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Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning in 1948 Born(1891-04-02)April 2, 1891 Brühl, Germany DiedApril 1, 1976(1976-04-01) (aged 84) Paris, France NationalityGerman Fieldpainting, sculpture, poetry MovementDada, Surrealism Max Ernst (2 April 1891 – 1 April 1976) was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was one of the primary pioneers of the Dada movement and Surrealism. Contents [hide] 1 Biography 1.1 Early life 1.2 Dada and surrealism 1.3 World War II and later life 2 Selected works 2.1 Paintings 2.1.1 Early works 2.1.2 First French period 2.1.3 American period 2.1.4 Second French period 2.2 Collages, lithographs, drawings, illustrations, etc. 2.3 Sculpture 3 Ernst in modern culture 4 Legacy 5 Gallery 6 References 6.1 Bibliography 7 External links [edit] Biography[edit] Early lifeErnst was born on April 2, 1891, in Brühl, near Cologne, the third of nine children of a middle-class Catholic family. His father Philipp Ernst was a teacher of the deaf and an amateur painter. A devout Christian and a strict disciplinarian, he inspired in his son a penchant for defying authority, while his interest in painting and sketching in nature influenced Max Ernst to take up painting himself.[1] In 1909 Ernst enrolled in the University of Bonn, studying philosophy, art history, literature, psychology and psychiatry. He visited asylums and became fascinated with the art of the mentally ill patients; he also started painting this year, producing sketches in the garden of the Brühl castle and portraits of his sister and himself. In 1911 Ernst befriended August Macke and joined his Die Rheinischen Expressionisten group of artists, deciding to become an artist. In 1912 he visited the Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne, where works by Pablo Picasso and post-Impressionists such as Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin profoundly influenced his approach to art. His own work was exhibited the same year together with that of the Das Junge Rheinland group, at Galerie Feldman in Cologne, and then in several group exhibitions in 1913.[2] In 1914 Ernst met Hans Arp in Cologne. The two soon became friends and their relationship lasted for fifty years. After Ernst completed his studies in the summer, his life was interrupted by World War I. Ernst was drafted and served both on the Western and the Eastern front. Such was the devastating effect of

In 1919–20 Ernst and Baargeld published various short-lived magazines such as Der Strom and die schammade and organized Dada exhibitions. Ernst entered France illegally and settled into a ménage à trois with the Éluards in Paris suburb Saint-Brice. which allowed him to continue painting. and similar sources. he produced his first collages (notably Fiat modes. France Ernst was demobilized in 1918 and returned to Cologne. social activist Johannes Theodor Baargeld. in 1925 he invented a graphic art technique called frottage (see Surrealist techniques). Next year Ernst visited Paul Klee in Munich and studied paintings by Giorgio de Chirico. who became a close lifelong friend.[4] During his first two years in Paris Ernst took various odd jobs to make a living and continued to paint.[4] He went on to become a painter like his father. Ernst went to Düsseldorf and sold a large number of his works to a longtime friend. and then. The Éluards returned to Eaubonne in early September.[2] Several German Expressionist painters died in action during the war. He also created another technique called 'grattage' in which . Musee National d'Art Moderne. Johanna Ey. Ernst's position was charting maps. leaving behind his wife and son. He soon married art history student Luise Straus. rue Tourlaque.the war on the artist that in his autobiography he referred to his time in the army thus: "On the first of August 1914 M[ax]. first for Monaco.[4] After a brief time together in Saigon.[4] "Les Fusains": 22. In 1925 Ernst established a studio at 22. teaching-aide manuals. The same year his works were exhibited at Salon des Indépendants.E[rnst]. He was resurrected on the eleventh of November 1918. In 1924 he abruptly left. (1923). near Paris. In 1923 the Éluards moved to a new home in Eaubonne. In 1921 he met Paul Éluard. which left a deep impression on him. Centre Pompidou. the trio decided that Gala would remain with Paul. The same year."[3] However. Éluard bought two of Ernst's paintings (Celebes and Oedipus Rex) and selected six collages to illustrate his poetry collection Répétitions. He returned to Paris in late 1924 and soon signed a contract with Jacques Viot that allowed him to paint full time. where Ernst painted numerous murals. both had to sell numerous paintings to finance the trip. inspired partly by de Chirico and partly by studying mail-order catalogues. died. [edit] Dada and surrealism Max Ernst.[2] Ernst's son Ulrich 'Jimmy' Ernst was born on 24 June 1920. a technique which would come to dominate his artistic pursuits in the years to come. unable to secure the necessary papers. for a brief period on the Western front. Éluard eventually became more concerned about the affair. on the magazine Litterature. and a number of their friends and colleagues founded the Cologne Dada group. but Ernst's marriage to Luise was short-lived. A year later the two collaborated on Les malheurs des immortels. In 1922. Also in 1919 Ernst. whom he met in 1914. among them Macke and Franz Marc. owner of gallery Das Junge Rheinland. which uses pencil rubbings of objects as a source of images. and then for Saigon. 18th arrondissement of Paris where Max Ernst established a studio in 1925 Although apparently accepting the ménage à trois at first. rue Tourlaque. Vietnam. Paris. with André Breton whom Ernst met in 1921. a portfolio of lithographs).[5] He soon asked his wife and Max Ernst to join him. after exploring more of South-East Asia. while Ernst followed them some months later.[4] Constantly experimenting. Ubu Imperator.

The couple first made their home in Sedona. he was discharged a few weeks later.[10] Ernst died on 1 April 1976 in Paris. near Aix-en-Provence. In 1938.[9] He left behind his lover. in a double ceremony with Man Ray and Juliet P. The City. Ernst and Peggy Guggenheim were also married to one another from 1942 to 1946. In 1953 he and Tanning moved to a small town in the south of France where he continued to work. directed by self-identifying Surrealist Luis Buñuel. With Miró's help. the outbreak of World War Two caused Ernst to be interned as an "undesirable foreigner" in Camp des Milles. Ernst helped inspire the development of Abstract expressionism. In 1948 Ernst wrote the treatise Beyond Painting. He said that one night when he was young he woke up and found that his beloved bird had died. and the Painter. and in Beverly Hills. and it is thought his relationship with her may have inspired the erotic subject matter of The Kiss and other works of this year. He uses this technique in his famous painting Forest and Dove (as shown at the Tate Modern). Soon after the Nazi occupation of France. Leonora Carrington. and a few minutes later his father announced that his sister was born.paint is scraped across canvas to reveal the imprints of the objects placed beneath. Ernst and Guggenheim arrived in the United States in 1941 and were married the following year. He suggested that this alter-ego was an extension of himself stemming from an early confusion of birds and humans. He also explored with the technique of decalcomania which involves pressing paint between two surfaces. but managed to escape and flee to America with the help of Guggenheim. Paul Éluard. Ernst drew a great deal of controversy with his 1926 painting The Virgin Chastises the infant Jesus before Three Witnesses: André Breton. Hypertrophied (1919) Little Machine Constructed by Minimax Dadamax in Person (1919–1920) Murdering Airplane (1920) The Hat Makes the Man (1920) Celebes (1921) Oedipus Rex (1922) [edit] First French periodPietà or Revolution by Night (1923) Saint Cecilia (1923) . he appeared in the film L'Âge d'Or. Browner.[7] In 1927 he married Marie-Berthe Aurenche. this time by the Gestapo. the American heiress and artistic patron Peggy Guggenheim acquired a number of Max Ernst's works which she displayed in her new museum in London. As a result of the publicity. His alter ego in paintings. and the Galeries Nationales du Grand-Palais in Paris published a complete catalogue of his works. it has been described by the poet André Verdet as "a masterpiece of bewitching magic. In 1966 he created a chess set made of glass which he named "Immortel". he married Dorothea Tanning. which he called Loplop. The next year he collaborated with Joan Miró on designs for Sergei Diaghilev. and she suffered a major mental breakdown.[6] Ernst developed a fascination with birds that was prevalent in his work. California in October 1946. Ernst began to make sculpture in 1934. along with fellow surrealist. he was arrested again. Along with other artists and friends (Marcel Duchamp and Marc Chagall) who had fled from the war and lived in New York City. Thanks to the intercession of Paul Éluard and other friends. including the journalist Varian Fry. Loplop often appeared in collages of other artists' work. such as Loplop presents André Breton. worthy of a Maya palace or the residence of a Pharaon". Ernst pioneered grattage in which he troweled pigment from his canvases.[8] In 1930.[9] He was interred at the Père Lachaise Cemetery. His marriage to Guggenheim did not last. he began to achieve financial success. who had recently emigrated to Paris. Arizona. Hans Bellmer. was a bird. (1937)In September 1939. [edit] World War II and later life L'Ange du Foyer. and spent time with Alberto Giacometti. [edit] Selected works[edit] Paintings[edit] Early worksAquis Submersus (1919) Trophy.

. and the Artist (1926) Forest series. two versions) Moonmad (1944) An Anxious Friend (1944) .The Wavering Woman (1923) Ubu Imperator (1923) Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale (1924) Woman. portfolio of lithographs) Illustrations for books by Paul Éluard: Répétitions (1921).g. an anthology of texts) Aux petits agneaux (1971. and Lewis Carrols Wunderhorn (1970. e. Color-Raft of Medusa (1953) [edit] Second French periodMundus est fabula (1959) The Garden of France (1962) The Sky Marries the Earth (1964) The World of the Naive (1965) Ubu.g. e. e. Father and Son (1966) Birth of a Galaxy (1969) "La dernière forêt" (The last forest) (1960. lithographs) Paysage marin avec capucin (1972. The Hunting of the Snark (1968). drawings. 1924) Oedipus (1934.Fiat modes (1919. Old Man and Flower (1924) Paris Dream (1924–25) The Blessed Virgin Chastises the Infant Jesus Before Three Witnesses: A.E.B. illustrations. Petrified City (1933). etchings with aquatint in colors. published posthumously) [edit] SculptureBird (c. graphic novel) Une Semaine de Bonté (1934. collages with poems) Illustrations for editions of works by Lewis Carroll: Symbolic Logic (1966. Entire City (1935–36. graphic novel) Rêve d'une petite fille qui voulut entrer au carmel (1930. graphic novel) Paramythes (1949. lithographs. Loplop Introduces a Young Girl (1930) City series. two versions) Garden Aeroplane Trap series (1935–36) The Joy of Living (1936) The Fascinating Cypress (1940) The Robing of the Bride (1940) [edit] American periodTotem and Taboo (1941) Marlene (1941) Napoleon in the Wilderness (1941) Day and Night (1941–42) The Antipope (1942) Europe After the Rain II (1940–42) Surrealism and Painting (1942) Vox Angelica (1943) Everyone Here Speaks Latin (1943) Painting for Young People (1943) The Eye of Silence (1944) Dream and Revolution (1945) The Phases of the Night (1946) Design In Nature (1947) Inspired Hill (1950) Colorado of Medusa. The Wood (1927) Loplop series. Loplop Introduces Loplop (1930).1970) [edit] Collages. etc. P.g. under the title Logique sans peine). Au défaut du silence (1925) Histoire Naturelle (1926. frottage drawings) La femme 100 têtes (1929. Les malheurs des immortels (1922). illustrated book with essays by various authors) Oiseaux en peril (1975. Forest and Dove (1927).

The exhibition also includes Ernst's works that experiment with free association writing and the techniques of frottage. 286.. ^ a b c Spies. died in 1984. ^ Spies. ^ Warlick. His memoirs. and decalcomania. "Max Ernst: A Retrospective" opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and included works such as Celebes (1921). 285. and the Artist ^ Flint. involving scratching at the surface of a painting. The 101-minute German film was released on DVD with English subtitles by Image and Fireside Angel (1937). Ballard makes numerous references to the art works of Max Ernst in his breakthrough novel The Drowned World (1962) and the experimental collection of short stories The Atrocity Exhibition (1970). Ballard's The Crystal World and the Penguin paperback edition of James Blish's A Case of Conscience both use details from The Eye of Silence as cover art. Barefoot In The Head. Rewald 2005..Capricorn (1948) Two and Two Make One (1956) Immortel (1966–67) [edit] Ernst in modern cultureMany of Ernst's works from Une Semaine de Bonté are used in albums by American rock group The Mars Volta.. grattage. [edit] GalleryMen Shall Know Nothing of This 1923. stills of his paintings and sculptures. their 2002 album OnOffOn features "Max Ernst's Dream". Rewald 2005. early SurrealismEurope After the Rain II (1940-1942)The Max-Ernst-Museum in Brühl[edit] References^ Spies. and the memoirs of his wife Dorothea Tanning and son Jimmy. Rewald 2005. Max Ernst and Alchemy: a Magician in Search of Myth. Calls and Marches). "The Kiss (Le Baiser)". Dedicated to the art historian Werner Spies.[11] Ernst's son Jimmy. Guggenheim Collection. xiv. 285. Europe After the Rain was used by musician John Foxx as the title for the opening track of his 1981 album The Garden. a well known German/American abstract expressionist painter." repeated many times and distorted via tape loop. M. A Not-So-Still Life. The writer J. 83.B. Rewald 2005. were published shortly before his death. G. features a collage from this same book. The first edition (Jonathan Cape) of J. who lived on the south shore of Long Island. P.html. 2001. a collaboration between guitarist Thurston Moore and saxophonists Jim Sauter and Don Dietrich of Borbetomagus.E. ^ Image: The Blessed Virgin Chastises the Infant Jesus Before Three Witnesses: A.E. it was assembled from interviews with Ernst. mentioning two of Ernst's paintings Blessed Virgin Chastises the Infant Jesus and Garden Airplane-Trap) artist: on the CD (The and ending with the words "Dada dada dada . [edit] LegacyMax Ernst's life and career are the subject of Peter Schamoni's 1991 documentary Max Ernst. ISBN 978-0-292-79136-7 ^ Max Ernst working in decalcomania is in shown in the 1978 documentary on the Dada and Surrealist art movement. Lucy. p.guggenheimcollection.. Also. Ubu Imperator (1923). http://www.G. ^ a b c d e Spies. which is one of the few definitively political pieces and is sub-titled The Triumph of Surrealism depicting a raging bird-like creature that symbolizes the wave of fascism that took over Europe. xiv. which involves altering a wet painting by pressing a second surface against it and taking it away. In 2005. Europe After the Rain. . His grandson Eric and granddaughter Amy are both artists and writers. created from a rubbing from a textured surface. The American rock group Mission of Burma titled two songs after the "Max Ernst" was the b-side of their first 1980 single (now included of Signals.

^ A Max Ernst Retrospective Opens Today in Max Ernst Exposition Max Ernst Exposition on the web Max-Ernst Biography [hide]vteSurrealists ArtistsEileen AgarJean ArpAntonin ArtaudLouis AragonJacques BaronHans BellmerJacques-André BoiffardVictor BraunerAndré BretonLuis BuñuelClaude CahunLeonora CarringtonRené CrevelSalvador DalíPaul DelvauxRobert DesnosÓscar DomínguezMarcel DuchampMarcel DuhamelGala ÉluardPaul ÉluardMax ErnstLeonor FiniGordon Onslow FordEsteban FrancesAlberto GiacomettiJindřich HeislerValentine HugoEdgar JenéWifredo LamJacqueline LambaMichel LeirisGeorges LimbourDora MaarRené MagritteGeorges MalkineAndré MassonRoberto MattaVictor MayerE.abcgallery.Net Max Ernst MasterPiece: "Immortel" Maxernstmasterpiece. Abrams. http://www.artinfo. William Camfield.^ a b Olga's Gallery. drawings. 2005.) Max Ernst : paintings. April 7. 1891 Place of birthBrühl.html. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art / New Haven: Yale University Press. http://www. "Max Ernst biography".html. H. 1993). Elizabeth Legge. 1998). http://maxernstmasterpiece. 223 East 60. Max Ernst: A Retrospective. Max Ernst Dada and the Dawn of Surrealism (MoMA. Germany . T. 1967) OCLC 2034599 Bodley Gallery (New York.N. 1961 : Bodley Gallery. will-o'-the-wisp" Max Ernst explained to younger generation. L. Max Alternative names Short description Date of birthApril 2. ARTINFO. sculpture : October 30-November -ny/.). Retrieved 2008-04-23 [edit] BibliographyWerner Spies & Sabine Rewald ( [edit] External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to: Max Ernst Works in the National Galleries of Scotland Max-Ernst Museum Brühl Max Ernst at the Museum of Modern Art Max Ernst works and biography Olga's Gallery Max Ernst works and biography Galerie Ludorff Max Ernst gallery Ten Dreams "Max Ernst. Retrieved 2008-11-25. MesensLee MillerMax MoriseJoan MiróPierre NavilleVítězslav NezvalMarcel NollPaul NougéMéret OppenheimWolfgang PaalenRaymond PenroseBenjamin PéretFrancis PongeJacques PrévertRaymond QueneauMan RayMarko RistićGeorges SadoulKay SageKurt SeligmannPhilippe SoupaultJindřich ŠtyrskýYves TanguyDorothea TanningToyenTristan TzaraPierre UnikSimone VionAlbert ValentinRemedios VaroRoger Vitrac Persondata NameErnst. Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: The Bride Shared (Oxford. Max Ernst: life and work (New York. 1989). Gilbert-Rts Max Ernst facts collages. 2005. Institut fur Auslandsbeziehungen. Catalogue of exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York: Max Ernst: a retrospective John Russell. 1977. Max Ernst: The Psychoanalytic Sources (UMI. ^ "Max Ernst . New York (exhibition catalogue and commentary. 1961) OCLC 54157692 Max Ernst Books and Graphic Works. David Hopkins. published by the gallery. N.Masterpiece".

Do you want to create an account?An account will help you track your edits. An error has occurred. See Terms of use for details.php?title=Max_Ernst&oldid=493781125" View page ratingsRate this page Rate this page Page ratings What's this?Current average ratings. Please try again later. ArizonaBurials at Père Lachaise CemeteryHidden categories: Commons category template with no category setPersondata templates without short description parameterPersonal tools Log in / create accountNamespaces ArticleTalkVariantsViews ReadEditView historyActions Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaInteractionHelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkCite this pageRate this page Print/exportCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version LanguagesAlemannischAragonésБ ла а Б л а CatalàČeskyCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικά sp M ra désNeder a ds日本語 Nors (bo må ) Occ ta P emo tè sPo s PortuguêsRomâ ă Slovenčina / SrpskiSrpskohrvatski / а SuomiSvenska Türkçe а аTiếng ViệtThis page was last modified on 22 May 2012 at 05:51.wikipedia. and be a part of the community.Submit ratings Saved successfullyYour ratings have not been submitted yetYour ratings have expiredPlease reevaluate this page and submit new ratings. get involved in discussions. France Retrieved from "http://en. Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) I have a relevant college/university degreeIt is part of my professionIt is a deep personal passionThe source of my knowledge is not listed here I would like to help improve you know that you can edit this page?Edit this pageMaybe later Categories: 1891 births1976 deathsGerman artistsGerman paintersModern paintersModern sculptorsDadaSurrealist artistsUniversity of Bonn alumniPeople from Brühl (Rhineland)People from the Rhine ProvincePeople from Sedona. Inc. 1976 Place of deathParis. Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.Create an accountorLog inMaybe later Thanks! Your ratings have been saved. We will not share your e-mail address with outside parties as per our feedback privacy statement.Please take a moment to complete a short survey. a non-profit organization.Start surveyMaybe later Thanks! Your ratings have been saved. send me an e-mail (optional) We will send you a confirmation e-mail.Date of deathApril 1.. additional terms may apply. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.   ¢ ¡¤ £ ¡ ¢ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ £ £ ¤ ¢ ¡ .

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