pedir" o "preguntar" en ingls. Aclarmoslo de una vez por todas. El verbo "pedir algo" o "preguntar por algo" es "to ask for". No olvides la preposicin. Cuando hay un objeto indirecto se coloca entre "ask" y "for".

Voy a pedir la cuenta.

I'm going to ask for the bill.

Pedir un bolgrafo.

I'll ask for a pen.

Ella me pidi un favor.

She asked me for a favour.

Pregunta por Juan en recepcin. Los trabajadores piden un aumento de sueldo.

Ask for Juan at reception.

The workers are asking for a pay rise.

Sin embargo, para "solicitar hacer algo" o "pedir que alguien haga algo" en ingls usamos el verbo "ask" ms el infinitivo. En el segundo caso hace falta incluir un objeto / pronombre objeto inmediatamente despus del verbo.

Solicit ir.

I asked to go.

Le ped a ella que me acompaara. Nos pidieron que volvisemos ms tarde. Ella solicit ser considerada para el puesto. Le pedirs (a l) que me llame?

I asked her to come with me.

They asked us to come back later.

She asked to be considered for the position.

Will you ask him to call me?

To Hope
"Esperar": un verbo en espaol y tres en ingls (hope, wait & expect). Lo importante es saber cundo utilizar cada uno de ellos. "To hope" significa "esperar" en el sentido de esperanza. Expresa lo que nos gustara hacer o lo que querramos que pasase. Cuando empleamos este verbo no sabemos con certeza lo que realmente ocurrir (o ha ocurrido).

Espero que me toque la lotera. Espero poder ir a la fiesta. Espero tener bastante tiempo para hacer todo. Espero acordarme de su nombre (ella). Espero no tener que hablar espaol en la reunin.

I hope (that) I win the lottery.

I hope (that) I can go to the party. I hope (that) I have enough time to do everything. Ihope (that) I remember her name. I hope (that) I don't have to speak Spanish at the meeting.

La palabra "that" se suele omitir. Por eso la he puesto entre parntesis. Tambin podemos esperar que otra persona haga algo. La estructura es la misma. Vemos unos ejemplos.

Espero que haga buen tiempo maana. Espero que no hayas cometido un error. Espero que ella no se ofenda. Espero que no haya problema. Espero que no hayas tenido problemas.

I hope(that) the weather's nice tomorrow.

I hope (that) you didn't make a mistake.

I hope (that) she won't be offended.

I hope (that) there isn't a problem.

I hope (that) you didn't have any problems.

Direct Speech / Quoted Speech


Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word. For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech


Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. For example: Direct speech "I'm going to the cinema", he said. Indirect speech He said he was going to the cinema.

Tense change

As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): Direct speech Present simple She said, "It's cold." Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." Present perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years." Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday." Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived." Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes." Indirect speech

Past simple

She said it was cold. Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. Past perfect simple

She said she had been on the web since


1999. Past perfect continuous

She said she had been teaching English for


seven years.

Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday.

Past perfect continuous


Past perfect

She said she had been teaching earlier.

NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had


already started when he arrived. Past perfect continuous

NO CHANGE - She said she'd already


been teaching for five minutes.

Modal verb forms also sometimes change: Direct speech will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." can would Indirect speech

She said she would teach English online


tomorrow.

could

She said, "I can teach English online." must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" may She said, "May I open a new browser?"

She said she could teach English online. had to

She said she had to have a computer to


teach English online.

should She asked what we should learn today. might

She asked if she might open a new


browser.

Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.
Direct speech "I might go to the cinema", he said. Indirect speech He said he might go to the cinema.

You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:Direct speech Indirect speech She said her name was Lynne. "My name is Lynne", she said. or She said her name is Lynne. You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event. Direct speech (exact quote) "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said. Indirect speech (not exact) She said next week's lesson is on reported speech.

Time change

If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting. Today "Today's lesson is on presentations." + 24 hours - Indirect speech She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations.

Expressions of time if reported on a different day this (evening) today these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow

that (evening) yesterday ... those (days) then (a week) before the weekend before last / the previous weekend there the following (week) the next/following day

In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there). For example:At work "How long have you worked here?" At home She asked me how long I'd worked there.

Pronoun change
In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. For example:

Me "I teach English online."

You She said she teaches English online.

Reporting Verbs
Said, told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech. We use asked to report questions:For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started. We use told with an object. For example: Lynne told me she felt tired. !Note - Here me is the object. We usually use said without an object. For example: Lynne said she was going to teach online. If said is used with an object we must include to ; For example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China. !Note - We usually use told. For example: Lynne told me that she'd never been to China. There are many other verbs we can use apart from said, told and asked. These include:accused, admitted, advised, alleged, agreed, apologised, begged, boasted, complained, denied, explained, implied, invited, offered, ordered, promised, replied, suggested and thought. Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative.

For example: He asked me to come to the party:He invited me to the party. He begged me to come to the party. He ordered me to come to the party. He advised me to come to the party. He suggested I should come to the party.

Use of 'That' in reported speech


In reported speech, the word that is often used. For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich. However, that is optional. For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich. !Note - That is never used in questions, instead we often use if. For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.