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Tabla de contenido

Anlisis de Hofstede....................................................................................................................... 4 Parmetros ................................................................................................................................ 4 Power Distance/ Grado de distancia al poder (FDI): ................................................................ 4 Oceana ......................................................................................................................................... 7 Australia .................................................................................................................................... 7 Power distance....................................................................................................................... 7 Individualism .......................................................................................................................... 7 Masculinity / Femininity ......................................................................................................... 7 Uncertainty avoidance ........................................................................................................... 7 Long-term orientation ............................................................................................................ 7 Europa ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Belgium...................................................................................................................................... 8 Power distance....................................................................................................................... 8 Individualism .......................................................................................................................... 8 Masculinity / Femininity ......................................................................................................... 8 Uncertainty avoidance ........................................................................................................... 9 Long term orientation ............................................................................................................ 9 Denmark .................................................................................................................................. 10 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 10 Individualism ........................................................................................................................ 10 Masculinity / Femininity ....................................................................................................... 10 Uncertainty avoidance ......................................................................................................... 10 Long term orientation .......................................................................................................... 11 United Kingdom ....................................................................................................................... 11 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 11 France ...................................................................................................................................... 13 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 13 Individualism ........................................................................................................................ 13 Masculinity / Femininity ....................................................................................................... 13 1

Uncertainty avoidance ......................................................................................................... 13 Long term orientation .......................................................................................................... 13 Germany .................................................................................................................................. 14 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 14 Individualism ........................................................................................................................ 14 Masculinity / Femininity ....................................................................................................... 15 Uncertainty avoidance ......................................................................................................... 15 Long term orientation .......................................................................................................... 15 Netherlands ............................................................................................................................. 15 Power Distance .................................................................................................................... 15 Asia.............................................................................................................................................. 16 Hong Kong ............................................................................................................................... 16 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 16 Individualism ........................................................................................................................ 17 Masculinity / Femininity ....................................................................................................... 17 Uncertainty avoidance ......................................................................................................... 17 Long term orientation .......................................................................................................... 17 China ....................................................................................................................................... 17 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 17 Individualism ........................................................................................................................ 18 Masculinity / Femininity ....................................................................................................... 18 Uncertainty avoidance ......................................................................................................... 18 Long term orientation .......................................................................................................... 18 America ....................................................................................................................................... 19 USA .......................................................................................................................................... 19 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 19 Individualism ........................................................................................................................ 19 Masculinity / Femininity ....................................................................................................... 19 Uncertainty avoidance ......................................................................................................... 19 Long-term orientation .......................................................................................................... 19 Brasil ........................................................................................................................................ 20 Power distance..................................................................................................................... 20 2

Individualism ........................................................................................................................ 20 Masculinity / Femininity ....................................................................................................... 20 Uncertainty avoidance ......................................................................................................... 20 Long term orientation .......................................................................................................... 21

Anlisis de Hofstede
Parmetros
Una de las muchas variables que influyen en el marketing internacional es el entorno cultural de cada pas, que debido a las similitudes y diferencias existentes entre ellas, implican un trabajo doble para quienes quieren hacer negocios a nivel global. De acuerdo a Warren Keegan y Mark Green en su excelente libro Marketing Internacional, frente a una expansin internacional se debe estudiar, comprender e integrar este conocimiento en el proceso de planificacin de marketing. Pero surge entonces una inquietud: Qu es cultura?. El antroplogo organizacional holands Geert Hofstede define cultura como la programacin colectiva de la mente que distingue a los miembros de una categora de personas a los de otra categora, entendiendo una categora de personas como un pas, un grupo tnico, un grupo de gnero, una organizacin, una familia o cualquier otra unidad. La cultura entonces incluye valores, ideas, actitudes y smbolos, tanto conscientes e inconscientes, que definen el comportamiento humano y son transmitidas de generacin en generacin. Algunos componentes que diferencian una cultura de otra son las actitudes. creencias y valores; la religin; el concepto de esttica; las preferencias alimenticias; el idioma y la comunicacin; entre otros. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de un correcto anlisis cultural para quienes quieren hacer negocios en diversos pases (aplicable tambin desde para hacer viajes como para comprender un peridico extranjero), algunos antroplogos han realizado estudios que buscan definir pases, entendidos stos como unidades relevantes en el marketing internacional, desde una aproximacin cultural. Uno de ellos es Geert Hofstede, ya introducido en el segundo prrafo de esta entrada, quien por medio de sus estudios de los valores sociales sugiere que las culturas de diferentes pases se comparan en trminos de cinco dimensiones. Dentro de su anlisis, disponible en la pgina web www.geert-hofstede.com, incluye a Colombia. Por lo anterior propongo analizar lo propuesto por l en nuestro pas al tiempo que se definen cada una de las dimensiones culturales, con base a lo publicado en el libro de Green y Keegan igualmente ya citado:
Power Distance/ Grado de distancia al poder (FDI):

Muestra el grado en el que los miembros menos poderosos de la sociedad aceptan e incluso esperan que el poder se distribuya de manera desigual dentro de la misma.

This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.

Grado de individualismo (IDV)/ Individualism: Este punto es el que ms confusin me genera para el caso de Colombia. En general, esta dimensin define la importancia de hacer parte de un grupo, y diferencia entre las culturas en donde a las personas les gusta valerse por s mismas en cambio de por su colectividad. The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups that take care of them in exchange for loyalty. Masculinidad (MAS): Esta dimensin parte de la base de una diferenciacin entre hombres y mujeres, en la que se supone que los primeros sern ms competitivos, buscarn el xito material, etc, mientras que las segundas propugnarn la armona, la felicidad aparte de lo material, etc. El libro de Green y Keegan lo define claramente de la siguiente manera: La dimensin masculinidad feminidad se manifiesta en la importancia relativa del logro y las posesiones (valores masculinos), en comparacin con un espritu de servicio y apoyo social (valores femeninos). A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school and continues throughout organisational behaviour. A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best (masculine) or liking what you do (feminine) Evasin de la incertidumbre (UAI): Esta dimensin se relaciona con la tolerancia que tiene una sociedad hacia la incertidumbre y a la ambigedad. Colombia en este aspecto tiene una de las calificaciones ms altas, lo que implica una preferencia por la seguridad y la certidumbre, lo que se ocurre en general con culturas que Edward Hall defini como de contexto bajo, aquellas en la que los mensajes son explcitos y especficos, y las palabras transmiten la mayor parte del poder de la comunicacin. En el marketing internacional esta dimensin es muy importante para la comunicacin de marca, pues en pases como el nuestro habr mayor lealtad, por ejemplo, a las marcas ms establecidas en el mercado, por lo que una nueva tendr que recorrer un camino ms largo y complicado para posicionarse
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en el mercado. De la misma manera, en este tipo de pases promesas de devolucin de dinero y garantas extendidas sern muy apreciadas para reducir el riesgo que quieren enfrentar los consumidores. The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the UAI score.
Long term orientation

The long term orientation dimension is closely related to the teachings of Confucius and can be interpreted as dealing with societys search for virtue, the extent to which a society shows a pragmatic future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view.

Oceana
Australia
Power distance

Australia scores low on this dimension (36). Within Australian organizations, hierarchy is established for convenience, superiors are always accessible and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. Both managers and employees expect to be consulted and information is shared frequently. At the same time, communication is informal, direct and participative.
Individualism

Australia, with a score of 90 on this dimension, is a highly individualistic culture. This translates into a loosely-knit society in which the expectation is that people look after themselves and their immediate families. In the business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display initiative. Also, within the exchange-based world of work, hiring and promotion decisions are based on merit or evidence of what one has done or can do.
Masculinity / Femininity

Australia scores 61 on this dimension and is considered a masculine society. Behavior in school, work, and play are based on the shared values that people should strive to be the best they can be and that the winner takes all. Australians are proud of their successes and achievements in life, and it offers a basis for hiring and promotion decisions in the workplace. Conflicts are resolved at the individual level and the goal is to win.
Uncertainty avoidance

Australia scores 51 on this dimension and is a fairly pragmatic culture in terms of uncertainty avoidance. This means that both generalists and experts are needed. There is focus on planning, and they can be altered at short notice and improvisations made. Emotions are not shown much in Australia, people are fairly relaxed and not adverse to taking risks. Consequently, there is a larger degree of acceptance for new ideas, innovative products and a willingness to try something new or different, whether it pertains to technology, business practices, or foodstuffs.
Long-term orientation

Australia scores 31 on this dimension and is a short-term oriented culture. As a result, it is a culture focused on traditions and fulfilling social obligations. Given this perspective, Australian businesses measure their performance on a short-term basis, with profit and loss statements being issued on a quarterly basis. This also drives individuals to strive for quick results within the work place. There is also a need to have the absolute truth in all matters.
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Europa
Belgium
Power distance

With a score of 65, Belgium scores high on the scale of the PDI. It is therefore a society in which inequalities are accepted. Hierarchy is needed if not existential; the superiors may have privileges and are often inaccessible. The power is centralized in Belgium. It might in the near future not be Brussels anymore but the Walloons and Flemish will each have their own point of centralized power from where administration, transports, business etc are managed. In management, the attitude towards managers is more formal and on family name basis (at least, in the first contact, the information flow is hierarchical. The way information is controlled is even associated with power, therefore unequally distributed. Control is normal, and even expected, but considered as formal and not key for efficiency.
Individualism

At 75 Belgium scores high on the individualistic index. This means that the Belgians favor individual and private opinions, taking care of themselves and immediate family rather than belonging to a group. In the work environment, the relationship with work is contract based, the focus is on the task and autonomy is favored. The management is the management of individuals and the recognition of ones work is expected. People can voice their opinion, but towards powerholders a less direct style is preferred than amongst peers. The Belgian culture (together with France) houses a contradiction: although highly individualistic, the Belgians need a hierarchy. This combination (high score on power distance and high score on Individualism) creates a specific tension in this culture, which makes the relationship so delicate but intense and fruitful once you manage it. Therefore, the manager is advised to establish a second level of communication, having a personal contact with everybody in the structure, allowing to give the impression that everybody is important in the organization, although unequal.
Masculinity / Femininity

With 54 on average, Belgium has a moderate score on this dimension. Balancing in the middle of this dimension contradictions can be found. A confrontational, win-lose negotiating style (typical of the US and Anglo countries) will not be very effective in Belgium. This could mean that the decision process may be slower, as each point of view is considered so that consensus can be achieved. Belgians strive towards reaching a compromise, winning a discussion is generally less important than achieving mutual agreement. A deeper look into the difference between the Northern part of the country (Flemish) and the Southern part (French) shows a difference in the Masculinity value. The Flemish is at 43, and the French at 60. This certainly explains partly the difficulties the 2 communities experience. The need for the Flemish to close the circle and stay between natives is a
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necessity to establish concensus, typical for a more Feminine culture. The cultural priority for the French-speaking part is the opposite: to be part of a global latin culture typically made of universal values.
Uncertainty avoidance

At 94 Belgium has one of the highest scores on the UAI Index. Their history of frequently being ruled by others partly explains this score. Certainty is often reached through academic work and concepts that can respond for the need of detail, context, and background. Teachings and trainings are more inductive. In management structure, rules and security are welcome and if lacking, it creates stress. Therefore planning is favored, some level of expertise welcome, when change policies on the other hand are considered stressful. Both communities North & South share this score on the dimension, which makes it very painful when negotiating a new set of rules, called a Constitution!
Long term orientation

At 38 Belgium is a short term oriented society. This means a great respect for tradition as well as a need for norms and absolute truth as guidelines. In terms of business this short term orientation focuses on quick results i.e. companies are driven by quarterly results. Consumption is driven by immediate gratification, sensitivity to social trends and rituals. Theres not much focus on saving. Management is based on self reliance, personal achievement, hard work and managers are judged on short term results.

Denmark
Power distance With a score of 18 points Denmark is at the very low end of this dimension compared to other countries. This matches perfectly with what many foreigners in Denmark express: Danes do not lead, they coach and employee autonomy is required. In fact, Denmark ranks highest amongst the EU27 countries in terms of employee autonomy. With a very egalitarian mindset the Danes believe in independency, equal rights, accessible superiors and that management facilitates and empowers. Power is decentralized and managers count on the experience of their team members. Respect among the Danes is something which you earn by proving your hands-on expertise. Workplaces have a very informal atmosphere with direct and involving communication and on a first name basis. Employees expect to be consulted. Individualism Denmark, with a score of 74 is an Individualistic society. This means there is a high preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. It is relatively easy to start doing business with the Danes. Small talk is kept at a minimum and you do not need to create relationships first. Danes are also known for using a very direct form of communication. Masculinity / Femininity Denmark scores 16 on this dimension and is therefore considered a feminine society. In feminine countries it is important to keep the life/work balance and you make sure that all are included. An effective manager is supportive to his/her people, and decision making is achieved through involvement. Managers strive for consensus and people value equality, solidarity and quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and negotiation and Danes are known for their long discussions until consensus has been reached. Incentives such as free time and flexible work hours and place are favoured. Uncertainty avoidance

With a score of 23 Denmark scores low on this dimension. This means that that Danes do not need a lot of structure and predictability in their work life. Plans can change overnight, new things pop up and the Danes are fine with it. It is a natural part of their work life. Curiosity is natural and is encouraged from a very young age. This combination of a highly individualistic and curious nation is also the driving force for Denmarks reputation within innovation and design. What is different is attractive! This also emerges throughout the society in both its humour, heavy consumerism for new and innovative products and the fast highly creative industries it thrives in advertising, marketing, financial engineering. At the workplace this low score on UAI is also reflected in the fact that the Danes tells you if you are in doubt or do not know something. It is ok to say I do not know and the Danes are comfortable in ambiguous situations at the workplace.

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Long term orientation The Danes score 46, making it a short term orientation culture, though very close to the middle. Societies with a short-term orientation generally have a strong concern with possessing and if A is true then B must be false. Focus in business life is very much on what is happening now instead of in ten years time. Priority is therefore given to abstract rationality and analytical thinking Western societies are typically found at the short-term end of this dimension, as are the countries of the Middle East.

United Kingdom
Power distance At 35 Britain sits in the lower rankings of PDI i.e. a society that believes that inequalities amongst people should be minimized. Interestingly is that research shows PD index lower amongst the higher class in Britain than amongst the working classes. The PDI score at first seems incongruent with the well established and historical British class system and its exposes one of the inherent tensions in the British culture between the importance of birth rank on the one hand and a deep seated belief that where you are born should not limit how far you can travel in life. A sense of fair play drives a belief that people should be treated in some way as equals. Individualism At a score of 89 the UK is amongst the highest of the individualistic scores, beaten only by some of the commonwealth countries it spawned i.e. Australia and the USA. The British are a highly individualistic and private people. Children are taught from an early age to 11

think for themselves and to find out what their unique purpose in life is and how they uniquely can contribute to society. The route to happiness is through personal fulfillment. As the affluence of Britain has increased throughout the last decade, with wealth also spreading North, a much discussed phenomenon is the rise of what has been seen as rampant consumerism and a strengthening of the ME culture. Masculinity / Femininity At 66 Britain is a masculine society highly success oriented and driven. A key point of confusion for the foreigner lies in the apparent contradiction between the British culture of modesty and understatement which is at odds with the underlying success driven value system in the culture. Critical to understanding the British is being able to read between the lines What is said is not always what is meant. In comparison to feminine cultures such as the Scandinavian countries, people in the UK live in order to work and have a clear performance ambition. Uncertainty avoidance At 35 the UK has a low score on uncertainty avoidance which means that as a nation they are quite happy to wake up not knowing what the day brings and they are happy to make it up as they go along changing plans as new information comes to light. As a low UAI country the British are comfortable in ambiguous situations - the term muddling through is a very British way of expressing this. There are generally not too many rules in British society, but those that are there are adhered to (the most famous of which of of course the British love of queuing which has also to do with the values of fair play). In work terms this results in planning that is not detail oriented the end goal will be clear (due to high MAS) but the detail of how we get there will be light and the actual process fluid and flexible to emerging and changing environment. Planning horizons will also be shorter. Most importantly the combination of a highly individualistic and curious nation is a high level of creativity and strong need for innovation. What is different is attractive! This emerges throughout the society in both its humour, heavy consumerism for new and innovative products and the fast highly creative industries it thrives in advertising, marketing, financial engineering. Long term orientation At 25 the UK scores as a short term oriented society which drives a great respect for history and tradition as well as a focus on quick results in the future. As mentioned above, planning horizons tend to be short and business particularly is very focused on short term quarterly goals and quick results. The notion of giving up something today for the promise of something bigger in the future is not a widely held notion, more usual is the belief that a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. The structure of the London Stock Exchange further perpetuates this pattern its relentless focus on quarterly results to drive stock valuations exacerbates the culture of focus on short term results. This culture is much discussed in the press with many companies complaining that the LSE

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drives a culture that gets in the way of genuine longer term relationship building and long term investment projects. The London Stock Exchange is of course a product of British culture!

France
Power distance With a score of 68, France scores high on the scale of the PDI. It is therefore a society in which inequalities are accepted. Hierarchy is needed if not existential; the superiors may have privileges and are often inaccessible. The power is highly centralized in France, as well as Paris centralizes administrations, transports etc. In management, the attitude towards managers is more formal, the information flow is hierarchical. The way information is controlled is even associated with power, therefore unequally distributed. Individualism At 71 France scores high on the individualistic index. This means that the French favor individual and private opinions, taking care of themselves and immediate family rather than belonging to a group. In the work environment, the relationship with work is contract based, the focus is on the task and autonomy is favored. The communication is direct and everyone is allowed to speak up, voice out their opinions even more if they do not agree. The management is the management of individuals and the recognition of ones work is expected. Masculinity / Femininity With 43, France is a relatively Feminine country. With its famous welfare system (securit sociale), their 35 working hours/week and 5 weeks holidays per year, France cares for its quality of life and focuses more on work in order to live than the reverse. Competition amongst work colleagues is usually not favored as feminine societies have more sympathy for the underdog. And material signs of success, especially flashy ones, should not be too visible. The management should be supportive and dialogue should help resolve conflicts. Uncertainty avoidance At 86 France has one the highest scores on the UAI Index. Certainty is often reached through academic work and concepts that can respond for the need of detail, context, and background. Teachings and trainings are more deductive. In management structure, rules and security are welcome and if lacking, it creates stress. Therefore planning is favored, some level of expertise welcome, when change policies on the other hand are considered stressful. Long term orientation At 39 France is a short term oriented society. This means a great respect for tradition as well as a need for norms and absolute truth as guidelines. In terms of business this short term orientation focuses on quick results i.e. companies are driven by quarterly results. Consumption is driven by 13

immediate gratification, sensitivity to social trends and rituals. Theres not much focus on saving. Management is based on self reliance, personal achievement, hard work and managers are judged on short term results.

Germany
Power distance

Highly decentralised and supported by a strong middle class, Germany is not surprisingly among the lower power distant countries (score 35). Co-determination rights are comparatively extensive and have to be taken into account by the management. A direct and participative communication and meeting style is common, control is disliked and leadership is challenged to show expertise and best accepted when its based on it.
Individualism

The German society is a truly individualistic one (67). Small families with a focus on the parent-children relationship rather than aunts and uncles are most common. There is a strong belief in the ideal of self-actualization. Loyalty is based on personal preferences for people as well as a sense of duty and responsibility. This is defined by the contract between the employer and the employee. Communication is among the most direct in the world following the ideal to be honest, even if it hurts and by this giving the counterpart a fair chance to learn from mistakes.

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Masculinity / Femininity

With a score of 66 Germany is considered a masculine society. Performance is highly valued and early required as the school system separates children into different types of schools at the age of ten. People rather live in order to work and draw a lot of self-esteem from their tasks. Managers are expected to be decisive and assertive. Status is often shown, especially by cars, watches and technical devices.
Uncertainty avoidance

Germany is among the uncertainty avoidant countries (65). In line with the philosophical heritage of Kant, Hegel and Fichte there is a strong preference for deductive rather than inductive approaches, be it in thinking, presenting or planning: the systematic overview has to be given in order to proceed. This is also reflected by the law system. Details are equally important to create certainty that a certain topic or project is wellthought-out. In combination with their low Power Distance, where the certainty for own decisions is not covered by the larger responsibility of the boss, Germans prefer to compensate for their higher uncertainty by strongly relying on expertise.
Long term orientation

The Germans score 31, making it a short term orientation culture. Societies with a shortterm orientation generally exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save, strong social pressure to keep up with the Joneses, impatience for achieving quick results, and a strong concern with establishing the Truth i.e. normative. Western societies are typically found at the short-term end of this dimension, as are the countries of the Middle East.

Netherlands
Power Distance The Netherlands scores low on this dimension (score of 38) which means that the following characterises the Dutch style: Being independent, hierarchy for convenience only, equal rights, superiors accessible, coaching leader, management facilitates and empowers. Power is decentralized and managers count on the experience of their team members. Employees expect to be consulted. Control is disliked and attitude towards managers are informal and on first name basis. Communication is direct and participative. Individualism The Netherlands, with a score of 80 is an Individualistic society. This means there is a high preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. In individualistic societies offence causes guilt and a loss of self-esteem, the employer/employee relationship is a contract based on mutual advantage, 15

hiring and promotion decisions are supposed to be based on merit only, management is the management of individuals. Masculinity / Femininity The Netherlands scores 14 on this dimension and is therefore a feminine society. In feminine countries it is important to keep the life/work balance and you make sure that all are included. An effective manager is supportive to his/her people, and decision making is achieved through involvement. Managers strive for consensus and people value equality, solidarity and quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and negotiation and Dutch are known for their long discussions until consensus has been reached. Uncertainty avoidance The Netherlands scores 53 on this dimension and thus exhibits a preference for avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high uncertainty avoidence maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money, people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an important element in individual motivation. Long term orientation

The Dutch score 44, making it a short term orientation culture. Societies with a short-term orientation generally exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save, strong social pressure to keep up with the Joneses, impatience for achieving quick results, and a strong concern with establishing the Truth i.e. normative. Western societies are typically found at the short-term end of this dimension, as are the countries of the Middle East.

Asia
Hong Kong
Power distance

At 68 Hong Kong has a high score on PDI i.e. a society that believes that inequalities amongst people are acceptable. The subordinate-superior relationship tends to be polarized and there is no defense against power abuse by superiors. Individuals are influenced by formal authority and sanctions and are in general optimistic about peoples capacity for leadership and initiative.

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Individualism

At a score of 25 Hong Kong is a collectivist culture where people act in the interests of the group and not necessarily of themselves. In-group considerations affect hiring and promotions with closer in-groups (such as family) are getting preferential treatment. Whereas relationships with colleagues are cooperative for in-groups they are cold or even hostile to out-groups. Personal relationships prevail over task and company. Communication is indirect and the harmony of the group has to be maintained, open conflicts are avoided.
Masculinity / Femininity

At 57 Hong Kong is a somewhat masculine society success oriented and driven. The need to ensure success can be exemplified by the fact that many will spend many hours at work. Service people (such as hairdressers) will provide services until very late at night. Another example is that students care very much about their exam scores and ranking as this is the main criteria to achieve success or not.
Uncertainty avoidance

At 29 Hong Kong has a low score on uncertainty avoidance. Adherence to laws and rules may be flexible to suit the actual situation and pragmatism is a fact of life. The people in Hong Kong are comfortable with ambiguity; the Chinese language is full of ambiguous meanings that can be difficult for Western people to follow. They are adaptable and entrepreneurial.
Long term orientation

With a score of 96 Hong Kong is a highly long term oriented society in which persistence and perseverance are normal. Relationships are ordered by status and the order is observed. People are thrifty and sparing with resources and investment tends to be in long term projects such as real estate. Traditions can be adapted to suit new conditions.

China
Power distance At 80 China sits in the higher rankings of PDI i.e. a society that believes that inequalities amongst people are acceptable. The subordinate-superior relationship tends to be polarized and there is no defense against power abuse by superiors. Individuals are influenced by formal authority and sanctions and are in general optimistic about peoples capacity for leadership and initiative. People should not have aspirations beyond their rank.

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Individualism

At a score of 20 China is a highly collectivist culture where people act in the interests of the group and not necessarily of themselves. In-group considerations affect hiring and promotions with closer in-groups (such as family) are getting preferential treatment. Employee commitment to the organization (but not necessarily to the people in the organization) is low. Whereas relationships with colleagues are cooperative for ingroups they are cold or even hostile to out-groups. Personal relationships prevail over task and company.
Masculinity / Femininity At 66 China is a masculine society success oriented and driven. The need to ensure success can be exemplified by the fact that many Chinese will sacrifice family and leisure priorities to work. Service people (such as hairdressers) will provide services until very late at night. Leisure time is not so important. The migrated farmer workers will leave their families behind in faraway places in order to obtain better work and pay in the cities. Another example is that Chinese students care very much about their exam scores and ranking as this is the main criteria to achieve success or not. Uncertainty avoidance At 30 China has a low score on uncertainty avoidance. Truth may be relative though in the immediate social circles there is concern for Truth with a capital T and rules (but not necessarily laws) abound. None the less, adherence to laws and rules may be flexible to suit the actual situation and pragmatism is a fact of life. The Chinese are comfortable with ambiguity; the Chinese language is full of ambiguous meanings that can be difficult for Western people to follow. Chinese are adaptable and entrepreneurial. At the time of writing the majority (70% -80%) of Chinese businesses tend to be small to medium sized and family owned. Long term orientation With a score of 118 China is a highly long term oriented society in which persistence and perseverance are normal. Relationships are ordered by status and the order is observed. Nice people are thrifty and sparing with resources and investment tends to be in long term projects such as real estate. Traditions can be adapted to suit new conditions. Chinese people recognize that government is by men rather than as in the Low LTO countries by an external influence such as God or the law. Thinking ways focus on the full or no confidence, contrasting with low LTO countries that think in probabilistic ways.

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America
USA
Power distance The United States score low on this dimension (40) which underscores the American premise of liberty and justice for all. This is also evidenced by the focus on equal rights in all aspects of American society and government. Within American organizations, hierarchy is established for convenience, superiors are always accessible and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. Both managers and employees expect to be consulted and information is shared frequently. At the same time, communication is informal, direct and participative. Individualism The United States, with a score of 91 on this dimension, is a highly individualistic culture. This translates into a loosely-knit society in which the expectation is that people look after themselves and their immediate families. There is also a high degree of geographical mobility in the United States and most Americans are accustomed to doing business with, or interacting, with strangers. Consequently, Americans are not shy about approaching their prospective counterparts in order to obtain or seek information. In the business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display initiative. Also, within the exchange-based world of work, hiring and promotion decisions are based on merit or evidence of what one has done or can do. Masculinity / Femininity The United States score 62 on this dimension and is considered a masculine society. Behavior in school, work, and play are based on the shared values that people should strive to be the best they can be and that the winner takes all. As a result, Americans will tend to display and talk freely about their successes and achievements in life, here again, another basis for hiring and promotion decisions in the workplace. Typically, Americans live to work so that they can earn monetary rewards and attain higher status based on how good one can be. Conflicts are resolved at the individual level and the goal is to win. Uncertainty avoidance The US scores 46 on this dimension and therefore, American society is what one would describe as uncertainty accepting. Consequently, there is a larger degree of acceptance for new ideas, innovative products and a willingness to try something new or different, whether it pertains to technology, business practices, or foodstuffs. Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow the freedom of expression. At the same time, Americans do not require a lot of rules and are less emotionally expressive than higher-scoring cultures. Long-term orientation The United States scores 29 on this dimension and is a short-term oriented culture. As a result, it is a culture focused on traditions and fulfilling social obligations. Given this perspective, American businesses measure their performance on a short-term basis, with profit and loss statements

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being issued on a quarterly basis. This also drives individuals to strive for quick results within the work place. There is also a need to have the absolute truth in all matters.

Brasil
Power distance At a score of 69 Brazil reflects a society that believes hierarchy should be respected and inequalities amongst people are acceptable. The different distribution of power justifies the fact that power holders have more benefits than the less powerful in society. In Brazil it is important to show respect to the elderly (and children take care for their elderly parents). In companies there is one boss who takes complete responsibility. Status symbols of power are very important in order to indicate social position and communicate the respect that could be shown. Individualism Brazil has a score of 38 which means that in this country people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive groups (especially represented by the extended family; including uncles, aunts, grandparents and cousins) which continues protecting its members in exchange for loyalty. This is an important aspect in the working environment too, where for instance an older and powerful member of a family is expected to help a younger nephew to be hired for a job in his own company. In business it is important to build up trustworthy and long lasting relationships: a meeting usually starts with general conversations in order to get to know each other before doing business. The preferred communication style is context-rich, so people will often speak profusely and write in an elaborate fashion. Masculinity / Femininity Brazil scores 49 on this dimension, really in the middle. The softer aspects of culture such as leveling with others, consensus, sympathy for the underdog are valued and encouraged. Conflicts are avoided in private and work life and consensus at the end is important. Status is shown, but this comes more out of the high PDI. Uncertainty avoidance At 76 Brazil scores high on UAI and so do the majority of Latin American countries. These societies show a strong need for rules and elaborate legal systems in order to structure life. The individuals need to obey these laws, however, is weak. If rules however cannot be kept, additional rules are dictated. In Brazil, as in all high Uncertainty Avoidance societies, bureaucracy, laws and rules are very important to make the world a safer place to live in. Brazilians need to have good and relaxing moments in their everyday life, chatting with colleagues, enjoying a long meal or dancing with guests and friends. Due to their high score in this dimension Brazilians are very passionate and demonstrative people: emotions are easily shown in their body language.

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Long term orientation At 65 Brazil places itself amongst the long term oriented societies as the only non-Asian society. The "jeitinho brasilero" is really to look for alternatives to do what in a Western eyes could be regarded as impossible. Like Asians the Brazilians accept more than one truth. Brazilians easily accept change as a part of life.

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