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Path Integral Formulation To Quantum Mechanics

Basic Introduction
Hemanta Bhattarai
CDP,TU
January 31, 2013
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 1 / 22
Thought Experiment
Concept of probablity
Prof’s Nightmare
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Derivation of Schrodinger equation
Take home message
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 2 / 22
Thought Experiment
Concept of probablity
Prof’s Nightmare
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Derivation of Schrodinger equation
Take home message
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 2 / 22
Thought Experiment
Concept of probablity
Prof’s Nightmare
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Derivation of Schrodinger equation
Take home message
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 2 / 22
Thought Experiment
Concept of probablity
Prof’s Nightmare
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Derivation of Schrodinger equation
Take home message
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 2 / 22
Thought Experiment
Concept of probablity
Prof’s Nightmare
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Derivation of Schrodinger equation
Take home message
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 2 / 22
Thought Experiment
Concept of probablity
Prof’s Nightmare
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Derivation of Schrodinger equation
Take home message
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 2 / 22
Thought Experiment
Concept of probablity
Prof’s Nightmare
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Derivation of Schrodinger equation
Take home message
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 2 / 22
Thought Experiment
Young’s Double Slit experiment
Light
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 3 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynman Thought Experiment
Electron
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 3 / 22
Thought Experiment
Young’s Double Slit Experiment with light
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 4 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynman Experiment with bullets
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 5 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynman Experiment with bullets
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 5 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynman Experiment with bullets
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 5 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynamn Experiment with Electron
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 6 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynamn Experiment with Electron
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 6 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynamn Experiment with Electron
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 6 / 22
Thought Experiment
Feynamn Experiment with Electron
Source
S
S
1
S
2
screen
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 6 / 22
Probablity Concept
Classical Probablity
Classical probablity
P(r ) =
n(r )
N(r )
P(Aand B) = P(A) ∗ P(B)
P(Aor B) = P(A) + P(B)
Same rule can be applied in QM in different way.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 7 / 22
Probablity Concept
Classical Probablity
Classical probablity
P(r ) =
n(r )
N(r )
n(r)= total no of favourable out come
P(Aand B) = P(A) ∗ P(B)
P(Aor B) = P(A) + P(B)
Same rule can be applied in QM in different way.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 7 / 22
Probablity Concept
Classical Probablity
Classical probablity
P(r ) =
n(r )
N(r )
N=Total no of observations
P(Aand B) = P(A) ∗ P(B)
P(Aor B) = P(A) + P(B)
Same rule can be applied in QM in different way.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 7 / 22
Probablity Concept
Classical Probablity
Classical probablity
P(r ) =
n(r )
N(r )
Same meaning applies for the probablity in quantum mechanics
P(Aand B) = P(A) ∗ P(B)
P(Aor B) = P(A) + P(B)
Same rule can be applied in QM in different way.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 7 / 22
Probablity Concept
Classical Probablity
Basic rules:
P(r ) =
n(r )
N(r )
P(Aand B) = P(A) ∗ P(B)
P(Aor B) = P(A) + P(B)
Same rule can be applied in QM in different way.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 7 / 22
Probablity Concept
Classical Probablity
Basic rules:
P(r ) =
n(r )
N(r )
P(Aand B) = P(A) ∗ P(B)
P(Aor B) = P(A) + P(B)
Same rule can be applied in QM in different way.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 7 / 22
Probability Concept
Quantum Probablity
Example:
Let us say probablity of emitting a photon of ν by a system is .9.
About 90 % of total system emits ν frequency
Most predominant emission is of ν frequency
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 8 / 22
Probability Concept
Quantum Probablity
Quantum amplitude
Probablity amplitude ψ(x)
Probablity density |ψ(x)|
2
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 8 / 22
Probability Concept
Quantum Probablity
Analogy
P(x) ≡ ψ(x)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 8 / 22
Probablity Concept
Back to our thought experiment
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X
ψ
1
(x)

1
(x)|
2
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 9 / 22
Probablity Concept
Back to our thought experiment
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X
ψ
2
(x)

2
(x)|
2
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 9 / 22
Probablity Concept
Back to our thought experiment
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X

1
(x)|
2
+|ψ
2
(x)|
2
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 9 / 22
Probablity Concept
Back to our thought experiment
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X

1
(x) + ψ
2
(x)|
2
= |ψ
1
(x)|
2
+|ψ
2
(x)|
2
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 9 / 22
Probablity concept
Laws
Multiplication law
ψ(S →S
1
→X) = ψ(S →S
1
and S
1
→X) = ψ(S →S
1
)ψ(S
1
→X)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 10 / 22
Probablity concept
Laws
Addition law
ψ(S →X)
= ψ(S →S
1
→X or S →S
2
→X)
= ψ(S →S
1
→X) + ψ(S →S
2
→X)
= ψ
1
(x) + ψ
2
(x)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 10 / 22
Probablity concept
Laws
Addition law
ψ(x) = ψ
1
(x) + ψ
2
(x)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 10 / 22
Prof. Nightmare
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X
ψ(x) = ψ
1
(x) + ψ
2
(x)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 11 / 22
Prof. Nightmare
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X
ψ(x) = ψ
1
(x) + ψ
2
(x) + ψ
3
(x)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 11 / 22
Prof. Nightmare
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X
ψ(x) = ψ
1
(x) + ψ
2
(x) + ψ
3
(x) + ψ
4
(x)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 11 / 22
Prof. Nightmare
Source S
S
1
S
2
screen
X
”What if we drill infinite number of holes?”
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 11 / 22
Conclusion by student
Brilliant remarks
probablity amplitude = Sum of the amplitude of all the paths
ψ(x) =

i
ψ(S →S
i
→X)
ψ(x) =

i

j
. . .

k
ψ(S →S
i
→S
j
→. . . →S
k
)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 12 / 22
Conclusion by student
Brilliant remarks
probablity amplitude = Sum of the amplitude of all the paths
ψ(x) =

i
ψ(S →S
i
→X)
ψ(x) =

i

j
. . .

k
ψ(S →S
i
→S
j
→. . . →S
k
)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 12 / 22
Conclusion by student
Brilliant remarks
probablity amplitude = Sum of the amplitude of all the paths
ψ(x) =

i
ψ(S →S
i
→X)
ψ(x) =

i

j
. . .

k
ψ(S →S
i
→S
j
→. . . →S
k
)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 12 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Classical Action
Action
S =
_
t
f
t
i
L(q, ˙ q; t)dt
Hamilton principle
δS = 0
The motion of particle is such that the action is stationary.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 13 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Classical Action
Action
S =
_
t
f
t
i
L(q, ˙ q; t)dt
Hamilton principle
δS = 0
The motion of particle is such that the action is stationary.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 13 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum Amplitude
Classical Vs Quantum
In CM, paths where δS=0 contributes
In QM, all paths contributes
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 14 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum Amplitude
Classical Vs Quantum
In CM, paths where δS=0 contributes
In QM, all paths contributes
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 14 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum Amplitude
Probablity amplitude
K(b,a)=

all paths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 14 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum Amplitude
Probablity amplitude
K(b,a)=

all paths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 14 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path
K(b, a) =

all paths
Aφ(x)
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path
K(b, a) =

all paths
Aφ(x)

all paths except x
1

x
1
φ(a →x
1
→b)
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path

all paths except x
1

x
1
φ(a →x
1
→b)

all paths except x
1

x
1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→b)
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path

all paths except x
1

x
1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→b)

all paths except x
1
_
dx
1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→b)
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path

all paths except x
1
_
dx
1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→b)

all paths except x
1
x
2
_ _
dx
2
dx
1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→x
2
)φ(x
1
→b)
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path

all paths except x
1
x
2
_ _
dx
2
dx
1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→x
2
)φ(x
1
→b)

_ _
. . .
_
. ¸¸ .
all space
dx
1
dx
2
. . . dx
N−1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→x
2
) . . . φ(x
N−1
→b)
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path

_ _
. . .
_
. ¸¸ .
all space
dx
1
dx
2
. . . dx
N−1
φ(a →x
1
)φ(x
1
→x
2
) . . . φ(x
N−1
→b)
= A
_ _
. . .
_
. ¸¸ .
all space
dx
1
dx
2
. . . dx
N−1
φ[x(t)]
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path
= A
_ _
. . .
_
. ¸¸ .
all space
dx
1
dx
2
. . . dx
N−1
φ[x(t)]
= A
_ _
. . .
_
. ¸¸ .
all space
dx
1
dx
2
. . . dx
N−1
e
ι

S[x(t)]
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path
= A
_ _
. . .
_
. ¸¸ .
all space
dx
1
dx
2
. . . dx
N−1
e
ι

S[x(t)]
=
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Sum over path
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 15 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum limits to classical motion
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 16 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum limits to classical motion
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Classical motion
S >
Paths away from classical path oscillates rapidly and cancel each other
Paths having stationary action remains upto first order
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 16 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum limits to classical motion
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Classical motion
S >
Paths away from classical path oscillates rapidly and cancel each other
Paths having stationary action remains upto first order
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 16 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum limits to classical motion
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Classical motion
S >
Paths away from classical path oscillates rapidly and cancel each other
Paths having stationary action remains upto first order
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 16 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum limits to classical motion
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Quantum motion
S ≈
don’t oscillate rapidly so doesn’t cancel
all the paths contributes
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 16 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum limits to classical motion
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Quantum motion
S ≈
don’t oscillate rapidly so doesn’t cancel
all the paths contributes
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 16 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Quantum limits to classical motion
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Quantum motion
S ≈
don’t oscillate rapidly so doesn’t cancel
all the paths contributes
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 16 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Events occuring in succession
Let between a and b there is a point c
S[a,b]=S[a,c]+S[c,b]
a
t
x
b
t
a
t
b
t
c
c
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 17 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Events occuring in succession
K(b, a) =
_
Dxe
ι

S[a,b]
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 17 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Events occuring in succession
K(b, a) =
_
Dxe
ι

[S[a,c]+S[c,b]]
a
t
x
b
t
a
t
b
t
c
c
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 17 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Events occuring in succession
Here c is any point between a and b we must sum all over all c’s such that
x
a
< x
c
< x
b
a
t
x
b
t
a
t
b
t
c
c
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 17 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Events occuring in succession
K(b, a) =
_
Dxe
ι

[S[a,c]+S[c,b]]
dx
c
a
t
x
b
t
a
t
b
t
c
c
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 17 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Events occuring in succession
K(b, a) =
_
b
a
dx
c
K(b, c)K(c, a)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 17 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Events occuring in succession
K(b, a) =
_
b
a
_
b
a
_
b
a
dx
c
dx
e
dx
f
K(b, f )K(f , e)K(e, c)K(c, a)
∀t
a
< t
c
< t
e
< t
f
< t
b
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 17 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Notes
K(c,d)=0 if t
c
< t
d
K(i + 1, i ) =
1
B
e
ι

L

x
i +1
−x
i

,
x
i +1
+x
i
2
,
t
i +1
+t
i
2

ψ(x
2
, t
2
) =
_

−∞
K(x
2
, t
2
; x
3
, t
3
)ψ(x
3
, t
3
)dx
3
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 18 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Notes
K(c,d)=0 if t
c
< t
d
K(i + 1, i ) =
1
B
e
ι

L

x
i +1
−x
i

,
x
i +1
+x
i
2
,
t
i +1
+t
i
2

ψ(x
2
, t
2
) =
_

−∞
K(x
2
, t
2
; x
3
, t
3
)ψ(x
3
, t
3
)dx
3
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 18 / 22
Quantum Mechanical law of motion
Notes
K(c,d)=0 if t
c
< t
d
K(i + 1, i ) =
1
B
e
ι

L

x
i +1
−x
i

,
x
i +1
+x
i
2
,
t
i +1
+t
i
2

ψ(x
2
, t
2
) =
_

−∞
K(x
2
, t
2
; x
3
, t
3
)ψ(x
3
, t
3
)dx
3
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 18 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
_

−∞
K(x, t + ; y, t)ψ(y, t)dy
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
_

−∞
K(x, t + ; y, t)ψ(y, t)dy
K(x, t + ; y, t) =
1
B
e
ι

L
(
x−y

,
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
_

−∞
K(x, t + ; y, t)ψ(y, t)dy
K(x, t + ; y, t) =
1
B
e
ι

L
(
x−y

,
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
L(x, ˙ x, t) =
1
2
m˙ x
2
−V(x, t)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
_

−∞
K(x, t + ; y, t)ψ(y, t)dy
K(x, t + ; y, t) =
1
B
e
ι

L
(
x−y

,
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
L(x, ˙ x, t) =
1
2
m˙ x
2
−V(x, t)
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιm(x−y)
2
2
e

ι

V(
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
ψ(y, t)dy
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιm(x−y)
2
2
e

ι

V(
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
ψ(y, t)dy
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιm(x−y)
2
2
e

ι

V(
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
ψ(y, t)dy
Here the fx oscillates rapidly if (y −x) is large.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιm(x−y)
2
2
e

ι

V(
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
ψ(y, t)dy
Here the fx oscillates rapidly if (y −x) is large.
So (y-x)=η (a small quantity) for non-zero value.
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Infinitismally separated ψ
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιm(x−y)
2
2
e

ι

V(
x+y
2
,
2t+
2
)
ψ(y, t)dy
Here the fx oscillates rapidly if (y −x) is large.
So (y-x)=η (a small quantity) for non-zero value.
So, y=x+η ;
2t+
2
= t for small
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
contd.
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιmη
2
2
e
−ι

V(x+
η
2
,t)
ψ(x + η, t)dη
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
contd.
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιmη
2
2
e
−ι

V(x+
η
2
,t)
ψ(x + η, t)dη
Expand V and ψ
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
contd.
ψ(x, t + ) =
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιmη
2
2
e
−ι

V(x+
η
2
,t)
ψ(x + η, t)dη
Expand V and ψ
Up to and η
2
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
contd.
ψ(x, t) +
∂ψ(x,t)
∂t
=
1
B
_

−∞
e
ιmη
2
2
_
1 −
ι

V(x, t)
_
_
ψ(x, t) + η
∂ψ(x,t)
∂x
+ η
2

2
ψ(x,t)
∂x
2
_

Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Contd.

0
:
B =
_
2πι
m
_1
2
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Schrodinger Equation
Schrodinger equation
:
ι
∂ψ(x, t)
∂t
=

2
2m

2
∂x
2
ψ(x, t) + V(x, t)ψ(x, t)
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 19 / 22
Conclusion
Take home message
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 20 / 22
Conclusion
Take home message
Sum over paths
K(b, a) =

allpaths
φ[x(t)]
φ[x(t)] = Ae
ι

S[x(t)]
Path integral
K(b, a) =
_
t
b
t
a
e
ι

S[a,b]
Dx
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 20 / 22
Conclusion
Take home message
Notes
K(c,d)=0 if t
c
< t
d
K(i + 1, i ) =
1
B
e
ι

L

x
i +1
−x
i

,
x
i +1
+x
i
2
,
t
i +1
+t
i
2

ψ(x
2
, t
2
) =
_

−∞
K(x
2
, t
2
; x
3
, t
3
)ψ(x
3
, t
3
)dx
3
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 20 / 22
Questions ???
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 21 / 22
http://www.scribd.com/doc/110983707/Path-Integral-Formulation-of-Qm
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 21 / 22
THANK YOU
Hemanta Bhattarai (CDP,TU) Quantum Mechanics January 31, 2013 22 / 22