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Tiu Lun OFDM v ng dng trong truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T.

MC LC
1- Gii thiu tng quan v h thng OFDM..........Trang 4 2- L thuyt v knh v tuyn ...........................Trang 7 3- ng dng OFDM trong truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T...Trang31 4- Kt qu v nhn xt...Trang 40 5- Kt lun.Trang 44 6- Ph lc ..Trang 46

LI M U

K thut iu ch a sng mang trc giao l mt trong nhng lnh vc c nghin cu hng u hin nay. K thut ny ang c nghin cu, trin khai v ng dng vo nhiu lnh vc khc nhau nh: Wimax, Wlan, ADSL, DVB-Tvv. K thut ny cng l ng c vin quan trng nht cho th h di ng th 4 (4G). Vit Nam K thut Ofdm c ng dng thnh cng trong lnh vc ADSL v cng ang c trin khai th nghim trong nhiu lnh vc khc nh: DVB-T, Wimaxvv. V vy chng em quyt nh chn OFDM l ch nghin cu thc hin bi tp ln mn h thng v tuyn. Bn cnh OFDM chng em cng tp trung nghin cu mt lnh vc tng i in hnh cho ic ng dng k thut OFDM vo thc t l Truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T. Chng em hi vng s nhn c nhiu kin ng gp qu bu t pha thy c gio v cc bn sinh vin ti ngy cng c hon thin.

PHN 1: GII THIU TNG QUAN V H THNG OFDM


(Overview about OFDM) 1.1 Lch s pht trin Trong nhng nm gn y, Phng thc ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) khng ngng c nghin cu v m rng phm vi ng dng bi nhng u im ca n trong tit kim bng tn v kh nng chng li Fading chn lc theo tn s cng nh xuyn nhiu bng hp. K thut iu ch OFDM l mt trng hp c bit ca phung php iu ch a sng mang trong cc sng mang ph trc giao vi nhau, nh vy ph tn hiu cc sng mang ph cho php chng ln ln nhau m pha thu vn c th khi phc li tn hiu ban u. S chng ln ph tn hiu lm cho h thng OFDM c hiu sut s dng ph ln hn nhiu so vi cc k thut iu ch thng thng. Nh OFDM l chia dng d liu tc cao thnh cc dng d liu tc thp hn v pht ng thi trn mt s cc sng mang, ta thy rng trong mt s iu kin c th, c th tng dung lng ng k cho h thng OFDM bng cch lm thch nghi tc d liu trn mi sng mang tu theo t s tn trn tp SNR ca sng mang . K thut OFDM do R.W Chang pht minh nm 1966 M. Tri qua 40 nm hnh thnh v pht trin nhiu cng trnh khoa hc v k thut ny
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c thc hin khp ni trn th gii. c bit l cc cng trnh ca Weistein v Ebert, ngi chng minh rng php iu ch OFDM c th thc hin bng php bin I IDFT v php gii iu ch bng php bin i DFT. Pht minh ny cng vI s pht trin ca k thut s lm cho k thut iu ch OFDM c ng dng rng ri. Thay v s dng IDFT ngi ta c th s dng php bin i nhanh IFFT cho b iu ch OFDM, s dng FFT cho b gii iu ch OFDM. 1.2. S ng dng ca k thut OFDM 1.2.1. Cc ng dng quan trng ca OFDM trn th gii K thut OFDM l nn tng ca cc k thut truyn dn v tuyn. Cc ng dng c th ca OFDM trn th gii. H thng truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T (digital video

broadcasting for terestrial transmission) (1995) H thng pht thanh s ng di DRM ( Digital Radio Mondiale) Truy cp internet bng thng rng ADSL ( Asymmetric Digital Subscriber line) Cc chun IEEE 802.11a (1999) IEEE 802.11g. Mng my tnh khng dy vi tc truyn dn cao HiperLAN/2 (High Pefomance Local Area NetWork type 2)(2000) c bit OFDM l ng c vin trin vng nht cho h thng thng tin 4G ( h thng truy cp Internet khng dy bng rng theo tiu chun Wimax )
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Hnh1.1. Cc ng dng ca OFDM 1.2.2 ng dng hin ti ca k thut OFDM Vit Nam Bn cnh mng cung cp dch v Internet ADSL, hin c ng dng rt rng ri Vit Nam, c h thng thng tin v tuyn nh mng truyn hnh mt t DVB-T cng ang c khai thc s dng. Cc h thng pht thanh s nh DAB v DRM chc chn s c khai thc s dng trong tng lai khng xa. Cc mng v thng tin my tnh khng dy nh hiperLAN/2, IEEE 802.11a, g cng s c khai thc mt cch rng ri Vit Nam. Hin ti trong thng tin di ng c mt s cng ty Vit Nam th nghim Wimax ng dng cng ngh OFDM nh VDC, VNPT.
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1.3 Cc hng pht trin trong tng lai K thut OFDM hin c c lm phng php iu ch s dng trong mng thng tin thnh th bng rng Wimax theo tiu chun IEEE.802.16a v cc h thng thng tin di ng th 4 (4G). Trong h thng thng tin di ng th 4, K thut OFDM cn kt hp vi cc k thut khc nh k thut anten pht v thu (MIMO technique) Nhm nng cao dung lng knh v tuyn c kt hp vi cng ngh CDMA nhm phuc v a truy cp ca mng. Mt vi hng nghin cu vi mc ch thay i php bin FFT trong b iu ch OFDM bng php bin I Wavelet nhm ci thin s nhy cm ca h thng i vi hiu ng dch tn do mt ng b gy ra v gim di ti thiu ca chui bo v trong h thng OFDM. Tuy nhin kh nng ng dng ca cng ngh ny cn c kim chng.

Phn 2: L thuyt v knh v tuyn


2.1 T iu ch n sng mang n iu ch trc giao OFDM 2.1.1 Phng php iu ch n sng mang

BbbbbBb bbbbbbbdfgfgfgfgfggfgfgg

Hnh 2.1. Biu din tn hiu trong min thi gian

Hnh 2.2 H thng n sng mang

Hnh 2.2 H thng n sng mang Vi mu tn hiu c chu k l T th tn hiu s chim ton b bng thng l 1/T. Trong phng php iu ch n sng mang, dng tn hiu c truyn i trn ton b bng tn B, c ngha l tn s ly mu ca h thng bng rng bng tn v mI tn hiu c di l T sc= 1/B PT(2.1)

Trong thng tin v tuyn bng rng, knh v tuyn thng l knh ph thuc tn s (frequency selective channel). Tc ly mu thn tin bng rng s rt ln, do chu l ly mu Tsc s rt nh. Do phng php iu ch n sng mang c nhng nhc im sau: nh hng ca nhiu lin tn hiu ISI gy ra bi hiu ng phn tp a ng
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i vi tn hiu thu l rt ln.iu ny c gii thch do di ca 1 mu tn hiu Tsc l rt nh so vi trng hp iu ch a sng mang. Do vy nh hng ca tr truyn dn c th gy nhiu lin tn hiu ISI nhiu mu tn hiu thu. C 5 loi nhiu trong thng tin v tuyn Gaussian Interchannel Co-channel Inter-symbol Multiple Access Interference nh hng ca s ph thuc knh theo tn s l rt ln i vi h thng. Do bng thng rng knh ph thuc vo tn s Hai l do nu trn lm cho b cn bng knh v lc nhiu my thu l phc tp. Phng php iu ch n sng mang hin nay vn c s dng ch yu trong thng tin bng hp nh h thng thng tin di ng ton cu GSM. Trong thng tin bng rng, phng php iu ch a sng mang ra i ci thin cc nhc im trn. 2.1.2 Phng php iu ch a sng mang FDM Noise Interference Interference Interference

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Hnh 2.3 Mt ph ca tn hiu a sng mang

Hnh 2.4 H thng a sng mang

Phng php iu ch a sng mang c hiu l ton b bng tn ca h thng c chia ra lm nhiu bng con vi cc sng mang ph cho mi bng tn con l khc nhau. Chi tit ca phng php ny xem hnh
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2.2. Phng php iu ch a sng mang cn c bit nh phng php phn knh theo tn s FDM, trong ph ca tn hiu ca h thng chia lm Nc = 2L+1 knh song song. V vy di ca mu tn hiu trong iu ch n sng mang : Ts=1/Fs=Ts.Nc PT(2.2)

H qu l t s tng i gia tr truyn dn i vi di mu tn hiu trong iu ch a sng mang cng gim i Nc ln. do vy nh hng ca nhiu lin tn hiu gy ra bi tr truyn dn s gim ( gim nh hng ca phn tp a ng). T chng ta c th nu ra mt s cc u im c bn ca iu ch a sng mang so vI cc phng php iu ch n sng mang l: nh hng ca nhiu lin tn hiu ISI (Inter-symbol Interference) gim nh hng ca s ph thuc knh vo tn s gim do knh c chia lm nhiu phn ( Bng thng gim-> B<Bc dn n knh t ph thuc vo tn s) T 2 u im trn dn n phc tp ca b cn bng knh v lc nhiu cho h thng cng gim. Tuy nhin phng php ny cn mt s nhc im c bn sau H thng nhy cm vi hiu ng ph thuc thi gian ca knh

(time selectivity). iu ny c bit n l do di ca mt mu tn hiu tng ln ( T tn hiu tng ln-> T>Tc -> knh ph thuc thi gian). Dn n s bin i v thi gian ca knh v tuyn c th xy ra trong mt mu tn
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hiu. Phng php iu ch a sng mang khng lm tng hiu qu s dng bng tn ca h thng so vi phng php iu ch n tn, ngc li nu cc knh ph c khong cch nht nh th s lm gim hiu qu s dng ph. va tn dng ht bng tn v c c cc u im ca iu ch a sng mang -> ngi ta s dng phng php iu ch OFDM vi cc sng mang ph trc giao nhau. 2.1.3 Phng php iu ch a sng mang trc giao OFDM

a)FDM

b)OFDM

OFDM l mt trng hp c bit ca FDM ( Frequency division Multiplex). C th hnh dung knh FDM ging nh dng nc chy trong vi nc hnh a). Cn OFDM ging nh nc chy trong vi hoa sen. Trong vi nc hnh a) nc s chy thnh nhng dng ln nhng khng th chia nh. Cn vi hoa sen (OFDM) li c th chia thnh nhiu dng nh. Chng ta c th t ngn tay dng dng nc vi hnh a) nhng khng th lm nh vy vi vi hnh b). V vy tuy c hai lm nhng cng vic khc nhau nhng p ng vi nhiu ca chng l khc nhau.

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Mt cch khc nhn trc quan. Gi s chng ta vn chuyn mt kin hng bng xe ko. C hai cch. Cch th nht chng ta vn chuyn ht kin hng trong mt chic xe. Cch th hai chng chia kin hng thnh nhng phn nh rI mang i trn nhiu chuyn xe khc nhau. C hai u mang chnh xc mt lng d liu. Nhng trong trng hp xy ra tai nn, ch d liu trong kin hng OFDM b hng.

Hnh 2.5 Biu din tn hiu OFDM trong min tn s

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Hnh 2.6 Biu din tn hiu OFDM trong min thi gian H thng OFDM l h thng s dng nguyn l ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao, hot ng trn nghuyn l pht d liu bng cch phn chia lung d liu thnh nhiu lung d liu song song c tc bt thp hn nhiu v s dng cc lung con ny iu ch sng mang vi nhiu sng mang con c tn s khc nhau. Cng nh cc h thng a sng mang thng thng, h thng OFDM phn chia di tn cng tc thnh cc bng tn con khc nhau cho iu ch, c bit tn s trung tm ca cc bng con ny trc giao vi nhau v mt ton hc, cho php ph ca cc bng con chn ln nhau tng hiu qu s dng ph tn m khng gy nhiu. Nguyn l c bn : Knh vi bng thng ln s c chia lm nhiu knh ph gim nhiu ISI v fading theo tn s. Mi sng mang phu s trc giao vi nhau trong min tn s. S lm tng hiu qu s dng knh.

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Hnh 2.7 : u im ca OFDM so vi iu ch n sng mang l hn ch nhiu lin knh ISI

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FDM vi 9 sng mang ph s dng b lc

OFDM vi 9 sng mang ph Hnh 2.8 : u im ca OFDM so vi FDM l tng hiu qu s dng knh

a)Tn hiu gi trong knh khng ph thuc vo tn s

b) Tn hiu gi trong knh fading theo tn s

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c) Vi tn hiu OFDM gi trong knh fading theo tn s Hnh 2.9 nh hng ca knh i vi tn hiu ofdm u im chng li fading theo tn s Khi knh c p ng tn s tt tn hiu c th truyn qua.Khi knh fading vi mt vi tn s( knh la chn tn s) th tn hiu khng th i qua .Vi OFDM chng ta c rt nhiu sng mang ph v vy ch mt lng nh sng mang ph mt d liu do fading 2.2 Phng php iu ch OFDM 2.2.1 Khi nim v s trc giao ca 2 tn hiu V mt ton hc xt tp hp cc tn hiu vI p l phn t th p ca tp, iu kin cc tn hiu trong tp trc giao vI nhau i mt l

a k , p = q p (t ) q*(t )dt = 0, p q b
Trong

PT(2.3)

*(t ) l lin hp phc ca p (t ) . Khong thI gian q

t a n b l chu k ca tn hiu, cn k l hng s.


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2.2.2 B iu ch OFDM Da vo tnh trc giao, ph tn hiu ca cc sng mang ph cho php chng ln ln nhau. S chng ln ny lm cho hiu sut s dng ph ca ton b bng tn tng ln mt cch ng k

Hnh 2.4. Ph ca mt sng mang OFDM con v ca tn hiu OFDM S trc giao ny thc hin nh sau: ph ca tn hiu sng mang ph th p c dch vo mt knh con th p thng qua php nhn vi hm m ip t e s . Trong s = 2 fs l khong cch tn s gia 2 sng mang. Thng qua php nhn vI s phc ny m cc sng mang ph trc giao vI nhau. Tnh trc giao ca 2 sng mang ph c kim chng nh sau:
(k +1)Ts kTs

ipst

(e

iqt *

) dt =

( k+1)Ts kTs

j ( p q )s

dt

j ( p q)

j ( p q )st t = (k +1)Ts e t = kTs


PT(2.5)

0, p q Ts, p = q

phng trnh trn ta thy hai sng mang ph p va q trc giao vi nhau do tch phn ca mt sng mang vi lin hip phc ca sng mang cn li bng 0 nu chng l hai sng mang khc bit. Trong trng hp tch phn vi chnh n s cho kt qu l mt hng s. S trc giao ny l nguyn tc ca php gii iu ch OFDM.

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Hnh 2.10 : B iu ch OFDM Cc bc thc hin iu ch tn hiu OFDM Chuyn i dng bt ni tip thnh dng bit song song Chuyn i dng bit thnh tn hiu phc Tin hnh iu ch sng mang ph Nhn vi hm phc To khong bo v

jnst

2.2.2.1 Xt khi th nht

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Hnh 2.11 Khi bin i serial to parallel ri iu ch s Khi ny c nhim v bin i mt chui tn hiu ni tip thnh cc chui tn hiu di dng song song. Khi ny thc hin chc nng ging vi iu ch FDM. hiu r hn ta xt mt vi d. Trong OFDM c N sng mang , N c th l bt c gi tr no trong khong t 16 n 1024 ty thuc vo mi trng m h thng ang s dng. Chng ta tin hnh th nghim truyn bit m chng ta mun truyn bng vic s dng cng ngh OFDM vI 4 sng mang ph. Tn hiu c tn s ly mu l 1sample/ 1 symbol.

Hnh 2.12 Dng bit m c iu bin s dng 4 sng mang Nhng bit u tin l : 1,1,-1,-1,1,1,1,-1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,-1,-1,-1,1..

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Chng ta s vit nhng bit ny theo bn ct, theo l thuyt ta s dng 4 sng mang. Chng ta s thy hiu qu ca vic bin dng bit t dng ni tip sang song song. Bin I cc bit t ni tip sang song song

Mi ct biu in nhng bit, nhng bt ny c mang bi mt sng mang ph . Chng ta s bt u vI ct sng mang u tin , ct c1. Tn s y l bao nhiu. Theo nh l Nyquist v ly mu, Chng ta bit rng tn s nh nht m m c th truyn t thng tin phI bng 2 ln tc truyn tin. Trong trng hp ny , Tc truyn thng tin s l hay 4 sng mang s mang 1 symbol /1 s. Nh vy tn s sng mang nh nht c th truyn c 1/4 thng tin l 1/2Hz. Nhng chng ta chn 1 Hz cho thun li. Nu chung ta chn tn s bt u l th cc hi tip theo s l 1,3/2,v 2. Chng ta dng phung php iu bin BPSK. Ch chng ta cng c th dng cc phng php khc nh QPSK, 8PSK, 32-QAM. Khng c s gii hn phng php m chng ta s dng iu bin. Sng manng 1- Chng ta cn truyn 1,1,1,-1,-1,-1 . Chng s c t ln tn s sng mang l 1Hz. # bt u l 1 v cc bt sau l 1.

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Hnh 2.13 Sng mang 1 v nhng bt c iu bin Sng mang 2- Tn s tip theo l 2 Hz. N s trc giao vI tn s ca sng mang 1 Hz. By gi ta s s dng nhng bt ct 2 1,1,-1,1,1,-1 v iu bin chng theo hnh tip theo

Hnh 2.14 Sng mang 2 v nhng bit c iu ch Tng t sng mang 3 v sng mang 4 ta c

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Sng mang ph 3 v sng mang ph 4 v nhng bit c iu ch By gi chng ta s iu bin tt c cc bit s dng 4 tn s sng mang t 1Hz n 4 Hz.

Sau khi chuyn thnh dng bit song song tn hiu c iu ch s (PSK,QSK, QAM) tr thnh tn hiu phc. 2.2.2.2.Xt khi th hai(khi iu ch tn hiu OFDM)

Khi iu ch tn hiu OFDM Tn hiu c chia nh thnh cc lung d liu song song (qua b bin i serial-to- parallel converter). Thnh cc dng bit trn mi lung song song l {ai,n}, tc d liu trn mi lung s gim i n ln. Dng bit trn mi lung song song {ai,n} li c iu ch thnh cc mu tn hiu a mc {dk,n} qua b iu ch s. Vi ch s n l ch s ca sng mang ph, i l ch s khe thi gian tng ng vi
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Nc bit song song khi qua b bin i ni tip song song (serialto-parrallel converter), K l ch s ca khe thi gian tng ng vi Nc mu tn hiu phc . Sau khi nhn vi xung c s, c dch tn v qua b tng th tn hiu cui cng c biu din nh sau:

' mk (t ) =

n =l

dk ,n s(t kT )e

+l

jnst

PT(2.6)

khi min i lung tn hiu trn thnh s, lung tn hiu trn c ly mu vi tn s:

1 1 Ts ta = = = B N FFT fs N FFT

PT(2.7)

Trong , B l ton b bng tn ca h thng. Ti thi im ly mu t=kT+lta, S(t-kT)=so, do vy PT (2.7) c vit lI l :


' mk (kTs +lta ) = So

n =l

d k ,ne

+l

jns (kTs +lta )

So d k ,n e
n =l

+l

jns kTs jnslta e

Do s kTs =

1 2 fsk = 2 k , kt qu cuI cng l e jns kTs =1. fs


jnslta

Tng t nh vy c th khai trin phng trnh (2.7 c vit li

=e

in 2 fs

1 fsN FFT

=e

i 2

N FFT do

nl

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' mk (kTs +lta ) = So d k ,ne n =l

+l

j 2

nl N FFT

PT(2.8)

Php bin i OFDM phng trnh 2.8 trng vi php bin i IDFT. Do vy, b iu ch OFDM c th thc hin d dng bng bin i IDFT. Trong trng hp NFFT l bi s ca 2, php bin I IDFT c thay th bng php bin i nhanh IFFT. Tm li : Cc tn hiu sau khi m ha c nhn vi hm m dch bng tn ca tn hiu t bng tn gc ra bng tn xc nh.
Php bin i OFDM phng trnh trn trng vi php bin i

IDFT v vy ta c th s dng php bin i IDFT to ra tn hiu OFDM. Php bin i IDFT s chuyn tn hiu t min tn s v min thi gian.

2.2.2.3 Khi bo v trong h thng OFDM

Khi bo v

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Hnh dung khi bn li xe trong tri ma. V chic xe pha trc c th bn nc vo chic xe ca bn. trnh khi iu ny chic xe ca bn phi gi mt khong cch nht nh vi chic xe pha trc. Tng t i vi nhiu lin k t ISI. Cc Symbol pha trc cng c th gy nhiu n cc symbol pha sau.

Nhiu ISI

Hinh 2.15 Di k t pha sau mt khong ln hn tr ng truyn. S khng c nhiu ISI. trnh nhiu t Symbol pha trc, chng ta s ri cc k t cch nhau mt khong ln hn tr trai rng.Mt vng trng s c thm vo gia cc k t. Cch lm nh trn chnh l phng thc chn chui bo v vo tn hiu OFDM.

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Hnh 2.7 S chui bo v Chui bo v knh (Guard band) l mt chui tn hiu c di TG pha sau sao chp ln pha trc ca mu tn hiu xc nh . Tc ca k t ca tn hiu OFDM thp hn nhiu so vi vic iu ch n sng mang . Th d ca iu ch n sng mang BPSK, tc ca k t tng ng vi tc bit truyn. Tuy nhin i vi k thut OFDM, lung d liu ng vo c chia thnh N lung d liu song song pht i, kt qu l tc k t OFDM gim i N ln so vi tc iu ch n sng mang, do gim c nhiu ISI gy ra bi phn tp a ng .

Hiu ng ISI trn tn hiu OFDM c th c loi b hon ton bng cch cng thm mt khong bo v trc mI k t. Khong bo v ny c chn sao cho ln hn gi tr tr cc i ca ng truyn. Tuy nhin nu ta s dng khong trng cho khong bo v th s gy ra nhiu lin sng mang ICI(Interchannel Interference), v khi cc sng mang con nhn c my thu s khng cn trc giao na . loi b nhiu ICI th k t OFDM phi c m rng chu k trong khong bo v m bo rng cc thnh
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phn a ng ca k t lun c s nguyn ln chu k trong khong thi gian FFT. Do c m rng chu k nn khong bo v cn c gi l cyclic prefix(tin t lp). Khong bo v c to ra bng cch copy mt s mu pha cui ca mI k t OFDM v a ln u Tm li mt s u im ni bt ca chui bo v dng trong cng ngh OFDM Chng li hon ton nhiu ISI, ICI. Duy tr sng mang ph trc giao.

Tin hieu

Kenh

Meo tin hieu

Khi cha c chui bo v

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Tin hieu

Kenh

Meo tin hieu

Khi chui bo v trng

Tin hieu

Kenh

Nhieu tin hieu

Khi chuI bo v l k t (cyclic prefix) Hnh 2.16 Tc dng ca chui bo v (guard intervals)
2.2.3. B gii iu ch OFDM

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Hnh 2.17 S khi gii iu ch OFDM S cu trc b gii iu ch OFDM c m t nh hnh 2.8. Cc bc thc hin b giI iu ch c chc nng ngc li so vi cc chc nng thc hin b iu ch Tch khong bo v Nhn vi hm s phc

jnst

)dch bng tn ca mi sng

mang v bng tn gc nh trc khi iu ch. Gii iu ch cc sng mang ph. Chuyn i mu tn hiu phc thnh dng bit. Chuyn i dng bt song song thnh dng bt ni tip, ging

nh bt pht i.

2.2.4. u v nhc im khi s dng cng ngh OFDM

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u im

Loi b hon ton nhiu ISI Ph hp vi truyn dn bng thng rng do nh hng ca fading theo tn s gim nhiu phc tp ca b cn bng knh bng knh v lc nhiu cho h thng cng gim Nhc im

S dng chui bo v trnh c phn tp a ng nhng li gim bt mt phn hiu sut ng truyn H thng nhy cm vi hiu ng Doppler cng nh s dch tn (frequency offset) v dch thi gian ( time offset) Cn cc khI IDFT v DFT Kh khn trong ng b ng bao tn hiu khng bng phng gy ra mo phi tuyn cc b khuych i cng sut pha phat v thu.

PHN3 : NG DNG OFDM TRONG TRUYN HNH S MT T DVB-T

3.1 Gii thiu chung v DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) Vic pht trin cc tiu chun DVB c khi u vo nm 1993. DVB l s truyn da trn tiu chun MPEG-2, l mt phng php phn phi t mt im n nhiu im video v audio s cht lng cao c nn. N l s thay th c tng cng tiu chun truyn hnh tng t (Analog) v DVB cung cp phng thc truyn dn linh hot phn phi video, audio v cc dch v d liu. DVB bao gm cc chun:
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+ Truyn hnh v tinh (DVB-S): dng sng mang n vi iu ch QPSK, l ti u cho ng dng ny v sng mang n cho php dch tn Doppler ln, QPSK cho php hiu sut nng lng cc i. + Cc h thng cp (DVB-C) + Truyn hnh mt t (DVB-T): Phng php truyn sng mang n khng thch hp vi cho ng dng ny v multipath lm gim nghim trng ch tiu k thut ca truyn sng mang n tc cao. V vy OFDM c s dng trong DVB-T. DVB-T l tiu chun pht sng truyn hnh s mt t c t chc DVB ca chu u a ra vo nm 1997. Hin nay tiu chun ny c hu ht cc nc chu u v nhiu nc khc trn th gii tha nhn. DVB-T l kt ni khng thun nghch do tnh cht qung b ca n (tc l bn thu khng th tc ng g n bn pht). Nh vy bt k mt s la chn v tc d liu no bn pht cng s nh hng n tt c cc my thu. Nu mc ch h thng l t tin cy cao th tc d liu phi thp hn p ng cc iu kin ca my thu xu nht.

3.2 ng dng OFDM trong DVB-T 3.2.1.S khi tng quan

H pht s theo tiu chun DVB-T s dng k thut COFDM (Code Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao c m sa sai) nh mt phng thc iu ch d liu. 3.2.3 Tiu chun OFDM DVB-T K thut OFDM trong DVB-T phn chia knh truyn c trong min thi gian ln tn s:
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+Min tn s c phn thnh mt tp hp cc di tn hp (Frequency Sub-band) hay cn gi l cc bng tn con. +Min thi gian c phn thnh cc khe thi gian gn k nhau (Time Segment)

Hnh 2. S phn chia min thi gian v tn s

+Mi phn tn s/thi gian c s dng ti mt sng mang con ring hay cn gi l cc ti ph (Carier). tng c hiu qu s dng ph th cc ti ph ny trc giao vi nhau (Khong cch tn s trc giao l 1/Tu vi Tu l chu k symbol c ch). Ti mi symbol, mi sng mang tng ng s c iu ch bi mt s phc ly t tp chm sao. Ty thuc vo kiu iu ch c s c chn l QPSK, 16 QAM hoc 64 QAM mi sng mang s vn chuyn c s bit d liu tng ng l 2, 4 hoc 6 bit. Tuy nhin vi cng sut pht c nh, khi c nhiu bit d liu trong mt symbol th cc im trong chm sao s gn nhau hn v kh nng chng li s b gim. Do cn c s cn i gia tc d liu v mc li.

Hnh 3.S phn b cc sng mang con trn knh truyn 34

Trong thc t khi khong t hp thu tri di theo 2 symbol th khng ch c nhiu gia cc symbol (ISI) m cn c c nhiu tng h gia cc sng mang (ICI). trnh iu ny ngi ta chn thm khong bo v (Guard Interval duration) Tg trc mi symbol m bo cc thng tin l n t cng mt symbol v xut hin c nh.

Hnh 4.S phn b cc sng mang khi c khong bo v

trit sng phn x t xa th di khong bo v cng ln cng tt. Ta c cng thc: Dmax = c.Tg Vi: Tg l di khong bo v () c l vn tc nh sng (=3.10^8 m/s) Dmax l hiu khong cch ti a ca sng phn x v sng trc tip Vic chn khong thi gian bo v c thc hin bn pht vi di khong bo v c la chn sao cho ph hp vi mc thu a ng (Multipath) ca my thu. Khong thi gian bo v Tg c cc gi tr khc nhau theo quy nh ca DVB: 1/4Tu, 1/8Tu, 1/16Tu v 1/32Tu. DVB-T cho php hai Mode truyn ph thuc vo s sng mang c s dng: Tham s S ti ph
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Mode 2K 1705

Mode 8K 6817

rng symbol c ch (Tu) Khong cch sng mang (1/Tu) Bng thng

224 4464 Hz 7.61 MHz

896 1116 Hz 7.61 MHz

V d: +trong mode 8K, Tu = 896 Tgmax = 1/4Tu = 896/4 = 224 Hiu khong cch ln nht ca sng phn x khng c nhiu: Dmax = c.Tg = 3.10^8.224.10^(-6) = 67200 m = 67,2 Km +trong mode 2K, Tu = 224 Tgmax = 1/4Tu = 224/4 = 56 Hiu khong cch ln nht ca sng phn x khng c nhiu: Dmax = c.Tg = 3.10^8.56.10^(-6) = 16800 m = 16,8 Km

Hnh 5.Cc tia sng n trong khong thi gian bo v

Khi chnh lch thi gian ca cc tia sng n u thu khng vt qu khong thi gian bo v Tg th my thu hon ton khc phc tt hin tng phn x. Thc cht khong thi gian bo v Tg l khong thi gian trng khng mang thng tin hu ch, do cng mt ch pht, Tg cng ln th thng tin hu ch s cng t, s lng chng trnh s gim. 3.2.4 Phn b d liu trong knh
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Tn hiu truyn i c t chc thnh cc khung v siu khung. Mi symbol OFDM cha hng ngn sng mang (6817 sng mang vi ch 8K v 1705 sng mang vi ch 2K) nm dy c trong di thng 8MHz. Mi khung cha 68 symbol OFDM trong min thi gian (c nh s t 067). C 4 khung lin tip to thnh mt siu khung. Trong mt symbol OFDM s cha: +Cc sng mang d liu (video,audio, ): c iu ch M-QAM. S lng cc sng mang ny l 6048 i vi mode 8K v 1512 vi mode 2K. +Cc pilot (sng mang) lin tc: bao gm 177 pilot vi mode 8K v 45 pilot vi mode 2K. Cc pilot ny c v tr c nh trong di tn 8MHz v c nh trong biu chm sao u thu ng b v sa li pha. +Cc pilot (sng mang) ri rc (phn tn): bao gm 524 pilot vi mode 8K v 131 pilot vi mode 2K. Chng c v tr c nh trong biu chm sao nhng khng c v tr c nh trong min tn s m c tri u trong di thng 8MHz.Cc pilot ny c truyn u theo thi gian v tn s, cho php nh gi cc c trng ca knh bng cc php ni suy v thi gian v tn s. Bn thu khi nhn c thng tin t cc pilot ny s t ng iu chnh t c p ng knh tt nht v thc hin vic hiu chnh nu cn.

Hnh 6. Phn b cc pilot ca DVB-T

+ Khc vi cc sng mang cha d liu, cc pilot khng iu ch QAM m ch iu ch BPSK vi mc cng sut ln hn 2,5 dB so vi cc sng mang khc.
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+Cc sng mang bo hiu thng s bn pht TPS (Transmission

Parameter Signalling) cha cc thng tin iu khin, c mt bit TPS trong mt symbol OFDM. Do mt khi TPS (tng ng vi mt khung OFDM cha 68 symbol OFDM) cha 68 bit c xc nh nh sau: +1 bit khi u +16 bit ng b +37 bit thng tin +14 bit d cho bo him li Trong 37 bit thng tin th 23 bit c s dng, 14 bit cha s dng ti phi t bng khng (dng cho tng lai) TPS mang thng tin v: +iu ch, gm gi tr ca gin chm sao QAM +Thng tin m ha theo lp +Khong bo v (h tr ban u cho my thu) +T l m trong +Mode truyn (2K or 8K) 3.2.5 Vn tc dng d liu ca my pht s DVB-T C th thy cc tham s pht nh kiu iu ch (Modulation), t l m sa sai (Code rate), v khong thi gian bo v (Guard Interval) s quyt nh vn tc dng d liu m knh c th truyn ti.

Hnh 7.Vn tc dng d liu ph thuc vo cc tham s pht

Lu y: Ch pht 8K c s lng sng mang nhiu gp 4 ln trong ch pht 2K nhng thi gian truyn ht s lng sng mang ny cng gp 4 ln nn tng vn tc dng d liu cng bng ch 2K.
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gim nh nh hng khng bng phng ca p tuyn knh th cng dng nhiu sng mang cng tt. Tuy nhin khi s sng mang cng nhiu mch s cng phc tp v nh hng ca dch tn Doppler cng ln. 3.2.6 iu bin cu phng M mc M-QAM Phng php ny c gii thiu ln u tin vo nm 1960 vi 2 mc bin ( tng ng 2 vng ) v 8 mc pha cho mi vng. V y l s kt hp gia iu bin v iu pha nn n c gi l iu ch kha bin /pha APK. Sau ngi ta nhn thy rng nu s im vng trong gim xung cn 4 v s im vng ngoi tng ln 12 th cc im trn chm sao cch u nhu hn. n nm 1962 ngi ta a ra cch chn bin v kha pha khc (hnh c). Ngi ta nhn thy kiu ny d thc hin hn v Pe c ci hin i cht.

3.2.7 M phng qu trnh iu ch COFDM trong truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T a)La chn s sng mang Trong iu ch OFDM vic trc giao ha cc sng mang con c th c thc hin bng php bin i IDFT. Tuy nhin khi s sng mang con bng 2^x php bin i IDFT chuyn thnh IFFT, v khi s php tnh c th c gim xung. Do chng ta la chn s sng mang con c dng 2^x
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c th s dng bin i furier nhanh IFFT. Trong bi ny chng ta la chn s sng mang con l 2048 sng mang. b)La chn v tr v gi tr cc pilot Thc t trong truyn hnh s mt t th gi tr cc bit tng ng vi cc pilot s mang thng tin v bn pht. Tuy nhin vic xc nh c gi tr ca cc bt ny tng i phc tp nn trong gii hn ca bi tp ln ny ta ch xem xt ti vic thm cc bt tng ng vi cc pilot ch cha xt n gi tr cc bt tng ng ny. Trong phn m phng COFDM cho DVB-T th cc bt ny c ly radom cc gi tr 0 v 1( v cc pilot khng c iu ch QAM m c iu ch BPSK). Thm na v tr ca cc pilot tng ng vi cc sng mang con trc giao s c ly c nh. c) La chn mc iu ch QAM S mc iu ch c la chn l 16, tng ng mi mc iu ch s m ha c 4 bit d liu. S mc bin l 2 mc, vng trong ng vi bin l 1 s c 4 gi tr chm sao ng vi cc pha l pi/4, 3pi/4, 5pi/4, 7pi/4, cn vng ngoi tng ng vi mc bin l 2 s c 12 gi tr chm sao tng ng vi cc pha l pi/6, pi/4, pi/3, 2pi/3, 3pi/4, 5pi/6, 7pi/6, 5pi/4, 4pi/3, 5pi/3, 7pi/4, 11pi/6. Thng tin v cc gi tr trong chm sao ny s c cc bit tng ng vi cc sng mang bo hiu thng s bn pht TPS truyn n bn thu. Trong bi ny th cc bt ny tng ng vi sng mang c la chn l sng mang th 180.

Gin phn b im tn hiu 16-QAM s dng m Gray 40

Phn 4: Kt qu v nhn xt 1) iu ch OFDM Sau qu trnh iu ch OFDM ( Ph lc A) ta thu c cc kt qu nh sau:

Hnh 4.1 th biu din phn thc v phn o ca tn hiu trn min thi gian

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Hnh 4.2 th biu din gi tr tuyt i ca tn hiu ofdm trn min thi gian

Hnh 4.3 th biu th gi tr tuyt i ca tn hiu ofdm dng dB trn min tn s


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NHN XT: Ph nhn c sau qu trnh m phng ofdm ging vi kt qu ton hc thu c. Chng ta nhn thy sn ph tn hiu rt dc, iu ny lm tng hiu sut ph tn hiu ca h thng v lm gim nhiu lin knh vi cc h thng khc. 2) ng dng COFDM v DVB-T Sau qu trnh iu ch COFDM ng dng trong truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T( Ph lc B) ta thu c cc kt qu nh sau:

Hnh 4.4 th biu din phn thc v phn o ca tn hiu iu ch COFDM trn min thi gian

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Hnh 4.5 th biu din gi tr tuyt i ca tn hiu iu ch COFDM trn min thi gian

Hnh 4.6 th biu din gi tr tuyt i ca tn hiu iu ch COFDM di dng dB trn min thi gian.

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Phn 5: KT LUN Tri qua mt thi gian nghin cu v tm hiu v chng trnh matlab v k thut iu ch a sng mang trc giao OFDM, chng em c thm nhiu hiu bit mi phc v cho qu trnh hc tp mn h thng vin thng cng nh nhiu mn hc v chuyn ngnh vin thng v s gip ch rt nhiu sau khi ra trng. Cc kt qu chnh thu c sau bi tp ln l: +Bit s dng chng trnh matlab + Hiu thm v phng php iu ch a sng mang trc giao OFDM- mt phng php ngy cng c ng dng nhiu trong k thut vin thng hin i. + Tm hiu v truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T, mt trong nhng ng dng quan trng ca phng php iu ch OFDM vo thc t. + Xy dng c chng trnh m phng qu trnh iu ch OFDM v ng dng vo trong truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T. Tuy nhin do y l ln u lm quen vi vic xy dng mt chng trnh trn matlab v phi tip cn vi mt lnh vc tng i mi m l ng dng OFDM vo truyn hnh s mt t DVB-T nn bi lm khng th trnh khi nhiu hn ch. Trong tng lai, chng em s c gng hon thin chng trnh c th khc phc cc hn ch v gip cho bi lm hon thin hn. Cc im chnh cn khc phc l: +Tm hiu cch m ha d liu cc bt tng ng vi cc sng mang bo hiu thng s bn pht TPS, p dng vo trong qu trnh iu ch COFDM. + Ly random v tr cc pilot ri rc trong tp hp cc sng mang con nhm gip cho bn thu nh gi tt hn cc c trng ca knh thng qua php ni suy v thi gian v tn s. Chng em hi vng s nhn c nhiu kin ng gp ca thy gio chng em c th hon thin bi tp ln ny v thc hin tt hn nhng bi tp v sau. Cui cng em xin cm n s gip , hng dn ca Thy V Vn Ym, v kin ng gp ca cc bn trong lp.

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Phn 6: Ph lc (code iu ch ofdm) Phn A: iu ch OFDM gm c file dc.m v qpsk_dc.m %Chng trnh chnh%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% clear all%xoa tat ca cac bien close all%xoa tat cac hinh clc%xoa man hinh Dlen=1024; % Tat ca du lieu symbol duoc truyen Flen=64; % 64 du lieu symbol tren khung duoc bien doi IFFT IFFTlen=2*Flen; % chieu dai 128 symbol cho IFFT F=Dlen/Flen; % so luong frame G=16; % chieu dai chuoi bao ve x1=zeros(Dlen/2,1);%tao ra chuoi symbol sau khi duoc ma hoa qpsk y=zeros(IFFTlen,1); y1=zeros(IFFTlen,1); z=zeros(F*IFFTlen,1);%chuoi symbol sau khi duoc chuyen doi song song noi tiep ofdm_sg=zeros(F*IFFTlen+G,1);%chuoi symbol sau khi duoc ghep chuoi bao ve % tao nguon tin hieu x=randint(Dlen,1,2);%tao chuoi tin hieu 0 va 1 bat ki % chuyen sang mien phuc x1=qpsk_dc(x);%ham con chuyen doi qpsk for i=1:F % chuyen doi noi tiep song song for j=1:Flen/2 y(j+IFFTlen/2-Flen/4)=x1((i-1)*Flen/2+j); end % dua ve cac song con truc giao y1=ifft(y,length(y));%bien doi ifft % chuyen doi song song noi tiep for j=1:IFFTlen z((i-1)*IFFTlen+j)=y1(j); end
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end %chen chuoi bao ve for i=1:G ofdm_sg(i)=z(F*IFFTlen-G+i); end for i=1:F*IFFTlen ofdm_sg(G+i)=z(i); end % Do thi trong mien thoi gian figure(1); subplot(2,1,1); stem(real(z),'r.'); xlabel('chi so thoi gian');ylabel('chi so bien do'); title('phan thuc'); subplot(2,1,2); stem(imag(z),'r.'); xlabel('chi so thoi gian');ylabel('chi so bien do'); title('phan ao'); figure(2); f = linspace(-Flen,Flen,length(z)); plot(f,abs(z));%bieu dien gia tri tuyet doi cua tin hieu sau dieu che ofdm theo mien thoi gian title('gia tri tuyet doi cua tin hieu trong mien thoi gian'); y2 = fft(z);%chuyen tin hieu sang mien tan so xlabel('chi so thoi gian');ylabel('chi so tuyet doi cua tin hieu'); % neu Y2 la be hon 0.01 thi Y2=0.001 for j=1:F*IFFTlen; if abs(y2(j)) < 0.01 y2(j)=0.01; end end y2 = 10*log10(abs(y2));%chuyen y2 sang dB % Do thi trong mien tan so figure(3);
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f = linspace(-Flen,Flen,length(y2)); plot(f,y2); axis([-IFFTlen/2 IFFTlen/2 -20 20]); xlabel('truc tan so');ylabel('chi so tuyet doi cua tin hieu theo dB'); title('pho cua tin hieu trong mien tan so'); %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %Chng trnh con iu ch qpsk%%%%%%% function y=qpsk_dc(x) for i=1:2:length(x) if x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==0 y((i+1)/2)=exp(j*pi/4); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==1 y((i+1)/2)=exp(j*3*pi/4); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==0 y((i+1)/2)=exp(j*5*pi/4); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==1 y((i+1)/2)=exp(j*7*pi/4); end end Phn B ng dng hun ca DVB-T mode 2K gm file dc2.m v 16qam.m %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %Chng trnh chnh clear all%xoa tat ca cac bien close all%xoa tat cac hinh clc%xoa man hinh Dlen=411264; % Tat ca du lieu symbol duoc truyen Flen=6048; % 64 du lieu symbol tren khung duoc bien doi IFFT IFFTlen=2048; % chieu dai 128 symbol cho IFFT F=Dlen/Flen; % so luong frame G=128; % chieu dai chuoi bao ve x1=zeros(Dlen/4,1);%tao ra chuoi symbol sau khi duoc ma hoa qpsk y=zeros(IFFTlen,1); y1=zeros(IFFTlen,1);
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z=zeros(F*IFFTlen,1);%chuoi symbol sau khi duoc chuyen doi song song noi tiep z_g=zeros(F*(IFFTlen+G),1);%chuoi symbol sau khi duoc ghep chuoi bao ve % tao nguon tin hieu x=randint(Dlen,1,2);%tao chuoi tin hieu 0 va 1 bat ki % chuyen sang mien phuc x1=dc16qam(x);%ham con chuyen doi 16_QAM %ghp cc pilot for i=1:F % chuyen doi noi tiep song song y(180)=randint(1,1,2); %ghep cac pilot lien tuc vao symbol for j=1:45 y((j-1)*9+181)=randint(1,1,2); end %ghep cac pilot roi rac vao symbol for j=46:176 y((j-1)*9+181)=randint(1,1,2); end %ghep bit thong tin vao symbol for j=1:176 for t=1:8 y((j-1)*9+181+t)=x1((i-1)*1512+(j-1)*8+t); end end for j=1:104 y(176*9+180+j)=x((i-1)*1512+176*8+j); end % dua ve cac song con truc giao y1=ifft(y,length(y));%bien doi ifft % chuyen doi song song noi tiep for j=1:IFFTlen z((i-1)*IFFTlen+j)=y1(j); end end
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%chen chuoi bao ve for i=1:F for j=1:G z_g((i-1)*2176+j)=z(i*2048-G+j); end for j=1:2048 z_g((i-1)*2176+G+j)=z((i-1)*2048+j); end end % Do thi trong mien thoi gian figure(1); subplot(2,1,1); stem(real(z),'r.'); xlabel('chi so thoi gian');ylabel('chi so bien do'); title('phan thuc'); subplot(2,1,2); stem(imag(z),'r.'); xlabel('chi so thoi gian');ylabel('chi so bien do'); title('phan ao'); figure(2); f = linspace(-Flen,Flen,length(z)); plot(f,abs(z));%bieu dien gia tri tuyet doi cua tin hieu sau dieu che ofdm theo mien thoi gian title('gia tri tuyet doi cua tin hieu trong mien thoi gian'); y2 = fft(z);%chuyen tin hieu sang mien tan so % neu Y2 la be hon 0.01 thi Y2=0.001 for j=1:F*IFFTlen; if abs(y2(j)) < 0.01 y2(j)=0.01; end end y2 = 10*log10(abs(y2));%chuyen y2 sang dB % Do thi trong mien tan so figure(3); f = linspace(-F*IFFTlen/2,F*IFFTlen/2,length(y2)); plot(f,y2); title('pho cua tin hieu trong mien tan so');
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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% %Chng trnh con iu ch 16-QAM%%%%% function y=dc16qam(x) for i=1:4:length(x) if x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=exp(j*pi/4); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=exp(j*3*pi/4); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=exp(j*5*pi/4); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=exp(j*7*pi/4); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*pi/6); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*pi/4); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*pi/3); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*2*pi/3); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*3*pi/4); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==0 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*5*pi/6); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*7*pi/6); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*5*pi/4); elseif x(i)==1 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*4*pi/3); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==0 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*5*pi/3); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==1 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*7*pi/4); elseif x(i)==0 & x(i+1)==1 & x(i+2)==1 & x(i+3)==0 y((i+3)/4)=2*exp(j*11*pi/6); end end
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