Está en la página 1de 5

HARDWARE TROUBLESHOOTING

Troubleshooting Process Define your symptoms Identify and isolate problems Replace or repair Retest to see if the problem has been solved Is the problem solved if not return to service When dealing with users Eliminate the users as the problem Check connection first Determine if its a hardware or software problem? Software Configuration problem (most common) Hardware problems harder to detect KISS method - Keep it short and simple Always use this method to methodically determine in fixing a computer problem Top 10 Troubleshooting Steps 1. Define the Problem 2. Check the simple stuff first 3. Check to see if it's User Error 4. Reboot the Computer 5. Determine if its Hardware or Software Related 6. Determine which component is failing 7. Go to the website 8. Read the Manual 9. If ain't broke don't fix it 10. Ask for help if all else fails POST POST or Power On Self-Test 1. Power Supply turned on sends electrical signals to CPU 2. CPU wakes up and runs and invokes the BIOS boot up program 3. CPU sends signals to system bus 4. CPU checks system timer or real time clock 5. POST test video 6.POST test memory (memory amount is run) 7. CPU verifies keyboard 8. POST send signals to floppy and hard disk 9. POST compares results with CMOS setup 10. POST checks BYOB and now is ready to boot up OS POST visual Errors This will show up on your computer as visual error codes Error Range Component with Error 1xx Motherboard 2xx RAM or Memory 3xx Keyboard

5xx Video Color 6xx Floppy Drive 7xx Math Co-Processor 9xx LPT1 10xx LPT2 11xx COM 1 12xx COM 2 17xx Hard Disk 3xxx NIC 86xx Mouse POST audio Errors Your will hear these error codes when your computer boots up Error Code Faulty Component 1 Short Beep: (Normal Boot) 2 Short Beeps: POST error No Beeps: Speaker broken, turned off, Power Supply or Motherboard Non Stop Beep Power Supply or Motherboard Non-Stop continous short beeps Usually Keyboard 1 Long Beep 1 Short Beep: Motherboard 1 Long Beep 2 Short Beeps: Video 1 Lonb Beep 3 Short Beeps: Video or Memory DISK BOOT FAILURE Cause: This issue could be caused by any of the following possibilities. Boot options are not set properly in CMOS Non bootable CD or CD-R in computer All boot devices set are not bootable CMOS CMOS problems check battery (especially dealing with mix match time and date) Forget CMOS password (Remove CMOS battery or clear CMOS Jumpers found on motherboard) CMOS Checksum error (Battery is dying time to replace it) CMOS password is use to (protect startup and system setup) CMOS configuration mismatch error (erase CMOS setting and reconfigure) CMOS Chip failure (Test CMOS chip and replace) ESCD (extended system configuration data) makes the BIOS communicate with PnP devices CD/DVD ROM CMOS settings setup ATAPI Master/Slave settings Molex Power connector Pin 1 closest to molex and match on IDE controller Audio cable connects to motherboard or sound card Eject inoperative CD by inserting paper clip on CD eject hole Clean CD with special cleaner or wipe center out Buffer Underrun is inability of CD/DVD to burn properly

CPU Problems with heat 5 Minute shut down Irrational Behavior of computer Listen for fan for breakdown Keep air case tight CPU Compatibility Not Seated properly Bent or damage pins Overclocking MEMORY ESD (low and high humidity) Fried Memory cannot be mixed Parity Errors or ECC Errors SIMMS must be installed in pairs RIMMS must be all installed or CRIMMs must be needed in in unvacated RIMM slots General Protection Fault Not enough memory NMI -Non Maskable Interrupt will cause BSOD No Video (Reseat memory) Memory speeds set in CMOS Setup Virtual Memory (Page fault) Chip Creep - Thermal expansion and contraction MOUSE Dirty Clean with Q-TIP IRQ and Drivers needed FLOPPY DRIVES Check Cable Connection Verify CMOS Configuration must be set to A or B drive (enable) Reverse cable light will always be on Not accessible cannot detect floppy drive Abort, Retry, Fail (Non system disk) or disk bad or needs cleaning No OS (Start up disk) Check boot sequence Invalid drive Drive letter determine by position of cable HARD DRIVES CMOS Settings (Auto Detect) Cable Connections (line up pin one) Verify Jumper Settings 12 Volt power cable what usually PC uses Molex connector ATA/33 (40 wires) ATA/66 and higher (80 wires) SOUND CARD Check IRQ, DMA, and I/O Check Cables to sound Check Drivers VIDEO CARDS ADAPTER No video Make sure video card is properly installed

Make sure drivers are installed History, CGA, EGA, VGA, SVGA and XGA Must conform to monitor Specifications VGA-uses analog video signals DAC-digital to analog signals MONITOR CRT Non-Interlaced Resolution Mode (800 by 600) Refresh Rate (60HZ and higher) Check the monitor controls (brightness or contrast) Flickering (Refresh rate or monitor is bad) Greenish color (Bent pins or monitor going bad) Never work on monitors unless qualified very high voltage!!!!!!!!!

Power Supply Check AC in 110volts Check Fan This can affect entire system Suddenly reboots on its own Make sure has enough watts Parallel Ports and Serial Ports CMOS Settings Use loop back test plug IRQ settings (LPT and COM) Make sure pin1 matches on AT motherboards

Trouble-Shooting tools Multi-Meter can be used to test a fuse a good fuse will show a reading or 0 ohms Reading 0 ohms means no resistance Infinite ohms means there is a break All fuses should read to zero Test high voltage on highest settings or fry your motherboard Test power supply voltage Slot covers installed in Computer use for Keeping dust out Improving air flow FRU-Field Replaceable Units Anything you can carry to change parts in computer Printers Power on Bad Drivers No ink Online not on Not connected to network Paper jam

Safety and Preventative Maintenance

Keeping System Clean Dust, Hair Circulation Compress Air and Vacuums Damp Cloth Clean circuit boards with an Emery Cloth Clean keyboard with damp water and soap also can use sillicone lubricants on keys Environmental Hazards Keep Machine cool and ventilated Power Issues Spikes - lightning Surges- Surge Protector (UPS) Sags-Brownout not enough power Storage Use anti-static bags Keep away from magnets Safety Procedures Lasers (CD/ROM and Laser they can blind you) High voltage equipment Power Supply CTR (Monitor) 3 Prong male (gets hot) Turn off computer and ground yourself Special Disposal Items Batteries Monitors Toner Cartridges Computer Fire Use a class C fire extingusher MSDS-Material Safety Data Sheets-are white pages that contain information about any substance that is deemed hazardous, most notably cleaning solvents. Its purpose is to inform employees about dangers inherent in hazardous materials and the proper use of these items to prevent potential injuries from occurring.