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DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES 5418 PULASKI HIGHWAY BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 21205 410-485-3449

WWW.DELTASCOOLOFTRADES.COM

DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES WELDING HANDBOOK

CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGES


SAFETY FOR WELDERS 3...17 SMAW STICK 18...31 SMAW ESSENTIAL VARIABLES 32...42 GMAW MIG 43...58 GTAW TIG 5971 CERTIFICATION 7280 BASIC JOINTS 8188 WELDING SYMBOLS ___ 89102 PRACTICES_____________ __ ___103..140

THIS TEXT WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED BY;

NORMAN J. ASHLEY DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES First printing January 2000 Latest Printing March 2005 Revised September 1st, 2007

CHAPTER ONE SAFETY FOR WELDING


SAFETY FIRST CLOTHING FOR WELDING WELDERS UNIFORM FOR DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES WELDING MACHINE SAFETY SHOP AND WELDING ENVIRONMENT SAFETY HANDLEING GAS CYLINDERS GENERAL SAFETY

STUDENT OBJECTIVES
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. List and describe the type of clothing appropriate for safely welding. 2. List and describe the 8 items that make up the welders uniform used at Delta School of Trades. 3. Describe the safety guidelines relevant to working with welding machines at Delta School of Trades. 4. Describe safety rules relevant to the welding shop and environment. 5. Discuss safety issues relevant to using gas cylinders in the welding industry. 6. List and describe 4 items related to safely picking up loads in the shop 7. List and describe safety concerns for using hand grinders at Delta School of Trades.

SAFETY FOR WELDERS


SAFETY FIRST Safety should be the first consideration when beginning any Trade. Welding is an Industrial trade and as such has many hazards that can cause injury if the proper safety guidelines are not followed. In addition to the safety guidelines for welding training there are many safety rules that apply to the welding field in general and to the particular company you will work for. Students and employees should continue to take an active interest in safety throughout their careers. CLOTHING FOR WELDING Since welding produces intense heat and hot sparks that may cause serious burns, it is important to wear the proper work clothes. The following describes the type of clothing appropriate for welding operations. WORK SHIRTS Shirts should be made of thick heavy materials such as heavy cotton or denim that is not easily burned. The shirts must be long sleeved and should not have pockets unless they have button flaps on them. Open pockets may trap hot sparks or globules of hot metal that could burn the skin. The shirt should not have frayed edges that sparks from welding can easily ignite. The work shirt should not have any torn areas that allow hot sparks to penetrate. Matches, lighters, or paper materials should never be carried in shirt or pants pockets when welding. WORK PANTS The pants should be close fitting and made of a heavy material such as work jeans. Overalls are appropriate if other clothing is worn under them. The pants should be long enough to cover the top of the boots and have no cuffs that may trap sparks or hot slag. Like the shirts the pants should have no frayed edges or torn areas in them. It is advisable not to have metal keys or other devices dangling from the pants that could arc against the work surface. BOOTS High top leather boots are required for welding and general shop use. Canvas boots or dress shoes should not be worn. The boots should fasten all the way up to prevent sparks falling into them. Leather laces that will not easily burn or smolder should be used. Wear heavy work socks not nylon or thinner socks for added protection against sparks. Safety boots with steel toe caps are advisable for welding shops and work to protect the feet. Spats or leggings are leather pieces that fit over the top of the boot to prevent sparks falling into the boots and are available at welding supply stores.

CAPS A cap or some form of head covering should be used for welding, especially in other than the flat position. The cap must be compatible with the welding head gear called the welding helmet. Welders caps or welders beanies (cap with no peaks) are available from welding supply stores.

WELDERS UNIFORM FOR DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES Students or welders at the School need to have the proper welding protection equipment in addition to wearing the proper welding work clothes. The protection equipment is used to safely view the arc and make the practice welds at the school. It is the same type of personal equipment all welders use on the job. The Welding Uniform is the individuals choice of manufacturers and styles, for the following items: 1. THE WELDING HELMET (WITH SUPPLY OF LENSES) 2. LEATHER WELDING GLOVES 3. LEATHER JACKET OR CAPE SLEEVES AND BIB 4. SAFETY GLASSES 5. WELDING CAP 6. SLAG (CHIPPING) HAMMER 7. WIRE BRUSH 8. PLIERS 1. THE WELDING HELMET The welding helmet is designed to protect the welders face and head from the ultraviolet and infrared rays of the welding arc, while allowing the welder to view the molten weld pool or puddle. There are a variety of welding helmets and styles available, among them are the flip front, the wide lens, and the auto-darkening lens. The flip front allows the welder to view the weld area through a clear lens, while still wearing the helmet, to safely slag the work or use a grinder. 5

The wide lens helmet offers a wider view of the weld area. (Approximately 4 X 5 instead of 2 X 4) A flip front model of the wide lens helmet is also available.

The Auto darkening helmets have a lens that is clear to allow the welder to see the joint before striking the arc. As soon as the welder strikes the arc, the lens darkens to the normal view of the welding puddle. The auto darkening lenses are very useful for; production welding where small welds can be made without constantly lifting the hood; for precise restarting of the weld; for striking the arc without hitting the surrounding area or other parts; for grinding and oxy-fuel cutting.

Auto darkening lenses may also be purchased to fit into a standard helmet. The auto darkening style of helmet is a lot more expensive than the standard welding helmet and is not essential for use at the school.

The welding helmet usually comes with a filter plate (dark plate) and a clear lens on the outer side. The filter lens should be shade number 10 for most welding. Check the documentation that comes with the helmet for information about the other lens shades that are available. 6

If you use a second clear lens on the inside of the helmet it protects the filter plate when the helmet is laid down. It is critical to clean welding lenses daily and change the outer lens when it gets pitted or scratched, about weekly at the school. If the inner clear lens is in good condition simply swap it for the front clear lens and place a new lens on the inside. The dark filter plate, if protected by the cheaper clear lenses should not need to be changed. Filter lenses and clear lenses are available as plastic or glass. I prefer a Glass filter lens for better viewing and plastic clear lens. Make sure you have an ample supply of clear lenses.

2. LEATHER WELDING GLOVES The welding gloves required for welding are the gauntlet type gloves that cover the forearms. Work gloves are not appropriate for arc welding. Lightweight gloves designed for TIG (Healy Arc) give the welder a better feel for manipulating the TIG torch and adding filler wire. The TIG gloves are not designed for STICK or MIG.

Gloves that are used to handle hot metal may become hard and brittle and crack. Use only pliers to handle hot weld coupons. Wet or damp gloves should never be used for electric arc welding. Gloves that develop even small holes should be discarded and replaced before continuing to weld. The less expensive work gloves may be used for general shop work, but should not be used for welding.

3. LEATHER JACKET, OR CAPE SLEEVES AND BIB The leather jacket, worn like a coat, offers the best upper body and neck protection from sparks and hot metal globules typical of welding positions other than flat. Most jackets have an inside pocket and snap all the way up to the collar. 7

A lighter jacket made of fire retardant material may also be used in welding shops. Some of these jackets have leather sleeves. These jackets are good for light welding, but will wear and develop holes when doing a lot of vertical and overhead position welding.

The Cape Sleeves and Bib outfit may be made of all leather or the fire retardant material shown above. You can select either just the sleeves or the cape and sleeves or the cape and sleeves with a front bib. Although open in the back, the all leather cape sleeves and bib are a good less expensive substitute for the full leather jacket, and is practical for all welding positions.

Note: the bib may be sold separately

4. SAFETY GLASSES Safety glasses are mandatory for all industrial applications, and recommended eye protection for many hobby or home projects. In the welding environment Safety glasses further protect the eyes from the intense ultraviolet and infrared rays of the welding arc. Welders may get a condition known as an eye flash, either from striking an arc without the helmet in place, or more likely, from other welders working in the area. People that work around welders, are also vulnerable to eye flash without the proper protection. The safety glasses must have side shields to protect the corner of the eye when welders are working close by. 8

An eye flash occurs when the unprotected eye is burned in a similar manner to a sun burn on skin. Painful problems from the flash usually start several hours after exposure (At Night) and may last all night into the next day. The symptoms include: A feeling of sand or grit in the eye, an inability to keep the eye open and focus, intense pain, redness swelling and watering, burning, and headache. It is my experience that the flash will clear up without long term problems if you avoid further eye exposures. Consult a doctor if problems persist more than 48 hours. IT IS CRUCIAL TO WEAR SAFETY GLASSES WHEN WELDING If you wear prescription glasses, you should use side shields that slip on to the frames of glasses, to protect the sides of the eyes from exposure. Many flashes come from other welders and can burn the eye from the side. Goggles that fit over glasses may also be used

5. WELDING CAP A welding cap protects the head from sparks flying over the welding helmet and from falling sparks while welding overhead. A cap with no peak called a beanie is a popular choice for welders. A cap with a peak worn backward may also be used.

6. SLAG HAMMER (CHIPPING HAMMER) A slag hammer or sometimes called a chipping hammer is used to remove the slag from the completed stick weld. The slag hammer may have one pointed and be shaped like a chisel on the other end or have two chisel shaped ends. The two most common types are the wire frame and the wood handle.

7. WIRE BRUSH A wire brush is used to clean the weld layers between passes and to clean the completed weld.

8. PLIERS A pair of pliers is used to handle the hot weld coupons, or other hot metal. Using only gloved hands can result in a burn or at least shorten the life of the gloves. A simple pair of slip joint pliers, or a pair of locking pliers, may be used.

WELDER AND EQUIPMENT

SAFETY IN THE WELDING FIELD In addition to wearing the proper welding uniform there are a number of safety issues that welders must be aware of, make sure you understand the safety guidelines in effect at your company. The American Welding Society (AWS) has available several documents concerning safety for further review. Of special interest is their safety Standard Safety in welding, Cutting and Allied Processes ANSI/AWS Z49.1. The following is a brief review of some of the guidelines for welding safety:

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WELDING MACHINE SAFETY Before doing any welding read the manual for the type and manufacture of the machine you will be using. The welding machine is an electrical power source and should be installed by a qualified electrician or properly trained personnel. Wear the proper clothing and safety uniform to prevent contact with live parts of the welding circuit that can cause severe electric shock or even death. The clothing should be dry and free of grease or oil to prevent flash burning. When changing electrode holders, ground clamps, or otherwise working on the electrical circuit make sure the machine is turned off. If the power source is in a remote place use a lock-out system or have another employee watch to ensure no one turns on the machine. Frequently check the ground and electrode cables for bare spots or damage. Check to ensure that insulated parts such as the electrode holder are not damaged exposing live parts. Only qualified personnel should repair damaged cables, ground clamps or electrode holders Always wear gloves to insert electrodes into the electrode holder. Never leave electrodes in the electrode holder when not welding. Never drape the welding cable over your body to weld. Make sure the welding area is dry and do not weld in rain or wet conditions. Other safety issues apply to Motor generators; make sure you do not work alone, in case of shock the welding machine may need to be shut down quickly.

Do not attempt to repair welding machines unless you have been trained and qualified to do so.

SHOP AND WELDING ENVIRONMENT SAFETY The welding environment should be well ventilated using fans and extraction devices to remove fumes from the immediate breathing zone and welding area. Special precautions must be followed when welding in confined space, for example; use welding helmets with forced air or use respirators. Keep the welding area free of containers that contain combustible materials, paper, cloth, paint and oily or greasy materials. In case of fire; you should know where the closest fire extinguisher is located and that it is fully charged. In special circumstances an assistant is posted to act as a fire watch. You should never weld on drums, tanks, or any closed containers unless properly trained and qualified personnel have authorized their safe use.

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Be aware of where co-workers are and what they are doing, sparks from welding can travel some distance from the welding area. Falling objects may endanger you or co-workers. Always warn coworkers when you are about to start welding.

A hard hat may be required when welding on some applications. Welding helmets that incorporate a hard hat are available from welding supply stores.

Some companies require employees and welders to wear ear plugs in noisy environments.

Welding curtains may be used to contain welding activities. Make sure you are aware and understand the safety guidelines that apply to other shop equipment such as; grinders, saws, hand tools and machinery. When welding on galvanized or painted surfaces toxic fumes may be released. Remove the coating by grinding prior to welding. Use a respirator in a well ventilated area or weld outdoors. Certain types of metals also require the use of a respirator.

Keep the welding area clean and free of clutter, metal, excess welding cables and anything that could fall or cause tripping accidents. Know where the first aid station is located and report all accidents regardless how small. Burns require immediate treatment to prevent infection. 12

HANDLEING GAS CYLINDERS Because of the shape, contents and weight of gas cylinders used in the welding field it is important they be handled with extreme caution and in a safe manner. The following safety guidelines are suggested for safely handling and using gas cylinders. Gas cylinders should never be moved by carrying, dragging or rolling them. They should only be moved by securing them in an approved cart. The cylinders must have the metal caps in place to protect the valve stem assembly of the cylinder before moving them.

If cylinders must be lifted they should be properly secured in an approved lifting cart or on a platform. Chains, slings, magnets, and other devices where there may be a possibility of the cylinder slipping and falling should never be used. Cylinders that are transported over the road should be secured in the upright position with their protective steel caps in place. Oil and grease should never come into contact with the oxygen cylinders, regulators or equipment, since a chemical reaction between the oil and the oxygen may cause a fire or explosion. Hammers pry bars and similar tools must not be used to open a stuck cylinder valve or remove valve caps. If the cylinder valve is damaged the force of the escaping gas may cause high pressure cylinders to fly around uncontrolled and cause damage or serious injury. If a cylinder is leaking gas it should be moved outdoors and the gas supplier should be notified immediately. Cylinders must be chained or secured in the upright position secured on a cart or fastened into a welding machine cart. When not in use they should have the regulators removed and the caps in place.

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Never weld on the cylinders, or allow the electrode to come into contact with them and establish an arc.

Use only the approved cylinder wrench to attach regulators and hoses to the cylinder. The use of loose fitting wrenches on the soft brass connections may cause excessive wear by slipping on the connections. Excessive wear may cause the edges of the connectors to become rounded and make it difficult to fit any wrench on them.

Use only the approved regulator and hoses for the type of gas being used and never use the same regulator and hoses for different gas contents.

The cylinder the cylinder valve must be cleaned before attaching the regulators. Standing behind the cylinder quickly open then close the cylinder valve to allowing the high pressure gas to blow out trapped dirt. This action is known as cracking the cylinder. Make sure no one is in front of the cylinder when you crack the cylinder. Before attaching the regulator make sure the adjusting screw is backed out and loose. Since regulators are designed to blow out the front and back if they fail, stand to the side of the regulator when opening or pressurizing the regulator. Fuel gas cylinders should only be opened about turn or until the gas registers on the regulator, so they can be shut down quickly in an emergency. The high pressure cylinders like the oxygen, argon and 75-25 have a double seating valve and should be opened all the way.

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GENERAL SAFETY LIFTING The following are suggestions for lifting objects in the shop: 1. For heavy items ask for help to lift and move them. 2. Use gloves when moving metal or pieces with sharp edges. 3. Use lifting devices for extremely heavy material. 4. Use the stronger knees to bend and lift not the weaker back.

GRINDERS Metal hand grinders are used at the school for grinding edge preparations and cleaning up, or repairing weld passes. Ask for instructions if you have never used a hand grinder. If you purchase a grinder, read the manufacturers handbook and safety recommendations supplied with the grinder. The following suggestions apply to hand grinders:

Never use a grinder that has bare wires or a damaged cord. Do not leave grinders plugged in and unattended on the workbench. Make sure the safety guard is on the grinder. Use the handle supplied with the grinder. Use the face shield and safety glasses when grinding. Make sure the cord or extension cords do not present a tripping hazard. Do not lay the grinder down until the wheel has completely stopped. Never attempt to repair or work on grinders other than regular maintenance. There are repair centers that specialize in safely repairing damaged grinders. Use gloves when grinding. Make sure the sparks from grinding do not present a hazard to co-workers or Cause a fire threat.

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CONCLUSION There are many and varied safety guidelines that apply to particular Industries and companies not covered in this section. Take an active interest in safety as it applies to your job and environment to avoid personal injury. Continually review safety guidelines and Material Safety Data Sheets that pertain to you and your company. Safety is everyones business, never compromise safety to get the job done. Many Industrial accidents can jeopardize your career and future.

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CHAPTER ONE SAFETY FOR WELDING KEY POINTS


1. Safety clothing must be worn at all times regardless of personnel comfort, for example do not remove leather protective sleeves or jacket in hot weather. Always wear safety glasses on the job. 2. Always use clean welding lenses. They should be cleaned daily and replaced when scratched, pitted, or approximately weekly. 3 Always seek first aid for minor burns or cuts. 4. replace defective equipment such as, gloves with holes or other equipment with evident wear and tear. 5. Read and follow all available safety guidelines for the shop environment and equipment you are using. 6. Take an active interest in safety on the job and the rules and guidelines at your place of employment.

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CHAPTER TWO SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING STICK


INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION THE ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT FOR WELDING THE WELDING MACHINE TYPES OF WELDING MACHINES ARC BLOW

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CHAPTER TWO SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING STICK

STUDENT OBJECTIVES
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. Describe the Shielded metal arc welding (stick) process. 2. Describe how to start an Electrode (rod) by tapping or scratching. 3. Describe the welding machine, polarity and type of current used in Shielded metal arc welding. 4. List and describe the 4 basic types of welding machines. 5. List and describe the controls on typical welding machines used at Delta. 6. Describe the problem of arc blow when using DC current and how to reduce the effects.

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THE SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING PROCESS STICK INTRODUCTION The shielded Metal Arc Welding Process (SMAW) is also widely known by the shop term Stick Welding. The term stick is a reference to the electrode used to provide the filler metal for welding with this process. The Shielded metal Arc Welding process is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of joining metals by welding. The process is popular because of the simplicity of equipment involved, its portability, reliability and adaptability to outdoor use. The process may be used to weld a variety of metal types and shapes in any position.

DESCRIPTION In the SMAW process, welding is done by setting up an electrical circuit using a welding machine to produce the electricity, a welding cable with an electrode holder to hold the electrode and a ground cable with a clamp to fasten to the work-piece to complete the circuit. The weld is made by touching the electrode to the work-piece closing the electrical circuit and causing the electrode to melt and form the weld.

THE ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT FOR WELDING

The electrode has a metal core with a covering referred to as the flux by welders

The metal core of the electrode is either the same as, or is compatible with, the metal being welded. 20

The main difference between the electrodes used to weld mild steel is the composition of the flux. Manufactures add Ingredients to the flux to influence the characteristics (the way the electrode operates) of the electrode. These characteristics include; the current and polarity, penetration, spatter, slag type and weld appearance. The covering on the electrode decomposes during welding to provide a gaseous shielding that protects the molten weld puddle from the nitrogen and oxygen in the air that can cause welds to become brittle or have holes (porosity) in them. The covering also aids in arc stability, cleaning (deoxidizing) the metal to be welded and forms the protective black slag that covers the weld metal. KEY POINTS: The slag should be removed before more welds are added to the joint when multiple pass welding. Electrodes are classified by the American Welding Society based on their specific requirements and intended use. Electrode guidebooks (available at welding supply stores) are a good source of information regarding appropriate choices of electrodes. To start the weld the electrode is tapped (or scratched like striking a match) on the work-piece then immediately a small gap is held between the electrode tip and work-piece. Since the gap creates an electrical arcing effect between the electrode tip and the work-piece, the gap is referred to as the welding arc. The distance from the tip of the electrode to the work-piece can be varied from lightly touching the work-piece at an angle sufficient to maintain an arc to a distance approximately equal to the electrode core. When viewed through the welding helmets filter plate the molten metal from the melting electrode and work-piece is known as the weld puddle.

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THE WELDING MACHINE The welding machine (or power source) may vary in style and type but they all produce a steady flow of electrical current with relatively low voltage to maintain a welding arc. The type of welding machine used for stick welding is known as a constant current machine which means the current stays relatively constant as set by the operator while the voltage varies with the arc length. The machine may produce either Alternating Current; Direct Current; or offer a selection of either Alternating Current or Direct Current. Welding machines that utilize Direct Current usually have a method of changing the direction of current flow (polarity) in the welding circuit. Some machines have a switch to change the polarity, while on others the welding cables must be switched from one terminal to the other. To switch the cables it may be necessary to loosen the terminal bolts or plugs may be provided. When the electrode cable is attached to the positive + terminal and the ground clamp is attached to the negative terminal the polarity is Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) or sometimes called Reverse polarity. When the electrode cable is attached to the negative terminal and the ground cable is attached to the positive terminal the polarity is Direct Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) or sometimes called Straight Polarity.

KEY POINT; some electrodes are designed to work best on one polarity or the other. Alternating Current does not have a polarity (direction of flow) since the current constantly alternates from one direction to the other.

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The welding machines may be further classified by input line voltage which may be single phase or three phase for example: 230 volts 460 volts or in some cases 110. One of the most important considerations may be the amount of amperage the machine is capable of producing and the duty cycle. The duty cycle may be given in a percentage for example: 60% duty cycle means the welder can run at capacity for 6 minutes out of ten. Since with stick welding the welder must stop to change electrodes the duty cycle may not be as critical as with Mig welding. The size of the electrodes to be used determines the amount of amperage the machine will need to produce. TYPES OF WELDING MACHINES There are four basic types of welding machines that produce the required low voltage high amperage constant current for stick welding. 1. TRANSFORMERS. 2. TRANSFORMER RECTIFIERS. 3. MOTOR DRIVEN GENERATORS. 4. INVERTERS 1. TRANSFORMERS. A transformer welding machine takes the high voltage low amperage line current and transforms it to the low voltage high amperage current suitable for stick welding. These machines are relatively simple in construction with low power consumption and are economical to operate. These machines produce only Alternating Current (AC). The electrodes selection is limited to those designed to operate on AC current. These machines are often used by home hobbyists. AC Transformers or alternating current may be used to virtually eliminate the problems of arc blow when using Direct Current. (Arc blow is the deflection of the arc from its intended path caused by the magnetic effects of the direct current.) AN AC TRANSFORMER MACHINE

LINCOLN AC 225 AMPS 23

2. TRANSFORMER RECTIFIERS The Transformer rectifier welding machines changes line current to suitable welding current similar to the transformer machine except that the addition of the rectifier changes the output current to Direct Current (DC). On some machines a switch is used to pass the current through only the transformer to produce AC current, allowing the operator the choice of AC or DC current. The addition of a polarity switch allows a full range of currents from AC to DC electrode negative or DC electrode positive. KEY POINT: Some machines require the terminals or plugs to be switched to change polarity. Some machines produce only DC current

TRANSFORMER RECTIFIERS MACHINE

LINCOLN IDEALARC AC DC 250 AMPS A multi-process welding machine is one that may be used to weld with STICK, MIG or TIG, when the necessary components are added.

MILLER MULTI PROCESS MACHINE 24

3. MOTOR DRIVEN GENERATORS In the motor driven generator, the motor turns a generator to produce the electric current for welding. The motor that turns the generator may be powered by electricity or by a fuel powered internal combustion engine driven by gasoline or diesel. The fuel gas types are the type of welding machine commonly seen on trucks and job sites. These machines may also have components added for multi-process welding.

MILLER TRAILBLAZER

4. INVERTERS Relatively recent technology has allowed welding machine manufactures to take advantage of electronics to rectify and transform line current for the welding circuit in a much smaller size called inverters. Inverter models are available that produce either DC current or offer a choice of AC or DC current. Models available provide either constant current used for STICK and TIG or Constant voltage used for MIG or may combine both. The great benefits of this technology include the production of a line of machines that offer smaller more portable multiple process machines that are capable of providing a range of amperages and are less costly than traditional machines. The illustration below shows an invertec V 250 S which is a DC 250 amp stick welding machine used at the Delta School Of Trades.

LICOLN INVERTEC 250 AMPS 25

WELDING MACHINE CONTROLS There are a variety of welding machines produced by manufactures for stick welding, each with their particular arrangement of controls for selecting the variables for welding. Although controls may differ with machine type and style, they serve the same basic functions. Two of the welding machines used at the school are the Lincoln Invertec V250-S and the Miller Dimension 400. These machines will be used to describe the welding machine controls.

LINCOLN INVERTEC V250-S CONTROLS (1) ON OFF SWITCH The on off switch is pushed upwards to turn the machine on and down to turn the machine off. (2) THE NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE TERMINALS The negative and positive terminals are used to change polarity between Electrode positive work negative or Electrode Negative and work positive. The work (ground) cable plug and the Electrode cable plug are twisted, pulled out and switched to change from one polarity to the other. (3) RUNNING LIGHT OR PILOT LIGHT The pilot light is red when the machine is on and running. (4) HOT START The hot start Control regulates the amount of starting energy when initiating the arc in Stick welding. The higher setting may be used for esier arc starting with some electrodes. 26

(5) AMPERAGE CONTROL The amperage control sets the amperage for Stick welding and becomes the upper limit when using a remote control. (6) ARC FORCE This control is used to adjust the force of the arc. The arc is more forceful or digging at the higher settings. Adjustments are made based on the type of electrode and the application.

(7) GTAW SMAW SETTING This control offers a choice of GTAW SMAW SOFT OR SMAW CRISP. The GTAW setting is used when the TIG (GTAW) equipment is attached and aids in touch starting the arc. The SMAW SOFT setting is used to soften the arc for Electrodes like the E-7018 and E-7028. The SMAW CRISP setting allows a crisper arc when using Electrodes like the E-6010. (8) THE REMOTE CONTROL The remote control switches control of the amperage between (9) REMOTE RECEPTACLE The remote receptacle has a cover that can be removed to attach a remote device to control the amperage from zero to the upper limit set on the machine. This control is often utilized for adding a foot pedal when TIG (GTAW) welding, or when a hand operated remote control is used. MILLER DIMENSION 400 MULTI-PROCESS WELDING MACHINE CONTROLS

(1) START SWITCH The black push button switch starts the welding machine. (2) RUNNING LIGHT The running light is red when the welding machine is running.

(3) STOP SWITCH The red push button switch is depressed to stop the welding machine.

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(4) PROCESS SELECTOR The process selector is used to switch from CC CONSTANT CURRENT used for Stick (SMAW) and Tig (GTAW) welding to CV CONSTANT VOLTAGE used for Mig (GMAW) welding. (5) ARC CONTROL The arc control dial provides better arc starting for certain electrodes when Stick welding. Examples: When using E-6010 Electrodes the higher range aids in striking the arc. When using E7018 Electrodes the lower range is used to lessen the effects of arc blow. (6) AMPERAGE CONTROL This control is a dial that is turned clockwise to increase the amperage when Stick welding or to increase the voltage when Mig welding. There are two sets of numbers around the dial. The lower numbers in white squares are read as voltage for Mig welding. The higher numbers indicate the amperage level for stick welding. (7) REMOTE CONTROL SWITCH The remote control switch is a toggle switch with two settings ON or OFF. The switch position is off for stick welding and on when using a remote control device such as a foot pedal. (8) AMPERAGE METER The amperage meter or AMMETER is a gauge that indicates the amount of amperage the welder is using during welding. The Ammeter setting will fall to zero when the welder stops welding. (9) VOLTAGE METER The Volt meter acts in the same manner as the ammeter except it shows the voltage during welding. (10) THE REMOTE CONTACT SWITCH The remote contact switch is a toggle switch with two settings ON or OFF. The switch position is off for stick welding and on for MIG welding or Tig welding with a foot pedal attachment.

ARC BLOW
DESCRIPTION A condition called arc blow may occur when using Direct Current (DC) to weld some joint designs with the stick welding process. The direct current passing through the electrode and the base metal sets up a magnetic field around the electrode. The force of this magnetic field can be strong enough to pull the arc from its intended path causing an unstable weld puddle resulting in a poor weld with excessive spatter. Arc blow may become very severe at the ends of a joint for example; the top part of Vee groove or when welding the inside corners of a T joint.

Severe Arc Blow may appear to the welder as if someone is blowing the arc with an air hose. 28

REDUCING THE EFFECTS OF ARC BLOW

USE ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) Alternating current flow changes direction constantly and as a result the magnetic field does not build up enough to cause severe arc blow. When welding certain joint configurations, and arc blow prevents producing quality welds, if possible switch from Direct Current to Alternating Current. Although using AC current virtually eliminates the problems associated with Arc Blow it may not be possible to switch current on the machine or use another machine. Try one or more of the following tips to reduce the effects of Arc Blow. WORKING WITH THE GROUND CLAMP Arc Blow usually occurs either forward or backward along the joint being welded. If forward Blow occurs, place the ground connection at the edge of the joint to be welded. If backward Blow occurs, place the ground connection at the start of the joint and weld towards a heavy tack, prior weld bead or run off tab. If you are unsure whether forward or backward Blow is occurring, try moving the ground connection to another location. If the ground connection is very close to the workpiece, try moving it as far from the joint as possible. Try adding a connection to the ground clamp so that you have one ground lead, but two ground clamps. Place one clamp on opposite ends of the section to be welded. Some welders wrap a short section of the ground cable around the workpiece to set up a magnetic field to counteract the effects of the magnetic field causing the Arc Blow effect. Caution must be used to prevent burning the ground cable. Try uncoiling the ground cable and electrode cable and stretching them out. SEQUENCE OF WELDING The effect of Arc Blow may be reduced by changing the sequence of welding. Try some of the following: Weld the outsides of angles, channels or beams first where arc blow may not be as severe.

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Place a weld at the opposite ends of long sections first. Instead of welding from one end to the other, use a series of shorter welds in staggered locations to completely weld the joint. Weld towards a heavy tack weld or prior weld. Stop and change the direction of travel when Arc Blow occurs. Use a smaller diameter electrode if possible. TECHNIQUE A change in technique will reduce the effects of Arc Blow. Try the following: Change the electrode angle. Slight angle changes during welding, when arc blow occurs, helps to lessen the effects enough to finish the weld bead. Try changing the angle to follow the direction of blowing, even if the electrode seems to burn down one side unevenly. Use the lowest amperage setting practical, especially on root passes when welding grooves. Some electrodes, such as the E-7018, have iron powder in the flux and are more prone to Arc Blow. If possible use an alternative electrode, such as the E-6010, for the root or first pass before using the E-7018 for the balance of the passes. Maintain a short arc length and decrease the length of arc if Arc Blow occurs. Turn the arc control settings on the machine to a lower value when welding joints that seem prone to Arc Blow. WELDING THE ONE INCH VEE GROOVE One of the projects at the School is to weld a vee groove in the vertical up position. When welding the first and second passes Arc Blow may occur at the top inch and a half. Try the following to reduce the effects of Arc Blow: Make sure you put a heavy weld on both sides of the backing strip in the flat position before welding the groove. Check the amperage is set correctly and not too high. Use the backing strip as a run off tab. Start well below the joint on the backing strip and run the bead out past the joint at the top. If Arc Blow occurs on the first pass keep the arc length low and the electrode pushed against the backing strip. Keep the electrode angle low and steep. If the electrode burns down on one side, do not change the angle.

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SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING KEY POINTS


1. The stick welding electrical circuit is made up of the Welding machine, Electrode cable, Electrode holder, Electrode, Work plate, and Ground cable. 2. The weld is started by tapping or scratching the electrode against the work piece. 3. In reverse polarity the electrode cable is attached to the positive terminal of the welding machine and the ground cable is attached to the negative terminal. 4. In Straight polarity the electrode cable is changed to the negative terminal and the electrode cable is changed to the positive cable. 5. The polarity in AC (alternating current) changes constantly and requires no adjustment. 6. Learn about the type of machine you are using on the job and how to set the controls for the specific job conditions. 7. Recognize and reduce the effects of Arc blow when using DC machines or use Ac machine.

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CHAPTER THREE THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK)


INTRODUCTION 1. Current Setting. 2. Length of Arc. 3. Angle of Electrode. 4. Speed of Travel. 5. Selection of Electrode. WELDING DISCONTINUITIES

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CHAPTER THREE THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK) STUDENT OBJECTIVES
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. List and describe the five essential variables of Shielded metal arc welding. Set the correct current for a given application. Maintain the proper length of arc. Maintain the correct angles of electrode while welding. Control the proper speed of travel while welding. Select the correct electrode for a given application. Recognize and correct welding discontinuities.

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THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK) WELDING INTRODUCTION Welding is a practical skill that requires continual practice and careful attention to the variables that the welder controls to improve. The old golden rule practice makes perfect applies to welding in that the more you do, as long as you or someone evaluates your welds, the better you become. The term variable as used in this text means something the welder has control of either before welding or during welding. Review the following five essential variables and the weld discontinuities that may result if control is not maintained. KEY POINT: An easy way to remember the variables is by remembering the first letter in each one spells the word CLASS. 6. CURRENT SETTING. 7. LENGTH OF ARC. 8. ANGLE OF ELECTRODE. 9. SPEED OF TRAVEL. 10. SELECTION OF ELECTRODE. 1. CURRENT SETTING. The welding current or amperage is essential to producing welds with good appearance and the required strength characteristics. The welder controls the amperage variable by setting the amperage on the welding machine prior to welding. The amperage is set from recommended ranges according to the size of the electrode, the type of electrode, and the type of current AC, DCEN or DCEP you are using. KEY POINT: AC means Alternating Current, DC means direct current and can be set for Direct Current Electrode Negative (Straight Polarity) or Direct Current Electrode Positive (Reverse Polarity). Some electrodes are designed to work best on a given Current and Polarity, for example an E6010 should be used with DCEP (direct current electrode positive). Some electrodes are designed to work best on DCEN while others allow a selection of Current to be used. The chart below shows typical amperage ranges

Amperage may be referred to as the heat by some welders. 34

An excellent place to find amperage ranges, recommended current and polarity and information on electrode applications are the Electrode Selection Guidebooks available at any welding supply store. The amperage range is fine tuned by the welder to the correct amperage before welding on an actual workpiece or testpiece by running practice welds on a piece of scrap metal in the position of welding as follows; 1. Run a practice weld at the lower recommended range setting. 2. Run a second practice weld at the higher recommended setting. 3. Compare the two welds for evidence of a well formed bead, good fusion, lack of defects, and a smooth transition into the base metal. 4. If necessary reduce the amperage from lower to highest amperage until a satisfactory weld bead is produced. 5. It is important to try different setting to avoid wasting time with a setting that is to low or to high and will need to be changed later. The chart below gives an idea of the evaluation process; In example A the E-6010 weld made with the correct amperage appears properly formed with the appropriate width and consistency. In example B the weld made with amperage setting too low appears thin and stringy. In example C the weld made with amperage setting too high appears wide and flat with excessive spatter and evidence of undercut.

B A) Amperage correct B) Amperage too low C) Amperage too high

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KEY POINT: Remember conditions may change for example; if you are welding multiple passes in the vertical position and using a weave technique you may need to increase the amperage when weaving over a prior weld bead. You may want to use higher setting for welding flat and horizontal than for welding in other positions. A setting used on one machine may need to be adjusted when using another machine, if the machines are not calibrated the same. One welder (operator) may prefer to use a slightly higher setting and travel faster than you, so set the amperage for your technique. The correct amperage is one that provides a good weld and is not based on a specific number on the machine.

2. LENGTH OF ARC When electricity is made to jump across a gap it is said to arc across the gap. In Shielded Metal Arc Welding (Stick) it is this arcing effect that creates the intense heat required for melting the electrode and the base metal together. The Arc is the term used to describe the distance from the tip of the electrode to the base metal and can be varied from lightly touching the metal at an angle sufficient to maintain an arc to a distance far enough from the base metal to extinguish the arc. If the electrode is held in contact with the work using the slight angle to maintain the arc it is referred to as the drag technique. This technique is often used to weld in the flat and horizontal positions, especially with larger or iron powder electrodes. If contact with the base metal is made too quickly however; the electrode will stick or freeze to the metal. Another method to employ is to allow a slight gap between the electrode tip and the base metal. The length of the arc gap affects the appearance of the weld.

The welding machines used in Shielded Metal Arc Welding are known as Constant Current machines which mean that the current stays relatively constant through changes in the voltage. The machine increases the voltage as the arc length is increased to maintain current flow at the amperage level set on the machine. If the voltage is increased too much the arc may become unstable and result in a poor quality weld. The correct arc length may vary according to the type of electrode and the position of welding. When production welding flat or horizontal the drag method is often used for ease in welding and faster travel speeds. When a slight gap is maintained the force of the arc provides a weld bead with a slightly flatter appearance with less chance of slag inclusions and better joint penetration.

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KEY POINT: make sure you are maintaining a proper arc length before adjusting the amperage on the welding machine. If the arc length is too long and the voltage increases it may seem as though the amperage is too high or the sticking caused by too low an arc length with some electrodes may seem as though the amperage is too low. 3. ANGLE OF ELECTRODE In the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (STICK) process there are two electrode angles that the welder must control. The first angle is the one formed between the electrode and the base metal, called the work angle. The second angle is the angle the electrode is held at relative to the direction of travel, called the travel angle. The travel angle for the flat, horizontal and overhead can be either pulled or pushed and the travel angle for the vertical can be either upward or downward.

Note: The direction of travel across the plate for both drag and push methods:

The work angle should be one that places the weld metal between the members to be welded in the manner desired. The weld metal will be deposited in a relatively straight line from the tip of the electrode to the work. The decision to push or pull is largely one of experience and practicality. I believe a flatter somewhat less rounded weld can be achieved with a slight push angle when welding flat and horizontal. When welding in the vertical upward position a more extreme angle using the side of the electrode seems to produce a flatter weld with tighter ripples. KEY POINT: because of the high deposition rat of an E-7018 electrode it is more difficult to weld vertical downward. 4. SPEED OF TRAVEL The rate of travel across the joint is controlled by the welder during welding and greatly affects the appearance and strength characteristics of the weld. The amount of weld metal deposited (weld deposition rate) and the travel speed may vary with the type and size of electrode being used. The correct weld speed will result in a well formed weld bead that shows good fusion, penetration and a gradual transition of weld metal into the corners of the joint. Since the travel speed is not timed in stick welding, the welder must be able to read the molten weld pool as the electrode is manipulated across the joint. A weld speed that is too fast results in a thin stringy weld with poor strength. A weld bead that is too slow a speed will result in a heavy weld that has too much convexity. 5. SELECTION OF ELECTRODE There are a variety of electrodes available for welding a wide range of metals. The electrode for a given application must be selected carefully to provide the strength characteristics required for the weld joint. One of the most useful tools for electrode selection is the Electrode Handbooks available from welding supply outlets. These handbooks provide information from electrode classification to application and usability. 37

In general the electrode weld metal must be matched to the type and composition of the base metal being welded. Further some electrodes within the available scope are designed for specific purposes. Some of the most widely used Electrodes are those used for welding carbon Steel. The following is a brief description of the most commonly used electrodes for welding Carbon Steel. The electrodes are classified by a letter and numbering system as follows:

The tensile strength is defined as the ability of the weld metal to withstand forces acting to pull it apart. The last digit indicates the type of flux or electrode covering and in turn determines the type of current, penetration and appearance of the weld. The following are some commonly used electrodes and their characteristics.

KEY POINTS: The E-6010 and E-6011 Electrodes are similar with only a slight change in the electrode covering to enable the E-6011 to be used with AC current. These electrodes have a deep penetrating and forceful arc with quickly solidifying weld metal. They may be used in all positions including Vertical Downward. Because of the arc characteristics they may be used on dirty or rusty metals and for root passes in open root grooves and pipe. These electrodes have a certain amount of moisture content to enable the forceful arc and should not be stored in ovens. The E-6012 and E-6013 electrodes are also similar with some variations in the electrode covering. These electrodes have shallow to medium penetration making them useful for welding thinner 38

sections, sheet metal and for welding gaps due to poor joint fit up. Trapping slag may be a problem when using E-6013 at lower amperages or on dirty metal surfaces. Both the E-7018 and E-7028 electrodes are Iron powder Low hydrogen electrodes. The E-7028 is used for flat and horizontal position only and may be used with a drag technique to produce a smooth weld with good appearance. The addition of Iron powder to these electrodes covering adds to the available weld metal resulting in heavier convex welds. These electrodes are classified as low hydrogen meaning they are low in moisture content and should be stored in ovens or moisture free environment once the container is opened. Because these electrodes are low hydrogen they are the choice for welding higher carbon steels. A short arc length should be maintained especially when striking the arc to avoid surface porosity (tiny holes). WELDING DISCONTINUITIES If control of these variables are not properly maintained the result may be a weld with one or more discontinuities or defects. KEY POINT: A discontinuity is defined as; an irregularity or imperfection in the appearance of the weld or surrounding base metal. A defect is defined as; a single or group of discontinuities severe enough to cause rejection or rework of the weld or assembly.

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When the five essential variables are properly controlled the weld profile should be properly formed and free of discontinuities.

Weld Profiles

Note: In the above diagrams the size of the fillet weld is shown in dotted lines and the throat is from the root of the joint to the face of the weld.

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CHART SHOWING DISCONTINUITIES IN SMAW AND THEIR CAUSES

DISCONTINUITY
Excessive Convexity Insufficient Throat Undercut

POSSIBLE CAUSES
Slow travel speed that allows weld metal to build up Welding currents too low A combination of Travel speed to fast and current too high Improper placement of weld beads when multiple pass welding Amperage too high Arc length too long increasing the force of the arc so that it cuts into corners Improper weld technique causing the corners to be left unfilled or cut into Groove joint not completely filled and overlapped Using the wrong electrode angle causing the weld to be deposited to heavily on one side Using the wrong angle on multiple pas welds Causing the welds to overlap incorrectly Amperage too low Travel speeds too fast Using too large an electrode for the root of the joint Improper electrode angle at the root of the joint Improper weave technique Using the wrong electrode for the desired joint penetration: (using E-6013 instead of E6010) Amperage too low Travel speeds too fast Improper electrode angle at the sides of the joint Improper weave technique that does not allow enough time at the sides of the joint Using the wrong electrode for the application Amperage too low and /or travel speed too slow Electrode too large with low currents Dirty base metal painted or galvanized surfaces Arc length too long especially with E-7018 Electrodes Moisture in low hydrogen electrodes Wind or fans strong enough to break down the shielding gas Improper manipulation of the electrode especially with E-6013 Improper cleaning and slag removal between multiple pass welds Using the wrong Electrode for the application Using Excessively high amperage on some metals Amperage too high Electrode angle too extreme Arc length too long

Insufficient Leg Size Poor Penetration

Poor Fusion

Overlap Porosity

Slag Inclusions Cracks Excessive Spatter

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CHAPTER THREE THE FIVE ESSENTIAL VARIABLES OF SMAW (STICK)


KEY POINTS 1. The 5 essential variables must be controlled to produce a sound weld without discontinuities. 2. Always set the current on scrap plate before welding. 3. Make sure you maintain the correct angle of travel and work angle for the entire weld. 4. Maintain the proper speed of travel for the entire length of the weld. 5. Always check you are using the correct electrode for the application before welding. 6. Visually examine your welds to determine if you need to alter any of the 5 essential variables to produce better welds. 7. Use scrap metal to experiment with changes to the essential variables.
CONTROL OF THE FIVE VARIABLES CURRENT, LENGTH OF ARC, ANGLES, SPEED OF TRAVEL, AND ELECTRODE ANGLE ARE THE KEYS TO PRODUCING A GOOD WELD.

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CHAPTER FOUR GAS METAL ARC WELDING MIG


THE MIG WELDING CIRCUIT 1. THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) 2. THE WIRE FEED UNIT 3. WELDING GUN 4. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY 5. FILLER WIRE (MIG WIRE) 6. THE MIG WELDING ARC 7. SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER 8. GLOBULAR TRANSFER 9. SPRAY TRANSFER 10. USING THE MIG WELDING PROCESS

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CHAPTER FOUR GAS METAL ARC WELDING MIG STUDENT OBJECTIVES


STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. Describe the Gas metal arc welding (MIG) circuit. 2. List and describe the major pieces of equipment used in the MIG process. 3. Describe the controls on the MIG machine. 4. Describe the controls on the MIG wire feed unit. 5. Describe the main shielding gases used in the MIG process. 6. Describe the filler wire used in the MIG process. 7. List and describe the 3 methods of metal transfer across the MIG arc.

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GAS METAL ARC WELDING (MIG)


INTRODUCTION The term Gas Metal Arc Welding is the American Welding Societys preferred name for this semi-automatic welding process that uses a wire feeder to deliver the filler metal to a hand operated gun to produce the weld. The process is also widely known by the shop name MIG (Metal Inert Gas). The name Metal Inert Gas was used when the process was first developed to weld Aluminum using an inert (chemically non reactive) gas supply. The process has evolved to become a favorite choice for welding steel with gases that are not inert. When compared with Stick welding, the mig welding process is faster, easier, and requires little cleanup of welds. This makes Mig welding cost effective for production welding in fabrication shops. The wire fed welding arc is capable of joining thin sections and bridging gaps in poor fit up situations.

THE MIG WELDING CIRCUIT Welding is done by using a constant voltage welding machine to supply the power, a wire feed unit with an attached gun to feed the filler wire to the arc, and a gas supply system to shield the weld area.

MAKING THE WELD The voltage, wire speed and gas flow are set by the welder according to recommended ranges for the application before welding. After positioning the gun, the welder pulls and holds the trigger to start the gas flow and the arc. The welder then controls the nozzle distance from the work, the angle of the gun, and rate of travel speed across the joint. At the end of the joint the trigger is released to stop the wire feed, gas flow, and break the arc. 45

TYPICAL MIG GUN

MAJOR EQUIPMENT FOR MIG WELDING In addition to the safety clothing and hand tools generally used in the welding trade the major parts of the Mig welding process are: 1. THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) 2. THE WIRE FEED UNIT 3. WELDING GUN 4. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY 1. THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) Although there are many styles and designs of MIG welding machines produced by manufacturers, they serve the same basic function. The welding machine is classified as a constant voltage Machine. This means the voltage remains relatively constant as set on the machine, while the amperage increases or decreases according to the arc length, in other words the distance of the nozzle and wire from the work. The Amperage in Mig welding is controlled by the wire speed setting on the wire feed unit. The welding machine is usually set to provide DC reverse polarity current. Some Mig machines are designed with an enclosed wire feed unit, while others have a separate wire feed unit attached. TYPICAL MIG MACHINE WITH WIRE FEED ENCLOSED

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MIG MACHINE WITH WIRE FEEDER ON TOP

Smaller portable units are available for light shop work or home use. These units typically use a small one pound wire spool.

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The Miller Dimension 400 Combination Mig, Stick and Tig Machine used at the School is shown below with a description of the controls used for mig welding.

CONTROLS: 1. ON: BLACK PUSH BUTTON. This is a push button that when depressed starts the machine. 2. OFF: RED PUSH BUTTON. This push button stops the machine. 3. CURRENT SELECTOR. This lever selects either CC. Constant Current used for Stick and Tig Welding or CV Constant Voltage used for Mig Welding. Make sure the lever is pushed up for CV when Mig Welding.

4. ARC CONTROL. The Arc Control setting is not used for mig welding and is disabled when in the Mig Welding.

CV mode for

5. VOLTS OR AMPERAGE DIAL. This Dial shows amperage intervals in regular numbers and Voltage settings in the white squares. For example: 150 Amps or approximately 18 - 20 Volts. Remember when mig Welding to read the numbers in the white square. 6. VOLT AND AMP METERS. These meters show the amperage and voltage during welding. 7. REMOTE CONTACTOR SWITCH. The remote contactor switch should be set to ON to enable the Mig Gun trigger as the remote contactor. 48

8. REMOTE CONTROL SWITCH. The remote control switch is used for Tig Welding with a Foot pedal, and should be in the OFF position for Mig Welding. 9. MIG FEEDER CONNECTION. The wire feed unit is connected to this receptacle for Mig Welding.

2. THE WIRE FEED UNIT The wire feed unit may be placed on the machine, located close to the machine or built in to the machine depending on manufactures style and type of machine. Although styles may differ they serve the same basic function. The wire feed unit supplies a constant and smooth rate of filler wire from a spool mounted on the back of the unit. A gas cylinder with attached regulators is hooked up to the wire feed units solenoid to supply the gas shielding. The filler wire and gas are fed to the Arc by the attached gun. The wire feed unit used with the Dimension 400 Welding machine is the Miller model S-52 located on the top of the machine. This unit is used to describe the controls on a typical wire feed unit.

The pictures below show the controls of the Miller S-52 wire feed unit.

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CONROLS
1. WIRE SPOOL The wire spool shown holds about 30 pounds of wire when full and sits on the wire spool hub at the rear of the wire feed unit. When the gun trigger is pulled, the wire is drawn from the underside of the spool through the guide rolls and the gun to the weld zone. 2. WIRE The Type of wire shown, and used at the school, is classified as AWS ER-70S-6 used for welding mild steel structural shapes. The wire size is 0.035. 3. PRESSURE SPRING The pressure spring clamps the wire between the guide rolls to feed the wire through the gun. The pressure can be increased or decreased using the thumb screw on the clamp bridge. Too little pressure may cause the wire feed to slip or skip, while too much pressure may flatten the wire or cause it to freeze up. 4. GUIDE ROLLS The Guide Rolls, part of the wire feed system, are a set of upper and lower rollers with grooves that pull the wire from the spool and drive it through the gun. The rollers are sized to match the wire used. The guide rolls and wire used above are size 0.035. To change the guide rolls: The adjusting spring is released and the gear cover flipped back to access the guide rolls retaining screws, the screws are removed and the rolls are pulled out. Once the new rolls are installed the retaining screws are replaced. 50

5. GUN The gun plugs into the wire feed system to accept the wire and gas supply and deliver them to the welding arc. 6. TRIGGER PLUG The trigger plug is attached to the trigger receptacle to enable the gun to remotely activate the wire feed and gas flow. 7. SLOW-FAST WIRE START SWITCH The Slow-Fast Wire Start Switch is used to set the initial wire flow start as either a slow start or fast start when starting the Arc. After the Arc is started the wire speed reverts to the speed set on the Wire Speed Control. 8. GAS PURGE BUTTON The Gas Purge Button is used to purge the gas from the gun when the gas supply has been turned off. Pressing and holding this button allows the gas flow to be adjusted without starting the wire flow or the arc. 9. FUSE The Fuse protects the Wire Feed Unit from overload or an internal short. 10. BREAKER The Breaker is a Circuit Breaker that protects the Motor of the wire feed unit from overload.

11. ON-OFF SWITCH This Switch is used to activate the wire feed unit and turn it off at the end off the class session. The switch must be off when switching to Constant Current mode and Stick welding to prevent the gun from inadvertently arcing if it comes into contact with the work surface. 12. TRIGGER PLUG FRONT VIEW Another view of the Trigger Plug attached to the trigger receptacle 13. WIRE SPEED CONTROL The Wire Speed Control is used to set the rate of wire feed through the gun for welding. The wire feed control is marked in graduations of ten and ranges from zero to 100. The appropriate setting depends on; the metal thickness, size of wire, and welding position among other variables. The Wire Speed is co-coordinated with the voltage setting to produce a smooth arc. 14. WIRE JOG BUTTON The Wire Jog button when pressed and held advances the wire through the gun without energizing the gas shielding. The wire jog button is often used to advance the wire when changing wire spools. 15. REMOTE SWITCH The remote switch has two settings Remote and Standard. For normal operations using an attached Mig gun the switch is left in the Standard position. When a remote device is attached to the remote receptacle the switch is in the Remote position.

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16. REMOTE RECEPTACLE The Remote Receptacle is used to attach certain remote devices and the remote switch located above the receptacle is set to the remote position to activate the remote device. 17. GAS HOSE The gas hose attached to the wire feed unit allows the shielding gas to be fed to the attached Mig gun. 3. WELDING GUN The welding gun is attached to the wire feed unit to deliver the filler wire and shielding gas to the welding arc. The gun assembly is made up by the gun head, welding lead, power connector and wire feed connector. TYPICAL WELDING GUN

WELDING LEAD The welding lead cable is constructed to allow electrical flow, conduct the shielding gas and feed the filler wire through the gun to the arc. In addition to the electrical wiring, the welding lead has a gas hose running through it to carry the gas supply and a liner to conduct the wire.

GUN LINER

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GUN HEAD AND PARTS The typical mig gun has a handle with a trigger, a neck shaped like a goose neck, and a head consisting of a gas diffuser, contact tip and nozzle. The gun has a power connector that plugs into either the machine or the wire feed unit depending on style and design. In the case of the units with a separate wire feeder, the gun also has a wire feed connection.

BERNARD MIG GUN HEAD AND PARTS

4. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY The gas is usually supplied from a high pressure cylinder chained or secured on, or close to the welding machine. The safety rules for handling and using cylinders from the SAFETY SECTION must be understood and followed. The principal gases used in MIG welding either alone or in a mixture are: ARGON, HELIUM and CARBON DIOXIDE. ARGON Both Argon and Helium are inert gases, which mean they are chemically inactive and do not directly affect the Base metal or Weld metal. Argon is 1.4 times heavier than air and blankets the weld zone to protect the weld zone from the air. Argon may be used when welding non-ferrous metals (metals that contain little or no iron) such as; Aluminum, Magnesium, or copper and its alloys. Argon is used in mixture with other gases because of its ability to stabilize the arc and reduce spatter.

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HELIUM Helium is used for similar applications to Argon, but since Helium is lighter than air it requires higher flow rates than when using Argon. Helium produces a hotter arc and may be desirable for welding applications that require a higher heat input such as; for welding thicker sections, or for automated welding applications. Helium provides deeper penetration characteristics than argon but with a less stable Arc. Helium and Argon may be used in gas mixtures to combine the benefits of each component part. CARBON DIOXIDE Carbon Dioxide is a chemical compound of one part Carbon and two parts Oxygen. Although not an Inert gas, Carbon Dioxide may be used for welding carbon steels when the filler wire with the appropriate deoxidizers are used. Carbon Dioxide is often used for its relatively low cost and good penetration characteristics. When pure Carbon Dioxide is used as the shielding gas the welds that have a rougher appearance, more spatter, and a less stable arc than when used in a mixture with Argon. GAS MIXTURES There are a variety of gas mixtures available for use with the MIG welding process that combines the advantages of their component parts. It is critical to select the gas shielding that provides the best weld characteristics for the metal being welded. Before welding consult Gas suppliers, Engineering, Supervision, or shielding gas charts. At Delta School Of Trades the MIG welding process is used to weld mild steel in all positions using a popular gas mixture of 75% Argon and 25% Carbon Dioxide. This gas is commonly referred to as simply 75-25. FILLER WIRE (MIG WIRE) The filler wire used at Delta School Of Trades is one of the series designed for welding Low Carbon Steel and is supplied on 30 pound spools that are attached to the back of the wire feed unit. The wire size used is 0.35 commonly referred to as just 035 (0 thirty five). The AWS (American Welding Society) has developed a system of numbers and letters to designate filler wire type and usage. The filler wire used for welding mild steel at the school is the AWS ER-70S-6. The letter and number designation is as follows:

ER 70 S 6
The E designates Electric Welding The R designates Filler Rod The 70 designates the Tensile Strength The two or three numbers following the hyphen designate the Tensile Strength (the ability of the weld metal to withstand forces acting to pull it apart) in thousands of pounds per square inch. In the above the Tensile Strength is 70,000 pounds per square inch. The S designates Solid Wire. If the filler is designed for Flux Core the letter may be a T for tubular wire. The 6 is used to designate the usability and characteristics of the wire. This wire has good penetration and deoxidizers added among other weld metal characteristics. Other numbers may be used in place of the 6 to designate other desirable weld metal characteristics. In some cases a letter may be added at the end to designate other materials have been added. 54

A selection of filler wires are available to Mig weld other metals and Alloys and information regarding their selection can be obtained from Welding Supply Outlets. THE MIG WELDING ARC The Mig Welding arc is usually Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) or Reverse Polarity with Constant Voltage. Some multiple process welding machines, like the Miller Dimension 400 used at the School, have a separate DCEP terminal marked CV for attaching a lead wire that runs from the machine to the wire feed unit that energizes the attached Mig gun. Some machines designed for Mig welding are set for DCEP polarity only. METAL TRANSFER ACROSS THE ARC There are three methods of metal transfer from the wire spool through the arc to the weld puddle possible with the Mig welding Process. 1. SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER 2. GLOBULAR TRANSFER 3. SPRAY TRANSFER SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER Short circuiting transfer as the name implies creates a short circuiting effect when the energized wire touches the workpiece and melts into the weld puddle. The short circuiting effect is a simplified way of describing an action that happens approximately 200 times per second and is not readily apparent to the welder. The short circuiting transfer usually occurs when the voltage is relatively low, approximately 17v to 21 volts. This type of transfer results in a smooth weld with shallow penetration that easily bridges gaps or poor fit-up. Short circuiting or short arc is used extensively for welding sheet metal or angles etc that are fabricated and do not require a great deal of strength. For example; A welding table, window guards, or Ladder rack. Short Circuiting may be used in all positions and the arc makes a sound like frying bacon. GLOBULAR TRANSFER Globular Transfer as the name implies is a metal transfer where the tip of the wire forms globules or large droplets that melt and are forced across the Arc into the weld puddle. Globular Transfer occurs with higher voltage settings than Short Circuiting Transfer and results in deeper penetration with a flatter weld bead. Globular Transfer may be used to weld in all positions and the arc makes a hissing sound. SPRAY TRANSFER Spray Transfer as the name implies is a form of metal transfer that sprays small globules or droplets of metal across the arc into the weld puddle. Spray transfer occurs at higher voltages and above certain critical transition currents determined by the wire size. Spray transfer usually requires the use of two percent oxygen or more for the spraying effect to occur. Spray Transfer results in weld beads with a minimum of spatter, deep penetration and smooth weld beads.

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The Spray Transfer is a hotter arc and is best suited to thicker materials in the flat and horizontal positions. The arc makes a harsh sound like high pressure water forced through a small opening.

METAL TRANSFERS

USING THE MIG WELDING PROCESS Before using the Mig process to weld a specific application, the welding parameters must be considered to achieve a sound weld with an acceptable appearance. In some instances Management may inform the welder of the specific parameters or a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) may be provided to set the welding parameters. In other cases the Welder is responsible for determining the welding parameters. The following should be considered when the welder selects the welding parameters; 1. Determine the Filler Wire The metal composition and classification must be considered when selecting the filler wire. In general the filler wire should match or be compatible with the base metal being welded. Filler wire guides and information for selecting the correct filler wire for a given application are available from most welding supply stores. Keep in mind a change in filler wire may require a change in gas shielding. Filler wire with a T in the classification or inner shield are for FLUX CORE ARC WELDING and may require a change in Polarity. Flux Core filler metal may or may not require a shielding gas as a backup gas. 2. Determine the Gas Shielding As mentioned above there are a variety of gas types and mixtures designed for specific applications. Consult gas suppliers for recommendations for the specific welding application. Gas flow should be carefully considered, too much gas flow may cause swirling and result in porosity (Air Holes), too little and the weld will be of poor quality with porosity. Welding Non-ferrous metals or applications that require a certain metal transfer may require a change in gas supply. 3. Determine the voltage and wire speed settings For most Mig welding applications, but not all, the current should be Direct Current Reverse Polarity (DCEN). If you are not sure check on the box the wire spool came in for the current type and range or contact your welding supply store. The Mig process uses a constant voltage machine that means the voltage stays relatively while the amperage varies with the stick out distance (gun nozzle tip to work distance).

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The amperage is controlled by the wire speed setting. The wire speed and voltage must be coordinated to produce a sound weld with good appearance. Changing the wire speed or voltage changes the way the weld bead runs and looks. To produces good welds, always set the machine by practicing setting on scrap metal in the same configuration, thickness, and position you are going to weld. The following are a few tips for setting the current; Which metal transfer is taking place: Lower voltage will be Short Circuiting; Higher voltages will be Globular; Higher voltage and 2% or more oxygen will produce a hot arc and spray transfer. The weld bead should be well formed with a gradual transition to the base metal at the corners of the weld. If the wire is hitting the base metal and popping or skipping, turn down the wire speed or increase the voltage. If the wire is melting in blobs without forming a good weld turn up the wire speed or decrease the voltage. Note: Contact tips and nozzles must be cleaned of dirt and spatter frequently. A dirty tip may also cause popping or the wire to hang up and not melt properly. Check the tip and clean the nozzle before changing setting, especially if the setting were working. A slight push angle with the gun will produce a smoother flatter weld bead than when using a drag angle.

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CHAPTER FOUR GAS METAL ARC WELDING MIG KEY POINTS


1. The MIG welding circuit is made up of the welding machine, wire feed unit with wire spool, shielding gas supply and regulator, welding gun, ground cable and clamp and the workpiece. 2. The gun nozzle must be cleaned frequently to prevent wire jamming or burning into contact tip. 3. Shielding gas should be set at 20-30 psi 4. Make sure you understand all the controls on both the machine and wire feed unit. 5. Gas mixtures may vary depending on the metal being welded and its application. 6. Globular transfer penetrates more than short circuiting transfer. Short circuiting transfer is used on thinner metals. 7. Spray transfer penetrates well into the base metal, but is only used when welding flat and horizontal.

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CHAPTER FIVE GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG


1. The GTAW or TIG Torch 2. A Constant Current Welding Machine 3. A Gas Supply 4. A Foot Pedal 5. Filler Wire

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CHAPTER FIVE GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG STUDENT OBJECTIVES


STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. List and describe the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (TIG) circuit. List and describe the major components of the TIG process. Describe how to sharpen and maintain the tungsten point for welding. Describe the TIG torch and its component parts. Describe the Welding machine and its controls. Describe the gas cylinder and how to safely set it up for welding. Describe the foot pedal and its use in TIG welding. Describe the filler wire for welding mild steel with the TIG process.

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GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG WELDING


INTRODUCTION The American Welding Societys preferred name for this arc welding process is Gas Tungsten Arc Welding As the name implies the process uses an external Gas supply and a Tungsten electrode to produce an arc that melts and fuses the metal to be welded with or without the use of a filler wire. The term TIG WELDING is a common shop term that is derived from the name TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING. This name describes the same process and highlights the fact that a Tungsten electrode and an external inert gas are used to produce a weld. In this text the term GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) will be used to discuss this process. The Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process may be used to weld most metals and alloys in any position with or without the use of filler wire. Because of the smaller heat zone and weld puddle with the excellent shielding effect of the gases used, the welds produced are often stronger than welds made with other processes. Although GTAW is slower and produces smaller weld beads than SMAW or GMAW it is often the process of choice for welding thinner sections, Aluminum, specialty metals and Stainless steels. GTAW EQUIPMENT SET UP Gas Tungsten Arc Welding is done by setting up a Torch to a Constant Current Welding Machine and an external Gas Supply to shield the weld area. An optional Foot Pedal may be used to remotely control the amperage during welding. Filler Wire may be added as necessary or welding may be done by fusing the parts with the molten weld puddle.

THE WELDING CIRCUIT

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The major component parts of the welding circuit described below are: 1. THE GTAW OR TIG TORCH 2. CONSTANT CURRENT MACHINE 3. A GAS SUPPLY 4. A FOOT PEDAL 5. FILLER WIRE 1. THE GTAW TORCH The GTAW torch is an assembly of parts that provides the heat or electric arc for welding and delivers the shielding gas to protect the weld. The picture below shows a Typical GTAW torch used to make the weld.

TORCH USED TO MAKE A WELD The GTAW Torch used to establish and maintain an arc as well as direct the gas flow to the weld zone, is made up of the Torch Body, Gas Diffuser, Collet, Tungsten Electrode and Back Cap. The pictures below show the typical Torch Assembly.

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TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE The Tungsten Electrode used in GTAW and shown above is different to electrodes used in SMAW (STICK WELDING) in that it is used as the heat source to melt the base metal, but does not melt and become a part of the weld. When additional weld metal is required it is fed into the arc in the form of a filler wire. There are a variety of types of tungsten electrodes used for GTAW the most common ones being 2% Thoriated for Steel and Stainless and Pure for Aluminum. Check with your weld supply company to select the appropriate Tungsten Electrode for the given application. The electrodes used for steel should have a sharpened point and the pure for aluminum a balled end. There are tools designed to form the point for welding, but a less expensive method is to use a bench grinder and prepare the point like sharpening a pencil. KEY POINTS The sharper and longer the point the smaller and finer the arc puddle. A shorter point results in a wider weld puddle and bead. For AC Welding Aluminum prepare a small point and the heat of the arc will ball the end for proper welding puddle. Since the Tungsten Electrode does not melt and become filler metal it is referred to as a NonConsumable Electrode. The tungsten may get contaminated by touching to the weld puddle or hot filler wire and will need to be re-sharpened. When shaping the tungsten point, be sure the point is even or a deflection of the arc may occur.

TUNGSTEN PREPARATION

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TORCH BODY There are a variety of styles of Torch used for GTAW. The one illustrated earlier is an Air Cooled style that has a gas valve incorporated. The gas valve is used to start or stop gas flow when the optional foot pedal is not used. When a foot pedal is used the flow of gas is automatically controlled by starting or stopping the arc with the foot pedal. Another popular style of torch is a Water Cooled torch used for welding with higher amperage. The water circulates internally around the torch to keep it cool. When using this torch a water cooling unit is added to the GTAW circuit.

WATER COOLED TORCHES

2 CONSTANT CURRENT WELDING MACHINE The power source used for GTAW is a Constant Current Welding Machine. These machines provide constant amperage as set by the welder, while the voltage rises or lowers with changes in the arc length. If the arc length or distance from the tungsten to the work increases slightly, the voltage increases to maintain the amperage level. Conversely if the arc length decreases the voltage decreases to maintain the same amperage. The Constant Current classification of Welding machines is also used for STICK welding (SMAW). Any Stick or Multiple Process Welding Machine may be used for GTAW as well as some machines developed especially for GTAW applications. Machines developed with GTAW applications in mind have added features such as a built in high frequency capability. A built in high frequency capability provides easier arc starting by allowing the arc to be initiated by a high frequency current without striking an arc or touching the tungsten to the work. This is especially useful when welding Aluminum that can easily contaminate the Tungsten Electrode. Some of these GTAW machines such as a Square wave or Synchrowave have a method of changing the characteristics of the current to benefit from altered electrical flow.

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KEY POINTS When the application or job requires an extensive use of the GTAW process it may pay to research Welding Machines designed especially for GTAW. The type of Welding current used for welding Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel is Direct Current Electrode Negative (DCEN) also known as Direct Current Straight Polarity (DCSP). The type of Welding Current most often used for welding Aluminum is Alternating Current (AC). A GTAW torch may be attached to any STICK machine using the remote receptacle on the machine or by attaching the Electrode Holder (Stinger) to the torch by the use of a special connector as shown below:

In this set up there is no foot pedal and the weld is initiated by touch start (similar to striking the arc in Stick). The gas is controlled by the valve on the torch. This setup may be readily assembled for welding on job sites. MILLER ECONOTIG AND CONTROLS USED AT DELTA

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3 GAS SUPPLY The two most commonly used types of gases used in the GTAW process are ARGON and HELIUM. A mixture of Argon and Helium may be used for some GTAW applications. Both Argon and Helium gases are considered INERT gases, meaning they are chemically inactive and do not react with the metal being welded. Argon gas is the most widely used gas for manual welding with the GTAW process while Helium or a mixture may be used for heavier sections and automated welding. HANDLEING GAS CYLINDERS Because of the shape, contents and weight of gas cylinders used in the welding field it is important they be handled with extreme caution and in a safe manner. The following safety guidelines are suggested for safely handling and using gas cylinders. Gas cylinders should never be moved by carrying, dragging or rolling them. They should only be moved by securing them in an approved cart. The cylinders must have the metal caps in place to protect the valve stem assembly of the cylinder before moving them.

If cylinders must be lifted they should be properly secured in an approved lifting cart or on a platform. Chains, slings, magnets, and other devices where there may be a possibility of the cylinder slipping and falling should never be used. Cylinders that are transported over the road should be secured in the upright position with their protective steel caps in place. Oil and grease should never come into contact with the oxygen cylinders, regulators or equipment, since a chemical reaction between the oil and the oxygen may cause a fire or explosion. Hammers pry bars and similar tools must not be used to open a stuck cylinder valve or remove valve caps. If the cylinder valve is damaged the force of the escaping gas may cause high pressure cylinders to fly around uncontrolled and cause damage or serious injury. If a cylinder is leaking gas it should be moved outdoors and the gas supplier should be notified immediately.

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Cylinders must be chained or secured in the upright position secured on a cart or fastened into a welding machine cart. When not in use they should have the regulators removed and the caps in place.

Never weld on the cylinders, or allow the electrode to come into contact with them and establish an arc. Use only the approved cylinder wrench to attach regulators and hoses to the cylinder. The use of loose fitting wrenches on the soft brass connections may cause excessive wear by slipping on the connections. Excessive wear may cause the edges of the connectors to become rounded and make it difficult to fit any wrench on them.

Use only the approved regulator and hoses for the type of gas being used and never use the same regulator and hoses for different gas contents.

The cylinder the cylinder valve must be cleaned before attaching the regulators. Standing behind the cylinder quickly open then close the cylinder valve to allowing the high pressure gas to blow out trapped dirt. This action is known as cracking the cylinder. Make sure no one is in front of the cylinder when you crack the cylinder. 67

Before attaching the regulator make sure the adjusting screw is backed out and loose. Since regulators are designed to blow out the front and back if they fail, stand to the side of the regulator when opening or pressurizing the regulator. Fuel gas cylinders should only be opened about turn or until the gas registers on the regulator, so they can be shut down quickly in an emergency. The high pressure cylinders like the oxygen, argon and 75-25 have a double seating valve and should be opened all the way. KEY POINTS For most applications welders will be using 100 % Argon as the shielding gas with an approximate flow rate from 20-30 PSI. If you are responsible for selecting the shielding gas for a given application, check with your gas and welding supply company for information about specific advantages of the available gases.

4 FOOT PEDAL The GTAW Foot Pedal is an optional Pedal added to the welding circuit to remotely control the amperage and initiate the gas flow. When coupled with a Power Source that has a high frequency capability it allows arc starting without contaminating the tungsten electrode. Contaminating the electrode means the prepared point for welding becomes dull or has globules stuck to it causing the arc to wander and the weld bead to be wide. If the electrode gets contaminated the point will need to be re-sharpened for welding. The use of a foot pedal is especially useful for welding aluminum where the heat needs to be lowered or increased during welding to avoid blowing away the sides of the joint, or melting through the joint. The foot pedal works similar to the accelerator pedal in a car pressing down increases the amperage lifting the foot slightly lowers the amperage. When the foot pedal is fully depressed the amperage is at the setting on the machine. Lifting the foot lowers the amperage over a range until the arc is extinguished.

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5 FILLER WIRE Unlike Stick and Mig Welding, Tig uses a separate filler wire to add weld metal to the Joint to be welded in a similar manner to Oxy-Acetylene or Braze Welding. Some pieces may also be welded together by melting the edges of the joint called Fusion Welding.

Filler Wire is used to introduce more metal to the weld zone to fill the joint or increase the size of the weld. Filler wire is available in different diameters or sizes, some of the more widely used include 1/16th 3/32nds or 1/8th. The usual length is approximately 36 inches. In general the filler metal or tig wire usually has the same composition as, or is compatible with the metal to be welded, so that Carbon Steel wire is used to weld Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel wire to weld Stainless Steel and Aluminum wire to weld Aluminum. There is a selection of filler wire available for these and other metals using the GTAW process. Selecting a specific filler wire depends on many factors including strength requirements, joint design and condition of the joint surface. When selecting an appropriate filler wire, consult filler wire guide books available at most welding supply stores and discuss job requirements and joint configurations with engineering personnel or experts at your local welding supply outlet. Filler Wire used in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process are classified by the American Welding Society using a letter and numbering system. The following are some examples: Filler Wire for welding Carbon Steel ER 70 S 6

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Filler wire for welding Stainless Steel ER 308 L

The Tensile strength of the weld metal is defined as the ability to resist forces acting to pull the weld apart, measured in thousands of pounds per square inch. The Classification for GTAW filler wire is similar to that of the GMAW process.

SUMMARY GTAW is the most intricate of all the manual arc welding processes often requiring one hand to angle the torch, one hand to consistently feed the filler wire and a foot to control the amperage. The metal is often thin and requires heat distortion control and must be kept clean. Welds beads are usually relatively small and flat with deep penetration. Although GTAW produces less sparks with no slag, the intense arc produces ultraviolet and infrared rays that make the use of welding leathers and safety equipment mandatory. The same safety equipment used for SMAW should be used for GTAW except that the gauntlet gloves may be changed for tig gloves that provide adequate protection while allowing a better feel for manipulating the torch and filler wire

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CHAPTER FIVE GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING TIG KEY POINTS


1. The TIG welding circuit is made up of the Welding machine, the gas supply, foot pedal, ground cable, and TIG torch. 2. TIG welding steel and stainless steel is done using direct current electrode negative (DCEN) or Straight Polarity. 3. TIG welding Aluminum is done using Alternating Current (AC). 4. The TIG torch is made up of the torch body, gas diffuser, collet, tungsten electrode and back cap. 5. The tungsten electrode is the heat source and does not melt and become part of the weld as in STICK welding. The filler wire is used to add weld metal. 6. The tungsten electrode is sharpened to a point to weld on steel or stainless steel. The point may need to be re-sharpened if it touches the weld puddle or filler wire. 7. The foot pedal controls the amount of amperage. Lifting the foot on the foot pedal lowers the heat, while pushing down increases the heat. 8. Welders should understand the controls on the welding machine to produce sound welds. 9. Always follow all safety guidelines for handling and using gas cylinders. 10. Argon gas is primarily used as the shielding gas for TIG welding. 11. Gloves made for TIG welding are recommended whenever practical.

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CHAPTER SIX CERTIFICATION


WHAT IS CERTIFICATION WHO CONDUCTS CERTIFICATION THE AWS CERTIFIED WELDER PROGRAM WHO NEEDS TO BE CERTIFIED WHAT DOES MY CERTIFICATION MEAN WHAT CERTIFICATION IS TESTING PROCEDURES

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CHAPTER SIX CERTIFICATION STUDENT OBJECTIVES


STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe what Welder Certification is and what it means to be Certified. Describe who conducts Welder Certification testing. Describe the most common welder certification tests. Describe the American Welding Societys (AWS) Certification Program.

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WELDER QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION


WHAT IS CERTIFICATION? The term CERTIFICATION as it applies to welders refers to a document that states I or We certify that the indicated welder or welding operator has successfully completed a practical test of their abilities to perform a sound weld in accordance with some predetermined standard. The term QUALIFICATION means that a welder or welding operator has met the requirements of a given STANDARD and is qualified to perform welds to within the scope of the STANDARD. To become certified the Welder must posses the skills necessary to produce a sound weld that is visually acceptable and meets the testing requirements. KEY POINT: TO GET A JOB OR KEEP A JOB WELDERS OFTEN HAVE TO MAKE A WELD TO SHOW THEY
ARE CAPABLE WELDERS

The Testing Procedure involves the welder making a weld that is then tested by an Inspector, to ensure the weld conforms to a particular Code, Standard, or written Welding Procedure Specification. Testing Methods include Visual inspection, and may involve either destructive or non-destructive testing. CODE: Rules or laws that may have legal status and are considered mandatory especially when language like shall, Will or Must is used. STANDARD: A document, sample or thing that describes or shows exactly what the outcome should be. SPECIFICATION: A detailed description of the parts or variables to be controlled. An example of Destructive Testing is when the inspector prepares a specimen from the weld and bends the specimen against the weld to determine if it meets the requirements of the Standard. An example of non destructive testing is when a completed weld joint undergoes an X ray and the inspector reads the X ray film to determine if it meets the requirements of the standard. In a typical welding Test or Certification, the welder must weld follow a set of written instructions contained in the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) to produce the Weld Specimen for testing. A simple test may involve the following steps; 1 Ensure the proper safety equipment and welding supplies. 2 Set the welding parameters on the welding machine. 3 Ensure the appropriate supplies are available. 4 Obtain the appropriate supplies and metal pieces to be welded. 5 Prepare and assemble the joint to be welded. 6 Place the weld in the proper welding position. 7 Follow the indicated procedure to fill the joint with Weld. 8 Prepare or help prepare the specimens to be tested.

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The Welding Inspector (Test Supervisor) will guide the preparation of the pieces, assembly, and periodically check progress to ensure conformity to the Standard. KEY POINT: Your weld coupons will be examined and tested to make sure they are good welds There is no one universal test to Certify Welders to all welding conditions. Welders may have to Cerify for each process (stick, mig, tig etc) used, and for each group of steels (mild steel, stainless, aluminum). In addition some tests cover all positions of welding while some restrict positions. When a welder becomes certified through a testing facility they usually receive a document called a Welder Test Report that details the welders qualification range. Delta certified Welders also receive a test report in the form of an actual certificate with all the variables listed. KEY POINT: You are only certified to do what you tested for; ask questions about your qualification. WHO CONDUCTS CERTIFICATION? A Certification may be given by a testing facilitys Inspector or authorized personnel or by a companies representative such as quality control personnel, supervisors, or engineers as long as they are in accordance with the Code or Standards requirements for Qualified Testing personnel. Some companies require certification to be specific to their needs and they maintain the records of certification. A welder may have many certifications covering a wide range of variables. KEY POINT: You may not see or receive any documentation if a company pays for testing

THE AWS CERTIFIED WELDER PROGRAM The AWS (American Welding Society) has developed a program for certifying Welders to National Standards that is recognized by many Industries and allows certifications to be transferable or accepted by Companies without further testing. A database of currently Certified Welders is maintained by the AWS for verification of a welders certification status. DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES is an accredited testing facility, listed as Delta Welding And Engineering on the AWS list of authorized testing Facilities. SEE OUR LINK FOR AWS CERTIFICATION KEY POINT: YOU RECEIVE A WALLET CARD DESCRIBING YOUR CERTIFICATION AND THE CERTIFICATION BELONGS TO YOU.

WHO NEEDS TO BE CERTIFIED? Welders who wish to work for a company that requires Certification as part of their minimum requirements for employment (an increasing number of companies now require welders to demonstrate their skills and, or be Certified) Welders currently working for companies that must show certification to their clients or general contractors need to be certified. 75

In many cases Welders that have been certified, either at another company or have not welded for a period of time, may need to be recertified. Some welders are required to take periodic tests to determine their continued competency. Welders who wish to prove their abilities or further their career goals will take a certification or additional certifications. KEY POINT: BE PROUD TO BE A WELDER PROVE YOUR ONE OF THE BEST WHAT DOES MY CERTIFICATION MEAN? Certification is very specific to a particular Code, Standard or Welding Procedure and any changes in the variables used in welding may require re-certification. Personnel familiar with the governing document usually determines if the certification is valid for the work being performed. Welders however; should know in general what their certification covers so they dont mislead clients or run into difficulty on the job. The variables used in qualification and the qualification range of the certification is listed on the following documents; Welder Qualification Test Report WQTR The WQTR describes the results of the welding test, including what the welder is qualified to do. The Welding Procedure specification WPS The WPS describes the rules, welding parameters and details of the test, or how the pieces should be assembled and welded. The WPS is like a Blueprint or set of written instructions for the test. Welding Procedure Qualification Report WPQR The WPQR documents the variables and tests that have been performed by a qualified individual to prove the test is valid. The document and supporting information proves that the joint can be welded and tested to meet the specific Standard or Code requirements. The document if followed removes all variables except the skill of the welder. This document and its variables are used to construct the WPS. WHAT A CERTIFICATION IS NOT? A certification is not a license to weld anything at anytime under any circumstances. A certification is specific to a certain code and set of variables that allow repetition of demonstrated skills. A certification is not a guarantee that welders will not make mistakes. It certifies that the tester has witnessed the welder demonstrate a specific skill level and produced a sound (good or acceptable) Weld. The assumption is that the welder has the ability to reproduce results in an actual work environment. Certification in one Process does not extend to other welding process. For example a welder certified in SMAW (Stick) is not certified to weld with GMAW (mig) The welder may have the skills but he has not demonstrated them in a testing environment and is not Certified. Certification to one code does not mean certification to all codes. Certification is specific to variables such as; Base metal, Filler metal, Welding position, vertical direction of travel, joint design, joint configuration and thickness of material.

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TYPICAL TESTING PROCEDURES AWS D1.1 SINGLE VEE GROOVE WITH BACKING WELDED IN THE VERTICAL UP 3G POSITION. The one inch single Vee groove test with a backing bar is an AWS D1.1 pre-qualified joint. The test qualifies the welder to weld fillets or grooves of unlimited thickness in the process the welder used to weld the joint. The completed joint is visually inspected and specimens are destructively tested by bend testing. PREPARATION: Under the direction of the Test Supervisor, get two pieces of 1x7x3 that have been beveled on one side and assemble and tack weld them in the arrangement shown:

The position the test is welded in determines the positions the Welder is Qualified to weld Grooves and Fillets. This test is often used to test welds produced with the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (STICK) Process.

The test Supervisor will inspect the assembled joint for conformity to the Code and assist in placing the joint in the position for Welding. The test Supervisor will ensure the proper supplies are being used and periodically inspect the welders progress.

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INSPECTION: The completed joint will be visually inspected according to the requirements of the Code and the bend test coupons shall be cut from the joint.

PREPARING BEND TEST COUPNS

As the picture shows; under the direction of the test Supervisor, two pieces 1 by 3/8 are cut from the welded test piece. The backing bar and weld face reinforcement are ground flush and the pieces are bent to test the weld. The Test supervisor evaluates the bent pieces for acceptability and conformance to the requirements of the Code. The acceptance criteria for bend tests in accordance with the AWS D1.1 are as follows; The convex surface of the bend test specimen shall be examined for surface discontinuities exceeding the following dimensions: 1/8 inch measured in any direction on the surface. 3/8 inches - the sum of the greatest dimensions of all discontinuities exceeding 1/32 inch but less than or equal to 1/8 inch. 1/4 inch the maximum corner crack, except when that crack resulted from visible slag inclusion or other fusion type discontinuities, then the 1/8 inch maximum shall apply.

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FILLET WELD BREAK TEST ALL POSITION QUALIFICATION The fillet weld break test is a simpler test that qualifies the welder to weld fillets with the process used during the test. The welding position qualified works like the positions for grooves discussed earlier. To qualify all positions fillet welding, the welder must pass a separate break test in the vertical and the overhead positions. When the welder is only welding fillet welds as is often the case with the GMAW (MIG) and GTAW (TIG) processes, a fillet weld break test in all positions instead of a groove test may be the only requirement for the job.

To perform the test, the welder weld a T joint on one side with a restart near the center as shown. The piece is visually examined and a macroetch test is conducted on one end piece. The piece is then broken to visually inspect for complete fusion and to ensure there are no discontinuities according to the acceptance criteria of the Code. The acceptance criteria for fillet weld break tests in accordance with the AWS D1.1 are as follows; To pass the visual examination prior to the break test, the weld shall present a reasonably uniform appearance and shall be free from overlap, cracks, or excessive undercut as defined by the Code. There shall be no porosity visible on the weld surface. The broken specimen shall pass if: The specimen bends flat upon itself. The fillet weld, if fractured, has a fracture surface showing complete fusion to the root of the joint with no inclusion or porosity larger than 3/32 of an inch in greatest dimension. The sum of the greatest dimension of all inclusions shall not exceed 3/8 of an inch in the 6 inch long specimen.

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CHAPTER SIX CERTIFICATION KEY POINTS


1. Certification comes from the term I or We Certify that I or We have witnessed this individual successfully complete a specific welding test in accordance with a specific requirement. This term is found on the Certification document. 2. A certification is really a Welder qualification test of his/her practical abilities as witnessed by a qualified person or inspector. 3. The assumption is if the welder has the skill to pass the test he possesses the skill to repeat the level of quality on the job. 4. A specific Certification is limited to a specific process and specific variables and does not imply the ability to weld anything anywhere. For example; Welders certified to weld with STICK are not certified to weld TIG unless they have taken both a STICK and TIG test. 5. When you become Certified as a Welder read the Test report to see what you are Certified to do.

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CHAPTER SEVEN BASIC WELDING JOINTS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. BUTT JOINTS T JOINTS LAP JOINTS CORNER JOINTS EDGE JOINTS JOINT ARRANGEMENTS AND WELD EDGE PREPARATION

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CHAPTER SEVEN BASIC WELDING JOINTS

STUDENT OBJECTIVES
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. Name and describe the five basic joint types used in welding metals. 2. Describe the typical edge preparations applied to the basic joints for welding.

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BASIC JOINTS
INTRODUCTION Welding is one the most widely used methods of permanently joining Structural Shapes used throughout the world. Generally engineers, supervisors and technicians are charged with joint design and selection. Welders, however; need to be familiar with the most commonly used joint shapes, their names, and the type of welds applied to them. Since there is a wide and varied list of possible joints to fabricate structural shapes, this lesson will discuss only the most common joints used in Arc Welding. When two pieces of structural steel are to be connected by welding, the way they are prepared for welding and placed together is known as the Weld Joint. KEY POINT: In other words the joint is the way they are joined. EDGE PREPARATION Preparation or edge shaping may be applied to each piece (joint member) in the same way, or combinations of the joint preparations may be used. The edge preparation for welding these joints depends on the strength requirements and other design considerations. The Welder needs to be aware of the most common edge preparations as shown below:

JOINT ARRANGEMENTS AND WELDS The edge preparations are arranged to make the weld joint. The pieces to be welded may be connected or a gap between the pieces to ensure penetration may be used. On most joints the gap is at the bottom of the joint and is referred to as the root of the joint. The term root opening or open root is used to describe this condition. For example; Open root V groove, or V groove with an open root. When the joint design allows, a backing strip or insert may be used for easier welding. Some joints may have a backing weld, or back weld applied. A back weld is applied after the groove is filled. A backing weld is applied before the groove is filled. See examples below: 83

THE FIVE BASIC JOINTS There are five basic joints in common use for assembling metal. 1. BUTT JOINTS 2. T JOINTS 3. LAP JOINTS 4. CORNER JOINTS 5. EDGE JOINTS

1. BUTT JOINTS A butt joint is formed when the pieces to be welded are laid side by side and it is one of the most widely used types of joint. KEY POINT: In other words, the pieces are butted together.

The names in the examples above are from the type of weld applied to the joint. Often the type of weld is used to fully describe the joint. For example; this joint is a single bevel butt joint. The V groove and bevel grooves are easier to prepare and are used more than the J or U groves.

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KEY POINT: If two imaginary lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal line in the above symbols they show the joint shape, this is true for most of the symbols. This can be helpful to remember since symbols on a blueprint do not show the actual joint shape or edge preparation.

2. T JOINTS A T joint is formed when one piece of metal to be welded is placed vertically on another piece lying horizontally, to form the shape of an inverted T. KEY POINT: The T shape resembles an overhead position T joint.

The vertical member is usually placed at 90 deg to the horizontal member. One of the most widely used types of weld applied to a T joint is the fillet weld. When a single pass or multiple passes are made against the joint, the weld resembles a Triangle when viewed from the side.

KEY POINT: Pronounce the T in fillet FILL-ET; not as FILL-AY a fish The T joint and fillet weld are the most frequently used joint and type of weld. In the same way the edges of the butt joint may be prepared for welding, the tee joints vertical piece may be prepared using a Bevel, or J shape. The preparation allows the Welder to penetrate into the root of the joint. See examples below:

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3. LAP JOINTS A Lap joint is formed when one piece to be welded is laid down and another piece is overlapped to form an edge for fillet welding or an area to allow plug or slot welding. Lap joints are often used when plug or slot welding thinner sections. A plug weld is made by welding holes evenly spaced across the length of one or both sides of the joint. A slot weld is similar except slots are made instead of holes. Other welds may be applied to laps such as projection, or seam welding. See examples below:

LAP JOINTS

4. CORNER JOINTS A corner joint is formed by placing one piece to be welded on the other so that a corner is formed. The corner may be Flush; Half Open; or Fully Open. An edge preparation may be applied to one, or both of the pieces of the joint for penetration and strength.

KEY POINT: The weld applied to the inside of many of the above is a fillet weld.

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5. EDGE JOINT An Edge joint is formed when the two edges of the pieces to be welded come together. This joint may be formed as a result of another structural shape and is not as widely used as some of the other joints. See examples below.

SUMMARY
Welders need to know the basic joint shapes and the type of welds most commonly applied to them. The five basic joints are: Butt; T; Lap: Corner; and Edge. The edge preparation may be: Square edge; Bevel edge; Double Bevel edge; Chamfer edge; J groove edge; and Double J groove edge. J and U grooves are more labor intensive to prepare and may not be seen as often in production. Butt joints may be open root, have a backing, or be welded both sides. The weld applied to a T joint is a called a Fillet weld. Fillet welds are the most commonly used welds. Corner joints may be: Flush; Half open; or Full open. Corner joints may be simple or have edge preparation to increase penetration. Lap joints are more likely to be used when welding thinner sections, or when plug and slot welding is called for. Edge joints are usually seen as a result of an overall joint configuration. The Welding symbols used are for illustration, and will be discussed fully in another lesson.

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CHAPTER SEVEN BASIC WELDING JOINTS

KEY POINTS
1. The five basic joints are; Butt joint, T joint, Corner joint, Lap joint and Edge joint. 2. The edge preparation may be; Square edge, Single Bevel edge, Double Bevel edge, Chamfer edge, J groove edge, Double J groove edge. 3. Butt joints may be open root, have a backing or be welded both sides. 4. The most common weld applied to a T joint is called a fillet weld. 5. Corner joints may be; Flush, Half Open or Fully Open. 6. Corner joints may be welded flush or have an edge preparation applied to them. 7. The type of joint used in basic STICK classes, MIG and TIG are typically T joints formed by 2 pieces of angle iron. The joints used in Advanced STICK are Single V grooves.

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CHAPTER EIGHT WELDING SYMBOLS


THE REFERENCE LINE AND ARROW THE FILLET WELD 1. 2. 3. 4. The size of the weld. The length of the weld. The length and pitch of intermittent or staggered intermittent welds. The contour requirements. GROOVE WELDING SYMBOLS GROOVE WELDING ELEMENTS

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CHAPTER EIGHT WELDING SYMBOLS

STUDENT OBJECTIVES
STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe the reference line and indicate arrow side other side relevance. Describe the fillet weld symbol and its elements. Describe the contour requirements on a weld symbol Describe the groove weld symbol and its elements

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WELDING SYMBOLS
INTRODUCTION Welding symbols are used on blueprints and drawings to show where the weld is to be placed and may also show the size, type of weld, number of welds, details about the weld and even details about the joint. Welders that fabricate or work with drawing must be able to interpret the welding symbol to prepare the joint and apply a weld that has the required strength and soundness. THE REFERENCE LINE AND ARROW The reference line is one of the most important elements on the welding symbol. All the other elements that describe the weld are on or located around this line. The reference line has a leader and arrow that points to where the information applies. It may also have a tail that has information about the process, specification, or other notes that do not normally have an element that describes them. If the elements on the reference line describe the necessary details (as it does in most cases) the tail is not used. See the examples below:

In the above examples one of the reference lines has multiple arrows that are used to show the same weld in three locations that are relatively close to each other. There is also a reference line that has an arrow break. The break in the arrow is used to indicate the joint member that is to receive the edge preparation. KEY POINT: the arrow points to the bevel where the bevel needs to be prepared. ARROW SIDE One of the most important things about the reference line and the welding symbol is the top and bottom of the horizontal line. The actual symbol that shows the type of weld and the elements surrounding it that detail the weld can be placed on the top of the line or on the bottom of the line.

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KEY POINTS: symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. Symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the other side of the joint, or the side opposite to where the arrow is pointing. This method is used because sometimes the welding symbol must be drawn on the blueprint on the other side of the joint. When symbols appear on both sides of the reference line it means weld both sides of the joint. If the reference line has a weld symbol on both sides of the reference line they may, or may not be the same weld on both sides of the joint. Remember the rule to apply the right weld to the right side. See the examples:

OTHER ELEMENTS ON REFERENCE LINE There are two other elements that may be seen on the reference line that provide information about the weld. One is a circle around the place where the leader line connects to the reference line and indicates the weld is ALL AROUND. This means the weld extends all the way around the joint the arrow is pointing at. KEY POINT: The all around element is only used when it is possible to weld all the way around a single surface. Otherwise more than on symbol is used. The other element seen on the reference line resembles a flag and is located where the leader line joins the reference line. This element is called a field weld and means the weld will be done in another location. For instance, this weld may be applied at the job site not in the shop. Sometimes clarification will be given in the welding symbol tail or as a specification on the print.

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THE FILLET WELD The fillet weld symbol is one of the most widely used symbols and the shape placed on the reference line to indicate a fillet weld is a triangle that resembles the side profile of a fillet weld. The examples of the weld all around and field weld above show a fillet weld symbol so that the weld to be applied in both cases is a fillet weld.

The names of the parts of the fillet weld

KEY POINT: Fillet sounds like fill it (pronounce the T) not fillay as in fillet a fish. The important elements added to a simple fillet weld symbol are as follows;

1. 2. 3. 4.

THE SIZE OF THE WELD. THE LENGTH OF THE WELD. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS. THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS.

1. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. The size of the fillet weld is determined by the legs of the triangle shape which represent the legs of the fillet. A welded piece may have a different weld size on each side or they may be the same size. Sometimes (not often) a weld of unequal legs may be required. For example: if one member of the joint is thinner than the other.

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If no size is shown on the fillet weld, a size for all fillets will be given on the drawing as a note or specification.

KEY POINT: Making the fillet welds the wrong size may lead to costly rework if you are not sure ask for clarification. 2. THE LENGTH OF THE FILLETWELD. The length of the weld when it is not a continuous weld is shown by a number on the right side of the fillet weld triangle. If it is not obvious the location is detailed on the drawing.

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3. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS An intermittent weld is one that is not continuous across the joint, but rather is a given length of weld separated by a given space between them. This method of welding may be used to control heat distortion or where the joint strength requirements allow. Intermittent welding can save time and money if a long weld is not necessary. Used more frequently than the length alone, the length and pitch are two numbers located at the right of the fillet weld symbol. The length appears first as before followed by a hyphen then the pitch is shown. The pitch refers to a dimension from the center of one weld to the center of the next weld. KEY POINT: The pitch is not the space between welds but a measurement from center to center of the welds. To get the spacing for layout subtract the length of one weld from the pitch. The intermittent welds may be chain intermittent or staggered intermittent. Chain intermittent the welds on both sides of the joint are opposite each other and resemble a chain. Staggered intermittent the welds on the opposite side are usually started in the gap between the welds on the first side. The welds then appear staggered. KEY POINT: If the welds are staggered the fillet weld symbol will be staggered on the reference line.

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4.THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS Some welding symbols may show a contour finish that details how the fillet weld shape must be finished after welding. The contour may be flat or convex and the element to describe this is placed above the slope on the fillet weld symbol. A letter to indicate the method of finish may be given above the finish element.

A letter U may be used to designate an unspecified finish, when the choice of finishing is given. SUMMARYWhen reading a fillet weld symbol always make sure you know what side of the joint the weld is applied to. Fillet weld symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean apply the weld to the side of the joint the arrow points to. Fillet weld symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the opposite side of the joint. Fillet weld symbols on both sides of the reference line mean apply weld to both sides of the joint. This remains the case regardless of how the break in the arrow is drawn. The size of a fillet weld is determined by the length of the leg of the fillet weld and is shown on the symbol to the left. If two numbers appear in parenthesis the legs are unequal, check the drawing for clarification. When a length of weld is shown on a fillet weld symbol the dimension is placed on the right side. When two numbers appear separated by a hyphen, the length is indicated first then the pitch. The pitch is the distance from the center of one length of weld to the center of the next length of weld. When finishing directions are shown they appear over the slope of the fillet weld symbol.

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GROOVE WELDING SYMBOLS Groove welding symbols are used to show how butt joints are prepared for welding and to detail how the weld is to be applied. When two pieces of metal, other than sheet metal or thin sections, are butted together for welding they usually have some form of a groove to allow the weld to penetrate into or through the joint. The groove is formed by preparing the edges to be welded with a bevel edge, chamfer edge, double bevel edge, J groove edge or double J groove edge. When the butt joint has no edge preparation it is referred to as a square groove. The typical edge preparations are shown below:

The edge preparations may be assembled as either open root, with a backing bar or by utilizing the back weld or backing weld application. The open root assembly allows penetration through the joint, while the backing bar is used for easier welding. The backing bar may be removed or may be a part of the joint. The backing weld is applied before welding and acts as a backing bar, while the back weld is applied after welding to finish the back side of the joint. Before applying the back weld a grinder or other method may be used to prepare a V.

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The edge preparations may be assembled in any configuration to form the groove for welding from either one side or both sides. The most common configurations and their basic symbols are shown below.

KEY POINT: If two imaginary lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal line in the above symbols they show the joint shape, this is true for most of the symbols. This can be helpful to remember since symbols on a blueprint do not show the actual joint shape or edge preparation.

KEY POINT: The Groove welding symbols have the same placement relevance on the reference line as the fillet weld. Symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to, while symbols on the top of the reference line mean weld the opposite side of where the arrow is touching or pointing to. If it is not clear always ask someone; reworking welds is costly and time consuming.

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GROOVE WELDING ELEMENTS GROOVE WELD SIZE The groove weld size is given in two dimensions and like the fillet weld it is placed to the left of the weld symbol. The first size given is THE DEPTH OF GROOVE and is the dimension used to prepare the edge preparation. The depth of groove is measured from the surface of the joint to the bottom of the preparation.

KEY PONT: The depth of groove does not include weld reinforcement or root penetration. The second size given is the ACTUAL WELD SIZE and is enclosed in parentheses to distinguish it from the groove size, or depth of groove. The actual weld size is again measured from the surface of the groove through the bottom of the groove but now includes the expected penetration of the weld. On a square groove only the weld size is given. The weld size does not include face reinforcement or root reinforcement.

KEY POINT: The penetration into the joint shown on the weld size is not measurable by the naked eye but is given to provide information about the expected outcome. ROOT OPENING AND GROOVE ANGLE Two other important elements for preparing and welding the groove are the root opening and the groove angle. The root opening, when used, dimensions the space between the joint to be welded and is placed inside the weld symbol. The groove angle is also placed inside the weld symbol and is given in degrees.

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KEY POINT: The groove angle for a V groove is given as the INCLUDED angle so that means the edge bevel or chamfer for each piece is 1/2 of the degrees given. For example; A 45 degree included angle means bevel each member at 22 1/2 degrees. J grooves angles may be detailed elsewhere on the drawing. The root opening and groove angle are separate elements and may or may not appear together depending on the joint requirements. On some drawings the root opening or groove angle will be covered in a note or specification on the drawing for all similar symbols, and does not appear on the symbol. The Welder must always read all information given on a drawing.

CONTOUR AND FINISHING The same contour symbols that apply to fillet welds may be used with groove welding and are placed above the weld symbol.

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BACKING BARS BACK WELDS AND SPACERS As previously mentioned in this section some joint configurations may have a backing bar or spacer for easier welding or may employ the back or backing weld technique. The elements for these are placed on the bottom of the reference line opposite the weld symbol or in the case of the spacer on the reference line.

KEY POINT: If the backing bar is to be removed the symbol will contain an R for remove after welding. Since the back and backing weld symbol look the same you must look for details to see which weld applies. Spacers may be removed before the second side is welded or they may become part of the joint.

SUMMARY The groove weld symbols are used to provide information for preparing and welding the groove; however, they cannot always show every intended operation and often notes or specifications are used on the drawing. The welder should read the entire drawing before making a weld to avoid costly rework. Whenever you see something you are unfamiliar with check with engineering or supervision for clarification. It is critical to produce the right size fillet and groove weld for the application so check sizes with weld gages.

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CHAPTER EIGHT WELDING SYMBOLS KEY POINTS


1. The reference line has a leader and arrowhead point to the joint to be welded. It only has a tail whenever information is to be placed in the tail. 2. Symbols on the bottom of the reference line always mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching, while symbols on the top of the reference line mean weld the opposite side of the joint where the arrow is touching. 3. Symbols on both sides of the reference line mean weld both sides of the joint. 4. The fillet weld symbol is a triangle shape on the reference line. 5. The fillet weld symbol may have a size, length, pitch, contour, and weld all around indication added to the symbol 6. The groove symbol may be a square groove, single bevel, double bevel single V, double V, single j, double j, single U or double U. 7. The groove symbol may have a size of groove, root opening, groove angle, contour and depth of groove indication added.

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DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES PRACTICES


BASIC SMAW (STICK) 00 Practice Angle 01 Flat Position E-7018 02 Horizontal Position E-7018 03 Flat Position E-6010 04 Horizontal Position E-6010 05 Vertical Downward E-6010 06 Vertical Upward weave E-6010 07 Vertical Upward stringers E-6010 08 Vertical Upward weave E-7018 09 Overhead E-6010 10 Overhead E-7018 ADVANCED SMAW (STICK) 11 Assemble Groove Weld Plates 12 Flat Position Vee Groove 13 Horizontal Position Vee Groove 14 Vertical Position Vee Groove 15 Overhead Position Vee Groove GMAW (MIG) 16 Flat Position 17 Horizontal Position 18 Vertical Downward 19 Vertical Upward 20 Overhead

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GTAW (TIG) 21 Flat Position 22 Horizontal Position 23 Vertical Position 24 Overhead Position PIPE PRACTICES FOR SMAW OR GTAW PROGRAM 25 Pipe Flat Position 1G 26 Pipe Horizontal Position 2G 27 Pipe Vertical Position 5G 28 Pipe Inclined 6G ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR PRACTICES Fillet weld Positions Groove weld positions Pipe Welding Positions Certification Test Groove Certification Test Fillet Weld Break Standards Troubleshooting Chart

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PRACTICES ANGLE 00
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS ASSEMBLE ANGLE T JOINT SMAW GMAW GTAW ALL ALL SET FOR ELECTRODE AND POSITION

Technique: assemble and tack weld two pieces of 1 angle six inches long as shown above and run welds in the position of the practice until the angle is completely full of weld on all sides.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 01


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD SMAW FLAT E-7018 1/8 ELECTRODES DCRP 130-150 AMPS

Technique: Set the Amperage on DCRP 130 to 150 and using E-7018 Electrodes place a weld between the joint. Hold the Electrode 90 degrees to the joint as shown above. Change angle of Electrode slightly to overlap next weld beads evenly until the joint is full of weld. Once the arc is struck the electrode may lightly touch the metal or a slight arc length may be maintained. Slag each weld bead before applying the next. Travel from left to right on all weld beads first, and then practice alternating direction. FOR ALL SMAW PRACTICES BURN ALL ELECTRODES DOWN AS LOW AS POSSIBLE

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 02


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS HORIZONTAL T JOINT SMAW HORIZONTAL E-7018 DCRP 150-160 AMPS

Technique: set the Amperage and weld the first bead using the angles shown above. Adjust the angle slightly to overlap the first bead with the second and third weld beads. Continue to weld beads from the bottom up overlapping each bead in half until the joint is filled. Watch for the weld puddle to split the center of the bead under it to keep it straight and for proper placement.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 03


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD SMAW FLAT E-6010 90-110

Technique: Set the Amperage on DCRP 90 to 110 and using E-6010 Electrodes place a weld between the joint. Hold the Electrode 90 degrees to the joint as shown above. Change angle of Electrode slightly to overlap next weld beads evenly until the joint is full of weld. Once the arc is struck the electrode may lightly touch the metal or a slight arc length may be maintained. Slag each weld bead before applying the next. Travel from left to right on all weld beads first, and then practice alternating direction. Notice the difference in the appearance between the E-7018 Electrode and the E6010 Electrode. While the 7018 produces a thicker smoother weld bead with a heavy slag and medium penetration, the 6010 produces a flatter weld bead with pronounced ripples thinner slag and deep penetration.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 04


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS HORIZONTAL T JOINT SMAW HORIZONTAL E-6010 DCRP 90-110 AMPS

Technique: set the Amperage and weld the first bead using the angles shown above. Adjust the angle slightly to overlap the first bead with the second and third weld beads. Continue to weld beads from the bottom up overlapping each bead in half until the joint is filled. Watch for the weld puddle to split the center of the bead under it to keep it straight and for proper placement. The resulting weld bead is flatter with more pronounced ripples than those produced with the E-7018 electrode. The E-7018 electrodes have iron powder added to the electrode covering (Flux). The iron powder and metal available from the core of these electrode accounts for the heavier, smoother weld bead. The E-6010 electrode provides a hotter arc that cuts through dirty, rusty, or painted surfaces and produces a weld with a flatter profile, lighter slag covering and deep penetration.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW O5


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS VERTICAL TEE JOINT 03 SMAW VERTICAL DOWNWARD E-6010 DCRP 100-110 AMPS

Technique: Set the welding Amperage on DCRP 100-110 and starting at the top of the joint, hold the correct travel angle, start the arc, and weld down the joint. There should be no side to side or weave technique used and the weld bead should be about the size of the electrode including the flux. Change the angle slightly to overlap a series of weld beads from one side of the joint to the other. Completely fill each side of the angle assembly.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 06


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD T JOINT SMAW VERTICAL UP WEAVE E-6010 DCRP 90-110 AMPS

Technique: set the welding machine for DCRP at 90-110 amps and weld vertical upwards from the bottom of the joint to the top using the weave technique. The vertical up weave is similar to the vertical up stringers except each pass is weaved from side to side and completely covers the prior weld bead. The initial amperage (or heat) setting may need to be increased slightly when weaving wider than the first three passes. Pause in each corner to allow proper filling and weld formation. The weld appearance will be flat with a pronounced ripples.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 07


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS VERTICAL UP T JOINT SMAW VERTICAL: UPWARD STRINGERS E-6010 DCRP 90-110 AMPS

Technique: Set the correct amperage on the machine and weld from the bottom of the T joint to the top. Use a slight weave from side to side as you move up the joint. The closer the weave pattern the better. The weld bead width should be approximately 1 times the diameter of the electrode. Place the second and third weld beads as shown above, keeping them the same size and allowing them to overlap half of the prior weld bead. The side to side weave shown should be quick enough to produce a bead of the proper width, without being too high in the center. Pause slightly in each corner of the weave pattern similar to the motion of a windshield wiper. Fill each side of the angle assembly flush with weld beads.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 08


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FILLET WELD T JOINT SMAW VERTICAL UP WEAVE E-7018 DCRP 125-150 AMPS

Technique: set the welding machine for DCRP at 125-150 amps and weld vertical upwards from the bottom of the joint to the top using the weave technique. The vertical up weave is similar to the vertical up stringers except each pass is weaved from side to side and completely covers the prior weld bead. The initial amperage (or heat) setting may need to be increased slightly when weaving wider than the first three passes. Pause in each corner to allow proper filling and weld formation. The weld appearance will be flat to slightly round with a smooth appearance.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 9


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS OVERHEAD T JOINT SMAW OVERHEAD E-6010 DCRP E-6010 90-110 AMPS

Technique: Set the welding machine on DCRP 90-100 amps for E-6010 electrodes. Weld the assembled angle joint in the overhead position using E-6010 Electrodes. Hold the electrode as indicated and weld from one end of the joint to the other. A slight push or drag method may be used. In the Overhead position maintain travel speeds that result in a weld bead that is flat and well formed. Slow travel speeds result in a large bead being deposited at is difficult to overlap and blend in. Travel speeds that are too fast result in a thin stringy bead with little penetration. Continue to run stringer beads until the entire angle is filled with weld.

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PRACTICES BASIC SMAW 10


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS OVERHEAD T JOINT SMAW OVERHEAD E-7018 E-7018 125-150 AMPS

Technique: Set the welding machine on DCRP 125-150 amps for E-7018 electrodes. Weld the assembled angle joint in the overhead position using E-7018 Electrodes. Hold the electrode as indicated and weld from one end of the joint to the other. A slight push or drag method may be used. In the Overhead position maintain travel speeds that result in a weld bead that is flat and well formed. Slow travel speeds result in a large bead being deposited at is difficult to overlap and blend in. Travel speeds that are too fast result in a thin stringy bead with little penetration. Continue to run stringer beads until the entire angle is filled with weld.

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PRACTICES ADV SMAW 11


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS ASSEMBLE GROOVE WELDS SMAW FLAT HORIZONTAL VERTICAL OVERHEAD E-7018 DCRP 150 165 AMPS

Technique: The Instructor will use the track burner to cut beveled plates then cut a backing bar for assembling the groove. The student will remove burning slag and grind the groove face for welding. The instructor will assist you in aligning and assembling the groove joint and setting it in the welding position. Remember: we add two more beveled pieces to make 3 welded joints before discarding

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PRACTICES ADV SMAW 12


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS FLAT POSITION VEE GROOVE SMAW FLAT 1G E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS

Technique: Place the groove in the flat position and weld the root pass against the backing bar, then continue welding stringers until the joint is filled. The cover passes should not exceed 1/8 inch high or be more than 1/8 over each side of the groove.

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PRACTICES ADV SMAW 13


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS HORIZONTAL POSITION VEE GROOVE SMAW HORIZONTAL 2G E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS

Technique: Place the groove in the Horizontal position and weld the root pass against the backing bar, then continue welding stringers until the joint is filled. The cover passes should not exceed 1/8 inch high or be more than 1/8 over each side of the groove.

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PRACTICES ADV SMAW 14


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS VERTICAL POSITION VEE GROOVE 3G SMAW 3G VERTICAL UPWARD E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS

Technique: Place the groove weld in the Vertical up position and weld the first pass against the backing strip using the side to side weave motion. Slag and continue weld passes until joint is filled flush. The final cover pass should not be more than 1/8 inch high and not more than 1/8 inch over the edge of the groove.

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PRACTICES ADV SMAW 15


PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS OVERHEAD POSITION VEE GROOVE SMAW OVERHEAD 4G E-7018 DCRP 130-165 AMPS

Technique: Place the groove in the Overhead position and weld the root pass against the backing bar, then continue welding stringers until the joint is filled. The cover passes should not exceed 1/8 inch high or be more than 1/8 over each side of the groove.

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PRACTICES GMAW 16
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING FLAT GAS METAL ARC WELDING FLAT 1F ER-70S-6 18-20 V0LTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS

Technique: Use a push angle as shown to weld the first pass down the center of the joint. Angle the gun to overlap the 2nd 3rd and other passes until the joint is filled to the top of the angle. Use the push angle on all passes. After welding one side fill the other sides, alternating direction of travel.

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PRACTICES GMAW 17
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING HORIZONTAL GMAW HORIZONTAL 2F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS

Technique: Use the angles shown to weld the first pass. Overlap other passes to fill the angle joint completely. For each pass let the weld pool split the prior pass in half to keep the weld straight and properly overlapped. Overlap from passes from bottom up like stair steps. Practice Alternating direction of travel from left to right then right to left. Practice both push and pull angles.

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PRACTICES GMAW 18
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING VERTICAL DOWN GMAW VERTICAL DOWNWARD 3F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS

Technique: Use the angles shown to weld the first pass, then angle the gun to overlap the other passes until the joint is filled with weld. Weld only from the top of the joint down to the bottom of the joint.

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PRACTICES GMAW 19
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING VERTICAL UP GMAW VERTICAL UPWARD 3F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS

Technique: Use the angles shown to weld the first pass then use the stringer weave to fill the joint. When the Instructor allows use the second technique Weave Across to fill the joint. Note: The stringer weave is still a weave pattern as shown but not as wide as the weave across.

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PRACTICES GMAW 20
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS METAL ARC WELDING OVERHEAD GMAW OVERHEAD 4F ER-70S-6 18-20 VOLTS 40 WIRE SPEED 75-25 GAS

Technique: Use the Gun angles shown to weld the first pass, then continue to fill the joint until it is flush with weld. After 3rd weld shown place 4th weld on bottom of T to overlap 2nd weld then continue to overlap to top of T. Continue from bottom up to top of T with weld passes. Practice with both Push and Pull angles of travel. Change Direction of weld: Practice moving both from left to right and from right to left.

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PRACTICES GTAW 21
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING FLAT GTAW FLAT 1F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON

Technique: Using the torch angle shown and 3/32 filler wire weld the first pass as shown. Keep the filler metal as low as possible and feed it into the leading edge of the weld pool. Continue to weld overlapping passes across the joint.

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PRACTICES GTAW 22
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING HORIZONTAL GTAW HORIZONTAL 2F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON

Technique: Use torch angle above and filler rod to weld the first pass in the horizontal position as shown. Keep filler wire low and feed into the leading edge of the weld pool. Weld six overlapping passes across each side of the joint.

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PRACTICES GTAW 23
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING VERTICAL GTAW VERTICAL UP 3F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON

Technique: using torch and filler angles shown weld the first pass, starting from the bottom of the joint and progress to the top of the joint. Keep filler straight and feed into weld pool as required. Continue to overlap weld beads.

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PRACTICES GTAW 24
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING OVERHEAD GTAW OVERHEAD 4F ER-70S-6 3/32 FILLER DCSP 120-150 AMPS 20-30 FLOW 100 % ARGON

Technique: using torch and filler angles as shown weld the first pass across the joint Keeping filler flat and straight, feed into weld pool as needed. Continue to overlap weld beads from bottom of weld to top of angle as shown by 2nd and 3rd bead placement.

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PRACTICES PIPE 25
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS PIPE FLAT POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 FLAT 1G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED

Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32). Weld the pipe in the flat position by rotating and welding only the top section until the pipe is welded complete. Weld the root pass with E-6010 and the rest of the pipe with E-7018. The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe.

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PRACTICES PIPE 26
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS PIPE HORIZONTAL POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 HORIZONTAL 2G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED

Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32). Weld the pipe in the Horizontal holding the indicated angle around the pipe, until the pipe is welded complete. Weld the root pass with E-6010 then use E-7018 to weld the rest of the pipe using the stringer bead technique. Weld beads from lower pipe (bottom) to top pipe. The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe.

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PRACTICES PIPE 27
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS PIPE VERTICAL POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 VERTICAL 5G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED

Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32). Weld the pipe in the 5G Vertical holding the indicated angle around the pipe, until the pipe is welded complete. Weld the root pass with E-6010 then use E-7018 to weld the rest of the pipe using the weave bead technique. The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe.

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PRACTICES PIPE 28
PRACTICE NAME PROCESS POSITION FILLER MACHINE SETTINGS 45 DEGREE INCLINED 6G PIPE POSITION SMAW SCH 80 GTAW SCH 40 6G PIPE SMAW E-6010 E-7018 OR GTAW ER-70S-6 AS REQUIRED

Technique: Set the proper amperage and tack weld two pieces of pipe with a 1/8 or 3/32nd root opening in 4 places as directed by Instructor. (Use size of electrode without flux or use filler wire 3/32). Weld the pipe in the 6G position holding the indicated angle around the pipe, until the pipe is welded complete. Weld the root pass with E-6010 then use E-7018 to weld the rest of the pipe using the weave bead technique. The Root pass should penetrate into the pipe a minimum of flush to a maximum of 1/8. The weld should not extent past the original groove face more than 1/8 on each side. The weld should not be more than 1/8 high on the face of the pipe.

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PRACTICES: FILLET WELD POSITIONS

At Delta School we start with the flat 1F position then move to the horizontal position 2F then to the vertical 3F position and finally the overhead 4F position. You will practice each of these positions using both E-7018 and e-6010 Electrodes until an acceptable weld can be made consistently before the instructor moves you on to the next position. In the GMAW (MIG) and GTAW (TIG) programs we use weld in each of these positions. NOTE: In the case of SMAW and GMAW we weld both Vertical Upward and Vertical Downward

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PRACTICES: GROOVE WELD POSITIONS

Practice each of these positions using E-7018 Electrodes until an acceptable weld can be made consistently before progressing to the next position. Start with the flat groove 1G progress to the horizontal groove 2G then to the vertical groove 3G and finally to the overhead groove 4G. We return to the vertical groove 3G towards the end of the program since that is the most often used test position for groove welding.

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PRACTICES: PIPE WELDING POSITIONS

Flat position 1G The flat position pipe is generally rolled so the weld is always on top or in the downhand position. The weld beads may be stringers or weave patterns. Pipe welds are essentially groove welds are often open root but may have a backing called a chill ring that fits into the root. Horizontal position 2G In the 2g position the pipe is vertical and the weld is a horizontal position groove weld. In most cases the welder moves around a fixed piece of pipe to make the weld. Vertical position 5G In the 5G position the pipe is horizontal and the weld is mainly vertical. At the very bottom of the pipe it may be overhead. While at the top of the pipe it may be flat, however; A weave technique may be used throughout for uniformity. 45 degree fixed position 6G In the 6g position because the pipe is on a 45 degree incline the welder is welding all positions around the Pipe. If one test in this position the welder is qualified in all positions for Pipe Grooves and Fillets. The weld is usually made using multiple stringer bead passes. The stringers should be weaved slightly especially in the vertical segments for best results.

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PRACTICES: CERTIFICATION TEST ONE INCH VEE GROOVE 3G

Technique: The Instructor will provide you with 2 test coupons and 1 backing strip follow directions to assemble the test joint and place in the test position for welding. Weld the first pass and wait until the Welding Inspector checks the weld before continuing. Continue welding until the joint is filled with weld and the cover pass is completed. The Welding Inspector will cut two bend test specimens from the completed weld test coupon. Grind the cover pass and backing bar flush and break all sharp corners. The Inspector will supervise the bend and interpret the results. Remember: You may use hand tools or power tools to clean each pass. You should check your heat setting by running a practice bead if you are not familiar with the welding machine. There is no time limit on the test. Be careful not to grind to much of the test specimens, have the inspector check if you are unsure. The cover pass should not be over 1/8 high (size of rod without flux) or 1/8 over the side of the original bevel

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PRACTICES: AWS FILLET WELD BREAK TEST

Technique: Use two pieces of 3/8 plate 3inches by 3 inches and tack weld only one side where indicated. Weld one pass from tack to tack in the position of testing. For all position qualification weld the plates in both the vertical and overhead positions.

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DELTA SCHOOL OF TRADES STANDARDS WELDING PRACTICES


The way to learn Welding or improve your skills is through practicing the welding positions assigned over and over again until the Instructor or Inspector is satisfied you can consistently perform the assigned welding practice. When one practice is of acceptable quality, you will be moved on to the next practice. The Standards for all practices at the school and in Industry are the American Welding Societys standards as described in the D1.1 Structural Welding Code for Steel and their various Inspection publications. Every Welder and Student should be aware of the Visual Inspection criteria used at the school and described below: 1. 2. 3. 4. There shall be no cracks anywhere in the weld. There shall be no undercut anywhere in the weld. There shall be no porosity anywhere in the weld The weld profile shall conform to the weld profiles shown below:

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TROUBLESHOOTING CHART

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SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 1
WELDING CARBON STEEL The following information is not intended to be a guide to welding structures in Industry. It is intended as a basic introduction to a complex subject known as Metallurgy. In many Industrial settings the procedure to be followed when welding a given type and grade of metal is established through testing to a specific Code or Standard or through practical experience. However; it may be useful for the welder to understand the affects of welding on metal. One of the most widely welded classifications of metal is the group of carbon steels. WHY DOES THE WELDER NEED TO KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THE STEEL HE IS ASKED TO WELD? In many cases the welder needs only to know the techniques of actual welding and does not need to be concerned about the type or grade of steel being welded. This is because a large amount of steel used in fabricating a metal structure is low Carbon or plain carbon steel (also called mild steel). When welding these steels with any of the common arc welding processes like Stick Mig or Tig there are generally few precautions necessary to prevent changing the properties of the steel. Steels that have higher amounts of Carbon or other alloys added may require special procedures such as preheating and slow cooling, to prevent cracking or changing the strength characteristics of the steel. The welder may be involved in following a specific welding procedure to ensure weld metal and base metal have the desired strength characteristics. WHAT ARE THE TERMS USED TO DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF METAL? Before reviewing the weldability of steel we need to understand the terms used to describe the changes that may occur due to welding the steels. Review the definitions below as an introduction and refer back to them as necessary. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL Mechanical properties are the properties of the steel reacting to some load or mechanical working such as bending, machining, or shaping. Mechanical properties affect how the metal will react when fabricating a structure. While Iron is a relatively soft metal that can be easily shaped or formed, other elements may be added to the iron to give it a specific strength or enhanced mechanical properties. The terms used to describe these properties are as follows: STRESS Stress is defined as the load per unit area and is measured in pounds per square inch. Stress is pressure acting on a weld or metal to pull it apart, twist it, compress it, or shear it, depending on the direction and type of load. In some cases one or more of the above loads may be applied in varying degrees.

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STRAIN Strain is the resulting deformation of the applied stress. For example: If a piece has stress acting to bend it, the amount or degree to which the piece bends is the measure of the strain. In other words stress and strain go together, for instance; if you stress your back by lifting or carrying a heavy load the resulting pain or damage is the strain. ELASTICITY Elasticity is the property of a material that when stressed or has a force applied allows the shape to return to its original shape. In other word when the load is removed there is no appreciable strain or deformation. Metals have a limit of elasticity and when the load increases beyond the limit deformation or strain will occur. PLASTICITY Plasticity is the ability of a metal to be deformed or shaped without rupture. For example a piece of plain carbon steel can be shaped easier then a piece of tool steel without rupturing or breaking. STRENGTH Strength is the ability of a material to resist deformation. Plasticity and strength work together since plasticity is the ability to take the applied load its strength is the ability to withstand or resist deforming under the load. Metals with high strength will deform less than metals with lower strength. TENSILE STRENGTH The tensile strength is the ability of a metal to withstand forces acting to pull it apart and is measured in pounds per square inch. For example: the E-7018 electrode produces a weld with a tensile strength of 70,000 pounds per square inch as shown by the first two digits of its number. DUCTILITY Ductility is the ability of a metal to be easily shaped or elongated without failure or rupture. Generally metals with high tensile strength are tougher but have lower ductility and ductile metals are softer and have lower tensile strength. Ductility is the property that allows metals such as aluminum and copper to be drawn into wire forms. HARDNESS Hardness is defined as the ability of a material to resist indentation and is a function of its elastic and plastic properties. The harder the metal the more it is able to resist wear and tear.

MALLEABILITY

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Malleability is the ability of a metal to be shaped by compressive forces without rupture. Metals with good malleability can be rolled into thin sheets. For example gold has high malleability and can be rolled and shaped into thin sheets.

BRITTLENESS Brittleness is basically a term used to describe the lack of plasticity or ductility. A brittle metal cannot be easily deformed or shaped. For example: a hardened steel or cast iron may be brittle and show very little resistance to impact or shock. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF STEEL Physical properties are related to the structure and nature of the steel or Alloy and include density, electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, melting point, magnetic properties, reflectivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. Of the above properties, one of the most important is the coefficient of thermal expansion. Steel when heated increases in length, width, and thickness. The increase in unit length when a metal is heated one degree is called its coefficient of thermal expansion. When welding takes place a localized area is heated to melting temperature and begins cooling, steel that has a high coefficient of thermal expansion such as Stainless Steel will warp or change dimensionally more than regular steel. Distortion or warping due to welding will be covered in a later lesson.

CARBON STEELS WHAT IS CARBON STEEL? Carbon Steel is principally a mixture (or Alloy) of Iron and Carbon with small amounts of silicon, sulfur, phosphorous, and manganese. Other elements may be added to the steel to impart a specific quality to enhance its usefulness. An Alloy may be thought of as a recipe, similar to a recipe for chicken soup that has ingredients to enhance the flavor, Iron has other elements or ingredients to enhance the properties of the Iron. In plain carbon steels it is the Carbon additive that has the greatest effect on the strength and weldability of the steel. The carbon is added to the Iron in varying amounts to harden or strengthen the steel. As carbon content increases the hardness and tensile strength increases and the ductility, plasticity, and malleability will decrease. The reason the carbon content or carbon recipe varies is to produce a family of steels that exhibit the desired characteristics for a given application. HOW DOES THE AMOUNT OF CARBON AFFECT WELDABILITY OF STEELS? In general as the carbon content increases the weldability (how easily welded) decreases. In other words the higher the carbon content the more likely special procedures such as preheating, interpass temperature control and postheating are necessary. The following chart groups carbon content, typical uses and weldability.

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Group Low carbon steel Mild steel Plain carbon

Content % 0.15 Maximum 0.15 to 0.30

Typical usage Welding electrodes, rivets and nails softer easily formed shapes. Plate, angle, and bar stock for general fabrication. Mild steel accounts for a large segment of welded parts of Industry where good plasticity and ductility is required.

Weldability Excellent weldability with all processes usually no preheat interpass or postheat necessary Readily weldable with all processes without preheat, interpass, or postheat except for very thick sections.

Medium carbon steel

0.30 to 0.50

Used for Machine parts, gears, and where parts may be hardened by heat treating.

High carbon steels

0.50 To 1.0

Springs, Dies, Railroad Track, Many tools, Band saws, and Knives. Also used where a sharp edge is required.

Parts may be readily welded with all process if preheat, interpass temperature controls, and post heat recommendations are followed. Use Low hydrogen Electrodes and appropriate filler wire. Heat treating after welding may be applied Usually require preheat interpass temperature control and postheat. Special heating and cooling procedures in a furnace such as normalizing may be required to restore the properties of the metal after welding. High carbon Electrodes designed for welding tool steels or the specific alloy are readily available from welding supply companies.

Note: As carbon increases steel toughness and welding precautions increase

WHAT TOOLS DO WELDERS TYPICALLY USE WHEN PREHEATING, INTERPASS TEMPERATURE CONTROL AND POSTHEATING RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE? When sophisticated inspection tools, ovens, and furnaces are not required or used a welder may use an oxy-fuel torch and tempelsticks (tempilstik) to control preheating, interpass

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temperatures, and postheat. Tempilstiks are crayon like indicators made of materials that melt within 1% of their rated temperature. Mark the workpiece before heating begins. The dry opaque Tempilstik mark will change to a distinct melted mark when the temperature rating of the selected Tempilstik has been reached. Tempilstiks are available in a range of temperatures making them useful for controlling temperature fluctuations between multiple pass welds (interpass temperature) and for cooling parts.

To slow the cooling rate of small parts welders use methods to keep the part warm and exclude air such as; burying in sand or some other medium, or wrapping in a fire retardant blanket.

HOW ARE STEELS CLASSIFIED? The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Society Of Automotive Engineers (SAE) use a four or five digit numbering system to classify steels by chemical composition. The first digit indicates the type of steel, the second digit indicates the approximate percentage of the main alloying element, and the last two or three digits indicate the average carbon content. For example; in the case of the widely used 1020 steel, the first digit indicates carbon steel the second digit indicates no predominant alloy other than carbon and the last two digits indicate .20 carbon content. The following shows some of the AISI SAE series designations of steel with xx representing the range of carbon content for the group.

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SERIES DESIGNATION Carbon Steels 10xx 11xx 12xx Manganese Steels 13xx Nickel Steels 31xx 25xx Nickel Chromium Steels 31xx 32xx 33xx 34xx Molybdenum Steels 40xx 41xx 43xx Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Steels 43xx Nickel Molybdenum Steels 46xx 48xx Chromium Steels 50xx 51xx

TYPE OF STEEL Plain Carbon Machining Resulferized Machining Resulferized Phospherized Manganese 1.75 Nickel 3.5 Nickel 5.0 Nickel 1.25 Chromium 0.60 Nickel 1.75 Chromium 1.00 Nickel 3.5 Chromium 1.5 Nickel 3.0 Chromium 0.77 Molybdenum Carbon Molybdenum Chromium Molybdenum Nickel Chromium Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Nickel Molybdenum Nickel Molybdenum Chromium Chromium

As shown by the above chart the first group of steels are the Carbon steels. The other groups of steels have additional elements ( alloys) added to enhance their properties in some specific way. HOW DOES THE ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS IN THE ABOVE CHART AFFECT THE STEEL AND WELDABILITY? Low alloy steels are Carbon steels that have additional elements added (alloyed) to produce a classification of steel that has a specific benefit for production use. Although Carbon is the main alloy that affects hardenability and weldability other elements also harden steel and play a role in the weldability of steel. For example Manganese and Molybdenum aid in hardening steels. For this reason a formula may be applied to a classification of steel to roughly determine the hardenability and hence the weldability and need for pre-heating. One example of a formula is shown below.

Carbon equivalent for alloy steels CE = % C + %Mn + Ni + Cr + Mo + V

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15

CE = Carbon Equivalent C = Carbon Mn = Manganese Ni = Nickel Cr = Chromium Mo = Molybdenum V = Vanadium

Manganese Manganese is used to harden steels and increase its toughness and strength. High manganese content coupled with increased carbon content lowers the ductility and weldability. Consideration of preheat and or postheat techniques usually apply. Molybdenum May be used in conjunction with other elements to aid in hardening and provide steel with good strength at elevated temperatures. Preheating may be required for welding and they are often heat treated after welding.

Nickel Nickel may be used to Increase toughness and impact strength and improve corrosion resistance. Good strength and ductility may be obtained even with lower carbon content. Depending on the amount added special procedures may be necessary when welding. Chromium Chromium helps improve the hardenability of steels and improves wear resistance, heat resistance, and corrosion resistance. Depending on the amount added special procedures may be necessary when welding. Chromium and Chromium Nickel are used in the production of Stainless Steel.

The Strength and Mechanical properties of carbon and alloy steels may be changed or shaped for a specific application by heat treating in furnaces or ovens. When two pieces of metal are welded using any of the commonly used arc welding processes: Stick, Mig, Or Tig the metals and filler are heated to the melting temperature under the arc and allowed to solidify to form the weld. HOW DOES THE WELDER KNOW HOW TO WELD A GIVEN STEEL STRUCTURE? The best way for a welder to know how to weld a particular steel or steel classification is through the use of a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). A WPS is a written set of

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instructions (specifications) detailing the welding procedure, joint preparation, filler metal, current type and range as well as any required preheat, interpass temperature controls and postheat treatments. Whenever possible welders request and use a Welding Procedure Specification for the type and grade of metal they are welding. A welding Procedure Specification is developed by engineering or inspection personnel using qualified welders to weld a specific type of metal and joint configuration that will be used on the job, while recording the welding parameters and variables. The completed joint is then tested in accordance with a specific Code or Standard. The resulting information is written on a form called a Procedure Qualification Record. The information from the Welding Procedure Qualification Record is used to write the Welding specification and as long as the procedure is carefully followed the resulting welded products will have the required strength characteristics. Some companies that do not have a formal Welding Specification have through practical experience developed a set of instructions that the welder must follow to successfully weld the given project. If no Welding Procedure is provided at a minimum the welder MUST know what the base metal is and find out if special precautions are necessary for welding. There should always be some method of traceability for metals used to fabricate parts. Metals sections and shapes should be stamped color coded or made from known materials. There are ways to test unknown metals through appearance, magnetic properties or spark testing; however, these test are subjective and may not be reliable for all cases. When you can trace the material through purchase orders or metal identification you know or can find out how to weld it.

WHAT IS THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE AND HOW DOES IT AFFECT WELDABILITY? The heating and cooling action that occurs when welding is a form of heat treating in the localized area of the puddle and weld joint that may result in changes to the mechanical properties of the base metal and surrounding area. The area most affected by heating and cooling during welding is called the HEAT AFFECTED ZONE (HAZ)

THE HEAT AFFECTED ZONE The heating and cooling rate of welding directly under the arc is from the melting temperature to normal temperatures and may occur relatively quickly or methods may be used to slow the cooling rate of the joint. These methods include postheating the weld area with an oxy-fuel torch, blanketing the weld area, or using a precise heating and cooling method in a furnace or industrial setting. The more expensive and precise method of using a furnace under controlled conditions restores the mechanical properties of the weld joint and the surrounding base metal. The area surrounding the joint is heated to various temperatures depending on the distance from the arc, the heat input of the process and the number of weld passes. This area is referred to as the Heat Affected Zone.

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The grains structure in the melted weld area may form a desirable size and shape, while the grain structure of the surrounding heat affected area may change to a less desirable shape and size and may cause cracking when welding on medium or high carbon steels. Often when welding a hardenable steel the heat affected area can harden to undesirable levels, while welding an already hardened steel may result in a softened heat affected zone with loss of desired hardness. The heat affected zone may also have locked in stresses that can lead to problems when the welded structure is in service. Some industries employ a heat treating process called stress relieving to relieve residual stresses due to working or welding the structure. It is imperative to use the correct electrode for the application so that weld metal is compatible with the base metal and fewer changes occur due to the carbon or alloy content of the filler wire. Electrodes are available for welding tool steels and Cast iron. When welding thick sections, medium carbon, high carbon, and high alloy steels check the recommended procedures for control of the heating and cooling rate There are heat treating options such as annealing or normalizing that may be used to restore the grain structure of the welded piece. When welding low carbon, mild steels and most low alloy steels the heat affected area does not change the properties of the metal enough to become a problem regardless of the cooling rate. The heating and cooling that occurs in the heat affected area and surrounding metal may also lead to heat distortion of the parts being joined. Procedures may be used before, during, and after welding to minimize distortion.

WHAT IS HEAT DISTORTION? Steel when heated increases in length, width, and thickness. The increase in unit length when a metal is heated one degree is called its coefficient of thermal expansion. I f a small 149

square block of steel were heated evenly under ideal conditions it would expand with the heat and contract when cooling relatively evenly. When welding a piece of steel only the joint and surrounding area is heated and cooled. This cause uneven expansion and cooling and the piece begins to warp or distort. Uncontrolled Distortion may lead to a serious dimensional defect or lead to failure of the part. Steps may be taken before, during, and after welding to minimize or control the effects of heat distortion. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS A WELDER CAN DO BEFORE WELDING TO LIMIT HEAT DISTORTION? Joint Preparation The joint should be planned and prepared to limit the amount of weld and weld passes. For example: Wide angle V grooves welded from one side would distort more than double V grooves welded from both sides. Select the proper Equipment Higher welding speeds using iron powder electrodes (E-7018) and larger diameters may reduce the amount and effect of heat distortion. Semi-automatic and fully automatic welding processes limit the heat input and distortion. Use Clamps Jigs and Fixtures Jigs and fixtures with clamps hold parts in alignment and reduce the free movement of parts from heat expansion. The clamps are left in place until the parts are welded and cooled. In addition to clamps pieces called stiffeners may be temporarily added to areas that tend to distort and removed when the part cools.

WHAT ARE SOME OF THE THINGS A WELDER CAN DO DURING WELDING TO LIMIT HEAT DISTORTION? Sequencing Welding Use a skip or backstep method of welding to distribute the heat around the joint. This involves making shorter welds at different locations of the joint then joining them together.

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Welding the joint If possible two welders weld opposite sides of the joint at the same time. Use the smallest size fillet welds practical to reduce heat input. If solid welding is not necessary for strength use intermittent welding and stagger the sequence.

Weld flat or horizontal positions with larger size electrodes that allow for more weld deposit at faster speeds whenever practical. Vertical positions and multiple pass welds result in more heat input. CONTROL OF DISTORTION AFTER WELDING Distortion is more difficult to control after welding. Techniques like alternating heating and cooling to remove warpage called straightening require a degree of skill and practice. Postheating to remove stresses and warpage in controlled environments such as 151

normalizing and annealing, often involving the use of furnaces is usually done by qualified personnel. SUMMARY Although the vast majority of carbon steels used in fabricating parts are mild steel or low carbon and presents little difficulty in welding, some carbon steels that have more carbon such as tool steels, high alloy steels and cast Iron require special procedures to prevent cracking and weld failure. The welder should know the type of steel he is asked to weld to prevent problems that may lead to questions of his or her ability. If you are unsure ask questions and research the type of steel and its weldability.

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SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION 2 PIPE WELDING


Welding pipe is like welding any other structural shape and welding can take place in any of the normal positions for welding. When welding pipe flanges and some joints configurations the weld applied may be a fillet weld. When welding pipe to pipe the joint is similar to a vee groove and is often open root. Welding pipe to pipe requires a higher degree of skill and is the topic of this supplement. The pipe welding positions covered are the 1G flat and rolled position, the 2G horizontal position, the 5G vertical position and the 6G fixed position as shown below.

PIPE WELDING EDGE PREPERATION

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The pipe coupons for welding are cut using the pipe beveling machine. The slag is removed and the edges are ground smooth for welding a 1/8 landing or flat is applied to the pipe. The pictures below show the pipe beveling machine and the edge preparation.

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PIPE ASSEMBLY
The pipe is assembled for welding by placing one piece on top of the other with a 1/8 electrode without flux on it between the pipe.

It is extremely important to set up and tack weld the pipe properly, if the pipe is not aligned on the inside it is difficult to obtain the proper penetration through the pipe. The root gap around the pipe must be consistent. If part of the root gap is too wide the key hole will open up too much while welding and instead of penetration you may have burn through (more than 1/8 reinforcement) on the inside. If part of the root gap is too narrow you may not be able to penetrate through the pipe in those areas. At least 4 tack welds should be placed around the pipe at 12 oclock 6 oclock 3 oclock and 9 oclock. The tacks must be strong enough to hold alignment while welding the root pass and should penetrate enough to become a part of the root pass. When testing the tack may be removed using a cutting wheel to get a consistent root weld around the joint. The picture below shows the tacks in a flat position pipe.

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Chill ring
For some applications a chill ring may be used instead of an open root. The chill ring works like a backing bar in groove welding and becomes a part of the welded joint. When the chill ring is used the root opening is determined by the pins on the chill ring. After tacking the chill ring on the inside of the pipe, the pins are removed. If a chill ring is used the root pass may be made using E-7018 since it is not necessary to penetrate through the pipe.

PIPE WELDING IN THE FLAT 1G POSITION


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Pipe Welding in the flat position requires that the Welder make some adjustments to the normal angles and length of the welds during welding. In the flat position with the pipe being rolled or rotated the push travel angle works best. Shorter lengths of weld are used so that you do not change your travel angle by stretching out of position. The pipe is then rotated before continuing. Stringer beads are used to weld the root, fill passes and cover pass on six inch schedule 80 pipe.

Technique for welding the 1 G Rolled Pipe


The root pass is made using the E-6010 Electrode to penetrate through the open root pipe. Make sure the amperage (heat) is set correctly to open and maintain the keyhole where the root is s good fit. Use scrap metal and weld in the flat position with the amperage on approximately 100 and adjust the heat as necessary. The root pass should be flat to convex in appearance on the groove side of the pipe with no holes and should be flush to 1/8 maximum reinforcement on the inside of the pipe.

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After completing the root pass and evaluating the penetration, grind the groove side of the weld in preparation for the fill passes. Set the amperage for the E-7018 1/8 Electrode at approximately 120-150 amps to weld the fill passes and the cover passes. Use the stringer bead technique for welding the fill passes and cover passes.

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PIPE WELDING IN THE 2G HORIZONTAL POSITION


When welding in the 2g pipe position the pipe is vertical and the weld is horizontal. The pipe is not moved during welding and the welder must move around the fixed position pipe. The preparation and amperage setting should be the same as for the flat position pipe with E-6010 Electrodes used for the root and E-7018 Electrodes used for the fill and cover passes. It is important to layer the fill passes and cover passes from the bottom pipe up to the top pipe, while keeping the weld beads straight and properly overlapped.

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PIPE WELDING IN THE VERTICAL 5G POSITION


In the 5G pipe position the pipe is horizontal and the weld axis is vertical so that the welding is essentially a vertical weld. When welding some pipes for low pressure applications or small diameter pipe it may be acceptable to weld vertical downward with an electrodes like the E6010 however; most pipes are welded vertical upward with an E6010 root pass and E-7018 fill and cap. When welding in the 5G pipe position the weld beads may be either stringers or weaves depending on the job requirements. At the Delta School Of Trades we use the E-6010 electrode for the open root pass and E7018 for the fill and cover passes using the vertical upward weave technique.

TECHNIQUE FOR VERTICAL 5G PIPE WELDING


AS always make sure the correct amperage is set for tacking the pieces and the root pass using E-6010 electrodes. Check the machine setting and use an amperage from 90-110. Use E-7018 for the fill passes and cover pass set at approximately 120-150 Amps. Use a slight U shape technique with the E-6010 electrode to open and maintain the keyhole. It may be necessary to ride up very slightly on the inside edge of the groove to chill the keyhole if it opens up too much. If the keyhole is too tight, slow down and force it open with the electrode while welding or stop and increase the amperage (heat). Use a Z motion weave with the E-7018 Electrode keeping the ripples close together and the weld profile flat for the fill and cover passes.

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VERTICAL UPWARD WEAVES FOR 5G PIPE Stringer Weaves may also be used to weld the fill passes and cover passes. This is an important technique to learn in preparation for welding in the 6G position

PIPE WELDING IN THE 6G FIXED POSITION In the 6G Pipe welding position the pipe is set on a 45 degree inclined angle. The weld in this position covers all position welding because the bottom of the pipe is an overhead weld; the top of the pipe is a flat weld and the front and back sides are a vertical upward weld. The pipe is welded using stringer beads except that a slight weave motion must be used to prevent the sides or vertical upward part from sagging and lumping up in the middle of the weld bead.

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The Electrode angle should remain the same for all passes. Use a slight push angle from bottom to top.

CRITICAL ELEMENTS FOR WELDING THE 6G FIXED PIPE


As for all pipe welding take the time to set up the pipe properly with a consistent root gap and 4 evenly spaced tacks. Make sure you have set the correct amperage for the electrode type and size as mentioned earlier. After running the root, grind the root pass lightly before starting with the E-7018 Electrode. Remember to use a slight weave motion with the E-7018 to prevent the weld lumping in the middle and to get proper fusion. Each filler pass should overlap the prior pass without leaving a depression (called wagon tracks) and should show good fusion.

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The 6G pipe position is the one used extensively for testing, since it qualifies the welder for all position welding of pipe, grooves, and fillets. When testing; it is advisable to remove the tacks instead of weld over them to ensure penetration at the root. A wire wheel brush and grinder may be used to keep each pass clean and prevent slag inclusions. Although there are many Codes and Standards that govern the welding and testing of Pipe, the one most widely used and recommended at the school is the AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code. The test for SMAW is usually a 6 inch schedule 80 pipe with an open root, and is welded in the 6G position. This test qualifies the welder for welding fillets grooves and pipe in all positions. Also qualifies the welder for pipe sizes from 4 inches to unlimited and wall thickness from 3/16 inch to unlimited. An optional SMAW test on 4 inch schedule 40 pipe in the 6G position qualifies the welder for all positions welding and pipe sizes from 3/4 to 4 inch with wall thickness from 1/8 to 3/4. The pipe size recommended for GTAW Certification is the 4 inch sch 40 pipe.

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