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Wastewater Pretreatment

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Pretreatment vs. Primary Treatment


The terms pretreatment and primary treatments are often used interchangeably In addition, some typical physical treatment operations are often classified as either pretreatment or primary treatment processes (e.g., grit removal, oil separation) When a distinction is made between the two treatments, pretreatment is assumed to involve operations connected to separation of very coarse or easily separable materials and/or water conditioning before discharging to a treatment plant (e.g., equalization, coarse screening) while primary treatment is used for physical or chemical operations (e.g., neutralization, precipitation, sedimentation, flotation)

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Common Wastewater Pretreatment Processes


Coarse Solid Screening Free Oil Separation Equalization As mentioned before, some of these processes can also be classified as Primary Treatment processes

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Coarse Solid Screening

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Coarse Solid Screening


Screens are used to retain large solids that may be present in wastewater so as to prevent them from entering moving devices (e.g., pumps), and wastewater treatment units. Coarse (> 0.5 cm), medium (0.5-5 mm) and relatively fine (0.05-0.5 mm) solids can be retained by different screening devices used in pretreatment and primary wastewater treatment.

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Screening Devices
Bar racks Screens
-

Coarse Solids Medium Solids Coarse Solids Coarse, Medium, or Fine Solids Medium or fine Solids Fine Solids

Inclined (fixed) Inclined (rotary) Drum (rotary)

Rotary disks Centrifugal


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Types of Screening Devices

Types of Screening Devices (continued)

Flow Velocity in Screening Devices


To prevent solid sedimentation the flow velocity in screening devices typically is above 0.5-0.6 m/s (about 2 ft/s).

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Head Loss in Screening Devices


The head loss across bar screens is generally small and can be calculated from the following equation:
2 2 2 u bar u channel u channel + 0.5 HL = 2g 2g

where: HL = head loss across the bars ubar = flow velocity through the bars uchannel = flow velocity through the channel

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Head Loss Across Bar Racks


An alternative equation to determine the head loss across bar racks is the following:
2 2 1 u bar u channel HL = 0.7 2g

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Head Loss Across Bar Racks


Another equation to calculate the head loss across bar racks is the Kirschmer equation:

w 3 HL = 179 uchannel sin . b


where: HL = head loss across the bars, in ft of water uchannel = flow velocity through the channel, in ft/s w = maximum cross section width of bars facing direction of flow, in ft b = minimum clearance space between bars, in ft = angle between bars and horizontal line
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Microstrainers
Microstrainers are devices consisting of a rotating perforated drum covered with a screen having very small openings. Microstrainers are designed to remove solids from incoming wastewaters and stormwaters, or to remove suspended solids from secondary wastewater treatment plants. Typical solid removal efficiencies are from 43% to 85%, for solid particle ranging from 6 to 65 m.

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Schematic of a Microstrainer

After Eckenfelder, Industrial Wastewater Pollution Control, p.383 PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Design Parameters for Microstrainers


Item Screen mesh Submergence Hydraulic loading Headloss through screen (HL) Max. HL Peripheral drum speed Typical Value 20-25 m 75% of height (66% of area) 12-24 m3/m2/h (300-600 gal/ft2/d) of submerged drum surface area 7.5-15 cm (3-6 in.) 30-45 cm* (12-18 in.) 4.5 m/min at 7.5-cm HL (15 ft/min at 3-in. HL) 40-45 m/min at 15-cm HL (130-150 ft/min at 6-in. HL) 3m (10 ft) 2% of throughput at 345 kN/m2 (50 psi) 5% of throughput at 100 kN/m2 (14.5 psi)

Typical drum diameter Washwater Flow

After USEPA (1975), Process Design Manual for Suspended Solids Removal, No. EPA 25/1-75-003a, USEPA, Washington, DC (*) Typical designs provide an overflow to bypass part of the flow when HL exceeds 15-20 cm (6-8 in.).

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Head Loss in a Microstrainer


Head losses in microstrainers can be calculated using the empirical equation:
dH L Q = k HL dt A where k is an empirical coefficient, HL is the head loss, Q is the water flow, and A is the surface area of the microstrainer. Integration gives:

Q HL = HLo exp k t A
where HLo is the initial headloss in the clean microstrainer.
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Free Oil Separation

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Oil in Wastewater
Oil can be present in wastewaters as a result of a number of industrial operations (e.g., petroleum refining and/or storage, metal working, food processing). The concentration of oil in the wastewater can vary greatly (typically within 100-100,000 ppm). Operation such as mixing or pumping through fast, high shear, centrifugal pumps may result in the formation of small oil droplets that are difficult to separate from the wastewater.

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Types of Oil Dispersions


Oil can be present in wastewater in three forms: Free oil. This oil is in the form of large droplets (typically larger than 40 m) that can be separated through the action of buoyancy forces in quiescent tanks (e.g., gravity separators) Emulsified oil. Oil droplets smaller than 20 m (typically 1-10 m) form relatively stable emulsions that cannot be broken by gravity forces alone. Gravity separator cannot be used effectively in this case. Dissolved oil. The petroleum fraction that forms a true solution in water (due to its small solubility in water) constitutes the dissolved oil fraction.
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Surfactants and Emulsifiers


Surfactants and emulsifiers are surface active agents that lower the interfacial tension between the oil phase and the water phase In their absence the interfacial tension between the two phases is the highest, the dispersephase (oil) droplets tend to coalesce, and the phases tend to stratify into separate layers If surfactants are present the interfacial tension is lowered, and the droplets are stabilized by the presence of the surfactant on their surface. Coalescence does not occur. This results in an emulsion
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Approach to Free Oil Separation from Wastewaters


Free oil is typically removed using some type of sedimentation tank where the oil droplets can rise and be removed through skimmers. The design of these separators is the similar to that of other sedimentation tanks for sinking solids. Air flotation devices are also popular. Alternatively, coalescing separators (e.g., lamellae separators) utilize a coalescing medium that is oleophilic, and which is likely to be impacted by the droplets.
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Factors Affecting the Design and Performance of Devices for Free Oil Separation
The most important factors to be considered in designing oil separation devices are: concentration of oil in wastewater average droplet size and droplet size distribution presence of surfactant (interfacial tension) densities of oil and wastewater viscosities of oil and wastewater temperature

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Free-Oil Separation
If the oil in the wastewater is not emulsified physical separation of the free oil can be carried out Two classes of devices are typically used: Gravity separators Air flotation devices

Separation of oil from the wastewater is typically accomplished prior to wastewater treatment, using oil separators (if no oil-water emulsion exists)
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Example of Gravity Separator


Section

Wastewater Inlet Oil

Plan Sludge
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Effluent

Example of Plate Separator


Oil

Wastewater Inlet Sludge

Effluent

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Design of Gravity Oil-Water Separators


The design of this type of separator is based on the calculation of the rising velocity of the smallest droplet to be separated, and the time it takes for the droplet to reach the surface of the separator The droplet is assumed to rise toward the surface of the separator (typically assuming Stokes Law) as it travels horizontally through it Typical smallest droplet size = 0.15 mm

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Design of Gravity Oil-Water Separators (continued)


Range of separator depth: 0.9-2.4 m (3-8 ft) Range of separator width: 1.8-6 m (6-20 ft) Range of depth-to-width ratio: 0.3-0.8 An efficiency factor (typically within the range 1.3-1.8) is used The equations used in the design of this type of equipment are similar to those use to describe solid settling devices for Type 1 settling
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Air Flotation Oil-Water Separators


Air flotation is used when gravity separation is not enough to produce adequate separation Air flotation for oil-water separation is a process based on the use of very fine gas bubbles that attach themselves to the oil droplets to make them more buoyant and drive them toward the free surface of the liquid The design approach used in oil-water air flotation is similar to that used in the design of flotation devices for settling solid separation

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Breaking Oil-Water Emulsions


Gravity and flotation devices alone typically do not break oil-water emulsions. These emulsions must be broken via chemical, physical, electrolytic, or thermal methods. In order to separate the oil from the wastewater the emulsion must be destabilized by adding chemical coagulating agents that interact with the surface agent stabilizing the emulsion This promotes droplet agglomeration resulting in stratification of the two phases
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Common Approaches to Separation of Emulsified Oil from Wastewaters


Emulsified oil is typical removed from wastewater using the following approaches: lowering the pH of the wastewater with an acid to break the weak oil-acid bonds and promote coalescence; using de-emulsifying agents (e.g., polymers, inorganic salts) that increase the interfacial tension between the droplets and the water resulting in breaking the emulsion.

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Equalization

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Equalization
The wastewater produced by an industrial facility often varies in overall wastewater flow rate (e.g., as a result of day vs. night production processes) as well as concentration of pollutants (resulting from different types of operations being carried out at different times). Equalization is the operation aimed at eliminating or minimizing the problems associated with such fluctuations in wastewater flow and characteristics.

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Equalization and Equalization Basins


The objective of equalization is to minimize or control fluctuations in those characteristics of the wastewater that may have an impact on subsequent treatments. Equalization is achieved by reducing the variations in flow rate and/or concentrations of the wastewater being fed to the treatment facility by using equalization basins.

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Equalization and Equalization Basins (continued)


Equalization basins are reservoirs or tanks typically placed in-line with the wastewater stream (sometimes also off-line) to dampen fluctuations in flow rate and/or concentration of pollutants in the waste stream. Equalization basins are typically well-mixed. This is especially important in concentration equalization basins since the concentration in the outflow is equal to that in the basin. Therefore, flow short circuiting within the basin can reduce its equalization effectiveness
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Objectives of Equalization
Minimize fluctuations in wastewater treatment plant flow rate to

Reduce fluctuation in organic load or concentrations of pollutants to prevent shock loading of biological treatment system Reduce fluctuation in wastewater pH Minimize fluctuations in the amount of chemicals to be added to chemical treatment plant

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Classification of Equalization Operations


Flow Equalization (elimination or dampening of wastewater flow variations) Concentration Equalization (dampening concentration fluctuations in wastewater) Flow and Concentration Equalization of

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Variable vs. Fixed Volume Equalization Basins


Variable Volume Equalization Basins (flow and concentration equalization). The volume of these basins is allowed to fluctuate so that the outflow rate is controlled at the desired rate (typically at constant flow rate) Fixed Volume Equalization Basins (concentration equalization only). The volume of these basins is fixed. Therefore the input and the output flow rates are identical (no flow equalization). However, the concentration fluctuations in the (well-mixed) basin and hence in the outflow are reduced
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Flow Equalization
Objective: to obtain a desired flow rate QD(t) (typically a constant).
QF(t)

QF(t)

time

QD(t)

or
time QD time

V(t)

QD(t)

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Concentration Equalization
Objective: to reduce fluctuations at the outlet
QF(t) CF(t)
CF(t) QD(t) QF(t)

the

concentration

time

or
time QD time

time

V(t)

C(t)
C(t)

QD(t) CD(t) = C(t)

time

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In-Line and Off-Line Equalization Basins


In-Line Equalization Basins. This type of equalization basin receives the entire (variable) wastewater flow and typically discharges at a constant flow rate (flow equalization) or at a flow rate equal to the input flow rate (concentration flow equalization) Off-Line Equalization Basins. This type of basin receives the overflow from a smaller inline basin when the incoming flow rate exceeds the average flow rate, and discharges to the flow when the incoming flow is below the average flow rate
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In-Line and Off-Line Equalization


Equalization Basin Incoming Wastewater Metering and Control System To Treatment

Controlled-Flow Pump

In-Line Equalization
Incoming Wastewater Overflow Basin Equalization Basin Controlled-Flow Pump Metering and Control System

To Treatment

Off-Line Equalization

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Typical Equalization Design Problems


Given one or more incoming wastewater streams the equalization basin is to be sized so that: the flow of the stream exiting the equalization basin and feeding the wastewater plant is either constant or is a desired function of time (e.g., discharge occurs only at night); the concentration fluctuations for a given pollutant in the stream exiting the equalization basin are within a preset range (typically expressed in terms of peaking factor, defined as the ratio of highest concentration to average concentration in the stream).
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Definitions


QF(t) = Wastewater feed flow rate (m3/hr; gal/day) QD(t) = Wastewater discharge flow rate (m3/hr; gal/day) V(t) =Volume in equalization basin at time t (m3; gal) Vo = Volume in equalization basin at time t = 0 (m3; gal) Vmin = Minimum volume in equalization basin (m3; gal) Vmax = Maximum volume in equalization basin (m3; gal) SF(t) = Cumulative incoming (feed) wastewater volume over time interval 0 - t (m3; gal) SD(t) = Cumulative outgoing (discharge) wastewater volume over time interval 0 - t (m3; gal) = Wastewater density (kg/m3; lb/ft3)
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Overall Mass Balance


Assumption: V > 0 always. Overall mass balance:

Accumulation = Input Output dV = QF (t )dt QD (t )dt


dV = QF (t ) QD (t ) dt

QF(t)

Initial condition basin:

for

the

V(t)

QD(t)

V = Vo

for

t =0

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Overall Mass Balance


The overall mass balance equation for the basin can be integrated to give:
V (t ) Vo = QF (t ') dt '
t 0

Q (t ') dt '
t 0 D

which is equivalent to:


V (t ) Vo = SF (t ) SD (t )

where:
SF (t ) = QF (t ') dt ' and SD (t ) =
t 0

Q (t ') dt '
t 0 D

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Cumulative Volumes


Typically, the equalization basin operates in a cycle during the time interval (0 - tcycle). In most cases this interval is 24 hours, i.e., every 24 hours the wastewater fed to the equalization basin has the same flow rate and composition. During this time interval the incoming cumulative volume (SF cycle) and the outgoing cumulative volume (SD cycle) for the basin must be equal, i.e.:

SF cycle = SD cycle = QF (t ) dt = QD (t ) dt
t cycle t cycle 0 0

This equation can be used to calculate the discharge flow QD(t) which is typically imposed to be constant.
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Constant Discharge Flow Rate, QD


A very common case is that in which the discharge flow rate from the basin is imposed to be constant, i.e.:
QD (t ) = QD = constant

If this is true then it is also:


QD = 1 t cycle

t cycle

QF (t )dt =

SD cycle t cycle

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Constant Discharge Flow Rate, QD


In addition, for constant QD it is:
dV = QF (t ) QD dt
V (t ) Vo = QF (t ') dt ' QD t
t 0

SD (t ) = QD t

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Constant Discharge Flow Rate, QD


If flow data are obtained only at discrete time intervals, and not continuously, one can write:

QD =

1 tcycle

t cycle

QF (t )dt =

SF cycle tcycle

1 tcycle

ncycle 1 i =0

Q (t )t
F i

where ncycle is the number of intervals in the cycle (the reason for the (ncycle-1) summation upper limit is that the index i starts at 0 and not 1), and:
ncycle 1

tcycle =
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t
i =0

Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Constant Discharge Flow Rate, QD


If the time intervals are all equal then: QD = 1 tcycle

t cycle

QF (t )dt = = t tcycle

SF cycle tcycle
F

1 tcycle

ncycle 1 i =0

Q ( t ) t
F i ncycle 1 i =0

ncycle 1 i =0

Q (t ) = n
i ncycle 1

cycle

Q (t )
F i

since:
ncycle 1

tcycle =
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t
i =0

t = n
i =0

cycle

Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Constant Discharge Flow Rate, QD


Also, for data collected at discrete time intervals:

SF (t ) = QF (t ') dt ' QF (t i )t i
t 0 i =0

n 1

SD (t ) = QD (t ') dt ' QD (t i )t i
t 0 i =0

n 1

with: t = t i . Also, it must be that:


i =0
ncycle 1

n 1

SF cycle
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Q ( t ) t
i =0 F i

ncycle 1 i

Q ( t ) t
i =0 D i

SD cycle

Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Vmin and Vmax


To find the smallest and largest volume of wastewater in the basin (Vmin and Vmax, respectively) one must impose that the derivative of V(t) be equal to zero:
dV = QF (t ) QD (t ) = 0 dt
QF (t ) = QD (t )

Remark: the solution of this equation could, in principle, produce several times (tj) at which this condition is satisfied.
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Vmin and Vmax


To find Vmin and Vmax one must then take the smallest and largest of these values, i.e.: Vmax = max V t = t j Vmin
j

[ ( )] = min[ (t = t )] V [( ) ] = min[ (t = t ) V ] V
j o

which is equivalent to: Vmax Vo = max V t = t j Vo = max V t = t j Vo Vmin Vo


j o

[ ( )] = min[ (t = t )] V V

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Vmin and Vmax


One can find the same solution starting from the mass balance written in terms of cumulative volumes, i.e.: dV d SF (t ) d SD (t ) d V (t ) Vo = = =0 dt dt dt dt

which implies that the slopes of the cumulative volume curves must be the same, i.e.: d SF (t ) dt
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d SD (t ) dt

Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Vmin, Vmax and V


The maximum and minimum changes in volume with respect to Vo are given by:

Vmax = Vmax Vo Vmin = Vmin Vo


Note that it will always be that:

Vmax 0

and

Vmin 0
V,

The overall largest volume fluctuation, experienced by the basin is then:


V = Vmax Vmin = Vmax Vmin = Vmax + Vmin
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Graphical Determination of Vmin, Vmax and V
A simple graphical method can be used to determine Vmin, Vmax and V: Determine QD(t) Plot SF(t) and SD(t) vs. time (recall that for t = tcycle it must be that SF cycle = SD cycle) Determine the largest positive and negative deviations between SF(t) and SD(t) (equal to Vmax and Vmin, respectively) Calculate V = |Vmax|+|Vmin|
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Analysis of In-Line, VariableVolume Equalization Basins


Flow Rate, QF or QD (103 ft3/hr)
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 6 12 18 24

QF QD

Time (hr)
Cum. Volume, SF or SD (103 ft3)
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 6 SF SD 140

3 Volume in Basin, V (10 ft3)

Vmax

120 100 80 60

Vmin Vo Vmin
12 18 24

Vmax

40 20 0

Time (hr)

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Equalization Volume


The equalization volume, Vequalization, is then:

Vequalization = Vmax Vmin = Vmax + Vmin = V


Finally, the volume of the equalization basin is:
Vbasin = Vmin + Vequalization + Vtop

where Vmin and Vtop can be arbitrarily chosen. Vmin is defined as before. Vtop is an extra safety volume to minimize any chance of overflowing the basin.
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Basin Volume


Vbasin Vtop Vequalization Vmin

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Criteria To Be Followed To Determine V


Vmin should always be larger than zero (i.e., the basin should never be completely empty, even when it is at its lowest volume) The height of liquid above the sump pump at the bottom of the basin should be such as to provide enough head for the pump to operate properly (i.e., without cavitating) Vmin should incorporate a safety margin to account for unforeseen fluctuations in the flow which may result in a V value higher than that calculated using the previous approach
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min

Determination of Vo
Recalling that:

Vmin = Vmin Vo
it is also:
Vo = Vmin Vmin = Vmin + Vmin

from which Vo can be obtained. In this equation Vo is always positive since Vmin is always positive and Vmin is always negative. Note that Vmin and Vo cannot be chosen independently of each other. This implies that if Vo is known then Vmin cannot be chosen arbitrarily, and vice versa.
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Pollutant Mass Balance


Assumption: the basin is well mixed. Note that in a well-mixed basin the pollutant concentration in the basin is equal to the concentration in the discharge stream, i.e.:
CD (t ) C(t )

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Pollutant Mass Balance


A mass balance for the pollutant during the time interval dt gives:

Accumulation = Input Output


d V (t )C(t ) = QF (t )CF (t ) dt QD (t )C(t ) dt
i.e.,

][

] [

d V (t )C(t ) = QF (t )CF (t ) QD (t )C(t ) dt


Initial condition:
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C = Co

for

t =0

Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Mass Balances


In general, the two differential equations representing the pollutant and overall mass balances, respectively: d V (t )C(t ) = QF (t )CF (t ) QD (t )C(t ) dt

dV = QF (t ) QD (t ) dt

must be solved simultaneously knowing the initial conditions for the basin:

V = Vo

for

t = 0 and C = Co

for

t =0

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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Role of Initial Conditions


In concentration equalization the solution of the above equations for C(t) and V(t) will depend on the initial conditions in the basin (Vo and Co). If the flow fluctuations and the concentration fluctuations in the feed to the basin are periodic (cyclical) then the discharge flow and concentration fluctuations will eventually (for t ) become periodic as well (or constant, as far as the discharge flow rate is concerned, if so desired).
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Analysis of In-Line, Variable-Volume Equalization Basins: Role of Initial Conditions


However, before the asymptotic limit cycle is reached (for t ) the discharge flow and concentration fluctuations will depend on the initial conditions in the basin. In practice the asymptotic limit cycle will be adequately approached after a limited number of cycles. The number of such cycles will depend on the initial conditions.

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Approximate Mass Balance Equations for Equalization Basins


The differential overall mass balance equation can be approximated as follows:
dV = QF (t ) QD (t ) dt Vi QF (t i ) QD (t i ) t i

The volume at each time interval can then be calculated numerically from the volume at the previous time interval:

V (ti + 1) V (t i ) = Vi QF (t i ) QD (t i ) t i

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Approximate Mass Balance Equations for Equalization Basins


Finally, the volume at each time interval can be calculated numerically from:

V ( ti + 1) = V ( ti ) + Vi Vi + QF ( t i ) QD ( t i ) ti
Using this equation V can be calculated at any time. Also, recalling that V(t=0)=Vo, for i =0 it is:

V (t1) = Vo + Vo Vo + QF (to ) QD (to ) to

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Approximate Mass Balance Equations for Equalization Basins


The volume at any time is then the sum of all the volume increments plus the initial volume Vo:
V (t ) Vo = QF (t ') dt '
t 0

Q (t ') dt '
t 0 D n 1 i =0

V (t n ) Vo QF (t i )t i V (t n ) Vo +
n 1 i =0 F i D

Q (t )t
i =0 D i i i

n 1

Q [ (t ) Q (t )]t

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Approximate Mass Balance Equations for Equalization Basins


The differential pollutant mass balance equations can be approximated as follows:

d V (t )C(t ) = QF (t )CF (t ) QD (t )C(t ) dt d d V (t ) C(t ) + C(t ) V (t ) = QF (t )CF (t ) QD (t )C(t ) dt dt


i.e., in finite, approximate terms:

[ ]

[ ] [

V (t i )Ci + C(t i )Vi QF (t i )CF (t i ) QD (t i )C(t i ) t i


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Approximate Mass Balance Equations for Equalization Basins


Recalling the equation for Vi:

Vi QF ( ti ) QD ( ti ) t i
the previous equation becomes:

V ( t i ) Ci + C( t i ) QF ( t i ) QD ( t i ) t i
F i F

Q [ (t ) C (t ) Q (t ) C(t )]t
i D i i

which can be simplified to give:

V ( ti ) Ci + C( ti ) QF ( t i ) t i QF ( ti ) CF ( ti ) t i
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Approximate Mass Balance Equations for Equalization Basins


Hence:

Ci

QF ( t i )
i

C [ (t ) C(t )]t V (t )
F i i

The concentration at each time interval can then be calculated numerically from the concentration at the previous time interval:

C( t i + 1) C( t i ) = Ci
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QF ( t i )
i

C [ (t ) C(t )]t V (t )
F i i

Approximate Mass Balance Equations for Equalization Basins


Finally, the concentration at each time interval can then be calculated numerically from:

C ( t i + 1) C ( t i ) +

QF ( t i )
i

C [ (t ) C(t )]t V (t )
F i i

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Typical Table for Mass Balance Calculations in Equalization Basins


time 0 1 2 etc. etc. QF(t) 103 201 158 etc. etc. QD(t) ? ? ? ? ? V(t) ? ? ? ? ? V(t) 4,000 ? ? ? ? CF(t) 300 250 460 etc. etc. C(t) ? ? ? ? ? CD(t) 237(*) ? ? ? ?

(*) This value is to be varied by trial and error until the same value is obtained at the beginning of the new cycle.
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Analysis of In-Line, Constant-Flow Rate Equalization Basins


QF

QF CF(t)
CF(t)

time

time

QD time

V=Vo

C(t)
C(t)

QD=QF CD(t) = C(t)

time

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Analysis of In-Line, Constant-Flow Rate Equalization Basins: Overall Mass Balance


Assume that the flow rates in and out of the basin are constant (QF = QD = Q). From an overall mass balance it is
dV = QF (t ) QD (t ) = Q Q = 0 dt

which can be integrated to give:

V = constant = Vo
This means that the volume is constant at whatever value it has at the beginning. The initial volume Vo can be arbitrary fixed by the designer.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Analysis of In-Line, Constant-Flow Rate Equalization Basins: Pollutant Mass Balance


When the flow rates in and out of the basin are constant the mass balance for the pollutant is: Vo d C (t ) dt = Q CF (t ) C(t )

This is a linear differential equation and can be easily integrated once the concentration fluctuation in the incoming stream (CF(t)) is known.

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Analysis of In-Line, Fixed-Volume Equalization Basins: Overall Mass Balance


QF(t)

QF(t) CF(t)
CF(t)

time

time time

V=Vo

C(t)
C(t)

QD(t)=QF(t) CD(t) = C(t)

time

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

QD(t)

Analysis of In-Line, Fixed-Volume Equalization Basins: Overall Mass Balance


Fixed-volume basins are used only to limit concentration fluctuations.

V = constant = Vo
From an overall mass balance it is
dV = 0 = QF (t ) QD (t ) dt QF (t ) = QD (t ) = Q(t )

Notice that the flow rates in and out of the basin are not necessarily constant. However they must always be equal.
PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Analysis of In-Line, Fixed-Volume Equalization Basins: Pollutant Mass Balance


In fixed-volume basins the mass balance for the pollutant is:

d Vo C(t ) = Q(t )CF (t ) Q(t )C(t ) d t


i.e.: i.e.: Vo

][

][

Vo d C(t ) = Q(t ) CF (t ) C(t ) d t


d C(t ) dt = Q(t ) CF (t ) C (t )

This is also a linear differential equation.


PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

Additional Information and Examples on Wastewater Pretreatment (Screening, Oil Separation, Equalization)
Additional information and examples can be found in the following references:

Corbitt, R. A. 1990, The Standard Handbook of


Environmental Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 5.149-5.154; 6.74-6.78; 6.160-6.169.

Eckenfelder, W. W., Jr., 1989, Industrial Water Pollution


Control, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 40-48; 69-71.

Horan, N. J., 1990, Biological Wastewater Treatment


Systems, Treatment and Operation, John Wiley &Sons, New York, pp. 42-47.

Metcalf & Eddy, 1991,

Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 200-212.

PIERO M. ARMENANTE NJIT

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