Está en la página 1de 4

Linda Buck

Linda Bruck

Nombre Nacimiento Nacionalidad Ocupacin Premios Sitio Linda Bruck

Linda Bruck 29 de enero de 1947, 65 aos Seattle, Estados Unidos estadounidense mdica Premio Nobel en 2004. web

Linda B. Buck, (nacida el 29 de enero de 1947) es una cientfica y mdica estadounidense. Conocida por sus trabajos sobre sistema olfatorio. Obtuvo junto a Richard Axel el Premio Nobel en Fisiologa o Medicina de 2004 por sus trabajos sobre los receptores olfatorios. Actualmente (2004), trabaja en el Departamento de Neurobiologa de la Universidad Harvard y en el Centro Fred Hutchinson, tambin en Boston. Nacida en Seattle , Washington, recibi su Bachelor of Science en Psicologa y Microbiologa en 1975 de la Universidad de Washington, Seattle y el grado de doctor (Ph.D.) en Immunologa en 1980 en la Universidad de Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Hizo su trabajo postdoctoral en la Universidad Columbia con Axel. El tema de su investigacin se bas en cmo las feromonas y los olores se detectan en la nariz y se interpretan por el cerebro. Es miembro de la Academia Nacional de las Ciencias desde el 2003. Premiada con el galardn Lewis S. Rosentiel (1997) por su trabajo en la investigacin mdica bsica.

Linda Brown Buck (born January 29, 1947) is an American biologist best known for her work on the olfactory system. She was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with Richard Axel, for their work on olfactory receptors.[2] In their landmark paper published in 1991, Buck and Axel cloned olfactory receptors, showing that they belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. By analyzing rat DNA, they estimated that there were approximately one thousand different genes for olfactory receptors in the mammalian genome. This research opened the door to the genetic and molecular analysis of the mechanisms of olfaction. In their later work, Buck and Axel have shown that each olfactory receptor neuron remarkably only expresses one kind of olfactory receptor protein and that the input from all neurons expressing the same receptor is collected by a single dedicated glomerulus of the olfactory bulb. Born in Seattle, Washington, Buck received her B.S. in psychology and microbiology in 1975 from the University of Washington, Seattle and her Ph.D. in immunology in 1980 from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. She did her post-doctoral work at Columbia University under Axel. In 1991 Buck became an assistant professor of neurobiology at Harvard University where she expanded her knowledge of the nervous system.[3] Her primary research interest is on how pheromones and odors are detected in the nose and interpreted in the brain. She is a Full Member of the Basic Sciences Division at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, an Affiliate Professor of Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Washington, Seattle and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. She was inducted into the National Academy of Sciences in 2004. Buck was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2008.

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Nacimiento

25 de septiembre de 1866

Fallecimiento 4 de diciembre de 1945 Residencia Campo Premios destacados Estados Unidos Gentica Premio Nobel de Fisiologa y Medicina en 1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan (* 25 de septiembre 1866 4 de diciembre 1945) fue un genetista estadounidense. Estudi la historia natural, zoologa, y macromutacin en la mosca de la fruta Drosophila melanogaster. Sus contribuciones cientficas ms importantes fueron en el campo de la Gentica. Fue galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Fisiologa y Medicina en 1933 por la demostracin de que los cromosomas son portadores de los genes, lo que se conoce como la teora cromosmica de Sutton y Boveri. Gracias a su trabajo, Drosophila melanogaster se convirti en uno de los principales organismos modelo en Gentica. Morgan se gradu en la Universidad de Kentucky en 1886. Recibi el doctorado de la Universidad Johns Hopkins en 1890. Siguiendo los pasos de William E. Castle, comenz a trabajar en el desarrollo embrionario de Drosophila melanogaster (la mosca de la fruta) en la Universidad de Columbia, donde se interes por el problema de la herencia. Las teoras de Gregor Mendel acababan de ser redescubiertas en 1900 y Morgan estaba interesado en estudiar su aplicacin a los animales. En 1910, descubri un mutante de ojos blancos entre individuos estirpe silvestre silvestres de ojos rojos. La progenie del cruzamiento de un macho de ojos blancos con una hembra de ojos rojos present ojos rojos, lo que indicaba que el carcter "ojos blancos" era recesivo. Morgan denomin white al gen correspondiente, iniciando as la tradicin de nombrar a los genes segn el fenotipo causado por sus alelos mutantes. Al cruzar estas moscas entre s, Morgan se percat de que slo los machos mostraban el carcter "ojos blancos". De sus experimentos, concluy que (1) algunos caracteres se heredan ligados al sexo,(2) que el gen responsable del carcter resida en el cromosoma X, y que (3) probablemente otros genes tambin residan en cromosomas especficos. l y sus estudiantes contaron las caractersticas de miles de moscas y estudiaron su herencia. Empleando la recombinacin de los cromosomas, Morgan y Alfred Sturtevant prepararon un mapa con la localizacin de los genes en el cromosoma. Morgan y sus estudiantes tambin escribieron el libro Mechanisms of Mendelian Heredity. Morgan se traslad a CalTech en 1928. Morgan muri en Pasadena, California. Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 December 4, 1945)[1] was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and embryologist and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays in heredity.[2] Morgan received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in zoology in 1890 and researched embryology during his tenure at Bryn Mawr. Following the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance in 1900, Morgan's research moved to the study of mutation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In his famous Fly Room at Columbia University, Morgan demonstrated that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity. These discoveries formed the basis of the modern science of genetics. During his distinguished career, Morgan wrote 22 books and 370 scientific papers.[3] As a result of his work, Drosophila became a major model organism in contemporary genetics. The Division of Biology which he established at the California Institute of Technology has produced seven Nobel Prize winners. Morgan was born in Lexington, Kentucky, to Charlton Hunt Morgan and Ellen Key Howard Morgan[2][4]. Part of a line of Southern planter elite on his father's side, Morgan was a nephew of Confederate General John Hunt Morgan and his great-grandfather John Wesley Hunt had been the

first millionaire west of the Allegheny Mountains. Through his mother, he was the great-grandson of Francis Scott Key, the author of the "Star Spangled Banner", and John Eager Howard, governor and senator from Maryland.[4] Following the Civil War, the family had fallen on harder times with the temporary loss of civil and some property rights for those who aided the Confederacy. His father had difficulty finding work in politics and spent much of his time coordinating veterans reunions. Beginning at age 16 in the Preparatory Department, Morgan attended the State College of Kentucky (now the University of Kentucky). He focused on science; he particularly enjoyed natural history, and worked with the U.S. Geological Survey in his summers. He graduated as valedictorian in 1886 with a bachelor in science.[5] Following a summer at the Marine Biology School in Annisquam, Massachusetts, Morgan began graduate studies in zoology at the recently founded Johns Hopkins University, the first research-oriented American university. After two years of experimental work with morphologist William Keith Brooks and writing several publications, Morgan was eligible to receive a master of science from the State College of Kentucky in 1888. The College required two years study at another institution and an examination by the College Faculty.[citation needed] The College offered Morgan a full professorship; however, he chose to stay at Johns Hopkins and was awarded a relatively large fellowship to help him fund his studies.[citation needed] Under Brooks, Morgan completed his thesis work on the embryology of sea spiderscollected during the summers of 1889 and 1890 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusettsto determine their phylogenetic relationship with other arthropods. He concluded that with respect to embryology, they were more closely related to spiders than crustaceans. Based on the publication of this work, Morgan was awarded his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins in 1890, and was also awarded the Bruce Fellowship in Research. He used the fellowship to travel to Jamaica, the Bahamas and to Europe to conduct further research.[6] Nearly every summer from 1890 to 1942, Morgan returned to the Marine Biological Laboratory to conduct research. He became very involved in governance of the institution, including serving as an MBL trustee from 1897 to 1945.[7]