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a heavyfreight shame and fury. "Race" has been traced to generatio. This paperwas delivered. rights Foundation Anthropological SIDNEY W. He has His includeSons oftheShaking Earth(Chiter). The discipline did not spring Usedin ourtime. is to declare that someone lacks culturalcapital and should not be allowed into the Atheneum or the Escambron Beach Club. Culture. Homer spoke of a flockofanimals or a swarmofbees.I946) and Columof bia University at (Ph.especiallythe idea thathumans depend heavily on behavior that is learned. on of public understanding. who stands at the beginning of American anthropology. Wolf and or have long Ideas aboutrace.). butwordscan neverhurtyou.. U.because it remainsa majorsource in ofdemonology this country and in the worldand anhas thropology a major obligationto speak reasonto unreason." "Culture" was first a fieldand only later transferred cultura animi. whom this new lectureseries is designedto honor." thesewords-as Morton Friedsaid-can injuremind and body. 4 done fieldworkin Puerto Rico (I948-49). FebruaryI994 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY ? I994 byThe Wenner-Gren All reserved OOII-3204/94/350I-OOOI$2.A. he was educated Queens College(B. Number i.and Boas have insisted on and that we must heed."fromthe Latin generare. "the to cultivation mindsor souls.not inborn."to beused to talk about cultivating get. will thenconI siderthe conceptof culture. these words moreover. notions about the biological variabilityof the species and about the possibleimplicationsof this variability. as well as a bunchofpeople (Benveniste i969:90). carry . University November I99a2. publications of cago:University ChicagoPress. the inauguralSidneyW.I will attendespecially to the conceptofrace. Peasants(Englewood CenCliffs: Prentice-Hall. To accuse someoneoflackingculture.I will take up briefly notion of peothe ples. and the Italian Alps (I960-6I and summers thereaf- Each endeavorto understand humankindworks with a set of characteristic ideas that orientits inquiries and justifyits existence. Mintz between anthropology and otherkinds Hopkins wider interplay of of to Lecture.This was trueeven when they firstcame into usage. Thus. "generation. After teaching a variety instituat of he of tions.I98 2).and that this capacity forlearninghas fostered the proliferation quite varied bodies of thoughtand of action.A. taught us to be especially attentiveto issues of race and culture.The race concept has presided over homicide and genocide. in The present paperwas submitted finalform v 93.I959). Lesser." Greekethnosonce desigof nated just a "bunch.Bronx. I intend to focus on the concept of race. and anthropolto ogybearsa specialresponsibility examinethe commonplaces ofits thought thefighting and wordsofits speechand to subject themto resolute The present contribution thistask to analysis. I0468. of to Contrary the popular saw that "sticks and stones can break your bones.and for anthropology ideas about race and culture and-more recently-about peoplehood or ethnicityhave played that guidingand legitimizing role. is somethingthat Mintz.takemuchgreater ofheterogeneity contradictions cultural in and and systems.It is appropriate to address these issues today not only because i992 marksthe soth anniversary Boas's death but also beof cause one of the important lineage segmentsin anthropologyreckonsintellectualdescent fromFranz Boas to AlexanderLesser to SidneyMintz. of of thatwe mustremind ourselves theimportance suggests of aboutracesas we confront Boas's critique typological thinking account theintensifying racismsofour time. was professor anthropology theUniversity Michigan I96I to I97i beforejoining the facultyat CUNY.culture. i969). theDepartment Anthropology The Johns i6." without reference descent or to politicalcohesion.D. theyformpart of the stock of ideas of much widerpublics who discuss themin moreextended and less academic terms.00 for Research. Peasant Warsofthe Twentieth and Row. i956). MINTZ LECTURE FOR I992 Perilous Ideas Race. Bornin at I923. Franz Boas.West. i966).. peoplehood ethnicity to and its served orient anthropology's inquiries justify existence. And one of the ways of manifesting ethnicityis now to don a camouflagesuit and graban AK47.Y. recand ognizethatethnicities come in manyvarieties to call a sothe cial entity "ethnic"group merely beginning theinan is of quiry. Mexico (i95i-52. ERIC WOLF iS Distinguished Professor Emeritus Herbert of Lehman Collegeand theCityUniversity New YorkGraduate of Center(Bedford ParkBlvd. I954.Volume 35. This relationbetween professionaldialect and more generaldiscourseneeds to be understoodas part of the as i. too. This.beinga bez-kulturny the (as Russians say). Finally. As bothoffspring criticofthehumancondition.People' by Eric R. N. envisaged these days as social entities-ethnic groups or nationalities-that are conscious of themselves as ownersofdistinctive culturaltraditions passed on along the lines of shareddescent.a red-neckor hayseed. someone who has not been to the rightschools. These notionsare of course not onlyexclusive professional property.a jibaro or indito.S. I95 I). and Europeand thePeotury (New York:Harper and of ple Without History (Berkeley Los Angeles:University California Press.
Most of them developedmodels of thecosmologicalorder which an exemplary in center-a a metropolis.and ethnicity-has a societal background. ceryat a distance(see Chagnonand Asch I973). interested in how seemingly Race a One usefulway ofgetting purchaseon therace concept is to traceit to the greatarchaic civilizationsof the Old and the New World. and many more (Friedman These hierarchically deployed and ranked schemata may be comparedwith those of more egalitariantribal people.867). one can talk about Christiancommunionand elite Aztec cannibalism as convergent formsof communicationwith the divine. I also think that particulartakes are promptedby background conditions and limited by theseconditions. also begin theirsortingof people with a local cluster.but this riddle can only be unriddledwhen the notion of human equality has acquired the fixityof a different kindsofworkdone as forms laborin general of as long as slaves and peasants. to submit to law.he thoughtof the labor performed slaves and thatperformed freemen being by by as qualitativelydifferent.but rendering laborpoweruniversally exchangeablebymeans ofmoneyas a commondenominatorpermitted this new way of thought. I hope to contribute this task here. it Athena-like fromthe head of Zeus.to bewareofasserting linkages that are false. in the trenchantphrasing of Robbins Burling (i964). ear-furlers.true natureof a phenomenon.warriors and priestswere thought to perform qualitatively incommensurable kindsofwork. Still farther lie the settlements poon of tentialenemies who are said to perform soraggressive beyondthese live little-knownthough inimical Yanomami whom one fearsnot so much fortheirsorcery as I98I. Periodicallyraising thequestionofwhetherthe unitieswe defineare homogeneous or whether they are betterunderstoodwhen and theyare disaggregated disassemblednot onlyallows us to evaluate concepts we have come to take for granted. and aggressivein disposition.unwilling unpredictable. and because they appearedto lack articulatelanguage. rude in manner. Number i. and .insofaras it is generalized human labor.gluttonous. Forexample.uncouth and threatening identifiable but throughcontact in trade and war.and marry. and heathenseemed whollyincommensurable and as long as the symbolic value of an object or an act was thought be an intrinsic. Eliade I965. barbarians. and thatbackground has implications for how we conceptualize and use them.where of of theyenacted collective rituals to maintain the orderof the world and fromwhich they deployedthe power to it ensure (Carrasco i982. to hold themapart. people with one eye in the middle of theirforeheads.theyare takes on what are assumed to be the enduring. rule.Other concepts are analytic. inherent.bar-bar-speakers Aristotle's view this made themnaturalslaves and outcasts.I thinkof ideas as "takes" on the phenomenaof this world and as instructionsabout how to combine these takes to ascertaintheirconnectionsor. ested in how theyallow us to think. and religious guidance. it comes out of the cauldronsof conflictthat cooked up much of the toil and troubleofpast centuries.substantive. engineered-what kinds of credentials.is oflike kindand ofequal worth.according to Albert(i988)." whom the Roman Plinius catalogued formedieval posterity.theBrazilianYanomami. Beyond the lands of the known barbarians. in interested what the conceptsofrace.Thus Marx put forward interesting the argument that Aristotlewas unable to conceptualize a common denominator all human labor because. suspicious of holisms. mouthless apple smellers. of heretics. also allows us to thinkbetter. upside-down walkers.in which all partakeofeach other's vital substance by drinkingdown the ashes of the honoreddead in plantain soup. symbol fromreferent. both Christianand Muslim: men "whose heads growbeneaththeirshoulders"(Shakespeare).Similarly.inseparable aspect of it-God's truth and not man-made hocuspocus. portrayed. shadow-foots. to essential. Beyond this core of allies live active enemies whom one does not with whom one does not exchangeor feast. and skills of performance are requiredto be a convincingagurram.Some conceptsare essentialist. as a in memberof a slave society. mothercity-occupied the pivotal point ofintersection all the directions the cosmos.knowledge.in theircase of fouror fivelocal groups thatintermarry. with each otherin war. and it responds-must respond-to these forceseven when it strivesforprofessional distance and dispassionate neutrality. I am therefore allow us to think. FebruaryI994 whole phenomenaare put together. lay the countryof "the monstrous races. Wheatley I97I).It is one thingto and be impressed the spirituality holiness (baraka) of by a Berberholy man and quite anotherto ask how this is spirituality constructed.where the only trueand beautifullife could be lived. fromwhom one is separatedfirstby raidingand counand terraiding second bywarpathsorcery (raidsin which pathogenicsubstancesare supposedlydepositedin each other'scamp). dogfaces. and in raphonoi. there could probably no anthropology religionor studyof be of comparative religionas long as the religions believers. The Greeks and Romans saw these people as not quite human because theydid not live'in cities. culture. Only when it becomes possible to divorcesignifierfromthe signified.and attend ally one another'sfunerary rites. "The riddleof the expressionof value is solved when we know that all labor.2 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35. Beyondthe civilizationalcore areas lay the lands of the clad in skins. They were barba(Homer Iliad 2. Among these allies one can expect sorcery but of a gardenvarietymanageable throughordinaryshamanistic cures. One couldnot think of for Islamicparallels Al-Azmeh see i992).I am also interand ethnicity culture. is preIt cisely because it is both offspring and critic of our conditionthat it bears a special responsibility examto ine the commonplaces of our thoughtand the fighting wordsofourspeech and to subjectthemto resoluteanalysis. conviction" popular (I946:3I). to Each of these threeconcepts-race. contrariwise.
arguingin contra. and Tartars. In this scheme all people are seen as equally benevolent and malevolentand similarin comportment and bodilyform. Augustine's terms that they were rational and hence redeemable.D.Slavery existed.in contrast. Others saw themas fallencreatures.Christendom inherited the schemata of Classical antiquity and transformed themto fitits own logic and understandings (see Jones monstroushumans was transformed into one of the the faithful.as well as to the geoand graphicalzones in which these life-styles and bodily forms manifest.wicked in theirlusts. however.it is theirdifferential location on a spatial continuumthat identifiesthem as friendsor hostiles. hence human and descendedfrom "the one who was firstcreated. Christian heretics (Jones I97I:392). maps still showedhow Noah redistributed and repopulated worldby dividing amonghis the it .Slavs. It is importantto rememberhow long the biblical texts continuedto providethe main paradigmsforthe of interpretation human events.and Saracens could be made to fit moreor less neatlyinto the barbarian a category. how long it was held that the world was only 6. As Spaniardsdebated whetherto enslave the Indians of the Americas.This association gained intensityas a of rationalization the slave trade when Africareplaced Europeand the Levant as the main source of supplyfor coerced labor. misshapedby sin or guilt. Phillipsi985. The trichotomy civilized. therewere strainsin Chinese Taoism and Buddhismthat offered a and moralcorruption advocating critiqueofrulership by a retreatinto the "mountains and marshes" inhabited by non-Chinese indigenous peoples or inverted the schema of civilizationto look for"blessed lands" ofrefuge and immortality beyondthe confinesof the Middle Kingdom (Bauer I976). in to participation the work of the gods. of "ungentle churls" (Friedman 198i:I02-3).ooo and some yearsold. however.because theyappeared to be civilized and yet had been seduced by Mohammed. who had sinnedagainstGod and were thus supposedlyfitforenslavement. importedslaves from the Russian-Turkish borderlands around the Black Sea. subcategoryof really vicious barbarians. Withinthe contextof Europe.Vikings. The advent the of Beyondthe barbariansstill lay the lands of the monstrousraces (Friedman i98i). themid-i5th By century. Verlinden One of the main causes of the intensification of I970).very close to monwas constructed account forthe pastoralists to sters. they also resurrected the arguments about the natureof the monstrousraces of long before. and how long scholarsof reputeas well as laypersonsclung to the beliefin human descentfrom Adam and Eve and in the tales of Noah and his sons and of the Flood. "the many. Augustine thought theywere still capable of salvation.The dominantcivilizationalschemata. This should not be taken to mean that everybody in civilizationmarched in serriedranks accordingto the dominant schema at all times. their and move into North Africa soon barred Europeans from easy access to the eastern Mediterranean. of and barbarians. In the early Middle Ages. there were also civilizational schemata forrankinginternal "others"-exemplary representativesof the civilized way of lifeagainsthoi polloi. The Roman Tacitus wrotehis Germania in part as an indictmentof profligateRome in contrast with supposedlystill pristine and virtuousbarbarians-floggingmoral decay and family values is an old theme in history. quoted in Friedman i98i:93). In the later Middle Ages.as longas theywere "ratioor nal mortal"creatures. the Portuguesehad expanded their tradeforslaves down the West Africancoast as faras Ghana.ifonlybecause it corresponded a tangible.The Arabs constituteda special problem. are fromthe true and beautifulcenters ofurbanity the demonichillycragsand cavernsofthe to monsterworld. Bartolome de las Casas. I97I:38I). Magyars. it had been northern and easternEurope that sent slaves to the Islamic Near East."displayingon theirbodies what the forebears had earned by their misdeeds" (Vienna Genesis.Similarly. of the natives on islands of of the Indian Ocean. of Mongols.and cannibalsto boot.WOLF Perilous Ideas 13 fortheirinadvertent potentialkillingof one's alter ego destinyanimals. probablydescendantsof Cain or ofNoah's son Ham. the solution was to declare Mohammed a false prophetand the Muslims Turks once again simplified the classificatory problem.but it was not thencolor-specific. In addition to externalbarbariansand misshapen people. most sourcesassociated him with Ethiopians or Africans. A. projection of values and idealized and performance-a proximity styles of comportment at once geographical and social thus instituted ranked a scale ofvaluation fromthe paragonsto the stigmatized.the OttomanTurks cut off thissource ofsupplywiththe conquestofConstantinople. In I45 3. Avars. JuanGines de Sepuilvedaargued that the Indians were naturalslaves because theyweremorelikelybeasts than men." Adam. the current and Europe increasingly reversed. St.which like to graze in these far-off forest glades. AlthoughHam was occasionally represented the as forefather the Saracens. Germans. Opinion on thesestrangely formedcreatureswas divided. on horseback who came charging oftheEast to threaten out the integrity Christendom-Huns.in which guise they kept appearingbeforethe in as gatesofVienna and most recently Gastarbeiter the Germanies. Yet the centripetaltripartite schemeheld fastforlongperiodsoftime. and fromthen on Africasouth of the Sahara became a main area of supplyboth forIberia and forthe New World(Greenfield I977. into of theywereretrofitted the subcategory vicious barbarians.and the unredeemable.repliedin St. io6o-i I70." Proximity rulership.no matterhow odd in physicalform language. unredeemed. the trade was undoubtedlythe rapid decline of the AmericanIndian populationin the wake of the Spanish and Lusitanianconquests and the increasing demandfor labor on the sugar plantationsof the Caribbean about which Sidney Mintz has writtenso eloquentlyand so well. In the i 5thcentury. assign differential valuations to salient distinctionsin life-style physicalappearance.experienceddistribution to of social power in geopoliticalspace.
the initiator phreof tion that Africanswere basically different physique nology (McLaren i98i).scholars believed that by sorting people a soul separatefromthe body. Dupertuisat HarvardUniversity overthe van. Yet he did set up the Caucasians as the originalrace most relevantfor the developmentof raciology-that from which the otherssprangby variation. when Hooton and still typologized nationalhistoriesas accounts of struggles 9.tion to the work ofFranzvon Gall. oth. Blanckaert I988. see Barnes i963:I78-238. on England. He also arguedspecificallyagainst the imputa. brain. forward-looking. severe. Araratin the Caucasus. understood as the God-given hierarchical studiesthatstroveto correlatecranialmorphology with chain of organismsthat reachedfromthe lowliest crea. basis. and governedby caprice.however.retarded. dynamic.gentle. a new paroxysm and withNational Socialist "racial science. obstinate. on France. understood. Asians. and thus in need of being liftedup by the i8o.anthropology beginto replacethe old racial essentialism threesons: Japheth Europe." race "primaryamong all otherraces. Once the game of racial classificationbegan.Shem Asia. because he believed in human descentfroma common stock through Noah. colonial expansion and imperialismcarriedEuropean flags to the fourcorners ofthe globe and fueledideologiesthatportrayed Euthe ropeanvictorsas energetic. and political-moral behavior.and sociological folklorists.orientations physiology. Bio-moral reddish. This classifica. and ruled by opinion. beenthefirst post-diluvians" (Bernal low I987: 2I9). character.(On history i98i:344-45).governed law. and regressive race makingof the modernkind (see Slotkin I965:I70.Second. that the partsofthebrainhad different that you cannot mark out the limits between them.this century-long attempt to define the varieties of by of humankind as enduring morphological types.) At the same time. the different more than 5. new science then one could fit them as superiorand inferior the mentsinto the largercosmic scheme of "the greatchain of phrenology generatedan avalanche of craniometric " of being. still assertedhis belief "on divine testimony"in the descent of all humans fromAdam and Eve.white. this "old physical anthropology"refrom of reorganization societyin the transition to the igth century. Ham Africa got (Friedman In the i8th century greatclassithe i98i:93). it was hoped. of Linne categorizedthe races of Homo into standard-bearers progress. of course. if some typescould be lieversin truescience. Gall's books were prohibited to by lines of the churchfortrying do away with the hypothesis to Raciologywas markedby several convergent of thought. MacDougall i982. phrenology also appealed greatly anticlericalbeto and moral dispositions. who was willing to grouphumans together with apes and monkeys as anthropomorpha. humanswere descendedfrom first the couple createdby providea materialistlink between brain functionsand It God and differed fromanimals in their possession of temperament.as well as on Prussiacentrichistorians. It reached. while Johann Blumenbach made the Caucasian.000 separatemeasurementsto the skull. i90-9i).legal scholars. and because he thought thatthe Georgiansof the Caucasus mighthave . withthe resultthatmeasuring bumpson thehead permutationsand combinations thereafter multiplied would reveal clues to the head-owner'spersonality and thenumberofraces.to overcomethe old conceptualsplitbetweenmind and of ogy-its obvious bias and the conflationof physical bodyby focusingon the way the brain and the nervous traits. MorganI988.4 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35. Third.perdured well to groundbecause it corresponded the ways in which into our times. Barnes I963.52i among races. In the early years of the igth in Gall taughtthat mental activityhad a physical and deficientin rationality.systemconnectedup all organsand muscles in the body menbach. by thinking the increasing and to tendency unEuropeans. With Linne and Blumenbach we are. each riorto the otheranthropomorpha.and governedby law. feminine.was no obvious racist. Hill I964. on Germany. the "white.eventually thepointofabsurdity.assumed racial characteristics.and regulated custom.He held that (Jordanova i986).moreover." different andfunctions.effort reachedwitha scholarwho eventually applied logicalrefinement (Lovejoyi964:59). and Africans. derstandhistoryas a struggleof races for dominance sallow. FebruaryI994 ism.into sunk in sloth and livingforthe moment.the ranking to racesfrom those least perfect the most exaltedgained equippedwith a stable bio-moralessence.active. Mosse I964. writing duringthe periodsofromanticism and national.Irishmales into nine separatemorphologicaltypesand withthe victorsshowingracial superiority quished or the defeatedrising up in righteouswrath labeled each typea distinctiveand separaterace (Hunt Only then did a more dynamicphysical against their corruptand effeteoverlords. received reinforcement fromthe developmentof new black. passive.turninfluenced shape ofthe skull thatcontainedthe ers did." clearlysupe.First." Yet even in the many people began to comprehendthe reshuffling the i8th United States. Number i. crafty. that this physical basis was the brain. yet preciselyforthis reaintophysicaltypesone could gaugetheirtemperamental son. The apotheosis of this was in turesto those most perfect theirphysicaland psycho.Blu. Despite doubts and occasional criticisms. Generalizedto entirepopulations and elaborated throughever more soshown to be more pure or betterendowed than others. Americans. in energy. Thus. fierLinne. Simmons I990. drew many physiologists pay attento reason.phisticated techniquesofmeasurement. of skull-bearers ele. humanraces could be placed upon a ladderto perfection. who landed on Mt. Scholarlyliteratibegan to interpret mained in place until the mid-i95os.however. Huss I986. Predictably.masculine.temperament. This new focus would. German "historicism"drew on romantic political economists.Althoughhe these functionally specificcomponentsof the brain in himselfdid not interpret the variationas degeneration. however. withthe "gentlewhites. goal-oriented and and the vanquished as backward-looking. century He that human varieties "so sensiblypass into the other. in This new physiology hoped tion exhibits some enduringcharacteristics raciol.
thereare only of one such model of the Volksgeist. gradualchanges in traitsand gene fre. But he did offer beginnings a strategy the of for sion that "any attemptto explain cultural formon a thinkingabout how this might work by referring to purely biological basis is doomed to failure" (Boas what he called "psychic processes. They givenbut changingmaterials. of To thiskindofapproachBoas was opposed.generation.Cognitive sex. tation.not in turalorderings theirworlds. theydrewheavilyon studies of literature and point-cultural integration could not be assumed.mostlywith how memorycodes generatedin different domains are combined and coordinated through the nificant results" (p. age.personalitystudies. In the United States.A major by perfection an evolutionary traditionof intellectual thoughtand work-extending biologistand not an anthropologist. Stephen Jay ingHellas as a whollyintegrated culturethathad known Gould's The Mismeasure ofMan (i98i). of These argumentshad wider implications.to produce concepts or "memorycodes. Rewrittenand reimaginedversions of Greek heard or have opted to treat the issues with decorous history lifebecame a mainstayofupper-middle-class and and the foundation an educationcelebratof silence.it had to be demonstrated.and everywhere would not linguistics." which implied that people build up complex networksof connotationsupon initial denotationsand thatit was incumbentupon anthropologists examine to Culture these "psychic processes" in constructing internal the of Just Boas had disaggregated as racial typologies and scru. to and Spengler RuthBenesional opposition. in reason. was not veryuseful to speak of culturein ple createor modify modes of representation general.cient Greece propoundedby the art historian Johann quencies displayedby membersof a species along lines Winckelmann (see Bernal I987: esp. assert the uniqueness of each people codes and the elaborationof analogycodes-need to be to how people arriveat culand of its Volksgeistor "folk spirit.folklore. these endeav(I98 i) has characterized 447).Frobenius.gether. It should give our colleagues pause thatthe one aspirations recent systematic book on the subject.no culturewas due to "the genius wantedto look at culturenot as a typological "as a constitutiveprocess.cognitive and symbolic dimensions of culture.and deictics.and manifest art.EduSuch cognitiveand symbolic strategieshave indeed .cated Germans especially found it attractiveto accept environmental and holistic perspectiveson other culaptations. i962 Frank with admiration In Livingstone (i962:279) confi. After an interlude that focused on culture-andpulously severed considerationsof race fromconsiderations of culture. wherepeo. 267). divisionoflabor.especiallyin Germany.how traditional mightprompt these efforts rendition.tropes. individ.Having demonstrated unexpected dict-has employedthe guidingnotion of an ideational an in in variability head form successive generations Eu.he did not see how attemptsto develop general thropologists." Symbolicanof for tures.theirstudiestowarda betterunderstanding how peoit theircollectiverepresentations and entiating. and ethnology. linguistics. and language. His drivingconviction that correlatedphenomena do yieldusefulcomprehension how theymighthang toof not need to be causally related led him to the conclu.Since all culturescould themes and queries. quoted in Stockingi968:2I3).physiology.orsin termsofa professional have dealt primarily with the ways in will give way to the most anthropologists uality.He underropeanimmigrants. often against staunch profes.and evolutionary such unifying because theyhad been imprinted processes. in the I950s. through "Have symbolicrepresentation we not reason to expect.elaboration analogycodes and thenhow these combiin come quite common." That spiritwas studiedtogether understand of believedto be anchoredin passion and emotion. pursuing at In ity and particularhistoricity. was written and was thus worthyof emulation. chaps.Moreover-and this was a major Boasian interests. Butof an environmental transition. American anthropologistsbegan suppositionthat each culture constituteda distinctive again.culturesneeded to be studiedin all theirplural." he asked (Boas I940[I9331: metonyms. dently announcedthat"thereare no races. Yet some have not yet ler i958). Since cultureswere also forever of breakingup and differ.focusing especially on the mechanics of whereit was asserted. there.synechdoche. 4 and 6. psychology.and studyingthem as aggregatesof such traits comogy. raised these questions. to address some of the Boasian and separatemonad sui generis.it was primarily Wilhelmvon Humboldtthrough FranzBoas who from Hegel. these includingtheirintercon. the use of metaphors. ad. thennot onlyattackedessentialhe ist typologicalthinkingin human biologybut assailed stood that breakingdown culturesinto atomistictraits in similartermsthe resulting conflation history.nationsare given condensedrepresentation the form of ple opposed the universalistrationalismof the French of icons." They also hoped to direct of a singlepeople" (Boas. genres. "that here [in so-called primitivecultures]as in Ohnuki-Tierney morecomplicatedcultures. Both processes-the construction memory to Enlightenment.interdigitations a culture.tures.and social organization manifold contradictions?" Given boththe heterogeneity which sense images and sound images can be combined and the historically changing interconnectedness cul.MatthewArnold.have concernedthemselves of "laws of the integration culture" could "lead to sig.or constrain nectedness.so he arguedagainstthe common pre. theirpart.holism at the root of culture. Nietzsche." His chiefexample ofsuch processeswas the notionof "secondaryinterpreI940:I65).growthand development. of biol. this time with a concern for the be shown to be interconnectedand continuouslyex. pounded fromhere.It had be. paideia of anthe clines"-that is.WOLF Perilous Ideas 15 with studiesofgeneticdistributions.
which. Peoplehood/Ethnicity talkedmuch ofrace in thelast Although anthropologists and of century thenincreasingly culturein thisone. This happened." eitherin the course of mobilization or in the wake of the effects theyso create. and are shaped shape. compositionalpoint of view.At the same time. ratherthan like a dense tapestry imbricated withrepetitive standardized designs. contradictory perspectives how divergent interestsand orientationscan be made to converge. or ratherthan acknowledging strategic its work in layingdown the culturallyparticularand yet potent terms of personhood and gender. in one in or nation-state.It was only rarelythat the older literature about culture contact and acculturation raised in questions about power differentials discussions of culturalborrowings fromone culture to anotheror of of the modification existingculturesby novel introductions fromoutside." new and morevirulent way ofstaking out ethnic claims to precedence and power. the seeming contradictionbetween earthbound material processesand the free-floating zigzags of the mind. Notions of a common cultural i96i) structure sound a bit underlying this differentiation all too much like a little cultural homunculus built into the everyone through process of socialization or a Maxwell's demon capable of sortingdivergent messages to createnegativeentropy order. and power. and success or failure in these struggles has painful or exhilaratingeffectson peoples' selfdefinitions. of like the "little-engine-that-could" American children'sliterature-the littlelocomotivethat can accomplish feats of strength throughthe application of will "men make power. basic personala of ity structure.much as Boas saw it. how groupsmobilize and deployresourcesbut do not do this "just as theyplease. Some symbolic codes and ways of enacting them are monopolized by dominant elites throughtheirprivilegedaccess to state and economic apparatuses. It transcends .who also exercise less social power. Furthermore. The whys still elude us.and thinkingon these topics usually proceeds quite separatelyfrominquiriesinto culturalmeaning. are But it can also be observedin the way cultural repertoires are differentially distributedwithin a culturebearingpopulation. culturalecological core. There is a shiftfromthe idea of common descentas definedby hereditary biological essence or a hereditarily exclusive gene pool. To quote an older anthropologist.This is."It moves us a considerable on away fromessentialistperspectives culturetowarda constructionist. and reshape cultural repertoires by them in turn. suspectthatcultural and I orderingrequires leadership.towardthe idea ofcommondescentas a transgenerational vehicle forthe transmission an authentically of rooted culture. I think. theirown history.much of the discourseabout agencyand construalstrikesme as undulyvoluntaristic. Anthropologists have workedwith a numberofdifferent models to represent organizational armatures aroundwhich culturalformscould be said to form-a framework social structure. There is hardlya study of an ethnic group now thatdoes not describehow the locals use "agency" to "constructthemselves" in relationto power and interest.rooted way elsewhere. There are also historic changes in how ethnicityis understood therein the nonacademicworldand how out ethnic claims are advanced that need to be confronted and recognized." Othersymboliccodes and pantomimes.notoriously. control. Anthropologists have also takenseriously Boas's point aboutoppositionsand contradictions culturebuthave in done littlethinking and about how these heterogeneous and discoursescan intersect. I suspect that"culture"is composed and recomposedofdiversely shaped elements. culTreating ture as secondaryalso recreates." There is too much talk about agencyand resistance and too little attentionto how groupsmobilize. ethnicityemergedas a hot topic only at the beginningof the sixties.forgood reasons. There has been a markedshift definiin tionsofethnicity from racialistphrasings formulas to of culturaldistinctiveness. all these approachesrelyon defining But thebasic armatures coresin termsthatrender or culture as secondary. belong to groupsoflower ranksand statuses. as underthe "old" racism. not here. "Ethnicity"addresses in ways that "culture" does not the fact that culturallymarked entities formparts of largersystems.less highlyvalued or not valued at all.time and again. coupled with a stresson how difficult impossible it is forpeople of different or culturesto live together one city. FebruaryI994 the bland. but theydo not make it just as they please." This novel combinationof culturalism and ethology VerenaStolcke (i992) calls "cultural a fundamentalism. power-irrelevant relativismof much of the distance talkabout "culture. of how the organization diversity (Wallace is accomplished.descent and authority.I submit. filigree ornamentation. embeddedin relationsofpower. class and race.but thephenomenaofpowerwieldingin the cognitive and symbolic sphere are poorly theorized. "We have roots here by virtue of descent-you othershave yourdifferent oflife. These studies go some way toward Boas's problematicabout how ideas in culture engaging are brought into association with each other-the how of association and coherencebut not yet the why. a Marxian proa ductivemode dialecticallycombining infrastructure and superstructure.natureand the supernatural.in one region. influence. There are ongoingstruggles over the distribution redistribution such high-profile and of symbolic goods. Number i. rank and rulership.much to the good. how groups shape and reshape their and commitment and to self-images elicit participation are themselves shaped by these representations. new emphasis on the ethnicityfastenedon the ways in which such groups and entitiesarise and definethemselvesas againstothers also engagedin the process of developmentand selfdefinition.6 1 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35. Resourcemobilizationis easiest to perceivewhen our eyes are fixed on political and economic resources.they constitutewhat PierreBourdieuhas called "culturalcapital. This occurs preciselyat a time when an ethnic division of laborgrowsmore intenseworldwideand when transna- and yieldedmuch workthatis richin description evocativelyintegrative.
have "kin group" or "school. social entityan "ethnic" groupis merelythe beginning real sense. nectedsystemsbut note also thatthismakes ofcultures students of popular culture.not a fixedand unitaryentity.Wolf articulateshis relationshipto the Boasian tradition. of Workon what is labelled have become major ideological weapons in "ethnicity.when notionsofcultural in thehistory anthropology. insistingthat race was a statisticalcategory. moreclearlyabout the issues posed by race. cultural Contemporary a problemand not a given: a cultureis a changing mani.It also means that autonomyand historicallyconstitutedprofessional exethnicitiescome in many varieties and that to call a pertiseofanthropologists. They have a history.and or Boas to Voegelin to Hymes to the ethnographers of peoplehood/ethnicity. Comments .What anthropologists Perhapsmost significant. so I99OS. or should." particularity in beginning the I960s.culture. survive.ideas.(In line withthe lattercontention. He Conclusion between "lineage segments.ground arguI my ment primarilyin published and unpublished documents about the work of Boas and his firstgeneration The argument inseparablefrom disciofstudents. that and and history-differentially stressed in different situations and at different points of conjunction-feeds back in variousways upon theways in which people understand who theyare and wheretheymightbe at any givenhistoricalpoint in time.to Wolfhimself. Anthropologists and contradictions cultural systems and to explore moded racisms. culdo the ethnic groups subsumed by them. illness and health. Wolf states them eletanceofhis contribution we confront intensifying gantly. Its relationshipto older ogy. Boasian tradition idethe is tendto relegateto thejunk pile oftheirprofessional history remains ationallybased.. endangered. etc. often choose to dismiss the disciplinary fold. in and incommensuthe ways in which this differentiation obligationto critique producesa poli.things. i6 viii 93 and powerfully modified culturallearning. reproduction mor. Wolfsuggestsa crossto plicatethe theoretical premisesofBoasian historical par. cannot take forgranted We that changing conditionsof our worlds. when theyapwe tivethatplace cultureswithinlarger intraand intercon.culturalline of evidence.and biologywas Ontario. In this wonderful and deceptivelysimple paper. a claim forthe continuing relevanceto genexplanatory eralpublic discourseofredefined conceptsofrace as biological variabilityand culture as diversitiesof learned behaviours.and still incomplete. inevitably by For the past severalyearsI have been attempting ex."the personal distinguishes intellectual genealogies of individual anthropologists It is FranzBoas's enduring legacyto have made us think (Boas to Lesser to Mintz and. A lot ideas remainsin flux. Anthropology in some very is. and the to us now and to an anthropology the future. Wolfranks the organizingconcepts of race. This seems ture. stud." live tinder theworldbeyondacademe. This thinkingposes a challenge communicationamong whom I count myself). have enormouscapacies ofethnicity can welcome the changesofperspec. we must remind ourselves of the impor. have learnedquite a bit in anthropol.porary. University Western of of hierarchy racial units was untenable.remainwithinthe ivory we need to take much greater who discard outaccount of heterogeneity towers of academia. Ont. Canada N6A 5C2.Postof We taken note of Boas's critique of typological thinking Boasians of quite diverse lineage descent have some about races. point is once more a BoaMy sian one-that claims to ethnicity not the same evare erywhere at all times.WOLF Perilous Ideas | 7 ticularism. As what the conceptsof our disciplinehave to offer the in of larger macrosystems come in many shapes and sizes. a formboth personaland generalizable. Wolfis most lyricalwhen he offers Boasian critique a of the misuses of the concept of race in the recenthisDARNELL REGNA toryof Europe. de facto.studies. the anthropological version of the concept is.but we are nowherenear the end of the task. is recent.peal to emotionover reason. Wolf's man biologythatcan engagethe development human "ideas" have consequences in the world (and he is utof bodiesin growth and maturation. is my plinary practiceas an Amerindian linguist/symbolic anthropologist.and people/ethnicity termsof theiremergence in especiallyclearat the moment.some ideas. comparing"more egalitarian tionalmigration movingeverlarger is numbersofpeople across national frontiers.we must understand To of the inquiryratherthan the implementation it. in common. and interaction with the pline of anthropology).rable ethnicitieshave the further tics of meaning and cultural construction and not theircontinueduse in the largerworld of politics and merelyautomaticrepetition inherited of forms. turninganthropobut its transformation into a more contextuallyaware hu.contemWe politicalstrife. of course.. in as the racismsof our times. In Words. We should also and "peril" evokes a sense of dangerand difficulty in but not turnourbacks on physicalanthropology support also of challenge and responsibility.ityforharm-especially. Germany.human interaction.Wolf'schoice of "people" to gloss remainsforall hands to do.London.logical ideation into anthropologicalideology.In studies of culture our theorizings will.Boas was an articulateopponentofNazi DepartmentofAnthropology.As a historianofNorthAmericananthropology. Wolf's title speaks of "perilous ideas." a social collectivity. an constructing argumentthat Boasian theorynot only exists but continues to characterize much of the anthropology done in NorthAmerica. in Wolf'sview.terlyclear that most of the world lies outside the disciand tality.static culturologies.
ethnonationalism ethnicgroupclaims to powerhave their"virulent"side.namely.N. to traditional ously engaged. cus. for itself. interrelated elethropologists ative and constrained. Sufficeit here to point to a of device that allows him largelyto ignorethe thetwo have been defined contrastively.65 Fifth Ave.and the like. and people. especially.Britain." beneaththe surfaceit is never clearlyidentified We are now accustomed to thinkingof "order"in at part because the challenges that enemy poses both to . he is perfectly gone untained considerable respect for the emotional side of challengedto do theirresearch.and power" involvedin his of Wolf's motivations. to leave himselfout of the analysis. Apart from a worthy motive-to laud Sidney Mintz-this shortpiece tracesa verylong genealogyfor ROSEBERRY the conceptofrace. 8 vII 93 It modernity. culture.worldwhereanthropologists have traditionally course. cultures. culture. in tional integration culture. perhas haps. nei. KAHN politics of difference of WesternEuropean and. can no longertherefore merelydismissthe practiceof a politics of difference the contemporary in Wolf'sbriefjourneyinto the historyof anthropological world (the hidden enemy to which I referred above) in in conceptssuffers.emo.Nonetheless. Australia.of tics both in the United States and in those partsof the correct. unsatisfying two main reasons. Anthrowithits conceptualarsenal. WolfreadsBoas particular to have opposed the German Romantic tradition.both biological and here on threeof his observations:his emphasis on the ethnicist. Number i. Research.Second. message is.S.I would want for Wolf'sprogramme our disciplinary future revolves to argue at greater lengthbut can here only assert that around the urgencyof transcending the dichotomyof the differences among the discourses of race. a globalised of Departmentof Sociology.8 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35."culturalordering.WILLIAM truncatedone forthe notion of DepartmentofAnthropology. First. in to its analysis providing adherentswith a privileged clarity thebringing bear ofanthropological position from which to criticisemodernity on the essentialismsof contemporary withouthavingto account global society.I2 vIII 93 apparently. historyof the discipline." reminder Boas's insistenceon and contradiction culture.Ifmyfirst assertionis right. that only the middle of the three.in problemsinherentin the anthropologicalproject that in which the spiritof a people produceda passionate.his argumentis unlikely to con.France. froma certainlack of fo.While one might wish to sympathisewith "leadership.and his inof vince anybut traditional liberalanthropology's staunch.influence.and.now becomes a body just as did the racism of an earliertheoreticalera. FebruaryI994 tribal peoples" in search of alternativeconstructions liberalhumanism'sgeneralprojectof emancipationand anthropological knowledgeare neverseriwhich would not dichotomize or rank races. Victoria3083.Wolf worries the continuing debatesover the Enlightenment moand that contemporary constructionsof individual agency dernitythat have their origins in late-i8th-century are "undulyvoluntaristic" and remindsreadersthatan.as con. and peoples. Bundoora. U.and ethnicity and the political projectsthat theyimply ther the naive materialismof I960s neo-Marxismnor areless thanWolfwould have us believe and thattracing the polar ideas-in-isolation-from-anything-in-the-realseparategenealogiesdisguisesthe quite specificcontext world idealism is viable three decades later. This procedurestrikesme as for anthropology. Wolfperhapsdis.quite so cavalier a fashionas Wolfdoes here.by insightsfromthe third).The device to which I human life alongside the rational in the "psychic refer the attemptto writemore or less separatehistois processes" which were to follow trait-based historical riesofthe threekeyconcepts-race. ethnic on theway to post-WorldWarII cognitiveand symbolic chauvinism. The pology. I0003.) on His argument about culturedraws imperceptively This is not the place to rewriteWolf's justificatory thatabout race.separationof what are. in structed the work of Franz Boas (supplemented. New York. my view. New School forSocial ture. then anthropology is anthropology directly implicatedin the ideologiesand that have emergedin the course JOEL S. Boas re.control. increasingly.La Trobe University. in my view.and I wish to reflect reasonto [the]unreason" of racism. materialconditionsand mentalconcepts.have been identified recentacademic discourseand. and mentsof a single historyat the same time allows Wolf Moreover.the complexity in est defenders. reconstructions to explain them.A. the know how to see individualsas both cre.moreimportant. Wielding withinwhich these different expressionsofWesternsoof of power and constructionof social meaning are both ciety'sunderstanding othernesshave arisen. the current practicesofculturalpoliries rationalized and supportedAryan supremacy.Y. necessaryand interrelated. Formost ofthe history our discipline. conclusion: eternalvigilance is the price of conceptual of thoughtthat is externalto the historyof modernity.as it were. a shorter one forthe conceptof cul.and an extremely The "peoplehood" or nationalism/ethnicity. partbecause althoughan enemylurks dication of the continuingproblem of explainingculand in tural"association and coherence. Germany. Nevertheless.This separationpermitsWolfto claim a scientific and high misses too quickly the culture-and-personality school groundprovidedby a concept of cultureand fromthat which pursuedthese connectionsas a mere "interlude" high ground to attack the practice of racism..Insofaras Volksgeist of theo.Certainly. any genuinemerit Wolf's stimulatingessay invites us to think critically and thatwith it anthropology must continueto "speak and historically about our concepts.
But a historicalsystemcannotfunction unless at least some normsand values of this kind prevail (win out.as in the now formulaic references a knowledge/power to nexus. as Wolfinsists. N. Y. relatedproblemis that A ofholdingone dimensionofsocial and culturalrelations constantor relatively stable while rendering anotherdimensiondynamicand contradictory-onthe one hand. I should like to develop the discussion on a peril which is referred in his remarksbut not developedfully.in anothervein.peoLiberalreformism an ideology. thisbeing realmeaning theI989 . I believe that we all today are living in a singular historicalsystem. I97os the of andI980s. an overly systematic understandingof capitalism or plow or digging-stick on agriculture. thatthe concepts have multiple usages and historiesand theiruse as oftenadds to our confusionas reduces it. and people.has come to permeatefirstthe core in the igth and as century thenthe periphery well in the 2oth (Wallerstein i 992b). "to arrange classify"and "to comor mand or make obey"-cognitive and political. economic.and "monstrous races" characteristicof archaic civilizations. cultural. cultures. This beliefis asserted both internallyto each state and within the as world-system a whole." meaning.as a as ples? Everything. He correctly points to a centralproblemwith most schemes-the postulation of an organizaexplanatory tional. but it imaginesthe fleshlycarriers those souls living of in families. or ecological core in termsof which is culture seen to be secondary. without such thinking. One key geoculturalvalue has been that everystate should be a nation.and political histories. a broadlysketched"Cartesian revolution" or "modernism"in termsof which a varietyof morespecificand variableculturalconstructs and forms can be arrayed.I would serting ideologyofliberalreformism argue. Box 6ooo. We see thismost clearlyin his discussionofrace (themostfully developed of the ideas in this essay) and the tripartite classifications of civilizational core. that I term the capitalist world-economy. and households before(or as) he attemptsto construct A Christianmission sets out to save souls. they are asthe which. Yorkat Binghamton." the wider cultural ordering of complex social relations and processes. activelyopposingthesevalues." We still do not adequately understandthe complex interplay among anthropological ideas. or.WOLF Perilous Ideas I 9 least a dual sense. culture. can onlybe constructed the contextof specificsocial. I agree. Our perilous ideas need to be placed within and and sohistory made centralto the kind of comparative ciologythatWolfand othershave pioneered. or apathy). I would further argue that liberal reformism an ideology collapsed-in the sense that it as no longercommands widespreadadherenceand thereforeno longerserves to legitimatethe system-in the "revolutions"(Wallersteini 992a).Among its basic structures have been an axial division of labor reflected in a core-periphery polarizationand a political system of sovereignstates bound together within an interstate This singular system. historicalsystemhas a geoculture.with houses and yards. it. NorthAmericangroundings.A colonial administrator attempting establish orderis to interested gathering in information.but along with even the worstof architectshe imagines an orderedsocial world of tribes.Of course.S. in in Explanation. villages. But we have yet to think between order creatively enoughabout the relationship and contradiction. and collectingrevenue. thisview. in my view.but we see it as well in his analysisofthe development of each of these concepts in "cauldrons of conflict.answers to thewhyquestionsposed by Wolfwill continueto elude us. A second key geoculturalvalue has been the beliefthatover time it is possible to amelioratematerial conditionsand move in the directionof greater material equality. the political establishmentof "order.the posof tulationofa variety cultureriddlesthatcan be solved in termsof the requirementsof the more stable core.A. barbarians. which means thatthereare normsand values which serve to legitimate the world-system a as institutional whole and which receive some important into support. We need to understandthe processes of political and cultural orderingwithout such convenient but misleading conceptual anchoring.ideas about peoplehood and ethnicity need to be understood in termsoftheirconceptualhistoriesand in termsof their and Balkan.State University New P.a singularsociety if you will. disbelief. the other. This is what we mean by "citizen" ship. And theremay be groups. I3902-6000. againstopposition. but we understand thatthe connectionsare intimate. U.SouthAfrican. I3 VIII 93 Wolfis as usual saying sensible thingsabout the concepts of race.O. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN of FernandBraudel Center.It to conceptualizahas to do with the ways in which varying the tions play a role in legitimating delegitimating) (or historicalsystemsin which we live. and it formsin turnthe basis of the widely accepted mythof the primacyand legitimacyof popular sovereignty (within each state).I take it. Binghamton.on thewhole. He entitles his remarks"perilousideas. What does this have to do with races.even institutions. counting heads.maintaininga sense of complexityand contradictionin each domain under considerationand exploringthe mutually constituting in processes of political and cultural ordering specific social-historical fields.Thus. To the extentthatpeople give credenceto these two geoculturalvalues. The perilousideas thatWolfdiscusses can be seen to be ordering concepts in preciselythis dual sense. and the emergence of social and political strugglesof various sorts.these values may be integrated individualsuperegosto varying degreesor not at all. The role of anthropological ideas in the imagination of social and political orderand the role of particular processesof social and political ordering the formain tion of anthropological ideas are betterrecognizedthan theywere two decades ago.
who is one of the leading historiansof anthro.raticliberation.Boas was punctilious and insistent about the has eroded.findsvirtuein my account of Boas and his con. the capitalist The rise of this systemconfronts us litical answer.and to do so in a particular in a veryspecificdirection.torical system.one needs to remindoneself that if there were efforts dominate or destroy"the to other. hic Rhodus.Y. Number I..Boas preachedthe importance what now gets approach" in U. and peoples are not essences.that analyticand comparativeunderstandings social pology.hic salta! at tion. ent-if our purpose is to studywhat makes us human demand exclusive loyalties.people must find their solutions.If this escalates.A. at the hands of some anthropologists the They make me aware thatI oughtto clarify context the existentialist"other" has now been transformed in which my remarkswere written.S. They have no Second. Anthropology. cul. The "universalist"response fromour historicalexperienceof worldwideexpansion the diversehuman groupings and culto multiculturalism-the call for "integration"of all thathas brought "citizens" into a single "nation"-is of course a deeply tures into an encompassing networkof relationships.place write a historyof anthropology find solutionsto theirproblems. has the effectof pressingpeople to tribution. and synoptically biological creatures.linguistic. I wantedto place theirfaithin states.withinthe human species in ways that were never adtribute?One thing surely is a demystification 'the umbratedbefore. forwhateverit is worth.of the demand of the underdogs lose sight of this central purpose at its peril. I need to distinguishamong race. as and overlapping.And it tends to tame any Mintz among the executors of the Boasian legacy and anarchistictendencies they may feel. this of the existingsystem. called the "four-field They have no self-evident we are all members of multiple. U. anthropologyfixedcontours."therewere also efforts comprehend to thatother.Thus.quite different was about.in both the past and the presgroups tend to strengthen boundaries. was thus neverinnodirectly Still. These are urgentissues to which thereis no easy po. Instead. and language speakers. indeed myriad. cent but implicatedin efforts conquest and dominaers have said.Yet. peoples have therefore new and much more that they imply are less than Wolf would have us beacute political resonance. perhapsforall anthropology. Third. races.My primarypurpose was not. with all the othersocial sciences.and culture. a productof these encounters.but it is scarcely or in the philosophicalendeavorsof the Enlightenment.as oth. among the discourses would argue that this is happeningtoday to a degree Kahn writesthat "the differences and the political projects unknown in the igth and 2oth centuries. another. example.I am pleased that into a bugaboo so impenetrableand incomprehensible of Darnell.To the extentthat this ideology momentin time.too. culture.in theirstate. What can intellectualscon.reject overlaps.in its justification merelyfrom for the call for"multiculturalism" the United States and tual curiosity(though this may sufficefor some) but in its equivalents elsewhere. FebruaryI994 geoculturalvalue. cul. ever-evolving.Races. WOLF teachinganthropology but fora different of shuffling the cultural. N.This is the global panhuman entitywhich Immanuel Wallersteindefinesin his comment as "a singularhiscraticdemand in the name of liberalism. content. Irvington. . Roseberry seconds the point. one no longer contained by lieve. the importanceof looking at humans simultaneously culturecarriers.S.tem arose out of encounters of the West with "othterat the end ofthiscrisis. Kahn remindsus that this encompassingglobal sysenough.IO I CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35.but-I submit-anthropology would demo. Building around this purpose derives definedas lesser breeds)forequal the studyof anthropology (those geoculturally not of motivations intellecin rights thepolis. of tures. We must also engage in the utopistics of inthe alternative venting orderinto which we wish to en.and the violence will much increase with a task of understanding similarity beforewe emergefromit.Classical anthropology. One can conceive ofotherpurposesand other face to "groupism. It politicizes people Mintz. look for salvation. In this sense.overthe whole rangeof our similaritiesand differences. has in factdemurred fraught at grappling with such enterprises. Sometimesthis even allowed us betterto comprehend ourselves."Groupismis also the expressionof anthropologies. First. "groups"-crosscutting.and cultural encountershave been virtuallyruled out Reply .It is all too true.to make groupidentity politicallyefficacious. I always thought that one of the goals of was to make people aware that ERIC R. We are in the midst of a crisis of our world-economy. as Wolf so clearly shows. way. .a singular society . however.eitherin the universalizingreligions of "perilousideas" ofwhich Wolfspeaks. along erness" and that these encounterswere all too often with mayhem and oppression. . This expressesitself. O'otam. seeking to suppress the demo. There is. to but to honor Sidney look forsalvation.and ethnicity a tures." and variability historicalsystem. But of course. However. 30 VIII 93 and geneticcards theymighthave come to be Inuit or I want to thank my respondentsfor their comments. at the same time." Yet I would reiteratethat fudgingthe distinctionswill lead us astray our purposeis to thinkclearly if of the beliefin the centrality the state.about the causes of human similaritiesand differences. language.of race.Boas insisted that this was what anthropology cal consequences are oftenveryunpleasant. the politi. conservativereaction. it to definethe importanceof that legacy for American and at has been an enormously stabilizingdoctrine and a pillar anthropology.place theirfaith elsewhere than in states.
NAPOLEON.among Norton. New Brunswick: UniverRutgers and dialecticallyinformed sense of how involvements sityPress. FRANZ. I34. Furthermore. I99I. 198I. not mean that Boas was rightin everything wrote he AND TIMOTHY CHAGNON. Press. Quetzalcoatland theironyof emmessageis not beingheardin the present..Comparative Studiesin Societyand History I3:376-407. pp.This is an important message especiallyfor JORDANOVA. R.bodand of understandings. Magical and said. I964. "others"did not all producethe same results. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic rootsof Classical civilization.He wants us to be more creative Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. I946 (i867). BAUER. LUDMILLA.BURLING. would HUNT. Chicago: of University ChicagoPress. I98I. Criticalessayson scienceand literature. I969. New York:Grosset 28:87-II9. The monstrous a art Harvard thought. theconquest:History MC LAREN. i962. human. 289-32I. is not all they do. ASCH. of court. A history of I962. I976. in AL-AZMEH. New York:Pantheon Books. This also does pire:Myths in and prophecies theAztec tradition. EMIKO. Editor. purpose. ReYes. i982. KARL.Minneapolis: of University Vol.Comparative Studiesin Society and History I): 3 -2-2. I987.ton. American Ethnologist 8:451-67. AnnalsoftheNew York the alternativeorderinto which we wish to inventing Academy of Sciences 29e2. I986. S.and my BUTLER. BARNES. I97I. otheranthropologies. of had moreenemies thanfriends his own time. I973.BLANCKAERT. House/Hanover London:University and PressofNew England. were isomorphic with Americananthropology. Inventing thepeople: The riseof ent. Capital. M. just Madison:University Wisconsin of Press. Paris:EdiPress. "Micheletand theuses ofnatural HUSS. AZIZ. and revolution: Studies I964. Boston:M. Pouvoir. W. I988. Cited References . ARTHUR 0. Slavery from Romantimes to theearlytransatlantic EMILE. A prehistory the social sciences: of in Phrenology France. I. I985. language. about how we use our abstractionsto characterizeand JONES. indo-europeennes. Anthropologists anthropologists write.I986. i982. ROBBINS. Minnesota droit.Given the pessimism on the partof Schocken. The old physical has I anthropology. The tyranny GreeceoverGerin many. I965. (Everyman's Library 848. Reversing SIMMONS. HARRY ELMER. I940. MIRCEA.(Film." That claim asserts that there can be a GOULD. Racial myths English in history: of contextwith operationsof inductionand deduction. ies.) Jr. as the encountersamong different Anthropology Editedby GeorgeW. Press. or American adigms. JR. EDWARD E. I988. Roseberry'scomment suggeststhat LOVEJOY. enterat the end of this crisis.Past and PresEDMUND MORGAN. Boas but ELIZA (I935).in all the variationsand convergences that this racesin medieval termmay entail. 23( MARX.andSTEPHEN Cambridge: mismeasure The J.New York:Nordu metal:Histoire represen. EditedbyLudmillaJordanova. I990. would be carrying the Boasian legacy.GREENFIELD. des institutions BENVENISTE."in Languagesofnature:Criticalessayson scienceand makes a plea forus to be more innovative Roseberry literature. "On theorigins French of ethnolrietyof outcomes. New Brunswick: those members of our discipline who have come to Rutgers Press. behavior: Essays on biological anthropology. On the non-existence human of write. FRANK B. pp.The Boasian legacyis oftentalked about as ifit Anthropologist 66:20-28. Phasesin humanperception/ New York:Dover. I988. and culture. 2d revised edition. tionsde Minuit. I98I. Translated by Eden and CedarPaul. WOLFGANG.) Mass. New in the ways we think. 3-I8. Stocking." Large-scaleutopias are HILL. happilysettleforthe small-scaleutopia ofthe discipline American Journal PhysicalAnthropology of 56:339-46. I98I. historical writing. OHNUKI-TIERNEY. in popularsovereignty Englandand America. BRUCE. MARTIN. Montreal: Harvest out That. New York:Seabury WILLIAM PHILLIPS. Puritanism in interpretation theEnglish Revolution.WOLF Perilous Ideas I iI ANGUS. Walthropologists in in study institution on building. New York: also the case thatnot all anthropologists were alike and FreePress. L'Homme GEORGE L."in Bones. thatBoas sketchedout forus. et ALBERT. discussionsof its unusual mix of observationand grasp MAC DOUGALL. and that therecan be generalan. I. 536-52.. conception/symbolization processes: Cognitive anthropology and symbolic happiness. too. 198I. Vol. New York: with a unifying generalanthropology. including those of anthropological ogy:WilliamEdwards thedoctrine race.it is surely BOAS. CLAUDE. I964 (I936). JR.EditedbyVeraRuplantation our small gardenbut also "engage in the utopisticsof bin and Arthur Tuden. CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY 3:279. of man. pp. ideology. RO GER.) London:Dent/New York:Dutton. D.but that races. I8-55. SIDNEY "Madeira and thebeginnings of New World and sugarcane cultivation plantation A slavery: who make that purpose their own. Cambridge: anthropology Press. CHRISTOPHER. JOHN B.(Historyof 5. ogy is to address the question of what it means to be ELIADE. 2. Languagesofnature: ject matter. manyabout whetheranthropology a future. The imageofthe barbarian medievalEuin and heterogeneity our subencompassthe complexity of rope. Teutons. The greatchainof being:A of Harvard University could benefitfromtheoretically informed studyofthehistory an idea. the claim that the centralpurposeof anthropol. China and thesearchfor classification. I977. Vol. I964. Barbarians Arabeyes. CLARE A.sources. Race.no. Trojans. reference. New York: of now at a discount.: Documentary Educational Watertown. Le vocabulaire trade. DAVID.. University high ground. Beacon remarks were addressedto the concernthat his central CARRASCO.pp. death. notall theirthought processesclonedfrom identicalpar. HUGH.We urgently need to develop a more sensitive BERNAL. amongdifferent societies and culturescan producea va. and Anglo-Saxons. and Dunlap. University do equate what anthropologists with the ways in which LIVINGSTONE." Comparative perspectives lersteinasks that we anthropologists only cultivate not in slavery New World societies. religion. The crisisof German MOSSE. The mythof theeternal return. La fumee du tations contactchez les Yanomami(Br6sil). I958 Press. Cognition componential and analysis: God's truth hocus-pocus.also constitutes claim to "a scientific FRIEDMAN.
in July cene/HoloceneBoundary.U. Wolfe.. ANTHONY F. culture. ism. tion. London:Merlin. tion. Conferenceon EthnicTra. Troisideologies une seule?La problematique ou de la modernite.Sweden. [iwl WHEATLEY. JAMES S.July I5-i8.Plants and Culnual Meeting. Argentina..U.University South Florida. I97I.S. U. Write:Bruce Conference.Write:T. Rusin guage. Scotland.S. The "right difference" an unSTOLCKE. 457. New "The collapse of liberal- New Brunswick: British literature. nise his influence.Departmentof Anthro4rt. Ga. nization.AnApril 27-30. C. U. Write:Marcelo Zairate.A. or HonggangYang. Write:Instituteof Latin America Studies. librarian and the various academic fieldsthat recogLewis-Williams. Old AberdeenAB9 October 3-7. Calendar International March 2I-24. Cleveland Heights.K. Argentina. DepartDepartment of Archaeology.The Pleistocene/HoloceneBoundaryand pology. Institute.conference 22oo Oakdale Rd.A.and Johannesand work as a Semitist. i992. burg.Aberthe ernAfrica. I968. Sweden. 2d International Congressforthe Study 2UB.S-io6 9I Stockholm. Race. Write:Alvin W.Symposiumand Exhibitions. in to VERENA. .Ithaca:CornellUniversity WALLACE. Politics. coordinator.MS. University the Witwatersof rand. Fla. Theme: Smith's life. Geneses9:7-24.Mendoza. Readings SLOTKIN.Ga. 96-IIO. of November. Congressof AmeriUNMP.Av. Lerida. Russia. STOCKING. Moscow II7334. Panitch. Shamanism. JR. canists.S. Scotland. ConflictResolutional Symposium. 30307.theologian.A. FebruaryI994 Cultureand personality.. South Africa. International One Copenhill. PAUL. Editedby R.Stockholm. European The beginnings moderncoloCHARLES. I970.080I5 Barcelona. tion Program.K. U.A. Editor. Rutgers University in earlyanthropolI965. VERLINDEN. University equal world. Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes. A. September. i992a.New York: Free Press. of Press.Ohio 44I I8.Spain.. Johannesburg 2o5o. Write:OrganizingCommittee. Chicago: University ChicagoPress..South Africa. ment of Hebrew and Semitic Languages. York:RandomHouse.. deen.Rock Art ResearchUnit. Key symposium: tural Context.S. .A.Moscow."in Socialistregister I992: New worldorder.Berkeley. Dowson and J. in and myth Igth-century Press.7600 Mar del Plata.Calif. of IMMANUEL. The Social and Cultural Originsof Landitional Culture and Folk Knowledge. Milibandand L.D.a conference association with the Language sia.Tampa.Atlanta.Spain.LeninskyProspect32A.Interna3362o.Write:Institutde ProspectivaAntroto Anthropological Contributions ConflictResolupologica.encyclopaedist.and Power: Representing Bushman People of SouthApril 5-II. SymposiumThe PleistoAtlanta. ogy. Florence. of ModifiedStates of Consciousness. CarterCenterof EmoryUniversity.I1 CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY Volume 35.Viking and evoluGEORGE W.times. FundPublications Anthropology ogy.[iw] pp. WALLERSTEIN. Centrode Geologia de 4-9. Casilla de Correo 722-CorreoCentral. SouthernAnthropological Theme: Ethnocognition. The PivotoftheFourQuarters.U. Number i. Human Occupations in South America. William RobertsonSmith Congress. U. I96I.S. Society.International OriginsSociety. Instituteof Ethnologyand AnthropolRichman.King's College.Texts and Images of People. i992b. ThreatenedPeoples and Environments the Americas: 48th International Costas y del Cuaternario.University of Aberdeen.Write:William Johnston. in 40.