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Kahn, William Roseberry, Immanuel Wallerstein Source: Current Anthropology, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 1-12 Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2744133 . Accessed: 06/04/2011 13:17
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someone who has not been to the rightschools. on of public understanding.I will take up briefly notion of peothe ples." without reference descent or to politicalcohesion.This was trueeven when they firstcame into usage. publications of cago:University ChicagoPress. University November I99a2. Peasants(Englewood CenCliffs: Prentice-Hall. The discipline did not spring Usedin ourtime.takemuchgreater ofheterogeneity contradictions cultural in and and systems.Bronx.People' by Eric R.not inborn. MINTZ LECTURE FOR I992 Perilous Ideas Race. I intend to focus on the concept of race. This. "the to cultivation mindsor souls. And one of the ways of manifesting ethnicityis now to don a camouflagesuit and graban AK47. After teaching a variety instituat of he of tions. I0468. Wolf and or have long Ideas aboutrace. These notionsare of course not onlyexclusive professional property.a jibaro or indito.culture. and the Italian Alps (I960-6I and summers thereaf- Each endeavorto understand humankindworks with a set of characteristic ideas that orientits inquiries and justifyits existence..because it remainsa majorsource in ofdemonology this country and in the worldand anhas thropology a major obligationto speak reasonto unreason. Culture.00 for Research.It is appropriate to address these issues today not only because i992 marksthe soth anniversary Boas's death but also beof cause one of the important lineage segmentsin anthropologyreckonsintellectualdescent fromFranz Boas to AlexanderLesser to SidneyMintz. theyformpart of the stock of ideas of much widerpublics who discuss themin moreextended and less academic terms.especiallythe idea thathumans depend heavily on behavior that is learned. "Race" has been traced to generatio. ERIC WOLF iS Distinguished Professor Emeritus Herbert of Lehman Collegeand theCityUniversity New YorkGraduate of Center(Bedford ParkBlvd. Mintz between anthropology and otherkinds Hopkins wider interplay of of to Lecture. too. Homer spoke of a flockofanimals or a swarmofbees.The race concept has presided over homicide and genocide. Number i. Franz Boas.beinga bez-kulturny the (as Russians say). This paperwas delivered." thesewords-as Morton Friedsaid-can injuremind and body.A. Mexico (i95i-52. i969). theDepartment Anthropology The Johns i6. "generation.I946) and Columof bia University at (Ph.S. he was educated Queens College(B. i956).D.A. Peasant Warsofthe Twentieth and Row. 4 done fieldworkin Puerto Rico (I948-49). was professor anthropology theUniversity Michigan I96I to I97i beforejoining the facultyat CUNY. N. FebruaryI994 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY ? I994 byThe Wenner-Gren All reserved OOII-3204/94/350I-OOOI$2. He has His includeSons oftheShaking Earth(Chiter). of to Contrary the popular saw that "sticks and stones can break your bones. U. I954.West.and for anthropology ideas about race and culture and-more recently-about peoplehood or ethnicityhave played that guidingand legitimizing role. these words moreover. I95 I). and Europeand thePeotury (New York:Harper and of ple Without History (Berkeley Los Angeles:University California Press. Thus. the inauguralSidneyW. Finally.and Boas have insisted on and that we must heed. carry .." "Culture" was first a fieldand only later transferred cultura animi. butwordscan neverhurtyou. This relationbetween professionaldialect and more generaldiscourseneeds to be understoodas part of the as i.Y. is somethingthat Mintz.I98 2). will thenconI siderthe conceptof culture. notions about the biological variabilityof the species and about the possibleimplicationsof this variability. envisaged these days as social entities-ethnic groups or nationalities-that are conscious of themselves as ownersofdistinctive culturaltraditions passed on along the lines of shareddescent. whom this new lectureseries is designedto honor.I959)."fromthe Latin generare. To accuse someoneoflackingculture. peoplehood ethnicity to and its served orient anthropology's inquiries justify existence. a heavyfreight shame and fury. As bothoffspring criticofthehumancondition.)."to beused to talk about cultivating get.Volume 35. i966). taught us to be especially attentiveto issues of race and culture.and that this capacity forlearninghas fostered the proliferation quite varied bodies of thoughtand of action. rights Foundation Anthropological SIDNEY W.I will attendespecially to the conceptofrace.a red-neckor hayseed. of of thatwe mustremind ourselves theimportance suggests of aboutracesas we confront Boas's critique typological thinking account theintensifying racismsofour time. is to declare that someone lacks culturalcapital and should not be allowed into the Atheneum or the Escambron Beach Club." Greekethnosonce desigof nated just a "bunch. who stands at the beginning of American anthropology. and anthropolto ogybearsa specialresponsibility examinethe commonplaces ofits thought thefighting and wordsofits speechand to subject themto resolute The present contribution thistask to analysis. Lesser. as well as a bunchofpeople (Benveniste i969:90). recand ognizethatethnicities come in manyvarieties to call a sothe cial entity "ethnic"group merely beginning theinan is of quiry. in The present paperwas submitted finalform v 93. Bornin at I923.
gluttonous. ear-furlers.warriors and priestswere thought to perform qualitatively incommensurable kindsofwork.knowledge. I also think that particulartakes are promptedby background conditions and limited by theseconditions. ested in how theyallow us to think.unwilling unpredictable. FebruaryI994 whole phenomenaare put together. mothercity-occupied the pivotal point ofintersection all the directions the cosmos. upside-down walkers. interested in how seemingly Race a One usefulway ofgetting purchaseon therace concept is to traceit to the greatarchaic civilizationsof the Old and the New World. to hold themapart.bar-bar-speakers Aristotle's view this made themnaturalslaves and outcasts.insofaras it is generalized human labor. symbol fromreferent.theBrazilianYanomami. also allows us to thinkbetter.Most of them developedmodels of thecosmologicalorder which an exemplary in center-a a metropolis.Some conceptsare essentialist. rule. Eliade I965. of heretics. shadow-foots. Among these allies one can expect sorcery but of a gardenvarietymanageable throughordinaryshamanistic cures. dogfaces. with each otherin war. and many more (Friedman These hierarchically deployed and ranked schemata may be comparedwith those of more egalitariantribal people. Beyond this core of allies live active enemies whom one does not with whom one does not exchangeor feast. Still farther lie the settlements poon of tentialenemies who are said to perform soraggressive beyondthese live little-knownthough inimical Yanomami whom one fearsnot so much fortheirsorcery as I98I. Forexample. fromwhom one is separatedfirstby raidingand counand terraiding second bywarpathsorcery (raidsin which pathogenicsubstancesare supposedlydepositedin each other'scamp).867). one can talk about Christiancommunionand elite Aztec cannibalism as convergent formsof communicationwith the divine.is oflike kindand ofequal worth.I thinkof ideas as "takes" on the phenomenaof this world and as instructionsabout how to combine these takes to ascertaintheirconnectionsor. inherent. engineered-what kinds of credentials.in which all partakeofeach other's vital substance by drinkingdown the ashes of the honoreddead in plantain soup. it Athena-like fromthe head of Zeus. and heathenseemed whollyincommensurable and as long as the symbolic value of an object or an act was thought be an intrinsic.Thus Marx put forward interesting the argument that Aristotlewas unable to conceptualize a common denominator all human labor because.to bewareofasserting linkages that are false. to Each of these threeconcepts-race. and aggressivein disposition. lay the countryof "the monstrous races. rude in manner. "The riddleof the expressionof value is solved when we know that all labor. it comes out of the cauldronsof conflictthat cooked up much of the toil and troubleofpast centuries.It is one thingto and be impressed the spirituality holiness (baraka) of by a Berberholy man and quite anotherto ask how this is spirituality constructed. barbarians. people with one eye in the middle of theirforeheads. in the trenchantphrasing of Robbins Burling (i964). culture.according to Albert(i988). ceryat a distance(see Chagnonand Asch I973). One couldnot think of for Islamicparallels Al-Azmeh see i992). conviction" popular (I946:3I). and religious guidance.Similarly. as a in memberof a slave society. portrayed. and because they appearedto lack articulatelanguage.and attend ally one another'sfunerary rites. is preIt cisely because it is both offspring and critic of our conditionthat it bears a special responsibility examto ine the commonplaces of our thoughtand the fighting wordsofourspeech and to subjectthemto resoluteanalysis. Only when it becomes possible to divorcesignifierfromthe signified. Number i. contrariwise. to submit to law.I am also interand ethnicity culture. Beyondthe civilizationalcore areas lay the lands of the clad in skins. mouthless apple smellers. in interested what the conceptsofrace.but rendering laborpoweruniversally exchangeablebymeans ofmoneyas a commondenominatorpermitted this new way of thought. and skills of performance are requiredto be a convincingagurram. suspicious of holisms.where of of theyenacted collective rituals to maintain the orderof the world and fromwhich they deployedthe power to it ensure (Carrasco i982.but this riddle can only be unriddledwhen the notion of human equality has acquired the fixityof a different kindsofworkdone as forms laborin general of as long as slaves and peasants. to essential. Beyond the lands of the known barbarians. and in raphonoi.in theircase of fouror fivelocal groups thatintermarry.where the only trueand beautifullife could be lived. They were barba(Homer Iliad 2.theyare takes on what are assumed to be the enduring. Wheatley I97I).he thoughtof the labor performed slaves and thatperformed freemen being by by as qualitativelydifferent. also begin theirsortingof people with a local cluster.true natureof a phenomenon.2 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35. there could probably no anthropology religionor studyof be of comparative religionas long as the religions believers.Other concepts are analytic. both Christianand Muslim: men "whose heads growbeneaththeirshoulders"(Shakespeare). I am therefore allow us to think. and it responds-must respond-to these forceseven when it strivesforprofessional distance and dispassionate neutrality. I hope to contribute this task here. Periodicallyraising thequestionofwhetherthe unitieswe defineare homogeneous or whether they are betterunderstoodwhen and theyare disaggregated disassemblednot onlyallows us to evaluate concepts we have come to take for granted. and .substantive. and thatbackground has implications for how we conceptualize and use them. The Greeks and Romans saw these people as not quite human because theydid not live'in cities.and ethnicity-has a societal background.and marry.inseparable aspect of it-God's truth and not man-made hocuspocus." whom the Roman Plinius catalogued formedieval posterity.uncouth and threatening identifiable but throughcontact in trade and war.
no matterhow odd in physicalform language. Withinthe contextof Europe. Bartolome de las Casas.The dominantcivilizationalschemata. AlthoughHam was occasionally represented the as forefather the Saracens.very close to monwas constructed account forthe pastoralists to sters. and fromthen on Africasouth of the Sahara became a main area of supplyboth forIberia and forthe New World(Greenfield I977.This association gained intensityas a of rationalization the slave trade when Africareplaced Europeand the Levant as the main source of supplyfor coerced labor. Germans. JuanGines de Sepuilvedaargued that the Indians were naturalslaves because theyweremorelikelybeasts than men. Others saw themas fallencreatures. subcategoryof really vicious barbarians. In I45 3.repliedin St. into of theywereretrofitted the subcategory vicious barbarians. importedslaves from the Russian-Turkish borderlands around the Black Sea.the OttomanTurks cut off thissource ofsupplywiththe conquestofConstantinople.but it was not thencolor-specific. misshapedby sin or guilt. Augustine thought theywere still capable of salvation.Christendom inherited the schemata of Classical antiquity and transformed themto fitits own logic and understandings (see Jones monstroushumans was transformed into one of the the faithful." Proximity rulership. A. assign differential valuations to salient distinctionsin life-style physicalappearance.experienceddistribution to of social power in geopoliticalspace. Verlinden One of the main causes of the intensification of I970). hence human and descendedfrom "the one who was firstcreated. arguingin contra. It is importantto rememberhow long the biblical texts continuedto providethe main paradigmsforthe of interpretation human events. As Spaniardsdebated whetherto enslave the Indians of the Americas. the trade was undoubtedlythe rapid decline of the AmericanIndian populationin the wake of the Spanish and Lusitanianconquests and the increasing demandfor labor on the sugar plantationsof the Caribbean about which Sidney Mintz has writtenso eloquentlyand so well. the solution was to declare Mohammed a false prophetand the Muslims Turks once again simplified the classificatory problem. In the early Middle Ages. therewere strainsin Chinese Taoism and Buddhismthat offered a and moralcorruption advocating critiqueofrulership by a retreatinto the "mountains and marshes" inhabited by non-Chinese indigenous peoples or inverted the schema of civilizationto look for"blessed lands" ofrefuge and immortality beyondthe confinesof the Middle Kingdom (Bauer I976). probablydescendantsof Cain or ofNoah's son Ham. Avars. Phillipsi985." Adam. are fromthe true and beautifulcenters ofurbanity the demonichillycragsand cavernsofthe to monsterworld. how long it was held that the world was only 6. of the natives on islands of of the Indian Ocean. however.because theyappeared to be civilized and yet had been seduced by Mohammed. In addition to externalbarbariansand misshapen people.and cannibalsto boot.WOLF Perilous Ideas 13 fortheirinadvertent potentialkillingof one's alter ego destinyanimals. who had sinnedagainstGod and were thus supposedlyfitforenslavement. The trichotomy civilized. The Roman Tacitus wrotehis Germania in part as an indictmentof profligateRome in contrast with supposedlystill pristine and virtuousbarbarians-floggingmoral decay and family values is an old theme in history.Slavery existed.ifonlybecause it corresponded a tangible. St.as well as to the geoand graphicalzones in which these life-styles and bodily forms manifest.The Arabs constituteda special problem.D. of and barbarians. the current and Europe increasingly reversed. The advent the of Beyondthe barbariansstill lay the lands of the monstrousraces (Friedman i98i). Christian heretics (Jones I97I:392).it is theirdifferential location on a spatial continuumthat identifiesthem as friendsor hostiles.Vikings. themid-i5th By century. of Mongols."displayingon theirbodies what the forebears had earned by their misdeeds" (Vienna Genesis. in to participation the work of the gods. I97I:38I). This should not be taken to mean that everybody in civilizationmarched in serriedranks accordingto the dominant schema at all times.Slavs.which like to graze in these far-off forest glades. the Portuguesehad expanded their tradeforslaves down the West Africancoast as faras Ghana. In the i 5thcentury. and how long scholarsof reputeas well as laypersonsclung to the beliefin human descentfrom Adam and Eve and in the tales of Noah and his sons and of the Flood. "the many. Magyars. io6o-i I70.wicked in theirlusts. on horseback who came charging oftheEast to threaten out the integrity Christendom-Huns. In the later Middle Ages.and the unredeemable.and Saracens could be made to fit moreor less neatlyinto the barbarian a category. and Tartars.ooo and some yearsold. there were also civilizational schemata forrankinginternal "others"-exemplary representativesof the civilized way of lifeagainsthoi polloi. projection of values and idealized and performance-a proximity styles of comportment at once geographical and social thus instituted ranked a scale ofvaluation fromthe paragonsto the stigmatized. quoted in Friedman i98i:93). In this scheme all people are seen as equally benevolent and malevolentand similarin comportment and bodilyform. they also resurrected the arguments about the natureof the monstrousraces of long before.Similarly. of "ungentle churls" (Friedman 198i:I02-3). it had been northern and easternEurope that sent slaves to the Islamic Near East. Opinion on thesestrangely formedcreatureswas divided. Augustine's terms that they were rational and hence redeemable. however.in which guise they kept appearingbeforethe in as gatesofVienna and most recently Gastarbeiter the Germanies.as longas theywere "ratioor nal mortal"creatures.in contrast. Yet the centripetaltripartite schemeheld fastforlongperiodsoftime. their and move into North Africa soon barred Europeans from easy access to the eastern Mediterranean. unredeemed. maps still showedhow Noah redistributed and repopulated worldby dividing amonghis the it . most sourcesassociated him with Ethiopians or Africans.
He also arguedspecificallyagainst the imputa. it was hoped. and political-moral behavior. and thus in need of being liftedup by the i8o. Barnes I963. In the early years of the igth in Gall taughtthat mental activityhad a physical and deficientin rationality. Americans. and governedby caprice. and ruled by opinion.perdured well to groundbecause it corresponded the ways in which into our times.to overcomethe old conceptualsplitbetweenmind and of ogy-its obvious bias and the conflationof physical bodyby focusingon the way the brain and the nervous traits. Number i. dynamic. brain. passive.Blu. Generalizedto entirepopulations and elaborated throughever more soshown to be more pure or betterendowed than others. It reached." Yet even in the many people began to comprehendthe reshuffling the i8th United States. The apotheosis of this was in turesto those most perfect theirphysicaland psycho. of Linne categorizedthe races of Homo into standard-bearers progress. humanraces could be placed upon a ladderto perfection.and governedby law. Gall's books were prohibited to by lines of the churchfortrying do away with the hypothesis to Raciologywas markedby several convergent of thought. Ham Africa got (Friedman In the i8th century greatclassithe i98i:93).active. because he believed in human descentfroma common stock through Noah. writing duringthe periodsofromanticism and national. Predictably. who landed on Mt. beenthefirst post-diluvians" (Bernal low I987: 2I9). character. yet preciselyforthis reaintophysicaltypesone could gaugetheirtemperamental son. FebruaryI994 ism." clearlysupe. i90-9i). see Barnes i963:I78-238. goal-oriented and and the vanquished as backward-looking. Bio-moral reddish.Shem Asia. while Johann Blumenbach made the Caucasian. on France. who was willing to grouphumans together with apes and monkeys as anthropomorpha.Irishmales into nine separatemorphologicaltypesand withthe victorsshowingracial superiority quished or the defeatedrising up in righteouswrath labeled each typea distinctiveand separaterace (Hunt Only then did a more dynamicphysical against their corruptand effeteoverlords. drew many physiologists pay attento reason.tion to the work ofFranzvon Gall. German "historicism"drew on romantic political economists. and because he thought thatthe Georgiansof the Caucasus mighthave .into sunk in sloth and livingforthe moment. of skull-bearers ele.moreover. Simmons I990.and regulated custom. Thus. forward-looking.systemconnectedup all organsand muscles in the body menbach. withthe resultthatmeasuring bumpson thehead permutationsand combinations thereafter multiplied would reveal clues to the head-owner'spersonality and thenumberofraces. obstinate. still assertedhis belief "on divine testimony"in the descent of all humans fromAdam and Eve. basis. each riorto the otheranthropomorpha. the initiator phreof tion that Africanswere basically different physique nology (McLaren i98i).4 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35.First.however.temperament. MorganI988.masculine.anthropology beginto replacethe old racial essentialism threesons: Japheth Europe. Despite doubts and occasional criticisms. crafty." race "primaryamong all otherraces. Yet he did set up the Caucasians as the originalrace most relevantfor the developmentof raciology-that from which the otherssprangby variation. Huss I986.the ranking to racesfrom those least perfect the most exaltedgained equippedwith a stable bio-moralessence. that this physical basis was the brain.governed law.52i among races. on Germany. this "old physical anthropology"refrom of reorganization societyin the transition to the igth century. feminine. the different more than 5. With Linne and Blumenbach we are. phrenology also appealed greatly anticlericalbeto and moral dispositions.retarded.(On history i98i:344-45). Asians. humanswere descendedfrom first the couple createdby providea materialistlink between brain functionsand It God and differed fromanimals in their possession of temperament. of course." different andfunctions. severe.however. Dupertuisat HarvardUniversity overthe van. understood as the God-given hierarchical studiesthatstroveto correlatecranialmorphology with chain of organismsthat reachedfromthe lowliest crea.He held that (Jordanova i986). that the partsofthebrainhad different that you cannot mark out the limits between them. if some typescould be lieversin truescience. in energy.effort reachedwitha scholarwho eventually applied logicalrefinement (Lovejoyi964:59).this century-long attempt to define the varieties of by of humankind as enduring morphological types. new science then one could fit them as superiorand inferior the mentsinto the largercosmic scheme of "the greatchain of phrenology generatedan avalanche of craniometric " of being. however. fierLinne. a new paroxysm and withNational Socialist "racial science.assumed racial characteristics. and regressive race makingof the modernkind (see Slotkin I965:I70. century He that human varieties "so sensiblypass into the other.Second. Blanckaert I988. in This new physiology hoped tion exhibits some enduringcharacteristics raciol.) At the same time.scholars believed that by sorting people a soul separatefromthe body.legal scholars. by thinking the increasing and to tendency unEuropeans.000 separatemeasurementsto the skull.phisticated techniquesofmeasurement. received reinforcement fromthe developmentof new black. and Africans.eventually thepointofabsurdity. Once the game of racial classificationbegan. when Hooton and still typologized nationalhistoriesas accounts of struggles 9.orientations physiology. Hill I964. oth. This new focus would.and sociological folklorists. on England. Scholarlyliteratibegan to interpret mained in place until the mid-i95os.gentle. derstandhistoryas a struggleof races for dominance sallow. This classifica. understood.turninfluenced shape ofthe skull thatcontainedthe ers did. Third.was no obvious racist. Mosse I964. Araratin the Caucasus. colonial expansion and imperialismcarriedEuropean flags to the fourcorners ofthe globe and fueledideologiesthatportrayed Euthe ropeanvictorsas energetic. MacDougall i982.Althoughhe these functionally specificcomponentsof the brain in himselfdid not interpret the variationas degeneration.white.as well as on Prussiacentrichistorians. withthe "gentlewhites. the "white.
tation.physiology.A major by perfection an evolutionary traditionof intellectual thoughtand work-extending biologistand not an anthropologist.Since all culturescould themes and queries. Yet some have not yet ler i958).EduSuch cognitiveand symbolic strategieshave indeed . It should give our colleagues pause thatthe one aspirations recent systematic book on the subject. there.synechdoche.and evolutionary such unifying because theyhad been imprinted processes.he did not see how attemptsto develop general thropologists.especiallyin Germany.to produce concepts or "memorycodes. After an interlude that focused on culture-andpulously severed considerationsof race fromconsiderations of culture.and social organization manifold contradictions?" Given boththe heterogeneity which sense images and sound images can be combined and the historically changing interconnectedness cul.and studyingthem as aggregatesof such traits comogy. linguistics. these includingtheirintercon. chaps.It had be. i962 Frank with admiration In Livingstone (i962:279) confi.Having demonstrated unexpected dict-has employedthe guidingnotion of an ideational an in in variability head form successive generations Eu. Both processes-the construction memory to Enlightenment.growthand development.holism at the root of culture.culturesneeded to be studiedin all theirplural. American anthropologistsbegan suppositionthat each culture constituteda distinctive again.mostlywith how memorycodes generatedin different domains are combined and coordinated through the nificant results" (p. through "Have symbolicrepresentation we not reason to expect.it was primarily Wilhelmvon Humboldtthrough FranzBoas who from Hegel.focusing especially on the mechanics of whereit was asserted. Since cultureswere also forever of breakingup and differ. this time with a concern for the be shown to be interconnectedand continuouslyex.Frobenius. in the I950s. genres. these endeav(I98 i) has characterized 447). 4 and 6. Nietzsche. in reason.orsin termsofa professional have dealt primarily with the ways in will give way to the most anthropologists uality." That spiritwas studiedtogether understand of believedto be anchoredin passion and emotion.how traditional mightprompt these efforts rendition. pounded fromhere.so he arguedagainstthe common pre.theirstudiestowarda betterunderstanding how peoit theircollectiverepresentations and entiating. In the United States. the use of metaphors. assert the uniqueness of each people codes and the elaborationof analogycodes-need to be to how people arriveat culand of its Volksgeistor "folk spirit." They also hoped to direct of a singlepeople" (Boas." which implied that people build up complex networksof connotationsupon initial denotationsand thatit was incumbentupon anthropologists examine to Culture these "psychic processes" in constructing internal the of Just Boas had disaggregated as racial typologies and scru." he asked (Boas I940[I9331: metonyms.personalitystudies. psychology. Butof an environmental transition.elaboration analogycodes and thenhow these combiin come quite common.and deictics.cated Germans especially found it attractiveto accept environmental and holistic perspectiveson other culaptations.and everywhere would not linguistics. His drivingconviction that correlatedphenomena do yieldusefulcomprehension how theymighthang toof not need to be causally related led him to the conclu.He underropeanimmigrants. and language. paideia of anthe clines"-that is." His chiefexample ofsuch processeswas the notionof "secondaryinterpreI940:I65). to and Spengler RuthBenesional opposition.tropes. "that here [in so-called primitivecultures]as in Ohnuki-Tierney morecomplicatedcultures.it had to be demonstrated. to address some of the Boasian and separatemonad sui generis. wherepeo.gether.tures.thereare only of one such model of the Volksgeist. thennot onlyattackedessentialhe ist typologicalthinkingin human biologybut assailed stood that breakingdown culturesinto atomistictraits in similartermsthe resulting conflation history. Rewrittenand reimaginedversions of Greek heard or have opted to treat the issues with decorous history lifebecame a mainstayofupper-middle-class and and the foundation an educationcelebratof silence.Moreover-and this was a major Boasian interests.Cognitive sex. But he did offer beginnings a strategy the of for sion that "any attemptto explain cultural formon a thinkingabout how this might work by referring to purely biological basis is doomed to failure" (Boas what he called "psychic processes. was not veryuseful to speak of culturein ple createor modify modes of representation general.cognitive and symbolic dimensions of culture. theydrewheavilyon studies of literature and point-cultural integration could not be assumed. of These argumentshad wider implications. of biol. individ. pursuing at In ity and particularhistoricity.and manifest art.MatthewArnold. was written and was thus worthyof emulation." Symbolicanof for tures.not in turalorderings theirworlds.no culturewas due to "the genius wantedto look at culturenot as a typological "as a constitutiveprocess.or constrain nectedness.folklore. dently announcedthat"thereare no races.have concernedthemselves of "laws of the integration culture" could "lead to sig.cient Greece propoundedby the art historian Johann quencies displayedby membersof a species along lines Winckelmann (see Bernal I987: esp. and ethnology. They givenbut changingmaterials. gradualchanges in traitsand gene fre.interdigitations a culture. age. raised these questions. quoted in Stockingi968:2I3).WOLF Perilous Ideas 15 with studiesofgeneticdistributions. divisionoflabor. of To thiskindofapproachBoas was opposed.generation.nationsare given condensedrepresentation the form of ple opposed the universalistrationalismof the French of icons. 267). ad. theirpart. Stephen Jay ingHellas as a whollyintegrated culturethathad known Gould's The Mismeasure ofMan (i98i). often against staunch profes.
a Marxian proa ductivemode dialecticallycombining infrastructure and superstructure.This is." eitherin the course of mobilization or in the wake of the effects theyso create. all these approachesrelyon defining But thebasic armatures coresin termsthatrender or culture as secondary. Furthermore.It was only rarelythat the older literature about culture contact and acculturation raised in questions about power differentials discussions of culturalborrowings fromone culture to anotheror of of the modification existingculturesby novel introductions fromoutside."It moves us a considerable on away fromessentialistperspectives culturetowarda constructionist. I suspect that"culture"is composed and recomposedofdiversely shaped elements.At the same time. how groups shape and reshape their and commitment and to self-images elicit participation are themselves shaped by these representations." Othersymboliccodes and pantomimes. There is a shiftfromthe idea of common descentas definedby hereditary biological essence or a hereditarily exclusive gene pool. To quote an older anthropologist. Resourcemobilizationis easiest to perceivewhen our eyes are fixed on political and economic resources. FebruaryI994 the bland. of how the organization diversity (Wallace is accomplished." There is too much talk about agencyand resistance and too little attentionto how groupsmobilize. and power. culturalecological core. basic personala of ity structure. how groupsmobilize and deployresourcesbut do not do this "just as theyplease. power-irrelevant relativismof much of the distance talkabout "culture. I think. There are also historic changes in how ethnicityis understood therein the nonacademicworldand how out ethnic claims are advanced that need to be confronted and recognized.notoriously.and thinkingon these topics usually proceeds quite separatelyfrominquiriesinto culturalmeaning. compositionalpoint of view. which. This happened. the seeming contradictionbetween earthbound material processesand the free-floating zigzags of the mind. of like the "little-engine-that-could" American children'sliterature-the littlelocomotivethat can accomplish feats of strength throughthe application of will "men make power. These studies go some way toward Boas's problematicabout how ideas in culture engaging are brought into association with each other-the how of association and coherencebut not yet the why. and success or failure in these struggles has painful or exhilaratingeffectson peoples' selfdefinitions. in one in or nation-state.natureand the supernatural.who also exercise less social power. Notions of a common cultural i96i) structure sound a bit underlying this differentiation all too much like a little cultural homunculus built into the everyone through process of socialization or a Maxwell's demon capable of sortingdivergent messages to createnegativeentropy order. new emphasis on the ethnicityfastenedon the ways in which such groups and entitiesarise and definethemselvesas againstothers also engagedin the process of developmentand selfdefinition. culTreating ture as secondaryalso recreates.much as Boas saw it. theirown history. ratherthan like a dense tapestry imbricated withrepetitive standardized designs.6 1 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35.time and again.they constitutewhat PierreBourdieuhas called "culturalcapital. filigree ornamentation.in one region. Peoplehood/Ethnicity talkedmuch ofrace in thelast Although anthropologists and of century thenincreasingly culturein thisone. but theydo not make it just as they please. and reshape cultural repertoires by them in turn. coupled with a stresson how difficult impossible it is forpeople of different or culturesto live together one city. control. class and race. "Ethnicity"addresses in ways that "culture" does not the fact that culturallymarked entities formparts of largersystems. Number i. influence. as underthe "old" racism." This novel combinationof culturalism and ethology VerenaStolcke (i992) calls "cultural a fundamentalism. It transcends . There has been a markedshift definiin tionsofethnicity from racialistphrasings formulas to of culturaldistinctiveness. Anthropologists have also takenseriously Boas's point aboutoppositionsand contradictions culturebuthave in done littlethinking and about how these heterogeneous and discoursescan intersect.rooted way elsewhere." new and morevirulent way ofstaking out ethnic claims to precedence and power. rank and rulership. "We have roots here by virtue of descent-you othershave yourdifferent oflife.less highlyvalued or not valued at all.much of the discourseabout agencyand construalstrikesme as undulyvoluntaristic. Anthropologists have workedwith a numberofdifferent models to represent organizational armatures aroundwhich culturalformscould be said to form-a framework social structure.much to the good. There are ongoingstruggles over the distribution redistribution such high-profile and of symbolic goods. belong to groupsoflower ranksand statuses. The whys still elude us. ethnicityemergedas a hot topic only at the beginningof the sixties. embeddedin relationsofpower. are But it can also be observedin the way cultural repertoires are differentially distributedwithin a culturebearingpopulation.forgood reasons.but thephenomenaofpowerwieldingin the cognitive and symbolic sphere are poorly theorized.descent and authority. This occurs preciselyat a time when an ethnic division of laborgrowsmore intenseworldwideand when transna- and yieldedmuch workthatis richin description evocativelyintegrative. or ratherthan acknowledging strategic its work in layingdown the culturallyparticularand yet potent terms of personhood and gender. not here. There is hardlya study of an ethnic group now thatdoes not describehow the locals use "agency" to "constructthemselves" in relationto power and interest. and are shaped shape. suspectthatcultural and I orderingrequires leadership. contradictory perspectives how divergent interestsand orientationscan be made to converge.towardthe idea ofcommondescentas a transgenerational vehicle forthe transmission an authentically of rooted culture. Some symbolic codes and ways of enacting them are monopolized by dominant elites throughtheirprivilegedaccess to state and economic apparatuses.I submit.
Boasian tradition idethe is tendto relegateto thejunk pile oftheirprofessional history remains ationallybased. Wolf states them eletanceofhis contribution we confront intensifying gantly. We should also and "peril" evokes a sense of dangerand difficulty in but not turnourbacks on physicalanthropology support also of challenge and responsibility. or should.London.rable ethnicitieshave the further tics of meaning and cultural construction and not theircontinueduse in the largerworld of politics and merelyautomaticrepetition inherited of forms. He Conclusion between "lineage segments. Comments . i6 viii 93 and powerfully modified culturallearning. in as the racismsof our times. endangered.remainwithinthe ivory we need to take much greater who discard outaccount of heterogeneity towers of academia. a claim forthe continuing relevanceto genexplanatory eralpublic discourseofredefined conceptsofrace as biological variabilityand culture as diversitiesof learned behaviours. have "kin group" or "school. that and and history-differentially stressed in different situations and at different points of conjunction-feeds back in variousways upon theways in which people understand who theyare and wheretheymightbe at any givenhistoricalpoint in time. in common. Anthropologists and contradictions cultural systems and to explore moded racisms. In Words.culture. the anthropological version of the concept is." particularity in beginning the I960s. This seems ture.studies. so I99OS. University Western of of hierarchy racial units was untenable. survive. Wolf's man biologythatcan engagethe development human "ideas" have consequences in the world (and he is utof bodiesin growth and maturation. cultural Contemporary a problemand not a given: a cultureis a changing mani.ideas.some ideas. a formboth personaland generalizable. Wolfranks the organizingconcepts of race. in Wolf'sview.human interaction.Boas was an articulateopponentofNazi DepartmentofAnthropology.and biologywas Ontario. point is once more a BoaMy sian one-that claims to ethnicity not the same evare erywhere at all times. cannot take forgranted We that changing conditionsof our worlds. of course. when theyapwe tivethatplace cultureswithinlarger intraand intercon.It also means that autonomyand historicallyconstitutedprofessional exethnicitiescome in many varieties and that to call a pertiseofanthropologists. of Workon what is labelled have become major ideological weapons in "ethnicity.Postof We taken note of Boas's critique of typological thinking Boasians of quite diverse lineage descent have some about races. A lot ideas remainsin flux. In this wonderful and deceptivelysimple paper. Wolfis most lyricalwhen he offers Boasian critique a of the misuses of the concept of race in the recenthisDARNELL REGNA toryof Europe..to Wolfhimself. This thinkingposes a challenge communicationamong whom I count myself). reproduction mor.and or Boas to Voegelin to Hymes to the ethnographers of peoplehood/ethnicity. in and incommensuthe ways in which this differentiation obligationto critique producesa poli..and people/ethnicity termsof theiremergence in especiallyclearat the moment. stud.logical ideation into anthropologicalideology.when notionsofcultural in thehistory anthropology. comparing"more egalitarian tionalmigration movingeverlarger is numbersofpeople across national frontiers. de facto. Its relationshipto older ogy. nectedsystemsbut note also thatthismakes ofcultures students of popular culture. Germany.What anthropologists Perhapsmost significant.peal to emotionover reason. is recent. etc. Wolf's title speaks of "perilous ideas. social entityan "ethnic" groupis merelythe beginning real sense. illness and health. turninganthropobut its transformation into a more contextuallyaware hu. Anthropology in some very is. and interaction with the pline of anthropology). Ont.terlyclear that most of the world lies outside the disciand tality. insistingthat race was a statisticalcategory." a social collectivity.As a historianofNorthAmericananthropology. As what the conceptsof our disciplinehave to offer the in of larger macrosystems come in many shapes and sizes.and still incomplete. an constructing argumentthat Boasian theorynot only exists but continues to characterize much of the anthropology done in NorthAmerica.ground arguI my ment primarilyin published and unpublished documents about the work of Boas and his firstgeneration The argument inseparablefrom disciofstudents. and the to us now and to an anthropology the future.In studies of culture our theorizings will."the personal distinguishes intellectual genealogies of individual anthropologists It is FranzBoas's enduring legacyto have made us think (Boas to Lesser to Mintz and.ityforharm-especially. Canada N6A 5C2. They have a history. moreclearlyabout the issues posed by race. we must remind ourselves of the impor.culturalline of evidence.Wolf articulateshis relationshipto the Boasian tradition.(In line withthe lattercontention.but we are nowherenear the end of the task.we must understand To of the inquiryratherthan the implementation it." live tinder theworldbeyondacademe. often choose to dismiss the disciplinary fold. culdo the ethnic groups subsumed by them. is my plinary practiceas an Amerindian linguist/symbolic anthropologist.not a fixedand unitaryentity.Wolf'schoice of "people" to gloss remainsforall hands to do.WOLF Perilous Ideas | 7 ticularism.static culturologies.porary. have enormouscapacies ofethnicity can welcome the changesofperspec. Wolfsuggestsa crossto plicatethe theoretical premisesofBoasian historical par.things. inevitably by For the past severalyearsI have been attempting ex.contemWe politicalstrife. have learnedquite a bit in anthropol.
. The pology. Boas re.and power" involvedin his of Wolf's motivations. Australia. historyof the discipline.and I wish to reflect reasonto [the]unreason" of racism.N.influence. materialconditionsand mentalconcepts.Nonetheless.65 Fifth Ave. necessaryand interrelated.8 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35.ethnonationalism ethnicgroupclaims to powerhave their"virulent"side.La Trobe University. unsatisfying two main reasons.have been identified recentacademic discourseand. I0003. the current practicesofculturalpoliries rationalized and supportedAryan supremacy.now becomes a body just as did the racism of an earliertheoreticalera.S. cultures. Formost ofthe history our discipline. my view.Wolf worries the continuing debatesover the Enlightenment moand that contemporary constructionsof individual agency dernitythat have their origins in late-i8th-century are "undulyvoluntaristic" and remindsreadersthatan.France." beneaththe surfaceit is never clearlyidentified We are now accustomed to thinkingof "order"in at part because the challenges that enemy poses both to .moreimportant. reconstructions to explain them.the complexity in est defenders.Y."culturalordering.worldwhereanthropologists have traditionally course.I would want for Wolf'sprogramme our disciplinary future revolves to argue at greater lengthbut can here only assert that around the urgencyof transcending the dichotomyof the differences among the discourses of race." reminder Boas's insistenceon and contradiction culture.namely.separationof what are. KAHN politics of difference of WesternEuropean and.as it were. a globalised of Departmentof Sociology.by insightsfromthe third). Anthrowithits conceptualarsenal.and the like.While one might wish to sympathisewith "leadership. he is perfectly gone untained considerable respect for the emotional side of challengedto do theirresearch.Ifmyfirst assertionis right. froma certainlack of fo. WolfreadsBoas particular to have opposed the German Romantic tradition. and mentsof a single historyat the same time allows Wolf Moreover. message is. This procedurestrikesme as for anthropology. FebruaryI994 tribal peoples" in search of alternativeconstructions liberalhumanism'sgeneralprojectof emancipationand anthropological knowledgeare neverseriwhich would not dichotomize or rank races.his argumentis unlikely to con.The device to which I human life alongside the rational in the "psychic refer the attemptto writemore or less separatehistois processes" which were to follow trait-based historical riesofthe threekeyconcepts-race. then anthropology is anthropology directly implicatedin the ideologiesand that have emergedin the course JOEL S.and ethnicity and the political projectsthat theyimply ther the naive materialismof I960s neo-Marxismnor areless thanWolfwould have us believe and thattracing the polar ideas-in-isolation-from-anything-in-the-realseparategenealogiesdisguisesthe quite specificcontext world idealism is viable three decades later.control. Sufficeit here to point to a of device that allows him largelyto ignorethe thetwo have been defined contrastively. partbecause althoughan enemylurks dication of the continuingproblem of explainingculand in tural"association and coherence. and people. in tional integration culture.and his inof vince anybut traditional liberalanthropology's staunch. Bundoora. nei. New School forSocial ture. conclusion: eternalvigilance is the price of conceptual of thoughtthat is externalto the historyof modernity. in to its analysis providing adherentswith a privileged clarity thebringing bear ofanthropological position from which to criticisemodernity on the essentialismsof contemporary withouthavingto account global society. First. and peoples. especially. to traditional ously engaged. Number i. the know how to see individualsas both cre.Certainly. 8 vII 93 It modernity.WILLIAM truncatedone forthe notion of DepartmentofAnthropology.A. Wielding withinwhich these different expressionsofWesternsoof of power and constructionof social meaning are both ciety'sunderstanding othernesshave arisen.) on His argument about culturedraws imperceptively This is not the place to rewriteWolf's justificatory thatabout race.and.Insofaras Volksgeist of theo. can no longertherefore merelydismissthe practiceof a politics of difference the contemporary in Wolf'sbriefjourneyinto the historyof anthropological world (the hidden enemy to which I referred above) in in conceptssuffers. culture. a shorter one forthe conceptof cul. Apart from a worthy motive-to laud Sidney Mintz-this shortpiece tracesa verylong genealogyfor ROSEBERRY the conceptofrace.I2 vIII 93 apparently. increasingly. culture. U. in structed the work of Franz Boas (supplemented.both biological and here on threeof his observations:his emphasis on the ethnicist. New York.in problemsinherentin the anthropologicalproject that in which the spiritof a people produceda passionate. any genuinemerit Wolf's stimulatingessay invites us to think critically and thatwith it anthropology must continueto "speak and historically about our concepts.Second. in my view. Wolfperhapsdis.emo. for itself.This separationpermitsWolfto claim a scientific and high misses too quickly the culture-and-personality school groundprovidedby a concept of cultureand fromthat which pursuedthese connectionsas a mere "interlude" high ground to attack the practice of racism.of tics both in the United States and in those partsof the correct. cus. Germany.as con.quite so cavalier a fashionas Wolfdoes here. Victoria3083.and an extremely The "peoplehood" or nationalism/ethnicity. perhas haps. that only the middle of the three. interrelated elethropologists ative and constrained. ethnic on theway to post-WorldWarII cognitiveand symbolic chauvinism. Nevertheless. to leave himselfout of the analysis. Research.Britain.
they are asthe which." the wider cultural ordering of complex social relations and processes. I should like to develop the discussion on a peril which is referred in his remarksbut not developedfully. can onlybe constructed the contextof specificsocial. counting heads. We need to understandthe processes of political and cultural orderingwithout such convenient but misleading conceptual anchoring. without such thinking. I agree. the political establishmentof "order. What does this have to do with races.and "monstrous races" characteristicof archaic civilizations. We see thismost clearlyin his discussionofrace (themostfully developed of the ideas in this essay) and the tripartite classifications of civilizational core. I3 VIII 93 Wolfis as usual saying sensible thingsabout the concepts of race.ideas about peoplehood and ethnicity need to be understood in termsoftheirconceptualhistoriesand in termsof their and Balkan.these values may be integrated individualsuperegosto varying degreesor not at all. a broadlysketched"Cartesian revolution" or "modernism"in termsof which a varietyof morespecificand variableculturalconstructs and forms can be arrayed. Our perilous ideas need to be placed within and and sohistory made centralto the kind of comparative ciologythatWolfand othershave pioneered.maintaininga sense of complexityand contradictionin each domain under considerationand exploringthe mutually constituting in processes of political and cultural ordering specific social-historical fields. But we have yet to think between order creatively enoughabout the relationship and contradiction.but we see it as well in his analysisofthe development of each of these concepts in "cauldrons of conflict. villages.Among its basic structures have been an axial division of labor reflected in a core-periphery polarizationand a political system of sovereignstates bound together within an interstate This singular system.has come to permeatefirstthe core in the igth and as century thenthe periphery well in the 2oth (Wallerstein i 992b). and the emergence of social and political strugglesof various sorts. economic.peoLiberalreformism an ideology. and people.A colonial administrator attempting establish orderis to interested gathering in information. But a historicalsystemcannotfunction unless at least some normsand values of this kind prevail (win out. it.the posof tulationofa variety cultureriddlesthatcan be solved in termsof the requirementsof the more stable core.and political histories. He correctly points to a centralproblemwith most schemes-the postulation of an organizaexplanatory tional. The role of anthropological ideas in the imagination of social and political orderand the role of particular processesof social and political ordering the formain tion of anthropological ideas are betterrecognizedthan theywere two decades ago.Of course.as a as ples? Everything. barbarians.WOLF Perilous Ideas I 9 least a dual sense. He entitles his remarks"perilousideas. I believe that we all today are living in a singular historicalsystem. culture." We still do not adequately understandthe complex interplay among anthropological ideas.I would serting ideologyofliberalreformism argue. NorthAmericangroundings.in anothervein. and it formsin turnthe basis of the widely accepted mythof the primacyand legitimacyof popular sovereignty (within each state). in my view. and collectingrevenue. Binghamton. I would further argue that liberal reformism an ideology collapsed-in the sense that it as no longercommands widespreadadherenceand thereforeno longerserves to legitimatethe system-in the "revolutions"(Wallersteini 992a). and households before(or as) he attemptsto construct A Christianmission sets out to save souls. but it imaginesthe fleshlycarriers those souls living of in families.SouthAfrican. as Wolfinsists. or ecological core in termsof which is culture seen to be secondary.with houses and yards. relatedproblemis that A ofholdingone dimensionofsocial and culturalrelations constantor relatively stable while rendering anotherdimensiondynamicand contradictory-onthe one hand. that I term the capitalist world-economy. I97os the of andI980s. Yorkat Binghamton. cultural.on thewhole. This beliefis asserted both internallyto each state and within the as world-system a whole. or. in in Explanation.a singularsociety if you will. The perilousideas thatWolfdiscusses can be seen to be ordering concepts in preciselythis dual sense.but along with even the worstof architectshe imagines an orderedsocial world of tribes.even institutions. Box 6ooo. againstopposition. which means thatthereare normsand values which serve to legitimate the world-system a as institutional whole and which receive some important into support. I3902-6000.O.as in the now formulaic references a knowledge/power to nexus. cultures. thisview. disbelief. This is what we mean by "citizen" ship. historicalsystemhas a geoculture. "to arrange classify"and "to comor mand or make obey"-cognitive and political. activelyopposingthesevalues.S. N. thisbeing realmeaning theI989 .It to conceptualizahas to do with the ways in which varying the tions play a role in legitimating delegitimating) (or historicalsystemsin which we live. U.I take it.Thus. A second key geoculturalvalue has been the beliefthatover time it is possible to amelioratematerial conditionsand move in the directionof greater material equality. or apathy).A. Y.answers to thewhyquestionsposed by Wolfwill continueto elude us. One key geoculturalvalue has been that everystate should be a nation.State University New P. the other. thatthe concepts have multiple usages and historiesand theiruse as oftenadds to our confusionas reduces it. And theremay be groups. an overly systematic understandingof capitalism or plow or digging-stick on agriculture. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN of FernandBraudel Center." meaning. To the extentthatpeople give credenceto these two geoculturalvalues. but we understand thatthe connectionsare intimate.
S.and the violence will much increase with a task of understanding similarity beforewe emergefromit.place theirfaith elsewhere than in states. way.place write a historyof anthropology find solutionsto theirproblems.Boas was punctilious and insistent about the has eroded. this of the existingsystem.overthe whole rangeof our similaritiesand differences.that analyticand comparativeunderstandings social pology.Yet. I wantedto place theirfaithin states.It is all too true. cul.IO I CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35.hic salta! at tion.findsvirtuein my account of Boas and his con." Yet I would reiteratethat fudgingthe distinctionswill lead us astray our purposeis to thinkclearly if of the beliefin the centrality the state.as oth. races. This expressesitself.." and variability historicalsystem.of the demand of the underdogs lose sight of this central purpose at its peril. Anthropology. perhapsforall anthropology. of tures. U. One can conceive ofotherpurposesand other face to "groupism. called the "four-field They have no self-evident we are all members of multiple.people must find their solutions. the politi. seeking to suppress the demo. as Wolf so clearly shows. Building around this purpose derives definedas lesser breeds)forequal the studyof anthropology (those geoculturally not of motivations intellecin rights thepolis. .withinthe human species in ways that were never adtribute?One thing surely is a demystification 'the umbratedbefore. who is one of the leading historiansof anthro. hic Rhodus. These are urgentissues to which thereis no easy po. peoples have therefore new and much more that they imply are less than Wolf would have us beacute political resonance.torical system.Boas insisted that this was what anthropology cal consequences are oftenveryunpleasant. But of course. WOLF teachinganthropology but fora different of shuffling the cultural. I always thought that one of the goals of was to make people aware that ERIC R.Thus.linguistic. to but to honor Sidney look forsalvation. O'otam. has the effectof pressingpeople to tribution.and to do so in a particular in a veryspecificdirection. . look for salvation.and culture. language. and language speakers. Kahn remindsus that this encompassingglobal sysenough.one needs to remindoneself that if there were efforts dominate or destroy"the to other.to make groupidentity politicallyefficacious.I am pleased that into a bugaboo so impenetrableand incomprehensible of Darnell. and synoptically biological creatures. along erness" and that these encounterswere all too often with mayhem and oppression. They have no Second."Groupismis also the expressionof anthropologies.Races. 30 VIII 93 and geneticcards theymighthave come to be Inuit or I want to thank my respondentsfor their comments.Y. however. Roseberry seconds the point. another.A.but it is scarcely or in the philosophicalendeavorsof the Enlightenment. "groups"-crosscutting.and cultural encountershave been virtuallyruled out Reply .too.in its justification merelyfrom for the call for"multiculturalism" the United States and tual curiosity(though this may sufficefor some) but in its equivalents elsewhere. We are in the midst of a crisis of our world-economy. FebruaryI994 geoculturalvalue. Number I.If this escalates. We must also engage in the utopistics of inthe alternative venting orderinto which we wish to en.This is the global panhuman entitywhich Immanuel Wallersteindefinesin his comment as "a singularhiscraticdemand in the name of liberalism. It politicizes people Mintz.eitherin the universalizingreligions of "perilousideas" ofwhich Wolfspeaks. and peoples are not essences.but-I submit-anthropology would demo.about the causes of human similaritiesand differences. the capitalist The rise of this systemconfronts us litical answer. the importanceof looking at humans simultaneously culturecarriers.and ethnicity a tures. The "universalist"response fromour historicalexperienceof worldwideexpansion the diversehuman groupings and culto multiculturalism-the call for "integration"of all thathas brought "citizens" into a single "nation"-is of course a deeply tures into an encompassing networkof relationships. However. forwhateverit is worth.And it tends to tame any Mintz among the executors of the Boasian legacy and anarchistictendencies they may feel. one no longer contained by lieve. ever-evolving. example.tem arose out of encounters of the West with "othterat the end ofthiscrisis. a productof these encounters."therewere also efforts comprehend to thatother. anthropologyfixedcontours. conservativereaction. with all the othersocial sciences.of race. In this sense.raticliberation. as and overlapping.in both the past and the presgroups tend to strengthen boundaries. Sometimesthis even allowed us betterto comprehend ourselves. at the same time. cul.a singular society . .in theirstate. Third. among the discourses would argue that this is happeningtoday to a degree Kahn writesthat "the differences and the political projects unknown in the igth and 2oth centuries.Classical anthropology. culture.S. it to definethe importanceof that legacy for American and at has been an enormously stabilizingdoctrine and a pillar anthropology. I need to distinguishamong race. First. Irvington. What can intellectualscon. at the hands of some anthropologists the They make me aware thatI oughtto clarify context the existentialist"other" has now been transformed in which my remarkswere written. cent but implicatedin efforts conquest and dominaers have said. N. was thus neverinnodirectly Still.My primarypurpose was not.reject overlaps.Boas preachedthe importance what now gets approach" in U. ent-if our purpose is to studywhat makes us human demand exclusive loyalties. content.quite different was about. has in factdemurred fraught at grappling with such enterprises. indeed myriad. There is. Instead.To the extentthat this ideology momentin time.
pp. I987. I99I. New York: of now at a discount. Press. I964. The tyranny GreeceoverGerin many. FRANZ.it is surely BOAS. Furthermore. New Brunswick: those members of our discipline who have come to Rutgers Press. is not all they do. JOHN B. including those of anthropological ogy:WilliamEdwards thedoctrine race. I.(Film. The monstrous a art Harvard thought. ReYes. CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 3:279. i982. and revolution: Studies I964.(Historyof 5. I990. Reversing SIMMONS.but that races. AnnalsoftheNew York the alternativeorderinto which we wish to inventing Academy of Sciences 29e2.Minneapolis: of University Vol. i982. I98I. purpose. Cited References . enterat the end of this crisis.He wants us to be more creative Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. AZIZ. New York:Grosset 28:87-II9. HARRY ELMER. CHRISTOPHER.Comparative Studiesin Societyand History I3:376-407.ton. Capital. 3-I8. KARL. Criticalessayson scienceand literature. 2d revised edition.andSTEPHEN Cambridge: mismeasure The J. S.sources." 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New York: with a unifying generalanthropology. tionsde Minuit. Minnesota droit. I988. Vol. Anthropologists anthropologists write. conception/symbolization processes: Cognitive anthropology and symbolic happiness. House/Hanover London:University and PressofNew England. Pouvoir. the claim that the centralpurposeof anthropol. The imageofthe barbarian medievalEuin and heterogeneity our subencompassthe complexity of rope. and Anglo-Saxons. Cambridge: anthropology Press. SIDNEY "Madeira and thebeginnings of New World and sugarcane cultivation plantation A slavery: who make that purpose their own. indo-europeennes. New York:Seabury WILLIAM PHILLIPS. not mean that Boas was rightin everything wrote he AND TIMOTHY CHAGNON. des institutions BENVENISTE. Phasesin humanperception/ New York:Dover. "Micheletand theuses ofnatural HUSS. EditedbyLudmillaJordanova. Roseberry'scomment suggeststhat LOVEJOY. D. otheranthropologies. Magical and said.no. CLARE A. MARTIN. I977.and my BUTLER. Trojans. I98I. about how we use our abstractionsto characterizeand JONES. The mythof theeternal return. WOLFGANG. 198I. I973. ARTHUR 0.The Boasian legacyis oftentalked about as ifit Anthropologist 66:20-28. 198I. behavior: Essays on biological anthropology. I969."in Bones. would be carrying the Boasian legacy. manyabout whetheranthropology a future. FRANK B." That claim asserts that there can be a GOULD. Barbarians Arabeyes. I. I988. R. MIRCEA. I986. notall theirthought processesclonedfrom identicalpar.Given the pessimism on the partof Schocken. BAUER.We urgently need to develop a more sensitive BERNAL. CLAUDE.Past and PresEDMUND MORGAN. Quetzalcoatland theironyof emmessageis not beingheardin the present. ASCH.BLANCKAERT. Montreal: Harvest out That. "others"did not all producethe same results. China and thesearchfor classification. New Brunswick: UniverRutgers and dialecticallyinformed sense of how involvements sityPress. I964. of had moreenemies thanfriends his own time. amongdifferent societies and culturescan producea va. BARNES. happilysettleforthe small-scaleutopia ofthe discipline American Journal PhysicalAnthropology of 56:339-46.bodand of understandings. HUGH. 289-32I. 23( MARX. Cognition componential and analysis: God's truth hocus-pocus. language.BURLING. NAPOLEON.EditedbyVeraRuplantation our small gardenbut also "engage in the utopisticsof bin and Arthur Tuden. "On theorigins French of ethnolrietyof outcomes. Translated by Eden and CedarPaul. W. ROBBINS.I986. Beacon remarks were addressedto the concernthat his central CARRASCO. et ALBERT. Teutons. theconquest:History MC LAREN. I958 Press.pp. pp. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic rootsof Classical civilization. and culture. I98I. 2. were isomorphic with Americananthropology.among Norton. I976.New York:Nordu metal:Histoire represen.) Jr. New in the ways we think. Le vocabulaire trade. in popularsovereignty Englandand America. Boston:M. JR. Vol.: Documentary Educational Watertown. Paris:EdiPress. Racial myths English in history: of contextwith operationsof inductionand deduction. and Dunlap. M. of court. RO GER. L'Homme GEORGE L. A history of I962. Walthropologists in in study institution on building. I946 (i867). religion. Editor.) London:Dent/New York:Dutton. ideology. Stocking. The crisisof German MOSSE.
King's College.S-io6 9I Stockholm. U. culture. I96I. U.7600 Mar del Plata. Scotland. U.A.S.Aberthe ernAfrica. [iwl WHEATLEY. University equal world. or HonggangYang. .. Casilla de Correo 722-CorreoCentral. Old AberdeenAB9 October 3-7.K.July I5-i8.080I5 Barcelona.Tampa..Texts and Images of People. of November. Johannesburg 2o5o. Dowson and J.U.I1 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35. 2d International Congressforthe Study 2UB."in Socialistregister I992: New worldorder.encyclopaedist. tion. Lerida. Rutgers University in earlyanthropolI965. Calendar International March 2I-24.A. in and myth Igth-century Press.Plants and Culnual Meeting. Ga.A.Write:William Johnston.LeninskyProspect32A.[iw] pp. Readings SLOTKIN. 96-IIO.and Johannesand work as a Semitist. in to VERENA.S.Moscow.Rock Art ResearchUnit.S. VERLINDEN. nization. Key symposium: tural Context. Write:Instituteof Latin America Studies. The "right difference" an unSTOLCKE. FebruaryI994 Cultureand personality.A. ism. Milibandand L. Rusin guage.Av..U.MS. ConflictResolutional Symposium.. librarian and the various academic fieldsthat recogLewis-Williams.Ithaca:CornellUniversity WALLACE.Write:Institutde ProspectivaAntroto Anthropological Contributions ConflictResolupologica.theologian. South Africa. burg. Moscow II7334.Departmentof Anthro4rt. .Atlanta. STOCKING.Symposiumand Exhibitions. New "The collapse of liberal- New Brunswick: British literature.South Africa. 457. Conferenceon EthnicTra. of IMMANUEL. i992. University the Witwatersof rand. Cleveland Heights. Russia.times.Spain.Mendoza. Chicago: University ChicagoPress. Race. Argentina.Calif. Institute. in July cene/HoloceneBoundary. Congressof AmeriUNMP.. William RobertsonSmith Congress. London:Merlin. WALLERSTEIN. SymposiumThe PleistoAtlanta. Florence. ThreatenedPeoples and Environments the Americas: 48th International Costas y del Cuaternario. DepartDepartment of Archaeology. Human Occupations in South America.D. Theme: Smith's life.and Power: Representing Bushman People of SouthApril 5-II. International One Copenhill. A. Shamanism.AnApril 27-30. in 40. Sweden. PAUL. I968.Stockholm.Viking and evoluGEORGE W. Argentina. ment of Hebrew and Semitic Languages.S. of ModifiedStates of Consciousness. FundPublications Anthropology ogy.K. U.University of Aberdeen. Geneses9:7-24. ANTHONY F.Berkeley. coordinator. C. Write:OrganizingCommittee.Ga.Interna3362o. tion. Write:Marcelo Zairate. Editor.Write:T.S. SouthernAnthropological Theme: Ethnocognition. JR. Centrode Geologia de 4-9. I970. York:RandomHouse. Panitch. JAMES S.a conference association with the Language sia. Fla. Troisideologies une seule?La problematique ou de la modernite. Write:Alvin W. canists.A. i992a.New York: Free Press. CarterCenterof EmoryUniversity. ogy. Wolfe. September. i992b.U.University South Florida.conference 22oo Oakdale Rd. nise his influence. Number i. of Press.Ohio 44I I8. European The beginnings moderncoloCHARLES. Write:Bruce Conference. 30307.Sweden. tion Program.International OriginsSociety. I97I.Spain. Editedby R. Instituteof Ethnologyand AnthropolRichman.The Pleistocene/HoloceneBoundaryand pology. The Social and Cultural Originsof Landitional Culture and Folk Knowledge. Scotland. Society. Politics. deen. The PivotoftheFourQuarters.. Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes.
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