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ADVANCES IN CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES:TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY

AUTHOR: ABHINAY S. NAKHATE DEPARTMERNT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, YESHWANTRAO CHAVAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION This paper provides an overview of the benefits of using trenchless technology as a sustainable pipeline construction tool. Details of the advantages of the systems are given together with usage of the technology both in the INDIA and Internationally. An overview of the techniques currently available for the trenchless installation and rehabilitation of pipelines, ducts and cables is also included. Trenchless technology is the No-dig method used extensively worldwide for installation, replacement and rehabilitation of utility systems for water, electricity, gas, sewer and cable information networks. Recently, the China Shanghai Society organized the Trenchless ASIA 2004 for Trenchless Technology (CSSTT) and the International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT). In Shanghai alone, the total length of all underground pipes using Trenchless Technology has reached over 30,000 Km. It is expected that 24% of the underground utility construction in Shanghai will be done using trenchless technology by the year 2010. Trenchless technology is a new method of replacements and rehabilitation so this method is not yet gained so much popularity, especially in rural areas. The damages in some cases are so acute that emergency measures have become common. Herein lies the great potential for Trenchless Technology in India. Trenchless technology can substantially reduce disruption as it offers: Greater productivity due faster installation times Reduced access requirements and smaller footprint size therefore less excavation is More environmentally friendly as there is less requirements for land fill space and quarried Helps to reduce construction traffic movements. Trenchless technology is being used in conjunction with other initiatives such as the use of required. backfill materials.

recycled backfill materials and soil stabilizers by a number utility companies to limit even further the impact of utility works. Trenchless techniques can also prevent tree root damage, which is a major hazard when open trench methods are employed.

In major cities where traffic congestion is sever and major utility works would create gridlock, Trenchless technology is being successfully introduced to limit disruption. As greater usage is achieved the unit costs will reduce and this will result in trenchless methods becoming more popular as the preferred solution for pipeline and cable installation worldwide. TRENCHLESS TECHNIQUES The Trenchless techniques that are currently available can be conveniently split into these 6 categories: 1. Location Systems: -For pipes and ducts this can be done using CCTV camera systems and there are also a variety of more sophisticated methods that have been developed for underwater inspection, assessing corrosion damage and detecting leaks. 2. Stabilization:- Stabilization systems are primarily used on sewer pipelines where the pipeline is structurally intact but suffers from infiltration through the joints. There are various joint sealing and testing techniques, with these each joint can be tested using a specially adapted packer and a sealant gel can be injected into the joint if it is found to be leaking. 3. Localized Repairs:- Again these systems are mainly used on sewer pipelines and are used where on local defects exist and therefore it would prove more economically to carry out short localized repairs rather than lining the entire pipeline. The techniques in this category include epoxy resin injection repairs, patch repairs and robotic repairs. 4. Lining Methods:- Lining methods can be used on all pipelines and vary from spray lining methods which have no structural capabilities to systems that provide a full structural lining; The main systems used are:- Scrape and Lining Techniques 5. On Line Replacement Methods:- These systems can be used on all pipelines and allows the pipeline to be completely replaced on a size for size or upsize existing asset as a guide. The main technique in this basis by utilizing the

category is pipe bursting. . Essentially the system is based on the relatively

simple concept of introducing a device, which is usually conical in shape into a defective pipeline, and moving it through the pipeline. 6. New Installation Methods:- These systems provide a completely new asset in a new location and the first technique with this category is Impact Moling. This system is probably the most widely used trenchless technique throughout the world and involves the formation of a bore by soil displacement using a selfpropelled torpedo shaped percussive Impact Mole. It is principally used for installing pipes over short distances and is used extensively for the installation of gas and water service pipes from the distribution main in the road to a consumers property. BENEFITS OF TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY 1. Reduced life cycle costs. 2. Increased speed: At various crossings, trenchless techniques required about 13 days whereas traditional digging required 1 to 4 weeks. 3. Lesser Energy used: Trenchless technology is environmentally more advantages due to lower fuel consumption and fewer discharges. 4. Site space requirements: At crossings, trenchless techniques require 30 m to 80 m area whereas traditional excavation requires @ 300 m. 5. Noise Levels :In trenchless methods the noise level is only between 10% to 40% for the total construction period as against 90-100% in traditional excavations. 6. Environmental balance: Properly executed trenchless projects avoid upsetting the environmental balance in the ground as against open trenches which not only have to be backfilled but also there exists a consequent risk of creating a drainage path. 7. Safely hazards: are minimum in TT because of no trenches and deep excavations. 8. Social benefit: In congested areas where traffic disruption during open trenching is a serious managerial hazard and a social nuisance, TT is the only solution. In fact rapid urbanization is pressing the need to adopt TT. Few more of the trenchless techniques are discussed below: (1) Auger boring, (2) Slurry boring, (3) Pipe jacking, (4) Micro tunneling, (5) Horizontal directional drilling, (6) Pipe ramming, (7) Soil compaction methods, and (8) Utility tunneling. The main features and range of applications, productivity issues and special concerns, current DOT practice, and emerging technologies of these methods are described. Each description includes a range of typical unit costs and typical capital

equipment costs, the accuracy that can be achieved, space requirements, compatible pipe materials, and compatible soil conditions. In addition, a case study is presented for each method that illustrates the principles and practices associated with the trenchless technique. THE APPLICATIONS OF TRENCHLESS TECHNIQUE Pipe bursting

A semi-trenchless method of installing factory-manufactured pipes and service connections in place of severely damaged water, sewer and commercial pipes and service laterals. An ideal solution for upsizing capacity of existing lines ranging from 6 to 36 inches in diameter. Slip-Lining

A Trenchless method of installing new factory-manufactured pipe and service connections inside existing sewer, water and commercial lines. Accomplished by pulling a new liner pipe into the existing pipe, creating a slight decrease in the inside diameter. Best for pipes ranging from 8 to 96 inches in diameter. Micro tunneling

A trenchless method of constructing new sewer and water pipe without requiring man-entry. Typically used for pipes ranging from 18-inches to 54inches in diameter and 40- to 50-feet in depth. Tunneling

A method of constructing new large-diameter pipelines in busy urban areas and challenging geological conditions. Because tunneling requires man-entry, it is ideal for construction of large-diameter tunnels, ranging from 5- to 26feet in diameter.
UNDERGROUND ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTIONS

Electric distribution projects and is particularly interested in long-term blanket contracts for new construction and retrofit. TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY IN INDIA & ABROAD The Trenchless technology has become a revolution in the fields of installation, replacements & rehabilitation of pipelines in the countries like U.K, SHANGHAI etc They have the following uses: With the continuous need to maintain and repair ageing water, sewer and gas pipelines, as well as to install new services in expanding conurbations, the non-disruptive techniques achieved through trenchless methods are becoming widely accepted as the preferred choice of many city engineers around the world who need to consider the adverse affects caused by conventional trenching methods in already congested streets. Rehabilitation works are progressing in the city of Mumbai for sewage pipelines.
Recently, tenders have been floated for pipe bursting, pipe lining and micro tunneling jobs in Mumbai. Many Government Departments are realizing that the rehabilitation of sewer lines by trenchless technology methods are most suitable for congested Indian conditions.

National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC) of India is now actively engaged in the promotion of trenchless (NO-DIG) Technology, a microtunneling method of construction, very useful for laying underground utility services such as cables/pipes etc. across busy roads, railway crossings, under canals etc. The technology causes no disruption to traffic, no damage to adjoining pipes/cables and is environment friendly. MTNL (Telephone Department), New Delhi has awarded works of laying of cables for 185 kms by using trenchless methods only. Similar telephone cable laying work is being done in the cities of Calcutta, Chennai, Hyderabad and Mumbai. Rivers like the Hoogly and the Sutlej have been crossed non-stop in few days going below the riverbeds and laying the product oil lines. Our metropolitan cities viz. Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore and other fast growing State capitals are congested and have out-grown their master-plans limits. In the U.K water industry capital water main distribution rehabilitation works are usually thoroughly investigated and planned and this allows optimum use of trenchless technology with many projects having over 80% of the pipelines renewed using trenchless techniques. For sewer pipeline rehabilitation the Office of Water Services (OFWAT) uses key performance indicators that measure retrospective events such as flooding and pipe collapses there are no indicators for condition monitoring and therefore most of the sewer maintenance work is undertaken on a reactive basis. Within the gas industry Transco and its predecessor British Gas had a longterm programme to replace cast iron pipes and they made extensive use of trenchless technology to deliver the programmed. Utilize both moling and directional drilling methods for some cable installations. The telecom industry in particular is very fast moving and with the introduction of competition the customer has a wide choice of service providers.

Within developed areas of the world such as North America, Europe and Japan the use of trenchless technology is similar to the UK since its considerable advantages in terms of speed of installation, reduced environmental impact and minimal disruption during the installation period are well recognized. In less well-developed regions take up has been slow due to initial high equipment purchase costs and low levels of technical expertise within the local labour forces. ACHIEVEMENTS IN THE FIELD OF TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY Steven Karmer has been declared as the person of the year in the year 2004. Trenchless Asia 2004 proves outstanding success at Mainland China debut. A &L ELECTRICAL DIVISION entered a Research and Development Program in conjunction with the Navy for a long-distance drilling system with hopes of taking directionally drilled holes to 25,000 linear feet.

CONCLUDING REMARKS The paper is an attempt to highlight the emerging technology called trenchless technology. This technology provides a cost-effective solution for trenching operations in not only projects involving small diameters excavations but to a diameter as large as 4.0m. The applications of this technology are pointed out in this paper, and the utility of this technology in India is still in its Infancy. The potential for enhanced job opportunities in India is tremendous. With more and more Government and non-government agencies in India making the use of this technology mandatory, the future looks promising. GUIDED BY Dr. S. S. Basarkar Lecturer, Department of Civil Engg, Y.C.C.E. Nagpur. REFRENCES www.trenchlessonline.com Sharon M. Bueno- managing editor of Trenchless Technology www.westrade.co.uk www.info@usroads.com www.insituform.com www.istt.com www.indstt@indianodig.com