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Fossil Plant High-Energy Piping Damage: Theory and Practice
Volume 1: Piping Fundamentals

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Fossil Plant High-Energy Piping Damage: Theory and Practice
Volume 1: Piping Fundamentals
1012201

Interim Report, June 2007

EPRI Project Manager K. Coleman

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304-1338 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303-0813 • USA 800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES
THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.

NOTE
For further information about EPRI, call the EPRI Customer Assistance Center at 800.313.3774 or e-mail askepri@epri.com. Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, and TOGETHER…SHAPING THE FUTURE OF ELECTRICITY are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright © 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS
This report was prepared by Structural Integrity Associates, Inc. 3315 Almaden Expressway, Suite 24 San Jose, CA 95118-1557 Principal Investigators S. Rau C. Krause M. Clark Y. Krampfner K. Bezzant This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Fossil Plant High-Energy Piping Damage: Theory and Practice, Volume 1: Piping Fundamentals. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2007. 1012201.

iii

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Condition assessment programs for high-energy piping systems are often a major aspect of a fossil utility’s inspection and maintenance program. In the past 30 years, a number of major failures of fossil high-energy piping have been associated with flow-accelerated corrosion of feedwater piping, creep failures of longitudinal seam-welded hot reheat and main steam piping, and corrosion fatigue failures of cold reheat steam piping. In addition to these well-documented failures, most utilities experience failures of support systems, branch lines, instrumentation and inspection connections, and even circumferential weld cracking. Although considerable literature is available to describe the more notable and catastrophic failure mechanisms, many of the more frequent but generally less catastrophic failures are less well documented, and the understanding of these failures has been garnered through experience and utility participation in industrysponsored seminars and user groups. Results and Findings High-energy fossil piping systems include the main steam, hot and cold reheat, feedwater, and extraction steam piping. These systems can be subjected to a number of damage mechanisms, including creep, fatigue, thermal fatigue, creep-fatigue, microstructural instability, and flowaccelerated corrosion. An effective in-service inspection program anticipates the occurrence of damage and provides for a cost-effective inspection program to identify this damage during an early stage of development to allow for budgeted repair or replacement. This report presents an overview of the design and fabrication of high-energy piping systems, common damage mechanisms, inspection techniques, and condition assessment approaches. Challenges and Objectives As utilities’ technical personnel continue to mature and retire, there is often little opportunity for less senior technical staff to glean information from these individuals. This report gathers, in a single resource, an overview of the design, fabrication, common failure mechanisms, inspection techniques, and condition assessment tools associated with fossil utility high-energy piping systems. Boiler and turbine manufacturers provide an in-depth resource for condition assessment programs associated with their components. In contrast, much of the technical expertise associated with the design and construction of fossil high-energy piping systems was distributed through a large number of medium to large architect-engineering or engineering-construction firms. With the decrease in new construction, most of these firms have gone through restructuring and downsizing, resulting in a significant loss of centralized piping design and fabrication experience. At the same time, most utilities have experienced similar reductions in v

and condition assessment tools associated with fossil utility high-energy piping systems. the U.S. Volume 3: Performance of High-Energy Water Piping will provide information similar to that provided in Volume 2. Value. inspection techniques. and condition assessment approaches. and Use Utilities can use the information in this report to develop and implement a comprehensive highenergy piping inspection program with an emphasis on safety. Volume 2: Performance of Steam Piping will provide a more in-depth perspective associated with the materials and fabrication methods used in high-energy fossil steam piping. It will also cover common damage mechanisms and describe how to develop a condition assessment program to identify these mechanisms. and outage planning. the more frequent but generally less catastrophic failures are less well documented. programmatic approach to life management of fossil generation piping systems. system reliability. fabrication. fleet of fossil power plants continue to age. Volume 1 also describes common damage mechanisms. The understanding of these less catastrophic failures has been garnered through experience and utility participation in industry-sponsored seminars and user groups. provides an overview of the design and fabrication of high-energy piping systems. and a need for the appropriate level of condition assessment continues. The objective of this report is to provide a guidance document that facilitates the development and implementation of a comprehensive. Applications. common failure mechanisms. Keywords Condition assessment Creep-fatigue Damage mechanisms Design Flow-accelerated corrosion Nondestructive examination vi . Volume 1: Piping Fundamentals. Concurrent with the loss of available technical resources.their technical staff. the potential for the development of long-term damage mechanisms increases. EPRI Perspective Although the more notable and catastrophic failure mechanisms are well documented in industry literature. This report compiles information from a variety of sources to describe the design. optimized inspection costs and timing. Approach This report will be produced in three volumes. inspection techniques. This first volume. but it will focus on high-energy water piping systems.

....................................2-10 Expansion Loads .......................................................................1-1 2 DESIGN ......................................................................................................................................................................................2-17 Inspection Methods.........CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................2-7 Dead Weight Loads ...........................................................................2-20 Attemperator Design and Function........................................2-8 Wind Loads ........................................................................................................................2-11 System Supports.........................................2-1 Material Selection ...2-3 ASME Codes ...........................2-10 Pressure Relief Loads ...2-19 Assessment Approaches .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-22 vii ................................................................................................................................................................................2-20 References ................................................................................2-2 Support Locations.................................................................................................................................................................................2-7 Pressure Loads.2-16 Flow-Accelerated Corrosion .............................................................................................................................................................................2-12 Basic Design Steps ..............2-1 The Design Process ................................................. Design...............................................................................................................2-9 Seismic Loads ................................................................................................................................................................................................2-1 Fundamental Questions ......................................2-4 Design Life ...........................2-12 Flow Considerations and Modeling ...........................2-2 Stress Analysis .......................................................................................................................................................................2-6 System Loads ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................2-2 Design Codes and Regulations.................2-16 Flow-Related Dynamic Load Events ............................................................................................................................................................. and Function .....................2-1 Introduction .............................................................................................................

................................................................................................3-46 Mechanical Properties ....................3-22 Creep Crack Growth................................3-9 Iron-Carbon Systems............................................................................................................................................................3-53 viii ...................................................3-21 Fatigue......................................................................................................................................................................3-13 Effects of Composition on Microstructure and Properties .................................................................................................................................................................3-35 Allowable Stress Values ...........................................3-9 Nonequilibrium Cooling of Steels ......................................................................................................................................................................................3-21 Creep.............................................3-18 Mechanical Properties.....................................................................................................................3-18 Elemental Effects................3-41 Chromium-Molybdenum Steels .....................................................................................................................3-48 Aging Effects .........................................3-50 Carbide Embrittlement .........................................3-1 Comparison of Material Standards....3-40 Aging Effects ..........................................................................................3-23 Creep-Fatigue.....................................................................................................................................3-47 Creep Properties ...........................................................3-7 Steel Metallurgy .................................3-27 Austenitic Steels ..........................................................................................................3-32 Microstructure.......................................................3-21 Strength ............................................................................3-12 Continuous Cooling Transformations ......3-1 Historical Perspective on Material Changes in the American Power Piping Standards .............................................................................................................................................3-47 Allowable Stress Values .......................................................................................................................................................................3-52 Temper Embrittlement ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3-25 Ferritic and Advanced Ferritic Boiler Steels ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................3-43 Microstructure...................................................................................................................................................................3-30 Carbon Steels....................................................................3-33 Mechanical Properties ............................3-38 Creep Properties ................................................................................................3-23 Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................3-23 Classification of Steels Used in Power Plant Applications ...........3-1 Introduction ...3 METALLURGY OF STEELS ....................................................3-50 Carbide Changes and Coarsening........................................

...............................................................................................................................................................................4-8 Short Circuiting Arc Transfer.............................................................................................................................................3-68 Aging Behavior ..............................................................4-1 Welding Processes ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3-62 Microstructure........................................4-2 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding..................................................................................................................4-8 Globular Transfer ....................................................................................................3-55 Creep Properties .......................................................................................................................3-67 Allowable Stress Values .......................................................4-10 Flux Cored Arc Welding.........3-70 4 WELDING FUNDAMENTALS .............................................................................................................3-67 Creep Strength ......................................................................................................................................3-69 References .........................................................................................4-10 Weld Design .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-7 Spray Transfer ..................................................................Austenitic Steels.4-16 ix .................................................................................4-1 Introduction .........3-59 Sensitization ....................4-11 Microstructural Development...4-1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding ........................................................................................................................................................4-3 Submerged Arc Welding.....3-58 Sigma Phase .........................................................................................................................................................3-54 Microstructure......................................................3-62 Advanced Ferritic Steels .......................................................................................3-55 Allowable Stress Values .....3-55 Aging Behavior .............3-60 Grain Growth ................................................................................................................4-4 Process Description..................................4-9 Pulsed-Arc Spray Transfer...........4-15 Solidification Structure ....................4-15 Surface Tension.............................................................................................................................3-65 Mechanical Properties .....................................................................................................................................................................................4-15 Buoyancy and Electromagnetic Effects .................................................................................................................................4-5 Gas Metal Arc Welding..................................4-4 Consumables ............................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................5-16 References ....................................5-4 Fabrication of Piping Components ........................................................................................................................................................4-27 References ..........................................................................................................................................5-12 Incremental Bending ......................................................................................................................................1 ..............................................................................5-5 Seamless Pipe............................4-27 Porosity..........................................................................................................................................5-10 Welded Pipe ...........................................................................................4-27 Inclusions....................4-21 Microstructure of the Heat Affected Zone ........................................................................................................................................................................5-6 Plug Rolling Process..........5-10 Forged and Bored ...... AND ERECTION ...............................5-2 Historical Perspective on Piping Codes—Boiler Proper........................................................................................................................................................................................................ and Power Piping...................................................................................................................................................................................5-1 Piping ............................................................................4-28 5 MANUFACTURE.................................................................................................................................................................5-11 Furnace Bending ...4-22 Welding Defects ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5-15 Pipe Fittings.....5-10 Pipe Bends ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5-4 Development of ASME B31................................................................5-14 Roll Bending ..... FABRICATION..............................................................................................5-6 Pierce and Pilger Rolling Process..........................Inclusion Formation.....................................................................................................................5-14 Rotary Draw Bending..............................................................................................................5-16 x ....................4-26 Incomplete Joint Penetration ............................................................................................................................................................4-27 Undercut ...........................................5-12 Ram Bending .5-10 Centrifugally Cast ......5-7 Pierce and Draw Process ...............................................................................................................................................................5-12 Induction Bending ................................4-23 Cracks ................4-25 Incomplete Fusion ............................................................5-9 Extrusion Process .................................................................................................................................................................................................... Boiler External....................................................................................................................5-1 Introduction ..........................................

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-25 Miner’s Rule for Calculation of Fatigue Life-Fraction ........................................... and Creep-Fatigue....7-34 Introduction................................................................................................................................................................................................7-10 Damage Accumulation Rules..................................................................................................7-34 Crack Initiation................7-31 Creep-Fatigue ...........................................................7-27 Fracture Mechanics Approaches to Crack Growth by Fatigue ................................6 OPERATION.....................................................................7-37 Life Prediction Techniques ................7-29 Example...............................................................................................................................................................................................................7-37 Analytical Techniques.......................................................................................................................................................................7-12 Commercially Available Modeling Packages .................7-18 Crack Initiation......................................................................................................................................................................................7-20 Crack Growth..........................7-15 Example.......................................................................7-37 Crack Growth Under Creep-Fatigue Loading ............................................7-40 Comparison of Analytical Techniques for Creep...............................................7-1 Introduction ..............................................................................7-5 Crack Initiation........................................................................7-44 xi ....................................7-8 Creep Deformation—Life Models...............................................................................7-20 Analytical Techniques.........................................................................................................................7-22 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................7-5 Introduction...................................................................7-8 Analytical Techniques....................7-36 Crack Growth.....................................................................................................................6-1 7 DAMAGE MECHANISMS AND MODELS ....7-7 Crack Growth....................................................................................................................7-43 Example......7-1 Creep ............. Fatigue....................................................7-8 Creep Crack Growth Models...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-22 Nominal Stress Approaches—Goodman Diagram and Modified Goodman Diagram .................7-15 Fatigue .............................7-23 The Local Strain Approach to Fatigue ..............................................................................................7-18 Introduction...................................................................

.................................................7-57 Corrosion ................................7-59 Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8-1 Introduction .........................................................................................Flow-Accelerated Corrosion .........................8-14 xii ......................................................................8-12 Currently Available Prediction Tools ...................................7-48 Water pH............7-52 Spheroidization ...7-53 Graphitization.................................................................................................................8-7 Level III .......................................................................................................7-55 Temper Embrittlement ......................................................7-61 Cavitation...................................................7-49 Geometry ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-47 Oxidation-Reduction Potential ..............................................................................................................................................8-14 BLESS (Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation System) ...........................................................................7-46 Operational Conditions ..............................................7-49 Materials Influences...................................................................................7-50 Other Potential Damage Mechanisms......7-64 8 PROGRAMMATIC APPROACHES TO LIFE MANAGEMENT OF PIPING SYSTEMS ...................................................7-50 Examples...............8-4 Level II ...............................................................7-48 Temperature .....................................................................................8-1 Three-Level..................................................................................................................................................................................... Phased Approach to Assessment ....................................................................................................7-49 Mass Transfer .................................................8-9 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Phased Approach to Assessment .............................................................................................................7-63 References .............................................................................................................................................................7-62 Material Selection Considerations...................................................7-49 Analysis Techniques........8-14 Introduction...............................................7-52 Microstructural Degradation and Embrittlement ..7-46 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-61 Erosion .......................................................................................................................................8-3 Level I .................................................7-48 Flow Velocity.....................................................................................

......................................................................................9-13 Documentation of the Hanger Walkdown ..........................Inputs .9-15 System Survey Checklist.9-8 When a Hanger Support Problem Has Been Identified ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-10 In Situ Hanger Testing.............9-1 Support System Design................................................................................................8-14 Material Properties..............................................8-15 OmegaPipe Software ................................................................................................................9-3 Flexible Supports ....................................................................................................9-4 Rigid Supports ..........................................................................9-1 Types of Hanger Supports...........9-11 Inspection Equipment and Documentation Aids..................................9-14 Summary of Hanger Walkdown Documentation Requirements ......9-10 Hot and Cold Hanger Walkdown Inspections...........................................................................................................................................8-15 Calculational Methods .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-11 Preparation .........................8-22 References ..................................................9-7 Support Attachments (Pipe Side) ....................................................................................................9-9 Addressing Chronic Hanger Support Problems.......................................................................8-20 European Programs ...................................9-9 Replacing a Hanger Support .....8-16 Overview ..........................8-19 CHECWORKS™ and CHECUP™ Programs ...............................................................................................................9-10 Sagging and Skews in Critical Piping .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-5 Snubbers and Sway Braces...........................9-6 Dampers ..................................9-15 xiii ...........................................................9-1 Introduction and Background ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................8-19 Life Assessment .........9-7 Evaluation of Hanger and Support Performance....................................................9-8 What to Look for in a Hanger Support Evaluation .....................................................8-22 9 PIPING SYSTEM SURVEYS...........................................................8-18 Local Weld Stresses ..............................................................8-16 Piping Stress Analysis ....................................................................................

....................................................................................10-7 Disadvantages ...........................10-8 Advantages and Disadvantages..........................................................................................................................................................................................10-2 Access and Required Surface Preparation ............................................................................................................................................................9-17 References ..............................................10-6 Advantages and Disadvantages...10-5 Access Limitations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-16 Rigid Support Observations .......................................10-10 Advantages and Disadvantages................................................................................................10-8 Advantages .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-8 Disadvantages ............9-16 General Piping Observations .........................................................................................................................................................9-16 Sway Brace Support Observations ........................................................................................................................................................10-7 Magnetic Particle Testing .............................10-6 Visual Testing...............................9-16 Snubber and Shock Suppressors Support Observations ............................................................................................................................................................................................................10-9 Dye Penetrant Testing.........................................................................10-1 Assessment Objective (Macro/Micro)...................10-7 Application in Piping Systems ...................10-4 Surface Debris and Scale Removal ........................10-10 Disadvantages ...........................................................................10-10 Advantages ...................10-10 xiv ............9-15 Constant Load Support Observations.......................................10-9 Application in Piping Systems ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-7 Advantages ...........................10-6 Overview......................................................9-17 10 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING ................................................................................................10-9 Overview.........General Hanger Observations ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-6 Application in Piping Systems .....................................................................................................................................................................10-1 Introduction .............10-4 No Surface Preparation .....................9-15 Variable Load Support Observations ........................10-7 Overview........................................

..........10-23 Overview.......................................................10-15 Disadvantages ..................................................................................10-11 Advantages and Disadvantages.......................................................................................................................................................................Eddy Current Testing ........................................................................10-14 Advantages and Disadvantages........................................................................................................................................................................................10-11 Overview..................................................10-20 Application in Piping Systems...............................................................................................10-21 Advantages and Disadvantages ..............10-12 Application in Piping Systems .............................................................10-15 Time-of-Flight Diffraction ............................................................10-22 Application in Piping Systems .................................................................................................10-19 Advantages ...............................10-15 Advanced Ultrasonic Testing......................................................................................................................10-12 Advantages .........................................................................................10-15 Advantages .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-12 Overview...................................................................10-21 Advantages .....................10-21 Disadvantages ......................................................10-19 Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing .....10-22 Disadvantages ...............10-19 Disadvantages .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-15 Application in Piping Systems..10-12 Conventional Ultrasonic Testing.............10-22 Pulsed Eddy Current Testing ...........................................................10-21 Acoustic Emission Crack Detection...............................................10-22 Advantages ........................................10-19 Advantages/Disadvantages .......................10-23 xv ..............................................10-12 Disadvantages .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-23 Application in Piping Systems ....................................10-20 Overview .................................................................................................................................................................................................................10-15 Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................................10-22 Advantages and Disadvantages...............................................................10-11 Application in Piping Systems .................................................................................10-22 Overview...............................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11-4 Small-Sample Collection Methods...................................................11-1 Introduction .................................................10-25 Disadvantages ....................................................................................................................................10-25 Guided Wave Ultrasonic Testing................................................................................................................................................11-4 Sample Removal by Drilling.........11-6 Advantages and Disadvantages.............................................................................................................10-23 Advantages ..............................................................10-25 Advantages .....................11-3 Boat Sampling ......11-6 Overview..................................................................................................................................10-26 Advantages and Disadvantages.................................................................................10-24 Application in Piping Systems .................................................................................................................................................................11-11 xvi .................................................11-4 Plug Sampling.........................................................................10-26 Disadvantages ..................................11-3 Large-Sample Collection Methods ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11-10 Manufacturer’s Identification...........11-4 Small Cone Sampling .........................................................................................................................11-5 Remediation ...........................................................................................10-24 Overview.......................................................................................................11-6 Hardness Testing ...................................................................................................................................................10-26 11 METALLURGICAL EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS AND MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION.............................................................11-5 Surface Sampling System ....................................................................................................................10-24 Advantages and Disadvantages............................................10-25 Overview....................................................Advantages and Disadvantages.....................................................................11-9 Alloy Identification .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11-7 Application in Piping Systems ...................................................................................................11-1 Material Sampling.........................................................................11-10 Qualitative Alloy Identification..........................10-26 Advantages ........10-23 Radiographic Testing .................................................................................................10-25 Application in Piping Systems ..............................10-23 Disadvantages ......................................................................................................................................................

11-19 12 INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12-3 Creep-FatiguePro On-Line Damage Monitoring......................................11-17 Advantages and Disadvantages..................................................................................................................11-15 Overview...............................................11-11 Material Testing....................11-18 Accelerated Creep-Rupture Testing.......................................................13-1 Traditional Methods...............................................................................13-1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................13-3 Software Changes.....Quantitative Alloy Identification .............12-4 Acoustic Emission On-Line Damage Monitoring ......................................................................12-1 Thermocouples......12-7 Dimensional Measurements....................................................................................................................13-2 PC-Based Applications.....................11-12 Metallographic Examination ......................................................................................................................11-16 Application in Piping Systems .........................................................................12-9 13 DATA STORAGE.......................................................................11-17 Advantages ............................................13-2 Web-Based Applications ................................11-15 Casting Replication......................................................................13-3 Remote Access ................................................................................................................13-3 System Isolation and Security ..12-6 Water Chemistry................................................................................................11-13 Metallurgical Replication ............................................................................................... and Upgrades ..........12-1 Introduction ........11-17 Disadvantages .......................................................................................13-4 System Capacity.................................................................................................................12-8 References ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Patches..................13-4 xvii ............... AND EVALUATION.......................11-12 Mechanical Testing...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................11-18 References ...............................................................................11-15 Metallurgical Replication...............................................12-1 Strain Gauges .................................................................................................................................................................................. RETRIEVAL.......................................................................................................................................................................13-3 Data Collection Periods ...................................................................................................................

.......14-2 Piping System Support or Restraint ..................................................................................................................................14-14 Preheat .......14-7 Localized Repairs ................14 REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT ......................................................................................................14-13 Temporary Attachments ........................................................................................................ Tack Welding......................................................................................14-13 Tack Welding..........................................................................14-1 Type and Extent of Repair ..14-12 Cleaning ....................................................................14-15 Prerequisites .....................................................................................14-11 Repair Considerations........................................................................................14-6 Circumferential Repairs ...............................................................................................................................................................14-1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................14-9 Base Metal Repairs .....................................................................................14-12 Alignment...............14-9 Plug Sample Repairs ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................14-3 Pipe or Component Replacement ..................................................................................................................................14-11 Other Repair Designs ...........................................14-14 General .......................................................................................................................14-3 Repair Design .14-8 Through-Wall Defects ....................................................................................................................................................................................14-2 Temporary Repairs...........................14-16 Resistance Heating Pad Installation ............................14-12 Fit-Up..................................................................................................................................................................................................14-12 Fit-up.......................................14-1 Permanent Repairs...........................................................................................................................................................14-13 Preheating and Post-Weld Heat Treatment..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14-12 Flaw Excavation ...............................14-11 Radiographic Plugs......................................................................................................................................................................14-3 Complete Weld Removal—Through-Wall Weld Repairs .......................... and Temporary Attachments .....14-5 Non-Through-Wall Weld Repairs...................................................14-15 Post-Weld Heat Treatment Procedure ......................................................................14-14 Post-Weld Heat Treatment ..........................14-1 Governing Codes ..........................14-17 xviii ................................................14-15 Temperature Measurement...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................14-18 xix ..............................................................14-17 Alternatives to Post-Weld Heat Treatment...........................................................................................................14-18 Upgrading by Design or Material Improvement .................................................................................................................................................................14-18 Component Replacement..................................................................................................Post-Weld Heat Treatment Schedule....14-18 Like-for-Like.....................................14-17 Nondestructive Evaluation Following Completion of Post-Weld Heat Treatment..................14-18 References .......................................................

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..........................2-15 Figure 2-2 Cross Section of a Variable Load Support Using a Single Coil Spring.................................................................2-21 Figure 3-1 The Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram Showing How the Phases Change with Temperature and Carbon Composition..............3-16 Figure 3-6 Peak Temperature Variations in the Weld and Heat-Affected Zone Result in a Range of Prior Austenite Grain Sizes .....3-44 Figure 3-17 Differences in Fatigue Behavior for Carbon Steels with a Pearlitic or a Spheroidized Microstructure ........................3-26 Figure 3-9 Variation in Strength and Ductility for New 9 wt% and 12 wt% Cr Steels as a Function of C + N and Chromium Equivalent (Based on Irving) ............................................................17 C 0.................................................................................3-27 Figure 3-10 Development of High-Strength Boiler Steels .................3-37 Figure 3-15 Variation of Microstructural Changes Resulting from Spheroidization and Graphitization with Time at Elevated Temperature ............................3-14 Figure 3-4 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for Carbon Steel ...........................................3-36 Figure 3-14 The Influence of Increasing Carbon Level on Charpy Impact Tests for Carbon Steels ....................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 Configuration of a Constant Load Support .............................................................................................................................................................................................42 Mo) ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................3-10 Figure 3-2 Detail of the Iron Carbon Diagram....3-32 Figure 3-12 Typical Micrographs of Carbon Steel....... Showing (a) Predominantly Ferrite with Approximately 10% Pearlite and (b) Detail of the Pearlitic Microstructure.....3-25 Figure 3-8 Historical Background of the Development of Power Plant Steels ..................................20 Si 0......................3-42 Figure 3-16 Effect of Spheroidization on the Rupture Strength of Carbon-Molybdenum Steel (0.....................................3-15 Figure 3-5 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel ...3-29 Figure 3-11 Development of High-Strength Boiler Steels ................... Illustrating Microstructures Formed During Equilibrium Cooling .......................3-45 Figure 3-18 Variation of Creep Strength with Chromium Content for a Series of LowAlloy Steels ..................................................88 Mn 0.................................................................2-15 Figure 2-3 Contact Type (Spray) Attemperator Showing General Configuration.................3-17 Figure 3-7 Changes That Occur in the Precipitates Present in Cr Mo Low-Alloy Steels with Exposure to Elevated Temperatures ............................3-45 xxi ..........................................................................3-35 Figure 3-13 Changes in Strength and Ductility with Increasing Carbon Levels for a Simple Carbon Steel .............................3-11 Figure 3-3 Dimensional Changes That Occur on Heating and Cooling through the Temperature Range in Which Microstructural Transformations Take Place.....................................................

3-61 Figure 3-33 Typical Micrographs of Grade 91 Martensitic Steel Shown in (a) an Optical Micrograph and (B) a Transmission Electron Micrograph ........................................3-57 Figure 3-29 Microstructural Changes That Occurred in 321H Stainless Steel After Exposure at Elevated Temperatures for Different Times ....3-68 Figure 3-37 Summary of the Microstructural Changes Noted During Long-Term Aging of Grade 91 Material at 1112°F (600°C) ..............................4-2 Figure 4-2 Schematic of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process ...................................................................................3-52 Figure 3-26 Charpy Impact Transition Curves for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel..............3-70 Figure 4-1 Schematic of Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process...................................................................................................................................................................................3-69 Figure 3-38 Results of Postexposure Testing on Grade 91 Material............................................................................ and (c) Heat-Affected Zone ............................................3-66 Figure 3-35 Ferrite and Coarse Carbides Formed in Grade 91 Steel ................................................................3-48 Figure 3-22 Variation of the Larson-Miller Parameter with Creep Stress for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel ........................3-66 Figure 3-36 Comparison of the Creep Strength of Grade 91 with P22 and X20...4-3 Figure 4-3 Schematic of Submerged Arc Welding Process ...............................................3-58 Figure 3-30 Microstructural Changes That Occurred in 347H Stainless Steel After Exposure at Elevated Temperatures for Different Times ................................. Chromium Carbides Form on the Grain Boundaries ..........................................................................4-10 xxii ..............................................................Figure 3-19 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel ......................... (b) with Details of Typical Microstructures in the Weld Metal................................... 1-1/4 Cr Mo Steel at Different Metal Temperatures ......3-60 Figure 3-32 When Austenitic Stainless Steels Are Exposed to Prolonged Exposure to Temperatures in the Range of 805°F–1650°F (430°C–900°C).........................................................................................................3-46 Figure 3-20 Typical Weld Microstructures in Cr Mo Low-Alloy Steel Shown in (a) Macrosection............................................................................................................ Showing the Decrease in Strength Compared to Unexposed Material......3-51 Figure 3-25 Variation in Creep Strength of 1 Cr Mo Steel Samples as Microstructural Aging Progresses..............................................................................................3-49 Figure 3-23 Optical Micrograph Showing Precipitate Coarsening of P22 Material .........4-9 Figure 4-6 Pulsed-Spray Arc Welding Current Characteristic........3-47 Figure 3-21 Variation of Allowable Stress Values for Grade 11.........3-53 Figure 3-27 Stress Rupture Curves for a Weak Heat (Heat A) and an Average Heat (Heat B) of Type 304 Stainless Steel Tubing Material .3-62 Figure 3-34 Continuous Cooling Transformation Results for Grade 91 Steel..........................................................................3-59 Figure 3-31 The Development of Sigma Phase for Different Austenitic Stainless Steels Exposed at 1292°F (700°C) ..4-5 Figure 4-4 Schematic of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process .............................................................................................................4-7 Figure 4-5 Schematic of Short Circuit Cycle in Gas Metal Arc Welding..............3-56 Figure 3-28 Etched Surface of a Service-Degraded Type 304H Stainless Steel Tube Sample ..............................................................................................................................3-50 Figure 3-24 Progressive Changes in the Microstructure of 1 Cr Mo Steel.....................................................

........................................4-26 Figure 5-1 Pilger Mill Process for Seamless Pipe Manufacture ..................................................................................................................................................................4-14 Figure 4-12 Weld Metal Fluid Flow as a Result of Buoyancy Effects........................................................7-15 Figure 7-6 Schematic Drawing Illustrating the Location and Extent of Cracking ..............................................................4-13 Figure 4-11 Allowable Weld End Transition for Components With Different Wall Thickness or Outside Diameter .......................................................................................................................4-12 Figure 4-9 J-Bevel Weld End Preparation ...7-6 Figure 7-2 Use of a Parametric Method (the Larson-Miller Parameter) to Estimate the Remaining Life of Service-Damaged Material.............4-23 Figure 4-21 Classification Scheme For Cracks in Steam Pipe Weldments ................. Constant Load Test...........Figure 4-7 Schematic of Flux Cored Arc Welding Process ..5-15 Figure 7-1 Typical Creep Curve Showing the Three Steps of Creep (Curve A.......5-14 Figure 5-6 Rotary Draw Bending Process ................ Curve B...................................7-12 Figure 7-4 Comparison Between Life Estimates Based on the Life-Fraction Rule and the Observed Life in Postexposure Accelerated Tests .........5-7 Figure 5-2 Plug Rolling Process for Seamless Pipe Manufacture ...........................4-19 Figure 4-18 Schematic Illustration of Location of Inclusions in the Microstructure of a Weld Solidifying As (a) δ-Ferrite and (b) Austenite ...............................4-16 Figure 4-14 Weld Metal Fluid Flow as a Result of the Variation of Surface Tension of (a) Iron and (b) Surface Active Elements (Such As Sulfur and Oxygen) As a Function of Temperature..4-22 Figure 4-20 Schematic Diagram of the Various Subzones of the Heat-Affected Zone Approximately Corresponding to a Carbon Steel Containing 0......................................................................5-15 Figure 5-8 Cold Bending Ranges.........................................5-9 Figure 5-4 Induction Bending..........................................7-16 xxiii ..........................................................15 Wt% Carbon .......................4-12 Figure 4-10 Compound Bevel Weld End Preparation.............................................................5-13 Figure 5-5 Ram Bending Process....................................................................................4-11 Figure 4-8 Standard 37-1/2° Weld Bevel .....................................................................................5-8 Figure 5-3 Pierce and Draw Process for Seamless Pipe Manufacture ..................................................................................................................7-10 Figure 7-3 Flowchart of the Time-Dependent Fracture Mechanics Analysis Approach to Determining the Remaining Life in Creep and Creep-Fatigue Assessments ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-18 Figure 4-17 Two-Dimensional Appearance of the Weld Pool Showing the Columnar Grain Development ...................... Constant Stress Test).....................4-20 Figure 4-19 Transmission Electron Microscopy Images of Weldment Oxides Exhibiting MnS Caps on the Surface of the Oxide...................4-17 Figure 4-16 Different Solidification Processes in an Iron Base Alloy ............4-17 Figure 4-15 Weld Metal Fluid Flow Along the Direction of Welding ...............................................................................................................................4-16 Figure 4-13 Weld Metal Fluid Flow as a Result of Electromagnetic Force .........................7-14 Figure 7-5 Remaining Life-Fraction from Postexposure Accelerated Tests Versus Expended Life Under Service Conditions ......5-14 Figure 5-7 Roll Bending Process ...............................................................................................................................................................

..................................................7-42 Figure 7-24 The Initial Stress-Temperature Distribution Generated by Upshock ...7-28 Figure 7-15 Schematic of Stress Fields in Cracked Bodies .............7-39 Figure 7-22 Stress Relaxation Curves For 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel ..................................................7-33 Figure 7-18 Stereographic Image of the Fracture Surface ..................................7-19 Figure 7-9 Fatigue Crack Growth Data for Type A533 Steel ...................................................................................................7-40 Figure 7-23 Comparison of Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Rates With (a) Ct(ave)...................................7-24 Figure 7-13 Schematic Representation of the Strain-Amplitude versus Cyclic Life Relationship .........................................................................................7-23 Figure 7-12 Plotting Locations of Mean (σM) and Alternating Stress (σA) and Comparing Failure Lines.........7-22 Figure 7-11 Typical Steps to Calculate Fatigue Life in Propagation by Fracture Mechanics Analyses Given an Existing or Assumed Flaw...........................42 Mo) ................7-33 Figure 7-19 Effect of Prior Creep Damage and Tensile Hold Time on the Fatigue Life of 1 Cr 1/2 Mo Steel Base Metal and Heat-Affected Zones ..............7-52 Figure 7-29 Effect of Spheroidization on the Rupture Strength of Carbon-Molybdenum Steel (0.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7-58 xxiv ..........................................7-26 Figure 7-14 An Example of the Application of Miner’s Rule.......................88 Mn 0....7-55 Figure 7-31 Variation of Microstructural Changes Due to Spheroidization and Graphitization with Time at Elevated Temperature ........7-56 Figure 7-32 Shift in Impact Transition Curve to Higher Temperatures as a Result of Temper Embrittlement Produced in SAE 3140 Steel by Isothermal Holding and Furnace Cooling Through the Critical Range ...........................................................7-30 Figure 7-16 Damage Caused by Fatigue Failure in a Section of Cold Reheat Piping .................................................................................17 C 0.....................7-45 Figure 7-25 Stereoscopic Macrographs of Creep-Fatigue Cracking Resulting from (a) Upshock and (b) Downshock .......................................................................................... (b) ΔK...............................................7-46 Figure 7-26 FAC Failure and Damage on an Economizer Inlet Header Tube .......................................7-32 Figure 7-17 Macroscopic Etch of the Seam Weld and Micrograph of the Fracture Surface ...........7-54 Figure 7-30 Difference in the Fatigue Behavior for Carbon Steels with a Pearlitic or a Spheroidized Microstructure ......7-17 Figure 7-8 Compilation of Fatigue S-N Data for Common Engineering Materials ...7-21 Figure 7-10 Typical Steps to Calculate Total Fatigue Life (Initiation and Propagation) in a Fatigue Analysis....................................................................................Figure 7-7 Micrographic (Left) and Macrographic (Right) Images of the Creep Crack ..........................................................................................................................................7-36 Figure 7-21 Interaction and Consequences of Creep and Fatigue (Based on ASME N47) for a Typical Power Plant Steel (2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo)....7-51 Figure 7-27 Typical Surface Appearance of FAC ..............................................................7-35 Figure 7-20 Schematic of Creep-Fatigue Curves (Design) For Some High-Temperature Alloys.................................................20 Si 0...........7-51 Figure 7-28 Typical Scalloped Appearance of Single-Phase Flow-Accelerated Corrosion as Viewed with a Scanning Electron Microscope.......................

............10-20 Figure 11-1 Variation in Measured Hardness with Indenter Load for a 1 Cr 1/2 Mo Steel Sample Ground to a 300-Grit Finish ................................................................................10-18 Figure 10-5 Phased Array Coverage of a Seam Weld from Two Probe Positions.............................9-13 Figure 9-11 A Support Hanger Running Through the Floor Grating ....................8-3 Figure 8-2 Generic Steps in a Level 1 Assessment for Creep ................................................................................8-11 Figure 8-5 Flowchart of the OmegaPipe Software ........................... Backwall Reflection...................................................................................................................9-6 Figure 9-6 Configuration of Welded Attachment Lugs on Piping .......................................9-6 Figure 9-5 Sway Brace Arrangements..................................11-8 Figure 12-1 Thermocouple Junction Types ............. Mid-Wall Flaw....................................................................................10-16 Figure 10-3 Tip Signals from Mid-Wall Flaw .................................................................................................9-5 Figure 9-4 An Example of a Rigid Support ...............10-16 Figure 9-1 Portion of Typical High-Energy Piping Isometric Drawing ...................................................................................................10-17 Figure 10-4 Typical Time-of-Flight Diffraction Image Showing Lateral Wave.........................Figure 7-33 Charpy Impact Transition Curves for 2-1/4 Cr Mo Steel Before Service..............8-5 Figure 8-3 Generic Steps in a Level II Assessment..............................................................................................7-60 Figure 8-1 Data Requirements in Assessment Stages for the Three-Level Approach .....................................................................................................................12-2 Figure 12-2 Flowchart Illustrating the Creep-FatiguePro Monitoring Approach ..........................11-7 Figure 11-2 Variation in Hardness with Indenter Load for a 1 Cr 1/2 Mo Steel Sample Polished to a 1-μm Diamond Finish ...................................................................9-11 Figure 9-9 Detailed Design Drawings for a Typical Constant-Support Hanger Showing the Pertinent Load and Travel Information ..................................................7-59 Figure 7-34 Basic Corrosion Cell ..........9-3 Figure 9-2 Cross Section of a Constant-Load Support Hanger ...................... and After Prolonged Service at 1022°F (550°C).............14-4 xxv ...11-8 Figure 11-3 Variation in Hardness with Indenter Load for a 1CrMo Steel Sample That Had Been Repeatedly Polished .8-18 Figure 8-6 Sample Input Screen for CHECUPTM Software FAC Analysis.................9-8 Figure 9-8 A Simple Isometric Sketch of Piping System Showing Relative Locations of Supports with ID Names and the Type of Support Hanger ............. and Small Back Surface Flaw.8-21 Figure 8-7 Sample Output Report from CHECUPTM Software FAC Analysis................9-12 Figure 9-10 Detailed Design Drawings for a Typical Variable-Load Support Hanger Showing the Pertinent Load and Travel Information ........................................................................... After Laboratory Aging.................................................................................................................9-14 Figure 10-2 Time-of-Flight Diffraction Standing Waves ............................................................................................................9-4 Figure 9-3 Cross Section of a Variable-Load Support Hanger .................................................8-8 Figure 8-4 Generic Steps in a Level III Assessment .......................................................................................................12-5 Figure 14-1 Standard Weld Joint Details ...................................................8-21 Figure 10-1 Transducer Arrangement and Coverage Volume for Time-of-Flight Diffraction ..........................................................................9-7 Figure 9-7 A Typical Hanger Plate Attachment Configuration .....

.............14-5 Figure 14-3 Weld Buttering to Reestablish Pipe or Component Length After Removal of Heat-Affected Zone .......................................................................14-7 Figure 14-5 Typical Non-Through-Wall..14-10 Figure 14-7 Plug Sample Repair Methods......................... Full-Circumferential Weld Repair Detail...................................Figure 14-2 Typical Counterbore Design ...................................................................... Local Weld Repair Detail ..............................................................................................................................14-8 Figure 14-6 Typical Base Metal Excavation Details................14-6 Figure 14-4 Typical Non-Through-Wall............14-11 xxvi ......................

..................................3-63 Table 3-12 Tensile Properties and Hardness for Selected Advanced Ferritic Steels .............................11-2 xxvii .......................................LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 Grid Size as a Function of Pipe Size for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing for FlowAccelerated Corrosion......3-67 Table 3-13 Allowable Stress Values for Selected Advanced Ferritic Steels (Units: ksi) .............................1 .................7-63 Table 10-1 NDE Methods Cross-Reference .................3-28 Table 3-6 Chemical Compositions of Austenitic Heat-Resistant Piping Steels.............3-9 Table 3-5 Nominal Compositions of Ferritic Piping Steels ....................3-39 Table 3-10 Larson-Miller Parameters for Stress Rupture Properties ...............................................................3-2 Table 3-2 Comparison of Selected Material Specifications for Piping Alloys.........5-3 Table 5-3 Approximate Lower Critical Temperatures As Given in ASME B31..................7-2 Table 7-2 Comparison of Assessment Methods for Fatigue..................................................3-31 Table 3-7 Specified Composition and Tensile Properties for Selected Carbon Steels .................2-19 Table 3-1 Summary of ASTM Materials Used in Fossil Generation .......3-67 Table 4-1 Summary of Measured Weld Metal Oxygen Contents..............................3-7 Table 3-4 Comparison of Select Allowables for Historic Editions of B31.....................................................1.............10-2 Table 11-1 Invasive Testing Options for High-Energy Piping ...............................3-40 Table 3-11 Typical Composition for Selected Advanced Ferritic Steels ..............3-34 Table 3-9 ASME BPVC Section II Maximum Allowable Stress for Selected Carbon Steels ..........................................................................4-6 Table 5-1 Permissible Variation in Wall Thickness for Pipe Made to NPS Schedules......................5-3 Table 5-2 Permissible Variation in Outside Diameter for Pipe Made to NPS Schedules........................................................................................................................7-43 Table 7-3 Steel Selection Guide Based on Damage Mechanism Susceptibility ....... and Creep-Fatigue ....3-4 Table 3-3 Superseded ASTM/ASME Steel Piping Specifications ...5-11 Table 7-1 Damage Mechanisms for Main Steam and Hot Reheat Piping.............................. Creep............................................................3-33 Table 3-8 Specified Composition and Tensile Properties for Representative Pipe Alloys ..................................

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thermal fatigue. reheat (both hot and cold). including creep. 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo has been derated over the years). high-energy piping has no expected design life. it is normally the result of inadequate design as a result of overestimation of material strength (for example. fatigue. however. When failure occurs. or a significant change in operating practices (excessive temperatures or a change from base load to cyclic operation). microstructural instability. and extraction steam piping. These systems can be subjected to a number of damage mechanisms. and flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). an incomplete understanding of the metallurgical impact of fabrication variables (creep cavitation damage in submerged arc welds). 1-1 . An effective in-service inspection program anticipates the occurrence of damage and provides for a cost-effective program to identify this damage during an early stage of development in order to allow for budgeted repair or replacement. feedwater.INTRODUCTION 1 The objective of this three-volume report is to provide a guidance document that facilitates the development and implementation of a comprehensive. this equipment undergoes continuous damage. This first volume presents an overview of general issues that relate to all piping systems. programmatic approach to life management of fossil generation piping systems. When in service. creep-fatigue. the design margins established in the fabrication codes are such that the anticipated damage rate was not expected to result in a failure of major components during the economic life of a unit. including the following: • • • • • • • • Design fundamentals Design of piping support systems Materials Fabrication Damage mechanisms Inspection methods Programmatic approaches to life management Considerations for repair versus replacement High-energy fossil piping systems are normally considered to include the main steam. Unlike boiler tubes.

Although early detection of service-induced damage by inspection is • 1-2 . electric power industry embarked on an aggressive inspection and evaluation effort to minimize the risk associated with operating seam-welded high-energy piping. demonstrating that stress is only one of several critical factors that must be considered in developing a comprehensive inspection plan. there is typically no expectation of performance improvement. These experiences demonstrate the need for a comprehensive understanding of the design and fabrication of high-energy piping systems. Finally. Historically. Although it is impossible to remove all risk. an acceptable level of risk could be comparable to the level of risk that employees expose themselves to during their daily commute to work. when major modifications are necessary. Similarly. the catastrophic failure of a seam-welded cold reheat pipe in 2003 resulting from corrosion fatigue and the periodic occurrence of FAC damage failures in feedwater and extraction steam piping demonstrate potential for damage occurrence in fossil piping systems operating outside the normal creep regime. in many cases. the identification of probable damage mechanisms. increasing the difficulty of detection. the assessment of high-energy fossil piping systems primarily consisted of regular monitoring and adjustment of the piping support systems and nondestructive examination (NDE) of a limited number of select circumferential welds. For example. Personnel safety is the highest priority. However. recent occurrences of circumferential weld damage have frequently developed in nontraditional locations and. However. This can be accomplished by using state-of-the-art inspection techniques to identify damage in sufficient time to effect mitigation or any required repair and replacement during scheduled maintenance overhauls. As a result of these inspections. the need for complete replacement of the piping system is unusual and not expected. recent experience has shown that many industry failures and severe cracking events have developed in lower-stress welds. critical piping inspection programs have considered a stress-biased approach that focused attention on the calculated highest-stress welds with the expectation that these welds would develop damage first and then serve as indicators for the overall system condition.S. the goal of an effective high-energy piping program should be to lower the risk of failure to a level that is reflective of risks to which employees are normally exposed and that the employees readily accept. the goal of a critical piping program is to ensure personnel safety and to limit expenditures associated with forced outages resulting from failure. An additional objective of the high-energy piping program is to reduce the financial impact associated with forced outages resulting from failure. the U. following the catastrophic failure of seam-welded hot reheat (HRH) pipe at two power stations in 1985 and 1986. Therefore. Historically. and the tools available for developing and implementing a comprehensive high-energy piping program with the following objectives and benefits: • Safety. System reliability. have initiated subsurface.Introduction Although repair of selected locations (such as circumferential welds) might be required throughout the life of the unit. a significant number of failures and major cracking occurrences have been identified in seamwelded HRH and main steam piping. In addition.

An effective high-energy fossil piping program can minimize inspection costs through the following methods: – Proper documentation. repair. materials of construction. submerged arc welds (SAW) are more susceptible to the development of subsurface-initiated Type IV creep damage than shielded metal arc welds (SMAW). Many of the risk factors associated with circumferential weld failures are associated with material properties and fabrication practices. 1-3 . and it is not uncommon to find welds in a piping system fabricated with an incorrect filler metal. Limited compositional information can be obtained by nondestructive alloy analysis. Program costs can be minimized only through complete and effective forecasting of inspection and repair requirements. When possible. Forecasting inspection and repair activities can enable a utility to schedule and budget for inspection. and the occurrence of a weld repair can be ascertained by noting a disruption of the weld bead pattern in the finished weld. Outage planning.Introduction necessary to limit the risk of forced outages. and compositional information should be gathered. Documentation of weld locations. fabrication practices should be documented. in most cases these detailed records will not be available. When available. When detailed fabrication records are not available. the presence of a repair to a weld (longitudinal or circumferential) greatly increases the probability of damage initiating in the weld. However. For example. – • Optimal inspection timing. construction records can be used to identify fabrication practices and the compositional make-up of a component. welding methods (for example. Similarly. and replacement costs and to coordinate these activities with concurrent outage activities. it is equally important to reduce the occurrence of damage through proper maintenance of piping supports and to identify system operating conditions that adversely impact component life. • Optimized inspection costs. Minor compositional variables can also be a significant factor in determining the susceptibility of a weld to failure. and previous inspection results can help reduce inspection costs. a properly implemented program will anticipate damage associated with known damage mechanisms and will schedule periodic inspections to identify components for repair or replacement during routine scheduled maintenance outages. SAW versus SMAW) can be inferred from the appearance of the weld. fabrication practices. Using the best inspection technology and documenting the inspection results can prevent premature or unnecessary reinspection. For a given operating history.

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the desired velocity. the primary parameters that affect the design. piping systems are a major component (and expense) in power stations. Power Boilers. These documents are examples of design-by-rule codes wherein simplified equations are used to determine characteristic stress values that are then compared with allowable stresses. In the United States. and the relationship of the design process to other disciplines. 2-2]. The Design Process Fundamental Questions The fundamental function of a high-energy piping system is to transport fluid (water or steam) from a source to a delivery point. Clearly. Aside from the functional aspects of piping system design. Therefore. wall thickness requirements can be determined from the code rules based on the specified fluid conditions and the selected materials of construction. and installation) to ensure that the piping system operates at stress levels within the levels prescribed by codes and provides reliable operation for a prescribed time period. The characteristics of the piping system are developed to achieve this goal. The detailed design is affected by such criteria as the type of fluid being transported. the system supports require significant engineering effort (design. 2-1 . Code for Pressure Piping Standards: Power Piping [2-1. the pumping requirements. the allowable pressure drop. power plant designs are affected by economic considerations. where environmental hazard potential is the prime factor.DESIGN 2 Introduction The initial design of a piping system is established by the functional requirements of transporting a fluid from one point to another.1. In the design of a piping system and its supports. and ASME B31. the governing codes are the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC). fabrication. The fundamental design requirement is to deliver the required fluid volume at the specified conditions and in compliance with the governing code. after the piping diameter is determined (to meet flow requirements). Section I. the role of codes and regulations in the formulation of a design. Other than in nuclear applications. This section describes a typical design process. the factors that must be considered are predicated by the type of plant in which the system will be used. and the available materials.

With the characteristic spans determined. However. It is advantageous to use one span that satisfies both criteria. [25. it is usually preferable to shorten the span between supports as opposed to constructing a more complicated attachment. These locations should be near. A design that provides the minimum number of supports with locations and functions that minimize resistance to thermal expansion. A thinner pipe results in less dead weight. Support Locations After the pipe sizes are established. Each potential selection has both beneficial and less beneficial points.4 cm]) diameter. For example. The difficult part is arriving at the optimum balance of cost. It is also important to review drawings from other systems and equipment to avoid physical interference. Specification of support types and locations is critical. the next step is to define initial support locations. 2-2 . and safety. or coincident with.Design Material Selection For the most part. For this process. thereby allowing a combination of directional support at one location. seismic and wind loadings (lateral support span). This is accomplished by establishing characteristic support spans for each pipe diameter based on dead weight loading (vertical support span) and. which could allow the use of smaller pipe supports and lighter structural steel. When available structure is not present to maintain the determined spans. cost considerations dictate that run geometry be kept simple with as few directional changes as possible. A more indepth description of the material selection process can be found in the EPRI report Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers (1004509) [2-3]. and location of other piping and equipment in the proposed run area are required. detailed drawings of the proposed pipe routing. With all the geometric data collected. within the code allowable stresses. superimposing the piping drawings over the structural steel layouts should allow identification of candidate support locations. functionality. structural steel or other convenient points of attachment. structural steel drawings. selection of a high-chromium alloy steel instead of a low-alloy steel can result in a significantly thinner wall requirement for a given pressure and temperature according to the code allowable. a balance between required support and flexibility for thermal expansion must be obtained. material selection is governed by cost and availability. if applicable. will be the best. there are other indirect effects of material selection that might not be readily apparent. stress analysis of the system is performed to determine the support characteristics required to prevent piping overstress according to the code requirements. a routing plan can be developed to get from the source to the delivery point. and the distance between locations should be consistent with the characteristic spans. In this design phase. Because most high-energy piping is large (greater than 10 in. Stress Analysis After the initial support locations are selected.

seismic loading (EQ). However. state. Recommended practices.Design By analysis. organizations. thermal expansion (Th). or inspection prepared in a way that they can be adopted by a legal jurisdiction and made into law. Design Codes and Regulations In the interest of public protection. these are typically associated with the ASME BPVC and ASME B31 [2-1.9) is not mandatory in the United States. Documents prepared by agencies. The following generally accepted definitions are used in this volume: • Codes. These load cases include dead weight (DW). the following combinations should be considered: • • • • DW + Th + (EQ + Wind) DW + Th . or restraint) and required load capability can be determined through the combination of individual load cases. • • • 2-3 . fabrication. variable load. and it is mandatory in most states.(EQ + Wind) The maximum loading in each direction determined from these load combinations should be used to design the support. materials. Guidelines. support function (constant load.1 through B31. Power Piping. In the United States. installation. Standards. The ASME BPVC Section I. Documents prepared by a professional group specifying good engineering practices. From these load cases. codes. Today the ASME BPVC includes eleven sections.(EQ + Wind) DW + (EQ + Wind) DW . federal. some confusion exists as a result of the number of such documents. and wind loading. and standards. although it has been adopted as a legal requirement with the minimum design requirements being accepted by the power industry as a standard for all piping outside the jurisdiction of the ASME BPVC. or committees describing engineering methods that are considered good practice but have no specific recommendation or requirement. numerous international. The ASME B31 code collection (B31. for power boilers was issued in 1914. In response to these regulations and with the intent of simplifying their interpretation. The collections of rules or systematic standards for design. several professional societies have published guidelines. Documents prepared by a professional group describing requirements that are good and proper engineering practices and that are written with mandatory requirements (use the verb “shall”). and local government regulations have been created and enacted. 2-2] . the application of which is optional.

a Code Case is assigned. The resulting committee response can result in the relaxation of a specific requirement. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components. it is important that designers remain current regarding changes to the applicable codes. Code Cases do not signify a revision to the code. unless otherwise indicated. they become mandatory six months after they are issued.0S h 4t n Z Eq. errata sheets. Failure modes are plastic deformation and bursting. Typically. Secondary stresses are developed as a result of constraint of the system against displacement such as thermal expansion or imposed displacements. Subsection NB (Class 1) components. Peak stresses form as the result of thermal gradients or stress concentrations. The codes and standards applicable to a given design are those that are in effect at the time that the system or component purchase order is awarded. Failure modes are plastic instability and buckling. When a code requirement is questioned and an interpretation is requested. or new editions.75i ) M A + ≤ 1. • Stress limits within a fossil piping system designed under ASME B31. Secondary stresses are self-limiting and can be relieved by deformation of the system. and the ASME B31 codes. Primary stresses are not selflimiting. Section III. ASME Codes The ASME BPVC. and they typically do not result in distortion of the system. Peak stresses are developed locally. use the maximum principal stress theory to assess component failure [2-4. designers who use Code Cases should be sure that they apply to their situation. changes to any of these documents are identified as addenda. which are applicable to the majority of piping systems. and other mechanical loads must satisfy Equation 2-1. Subsections NC (Class 2 Components) and ND (Class 3 Components). This theory states that yielding occurs when the magnitude of any of the three principal stresses exceeds the material yield strength.1 criteria must meet the following limits: • Sustained-load stresses from pressure. 2-2]. Piping stresses are categorized by the following three types: • • Primary stresses are developed by applied mechanical loads.Design For the purposes of system design. More detailed evaluations of stress combined with the maximum shear stress theory are allowed for Section III. 2-1 (SI Units) PDO 1000(0. Code changes are typically not retroactive.0S h Z 4t n 2-4 . (English Units) PDO 0. weight. Failure mode is fatigue failure from cyclic loading.75iM A + ≤ 1.

25SC + 0. • Occasional-load stresses from pressure. 2-2 (SI Units) PDO 1000(0. is the stress intensification factor (a dimensionless parameter). or mm). is the section modulus of the cross section (in3 or mm3). and 1.2 for occasional loads acting less than 1% of the operating time. the effects of thermal expansion loads. or mm). must satisfy Equation 2-3. 2-5 . weight. 2-3 (SI Units) S E = 1000(iM C ) ≤ S A + f (S h − S L ) Z Where: MC SA SC is the range of moments on the cross section from thermal expansion (in-lb or mm-N). Part D (psi or kPa) [2-5]. (English Units) SE = iM C ≤ S A + f (Sh − S L ) Z Eq. and occasional loads (including earthquake) must satisfy Equation 2-2.75i ) M B + + ≤ kS h 4t n Z Z Where: k MB is 1. is the nominal wall thickness of the pipe (in.75iM B + + ≤ kS h 4t n Z Z Eq. is the outside diameter of the pipe (in.15 for occasional loads acting less than 10% of the operating time. (English Units) PDO 0. is the resultant moment on the cross section from sustained loads (in-lb or mm-N).75iM A 0. is the allowable stress range for thermal expansion stresses = f(1.75i ) M A 1000(0. other mechanical loads. Section II.Design Where: P DO tn MA Z i Sh is the internal design pressure (psi or kPa). is the material allowable stress at maximum temperature from the stress tables in the ASME BPVC.25Sh). is the material allowable stress at minimum temperature from the stress tables. • Expansion-load stresses. is the resultant moment on the cross section from sustained loads (in-lb or mm-N).

safe period of usefulness” are not specific design lives.000-hour creep rupture stress. design stresses at temperature are limited to 0. as for any component. For some more-ductile materials. Clearly. “long service life” and “reasonably long. as much as 90% of the yield strength at temperature is allowed. can be made only based on an in-depth understanding of the properties of the construction materials and the service conditions that will be experienced. As a consequence. neither code defines a specific design life. In general. the basis for design of pressure components is the comparison of a singular calculated stress value with the allowable stresses provided in the code. To prevent pressure boundary rupture. values in the stress tables have been established to prevent the following: • • • Rupture of the pressure boundary. safe period of usefulness” [2-1]. In the creep range.1 states in its Foreword. 2-6 . allowable stresses produce an average secondary creep rate of 1% per 100. 2-2].000 hours exposure.000 hours or 80% of the 100. Section I. identification of all factors and their respective application ranges is not possible. Therefore. independent of temperature General yielding during short-term loading at temperatures below the creep range Large strains (>1%) for components with extended service at temperatures in the creep range. Recognizing that not all factors are covered in the code.1 have demonstrated that they provide adequate margins in establishing these values for the majority of high-energy system components [2-1. design stresses are limited to the lower of a secondary creep rate of 1% per 100. and ASME B31. it is the designer’s responsibility to be aware of those factors that affect component or system life and to establish the design life for a component or system that also meets code rules. the designer must be ready to go beyond the code rules to ensure the target design life.314 of the material tensile strength at temperature. In the design-byrule method. The guidelines contained in the ASME BPVC. ASME B31. For long-term exposure in the creep range.Design f SL is the stress range reduction factor for cyclic conditions. Design Life The determination of design life for high-energy piping. is the sustained stress calculated in Equation 2-1. examination of the bases used in development of the allowable stress tables can provide some general insight. reflecting the need for long service life and maximum reliability in power plant installations” [2-2]. “this Code is more conservative than some other piping codes. Although the codes do not explicitly define a design life. The Foreword of the ASME BPVC section states that “the objective of the rules is to afford reasonably certain protection of life and property and to provide a margin for deterioration in service so as to give a reasonably long. As with any complex system. the primary stress values are limited to two-thirds of the yield strength at temperature. For general yielding of most materials.

material degradation with time. Dead Weight Loads All systems must be designed for dead weight loading. Occasional loads. Code for Pressure Piping. dead weight loads frequently do not by themselves determine the final spacings in a design. As a consequence of this common source. insulation. Support spacing should also consider other load contributions. and valve relief. the factors described in this section indicate a minimum design life of 100. The following subsections describe how to estimate or calculate design loads for a system. Dead weight loads establish the initial spacing of supports so that bending stresses on the pipe cross section do not exceed code allowables. supports must be provided to prevent collapse of the system from its own weight. it is a sustained load. • Regardless of the type of load. Examples of occasional loads are wind. therefore. Specifically. For components that operate in the creep range. therefore. which was first published in 1935. as the name implies. out of specified operation. attached components. The load at a support from system weight must include the weight of the pipe. Because this load is present throughout the operating cycle of a system. fault events. or fatigue—extended lives will be realized. such as pipe weight and internal pressure. fluid. are those that do not occur on a regular basis but do happen during operation. the loads applied must be determined and combined to develop a set of design loads for the system. seismic events. This load type is not self-relieving. and support hardware.Design Therefore. Expansion loads are the result of pipe displacements typically caused by pipe thermal expansion and terminal point displacements from thermal expansion or foundation settlement. To ensure that the supports are able to perform this function for the life of the plant. loads are classified as the following three types: • • Sustained loads are those loads caused by forces that are present throughout normal operation.000 hours. System Loads All piping codes followed in the United States were developed from the American Standards Association (ASA) B31. the system supports must be able to transmit that load to the building structure. it is reasonable to presume that—barring faulty fabrication. today’s codes share a common terminology regarding the classification of loads experienced by piping systems. for components that operate at temperatures below the creep range of the constituent materials. 2-7 .

2-5 In application. it certainly is a main contributor to the stress state in a section of piping. 2-8 . and other materials. 2-6 Pressure Loads Internal pressure from the water or steam being transported is another sustained load.Design Considering the span of piping between supports as a beam. Lmax = (10ZSALL/W)1/2 Where: L Z SALL W is the overall length of the span for which you are determining the support spacing. Pinned-end conditions Fixed-end conditions Where: W L FEND is the combined weight per unit length of pipe. For a given W for a section of piping. support spacing is determined by using the allowable stress at temperature from the stress tables for the specified material. insulation. assumed end conditions (pinned or fixed). and Equation 2-5 for fixed-end conditions). insulation. is the combined weight per unit length of pipe. as shown in Equation 2-6. is the vertical reaction load at each end of the section. depending on the support type. bending moments at supports are best approximated in the range of WL2/4 to WL2/7. is the section modulus of the pipe cross section or the outside radius/moment of inertia. Eq. This pressure does not typically result in loads on the supports other than at terminal points or where the pipe wall is not continuous (for example. and other materials. is the length of pipe between span ends. and material densities (ρ) are determined using strength of materials formulas (Equation 2-4 for pinned-end conditions. at bellows or slip joints). Consequently. applying the best approximation formulation for bending stress. Mmax = (1/2)WL2 and FEnd = 1/2WL Mmax = (1/12)WL2 and FEnd = 1/2WL Eq. the maximum bending moments and end loads on the cross section as a function of the span (L). is the allowable stress at the operating temperature for the specified material from the applicable code stress table. the actual conditions at a support fall between the fixed and pinned conditions. 2-4 Eq. However.

is the cross-sectional flow area. is calculated using Equation 2-8 (based on Bernoulli’s equation for fluid flow over a body). F= Where: F P DFlow PπDFlow 4 Eq. or both) from wind. CDrag. is the dynamic pressure exerted by the wind. 2-9 . 2-8 Where: CDrag D g q is the drag coefficient for the pipe (dimensionless). The drag coefficient. Wind Loads Wind loads are classified as occasional loads. 2-7 is the load. Wind velocity maps and mean and peak velocity data as a function of location and elevation are published by several organizations and should be cited in the system design documentation. Values for CDrag for piping are found in tables available in many references. vertical. The load applied by wind is typically modeled as uniform. is the pipe and insulation outside diameter. is a function of the body shape and flow velocity evaluated using the Reynolds number.Design At a terminal point or discontinuous pipe-wall location. FWind = C Drag Dq g Eq. FWind. parallel to the wind direction. acting over the projected area of the pipe. The force generated per unit length. To develop the potential contribution from wind loading. is the gravitational constant. as shown in Equation 2-7. the maximum anticipated wind velocity over the life of the system must be determined. Any section of a piping system that is outdoors could be subjected to external pressure forces (horizontal. calculated as 1/2ρV2 for the air density (ρ) in mass/length3 and wind velocity (V) in length/s. the load (F) developed from internal pressure is determined from the magnitude of the pressure (P) multiplied by the cross-sectional flow area (DFlow). is the pressure.

⎡ MV ⎤ FRelief = FDynamic ⎢ + PA ⎥ ⎣ gc ⎦ Eq. 2-10 Where: FDynamic M gc V P A 2-10 is a dynamic load factor included to account for the increased load applied as a result of the rapid application of the relief force. Eq. After the area-based seismic characteristics (particularly magnitude and duration) are determined.0. 2-9 Pressure Relief Loads All high-energy piping systems must have the capability to relieve internal pressure to prevent boundary ruptures. it can be calculated for those instances in which the pipe is vented directly to the atmosphere. is the fluid pressure.Design Seismic Loads Safety-related nonnuclear piping must be designed to withstand seismic loads. The magnitude of the relief force is typically supplied by the valve manufacturer. the fundamental period of the system (s) is the weight of the piping system.5/T1/2 for T. In those instances where less accuracy is acceptable. is the gravitational constant. Accurate evaluation of seismic loads is complex. typically in the range of 1. static analyses can be performed. they are converted into loads using Equation 2-9. as shown in Equation 2-10. The first step in the process is to establish the seismic potential in the area in which the piping system is located. typically 0. is 0. the resulting stream of fluid causes a jet force that must be resisted by the pipe and its supports. This is accomplished by placing pressure-sensitive valves in the piping system. is a factor based on the type of structure. and it requires numerical analysis that is typically performed on a computer. If it is not provided. is the fluid exit velocity.0. including insulation and support hardware (lb or kg). . whether by modal or time-history analysis. is the mass flow rate from the valve. The Uniform Building Code provides one source of damage potential based on a four-tiered zone ranking system. When a pressure relief valve opens.67 to 3. is the discharge flow area.1 to 2. FSeismic = ZKCW Where: Z K C W is a factor based on the seismic zone.

resulting in locations of increased stress. is the difference in temperature. with increased temperatures during operation. treating each perpendicular leg as a cantilever beam. Besides evaluating an entire system using a computer. as shown in Equation 2-12. the more effectively restrained it will be for dead weight and occasional loads. 2-11 For typical piping materials. Then. there are simplified methods for determining expansion loads. in a given section of pipe can be determined by Equation 2-11. the pipe will expand. M = Where: E I L ΔThermal is the pipe modulus of elasticity. is the pipe length. Mean values for the expansion coefficient are provided in the code for application over temperature ranges starting at 70°F (21°C). the value of α is temperature dependent. The amount of thermal expansion. The most comprehensive evaluation of expansion loads is accomplished by using numerical methods implemented through several currently available computer programs. However. the loads created by that expansion on the supports can be approximated by assuming that the expansion must be absorbed by bending of the piping that is perpendicular to the expansion. the piping support system need only support the weight of the piping and fluid and provide no additional restraints. The primary concern regarding thermal expansion is in the direction parallel to the pipe axis. is the leg length perpendicular to the expansion direction. Complete lack of restraint is not possible. 2-11 6 EIΔ Thermal L2 and P= 12 EIΔ Thermal L3 Eq. Ideally. ΔThermal. is the change in length as a result of the difference in temperature. Δ Thermal = αLΔT Where: α L ΔT is the pipe material coefficient of thermal expansion.Design Expansion Loads The more supports provided in a system. Eq. and some expansion forces will be developed at restrained locations. A system that is too constrained will resist this expansion. the moment (M) and force (P) at each end of the expansion length can be determined from beam theory. After the magnitude of the expansion is determined. is the pipe cross-section moment of inertia. 2-12 .

Determine the loads carried by each support. and attached components from the available structure To allow thermal expansion of the piping. yet provide weight support and minimize load transfer at terminal points To provide vibration. involves many steps performed in series and in parallel. To alleviate the development of excessive expansion loads. However. Design. System Supports. This flexibility allows for the accommodation of thermal expansion without the penalty of added loads. each designed for a specific function and location. The downside is that as a system becomes more flexible.Design The expansion accommodated by each leg is inversely proportional to the ratio of the leg stiffness to the sum of all leg stiffnesses absorbing the expansion. As a result of the inherent flexibility of large-volume. most high-temperature systems are designed with expansion loops. their functions remain the same. insulation. and Function The design of high-energy piping system supports is a nontrivial task with no set method of accomplishment. This method is only approximate because the leg intersections provide some rotation capability and thereby redistribute the developed moment. Each project must be individually tailored to the specifics of the plant. having a general understanding of the design process and those factors that influence a design will facilitate the treatment of support problems if and when they occur. 2-12 . Determine the thermal movement of the piping at each support location. and seismic event displacement control A detailed description of system support design is outside the scope of this report. Basic Design Steps The basic steps followed in support system design are the following: 1. in most cases. but instead represents the introduction of run directional changes and reduced numbers of rigid supports to provide additional system flexibility. supports are available in a variety of types and styles. Regardless of the size and shape of the supports. it is less able to handle occasional loads without additional supports. long-run piping systems. the calculated moments should be conservative. 2. fault. Consequently. This term is not to be taken literally. The design process. Determine the support locations to meet the applicable code pipe stress requirements. 3. from initial conceptual drawings of support locations and calculations to final construction. as follows: • • • To support the dead weight of the piping.

the total weight of the piping. fittings. variable. insulation. Check the clearances between the support components and nearby piping. For concentrated loads (such as valves and wyes). the job of the majority of supports is to support the weight of the system while allowing unrestricted thermal expansion. ducts. Select the support types (that is. 2-13 . valves. As a final check. When practical. and the structure available for support. The load carried by a hanger in a vertical section should be selected such that the elevation of the support is above the midpoint of the length of pipe supported. insulation. including pipe size. The following paragraphs describe those steps and requirements. Support Locations. There are no set rules or limits that positively fix support locations. and so on should be equal to the total load carried by all of the hangers plus the load supported by the terminal points. It is this aspect of support operation (the combination of structural support and motion) that complicates support design. Determination of support locations within a system depends on several factors. rigid. piping configuration. Through the use of static equilibrium equations. Each basic step contains several steps and requirements that must be met for a given design to perform adequately. However. supports should be located as close as possible to the load to minimize bending stresses. When the weights and locations of the components in each section with respect to the section end points are known. The procedure requires that you divide the system into sections. For high-energy piping systems. estimates of the load applied to a support can be determined. span lengths should be less than 75% of comparable straight-run lengths.Design 4. supports should be located adjacent to any change in direction of the piping. and so on. suggested characteristics that have performed well are the following: • • • • • Published tables of recommended piping spans between hangers based on diameter and carried product (straight runs only) should be used. When changes in direction occur between supports. 2-13 Combining the equations from each free-body diagram will result in a series of equations that will allow determination of the load at each support. and so on) to meet the requirements of steps 2 and 3. the equations for static equilibrium within the section can be written (see Equation 2-13). seismic. cable trays. constructing a “free-body” diagram of each section. ∑Mi = 0 and ∑Vi = 0 for i = x. and support hardware. constant. the location of heavy valves and fittings. y. and z directions Eq. During normal operation. the loads carried by the supports are created primarily by the weight of the piping. 5. valves. and fault condition loads typically define the capacity (but not the size) of the support and its attachment structure. Support Loads. This eliminates a tendency for the piping to rotate about the support. Wind. where Mi and Vi are moment and force values in each orthogonal direction.

Design

Thermal Movements. The accurate evaluation of thermal movements requires complex study of a system, typically through the use of computer programs. In the absence of access to software or the time required for such an evaluation, simplified methods of approximating thermal displacement can be applied. Using a sketch of the system and knowledge of general dimensions, thermal movements at a point in the system with respect to a fixed reference location can be determined using Equation 2-14.

Δ thermal = αLΔT
Where: α L ΔT is the piping material’s coefficient of thermal expansion. is the orthogonal distance from the point to the fixed reference.

Eq. 2-14

is the piping temperature difference between operation and shutdown conditions.

Support Selection. Piping supports come in many types and sizes. A brief summary of the most common support types and their respective functions is provided in the following paragraphs. The type of support required at a specific location is governed in large part by the amount of displacement expected. The size of the support is governed by the magnitude of the supported loads and any space limitations. As a general rule, locations in which expected thermal displacements are greater than 2 in. (5.08 cm) will require a constant load support to minimize load transfer. Displacements of 2 in. (5.08 cm) or less can be handled using variable load or rigid supports.

Rigid Supports. As the name implies, rigid supports are intended to restrict displacement of the piping. They are used at locations in which displacement is not desired or needs to be limited, taking the form of restraints, guides, anchors, or limit stops. Most high-energy piping systems contain one vertical rigid support located in the longest vertical run. Systems that don’t have a vertical rigid support are called floaters. As a result of the inherent flexibility of long piping runs, many systems use guides and limit stops to direct piping deformation and guard against severe distortion. These supports are constructed of solid or tubular rods to connect the piping to structural members. They restrain motion parallel to the rod axis and can potentially restrain out of plane motion depending on the characteristics of the end attachment. Constant Load Supports. When thermal movements greater than 2 in. (5.08 cm) are expected or stress concerns exist at equipment nozzles where low loads must be maintained, constant load supports should be used. Constant load supports use coil springs working in conjunction with a bell-crank lever (see Figure 2-1) to maintain the transmitted load (P) over an extended displacement range. Constant load supports have some form of deflection scale that allows monitoring of the lever position through its travel range.

2-14

Design

Figure 2-1 Configuration of a Constant Load Support

Variable Load Supports. Variable load supports consist of one or more coil springs encased in a can. They supply a variable supporting load as the actuator moves (see Figure 2-2) based on the classic spring formula shown in Equation 2-15.

Figure 2-2 Cross Section of a Variable Load Support Using a Single Coil Spring

2-15

Design

FSupport = FInitial + KΔ
Where: FInitial K Δ is the starting load on the support. is the spring stiffness.

Eq. 2-15

is the actuator displacement from the as-installed position or the anticipated thermal movement.

With this type of support, the direction of motion controls whether the support load increases or decreases. Supports of this type will also have a displacement or load scale to facilitate monitoring of support loads. As dictated by design practice, the supported load, FSupport, is the hot load; therefore, in Equation 2-15, FInitial is the cold load, or more appropriately, the installed load. In general practice, it is desirable to limit the load variability from cold to hot conditions to a maximum of 25%. Because the hot condition load and thermal movement are established by the piping design, load variability can be controlled only by changing the spring stiffness (K) of the support.

Flow Considerations and Modeling
As a result of the high flow velocities and volumes present in power generation steam and feedwater piping systems, the potential exists for significant dynamic loads. For steam lines, flow-related damage can occur from safety valve operation, steam hammer, condensate buildup, and inside diameter (ID) erosion. In feedwater piping, FAC and water hammer can occur. Generally, for steam hammer, water hammer, and other dynamic load events, adherence to standard design practices and recommended operating methods and procedures will alleviate these events and their causative effects. For FAC mechanisms, some form of monitoring or predictive assessment is required to ensure the identification of affected components and assessment of long-term effects. Flow-Related Dynamic Load Events Flow-related dynamic loads occur in steam piping from safety valve operation, steam hammer, and condensate buildup. The opening of safety relief valves produces a jet force that must be accommodated by the piping and support system in the vicinity of the valve. The magnitude of the force created will be function of the fluid pressure, exhaust conditions, and valve flow capacity. According to ASME B31.1, the discharge force, F, can be calculated as shown in Equation 2-16 [2-2].
⎞ ⎛ MV F = Df ⎜ + PA ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ g ⎠ ⎝ c
Eq. 2-16

2-16

Design

Where: Df M V gc P A is a dynamic load factor with a range of 1.1 to 2.0, depending on the rigidity of the valve support and its opening time. is the mass flow rate from the valve. is the steam exit velocity. is the gravitational constant. is the discharge pressure. is the discharge flow area.

During startup and low-load operation, conditions can exist in which condensate will collect in the piping system. This condition is exacerbated by inadequate or nonoperating drains. The velocity of the steam flowing over the condensate causes ripples in the water. Turbulence builds up until the water forms a solid mass, or slug, that fills the pipe cross section. This slug of condensate travels at the speed of the steam until it impacts the first change in flow direction (for example, an elbow or bend) with significant force, resulting in dynamic loading of the piping. The impact force is a function of the flow velocity and the mass of the slug. During fault events, the rapid closure of stop or control valves can produce a significant shock wave that propagates upstream through the piping system as a result of the fluid momentum change (steam hammer). The magnitude of the shock wave is a function of steam velocity, enthalpy, and valve closure time. Because this is a momentum change, forces are applied at each change in direction of the piping, staggered according to the shock wave velocity. Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Service-related damage in low-temperature piping systems predominantly occurs as a result of fatigue, corrosion fatigue, or erosion-corrosion (commonly referred to as flow-accelerated corrosion or FAC). FAC is a significant degradation mechanism that occurs in low-temperature piping systems and has resulted in a number of failures in both nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants. Thermal or mechanical fatigue cracking can occur in feedwater and other lowtemperature piping systems that are exposed to significant thermal shock events, water hammer, or deficient pipe support conditions. These are localized events that occur as a result of unit- or operations-specific conditions, as opposed to generic problems. FAC refers to material wall loss that occurs in piping systems through dissolution of the protective oxide layer (magnetite or hematite) by localized turbulence from flowing water or wet steam. A number of FAC-related failures have occurred in low-temperature piping systems of fossil-fueled power plants over the years. As was the case with longitudinal seam-welded failures occurring in high-temperature HRH piping systems, the occurrence of these failures resulted in

2-17

Design

various EPRI and other industry-sponsored studies of the FAC damage mechanism [2-6–2-8]. From these studies, the following major factors influencing FAC susceptibility have been identified:

Material composition. FAC has been found to be highly dependent on levels of trace elements such as chromium, molybdenum, and copper. Chromium (Cr) content, in particular, offers significantly improved resistance to FAC. In general, FAC is active in piping systems containing 0%–0.20% Cr with increased susceptibility in systems containing only 0%–0.05% Cr content. Temperature. FAC is generally active at temperatures ranging from 200°F–550°F (93°C– 288°C) with increased susceptibility occurring at 260°F–400°F (127°C–288°C). Oxygen content. The presence of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the feedwater system promotes formation of the protective oxide layer, in turn reducing the susceptibility to FAC. FAC is generally active at dissolved O2 levels of ≤40 ppb with increased susceptibility at O2 levels of ≤5 ppb. pH level. FAC is generally active at cold pH levels of 7.0–9.5, with increased susceptibility at levels of 7.0–8.0. FAC is primarily a function of the hot pH, but this is usually difficult to measure and is usually inferred from the cold pH. Fluid velocity. FAC is generally active at fluid velocities greater than 10 ft/s (3.05 m/s), with increased susceptibility occurring at rates greater than 17–20 ft/s (5.2–6.1 m/s). Fluid quality. FAC is generally active in water or wet steam systems, with increased susceptibility occurring in a two-phase flow that is 30%–80% steam. Flow geometry. FAC can occur in any piping location; areas of flow turbulence—tees, elbows, reducers, valves, orifices, or other flow control devices—are particularly susceptible.

• •

• • •

Piping systems that should be evaluated for potential FAC damage based on the above parameters include the following:

• • • •

Feedwater and economizer inlet lines Condensate lines Feedwater drips and drains Wet steam extraction lines

Piping systems that can be considered immune to FAC (for the most part) include the following:

• • • •

Stainless steel piping systems or low-alloy systems with nominal specified chromium content of 1% or greater Superheated steam systems with no moisture content Raw water systems not subject to strict water chemistry limits, such as service water piping where dissolved oxygen content is typically high (greater than 1 ppm) Single-phase flow systems that operate at temperatures <200°F (93°C).

2-18

Design

Because operating pressure does not affect FAC wear rates, it cannot directly exclude a piping system from FAC susceptibility. However, operating pressure affects the consequences or severity of a FAC failure; therefore, attention is generally focused on high-pressure piping systems. Inspection Methods NDE methods traditionally used for detection of FAC-related wall loss consist primarily of ultrasonic testing (UT) of wall thickness and, to a lesser extent radiography. Recently, digital radiography and pulsed eddy current techniques have also been used. In addition, long-range guided-wave UT, which is capable of measuring long lengths of piping quickly and with minimal access and insulation removal requirements, offers promise as a screening tool to identify suspect locations that can subsequently be more closely examined by UT of wall thickness or other means. Field testing for material composition has also been used to measure trace levels of chromium, molybdenum, and copper alloys, which can allow the tested locations to be eliminated from further consideration for FAC damage based on the presence of these alloys. This testing requires use of optical emission spectroscopy or equivalent equipment capable of measuring alloy contents at resolutions on the order of ≤0.1%. UT of wall thickness is by far the most common inspection method for detection and quantification of FAC. Testing is typically performed at discrete locations in a grid pattern over the area of concern. The grid size (the distance along the pipe surface between test points) is typically selected as a function of pipe diameter. A common guideline is to use a grid size no greater than πD/12 (where D is the nominal outside diameter of the pipe) with a minimum grid size of 1 in. (2.54 cm) and maximum grid size of 6 in. (15.2 cm) considered to be practical limits [2-8]. Recommended maximum grid sizes as a function of pipe diameter (see Table 2-1) are considered sufficient to detect the presence of wear, but might not necessarily be sufficient to quantify the maximum depth of wear. Therefore, should evidence of FAC be detected in a given inspection, it might be advisable to reduce the size of the grid to quantify the worst-case thinning.
Table 2-1 Grid Size as a Function of Pipe Size for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing for Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Pipe Diameter (in.) (cm) Maximum Grid Size (in.) (cm)

2–6 8–10 12–14 16–18 20–24 ≥25

5–15 20–25 30–35 40–45 50–60 ≥65

1 2 3 4 5 6

2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15

2-19

Design

Assessment Approaches Assessment approaches for FAC can be classified as preinspection or postinspection activities. Preinspection evaluations include quantitative predictive modeling to predict FAC wear rates or otherwise identify FAC-susceptible locations, as well as other relative ranking methodologies that are performed to similarly identify and prioritize locations for inspection. Postinspection evaluations essentially entail the assessment of pipe wall thickness measurements relative to nominal or minimum wall thickness specifications in order to determine serviceability (run, replace, or reinspect). The CHEC™ software series developed by EPRI is one of the more common analytical tools used to predict FAC susceptibility and wear rates. These programs, which use the ChexalHorowitz FAC model, were first developed for nuclear plants in response to the Surry plant failure in 1986. The initial version of the software, called CHEC, was developed in 1987. Incremental modifications to the software resulted in later versions such as CHECMATE™ and CHECWORKS™. CHECUP™ is a version of the software that was specifically developed for fossil plants to rank piping locations based on predicted FAC wall loss. The CHEC software programs require input related to water chemistry (pH, dissolved oxygen, and water treatment), hydrodynamic variables (fluid velocity, pipe diameter, temperature, steam quality, and flow path geometry) and materials composition. As with the application of any predictive tool, the results should be supplemented by engineering judgment and field experiences when selecting inspection sites. For more information about the CHEC software series, refer to the EPRI reports Recommendations for an Effective Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Program (1011838) and CHECWORKS™ Fossil Plant Application, Version 1.0 (TR-103198P5R1) [2-7, 2-9].

Attemperator Design and Function
Attemperation is the primary means for controlling the degree of superheat in a superheated boiler. Attemperation is the process of removing steam enthalpy by either the controlled injection of water into the superheated steam flow or the direct removal of heat from the steam. The degree of superheat present in the steam flow depends on the steam load and the heat available in the boiler, given the design of the superheater. The degree of superheat of the final exiting steam is generally not subject to wide variation because the design of downstream processes requires consistency. To achieve control of the steam temperature (amount of superheat), an attemperator is used. The attemperator is typically located in one of three places in the steam generation process: between the saturated steam outlet and the superheater, between sections of the superheater, or at the outlet of the superheater. Attemperators are classified as one of two types: surface or direct contact. In surface attemperators (called shell or drum attemperators), the steam is isolated from the cooling medium by a heat-transfer surface. In direct contact attemperators, which are more common, the superheated steam is mixed with water; this is typically accomplished by the use of sprays, as shown in Figure 2-3 [2-10]. Water is introduced into the steam line through spray 2-20

2-21 . tubes. Temperature control is achieved by admitting a fine spray of water into the steam line through an attemperator or desuperheater. As with any superheated steam cycle. The water must be of high purity and free of nonvolatile solids to prevent buildup in piping. Figure 2-3 Contact Type (Spray) Attemperator Showing General Configuration Source: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code [2-10].Design nozzles at the throat of a venturi-sleeve section in the line. the temperature of the superheat requires monitoring to ensure that it does not exceed the material limits of the steam turbine and other components. The attemperator delivers water from the boiler feedwater system using a separate control valve and a nozzle that mixes the water with the process steam. The sleeve section of the attemperator is important because it provides a shield to protect the pressure boundary pipe wall from thermal shock that could result if water droplets contacted the pipe ID surface. Because the steam flow is at high velocity. and turbine blades. thus lowering the steam temperature. The spray attemperation process— although it is convenient and has good control characteristics—reduces a unit’s thermal efficiency because it takes heat away from the process steam. the water vaporizes and cools the steam.

the reheat attemperator is usually installed between passes in the reheat section. Acceptance Criteria for Structural Evaluation of Erosion-Corrosion Thinning in Carbon Steel Piping. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. EPRI. The total enthalpy (heat content) of the final superheat steam must be the mass-weighted sum of the enthalpies of the initial superheat steam and the attemperation water. Version 1. Section II. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Power Boilers. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. CA: 1998. provision for it must be made in calculating system flows. Section I. References 2-1. 2004. 2-6. Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Power Plants. CHECWORKS™ Fossil Plant Application. Materials. 1011838. 2-10. 2-7. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. CA: 1998.1. 2004. Recommendations for an Effective Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Program (NSAC-202L-R3). CA:1988. Palo Alto. Palo Alto. 2-5. A feedback control scheme tied back to the spray water control valve is used to control the temperature of the HRH steam. EPRI. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Section III. 2-4. New York. EPRI. Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers. EPRI.0. EPRI. When attemperator water comes from the boiler feedwater. ASME B31. The calculation is based on heat balance. 2004. 2-9. 2-3. Palo Alto. 2-8.Design In most coal-fired power plants. In combined-cycle plants. 2004. TR-106611-R1. 2-2. New York. the reheat attemperator is installed in the cold reheat piping between the outlet of the high-pressure turbine and the reheat inlet header. 1004509. New York. 2-22 . Code for Pressure Piping Standards: Power Piping. Palo Alto. TR-103198-P5R1. the most common installation point is between the two sets of reheater tube banks. New York. 2004. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Palo Alto. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components. New York. CA: 2006. NP-5911M. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. CA:2005.

including those of carbon. testing. mechanical properties. manufacturing methods. This section provides an overview and general background on the classification. The majority of the ASTM specifications are based on performance characteristics. microstructure. such as the mechanical properties. a large number of publications are available describing various aspects of ferrous metallurgy [3-2–3-9]. a list of the most widely used standard specifications for steel products in the United States is presented along with comparisons to many of the international standards. marking. with considerable latitude in compositional requirements. In addition.S. These handbooks provide details on the fabrication. microstructure. and dimensional tolerances. range of mechanical and physical properties. low-alloy. a series of stand-alone handbooks is being prepared. heat treatment. and performance of key individual alloys and should be referred to for details regarding microstructures and properties of these specific alloys. steel and steel alloys are the most widely used materials of construction for highenergy piping systems in fossil generation. and ease of fabrication. The majority of this chapter was adapted from Section 5 of the EPRI report Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers (1011912) [3-1]. In addition. creep-strength-enhanced ferritic. and mechanical properties of steels. Comparison of Material Standards The standard specifications of ASTM International (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials) are the most widely used specifications for steel products in the U. To complement the information contained in EPRI report 1011912. The ASTM standards are complete specifications suitable for procurement purposes and include such items as requirements for composition. These documents should be referred to as necessary. and stainless steels. 3-1 .METALLURGY OF STEELS 3 Introduction Because of their availability. ordering information. electric power generation industry (see summary in Table 3-1).

A369 A199. A426 A199. A209. A381. A213. A426 A199. A362. A213. A409. A376. A335. A336.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-1 Summary of ASTM Materials Used in Fossil Generation Material Pipes and Tubes A53. A352 A105. A465. A285. A335. A250. A537. A181. A351. A511 Plates A283. A524. A312. A135. A515. A302. A533 A217. A200. A213. A335. A516. A335. A176. A541 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo A387 _ A182. A369. A297. A106. A271. A487 3 Cr 1 Mo A387 - A182. A335. A541 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo A387. A369. A357. A587 A161. A369. A412. A213. A299. A336 2 Cr 1/2 Mo _ _ _ A182. A369.A155. A269. A426 A213. A541 C 1/2 Mo A204. A369. A473 3-2 . A335. A335. A447. A216. A426 A213. A358. A426 A199. A179. A455. A452. A249. A139. A192. A333. A336. A134. A369. A334. A210. A200. A350. A213. A200.A226. A430. A268. A451. A200. A335. A433. A426 A199. A214. A369. A426 A199. A336 7 Cr 1/2 Mo _ - A182 9 Cr 1 Mo - A217 A182 Ferritic and austenitic stainless steels A167. A352. A443. A213. A508. A542 A217. A487 A182. A200. A336 5 Cr 1/2 Mo A387 A217 A182. A266. A372. A573 Castings Forgings Carbon steel A27. A457 A296. A178. A336. A448 A182. A240.

The AISI and SAE standards are essentially equivalent for most compositions. uses only numbers. followed by the number 14 (all Swedish carbon and low-alloy steels are covered by SS14). machine or otherwise manufacture a component part. and the Aerospace Materials Specifications (AMS). All West German steel specifications begin with the uppercase letters DIN followed by an alphanumeric or numeric code. the ASME counterpart to ASTM A182 is SA182) [3-10]. France. Swedish standards (SS) are prepared by the Swedish Standards Institution in Stockholm. England. with a decimal point after the first digit. British standards (BS) are developed by the British Standards Institute in London. For details on any particular standard. known as the Werkstoff number. These specifications primarily address compositional requirements and are frequently used by equipment manufacturers who must procure a material of known composition. a code consisting of an uppercase letter. Materials. and an alphanumeric sequence. Alternative U. Some European and Japanese designation systems are the following: • DIN standards are developed by Deutsches Institut für Normung in the Federal Republic of Germany. The correct format for reporting AFNOR standards is as follows: the uppercase letters NF. and then heat treat the component to the required mechanical properties. reports. JIS standards are developed by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee. refer to articles. UNI standards are developed by the Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione in Milan. This letter is followed by a series of numbers and letters that indicate the specific steel. Although ASTM and ASME specifications are the most widely used standard specifications for steel products in the United States. and other documents that describe the applicable national or international standard. Many of the AISI and SAE grades have been incorporated into ASTM standards. Italy. alloy designations include those of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). there are also many international standards. a series of digits. which is part of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Tokyo. The ASME material specifications are included in the ASME BPVC. followed by a four-digit numerical sequence similar to the German Werkstoff number. Designations begin with the letters SS.S. Italian standards begin with the uppercase letters UNI followed by a four-digit product form code. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The JIS steel specifications begin with the uppercase letters JIS followed by an uppercase letter (G in the case of carbon and low-alloy steels) designating the division (product form) of the standard. AFNOR standards are developed by the Association Française de Normalisation in Paris. Section II. 3-3 • • • • • . and are differentiated from the ASTM standards with an “S” prefix to the ASTM designation (for example. The latter code. Similar to the JIS standards. followed by an alphanumeric alloy identification. each British designation includes a product form and an alloy code.Metallurgy of Steels ASME has adopted many of the ASTM standards with little or no modification.

This table should be used only to find an approximate equivalent.45.35. and Japanese standards for common piping specifications. A more detailed comparison is provided in the Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards [3-11].Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-2 provides a simple comparison of American.5 17175 13CrMo44 17175 13CrMo44 17175 10CrMo9 10 1629 St.8 16Mo5 12CrMo19. There is seldom an exact match between specifications in two different standards. 37 1629 St. it should not be used for design. Table 3-2 Comparison of Selected Material Specifications for Piping Alloys Product ASTM/ANSI A106A A106B A335P1 A335P5 A335P9 A335P11 A335P12 A335P22 Piping Specifications A53S-A A53S-B A312-TP304 A312-TP304H A312-TP304L A312-TP310 A312-TP316 A312-TP316H A312-TP316L A312-TP321 BS 3602 HFS360 3604 HFS410 3604 HFS625 HFS629470 3604 HFS621 3604 HFS620/440 3604 HFS622 3601 320 3601 410 3605 304S18 3605 304S59 3605 304S14 3605 316S18 1501 304S15 3605 316S14 3605 321S18 DIN 17155 St. 35. British. This table is only a guide. 45 17440 x5CrNi 18 9 17440 x2CrNi 18 9 17440 x5CrNiMo 18 10 17440 x5CrNi 18 9 17440 x2CrNiMo 18 10 17440 x10CrNiTi 18 9 JIS G 3456 STPT320 G 3456 STPT410 G 3458 STPA12 G 3458 STPA25 -G 3458 STPA26 G 3458 STPA23 G 3458 STPA22 G 3458 STPA24 G3454 STPG370 G3454 STPG410 G3459 SUS304TP G3459 SUS304HTP G3459 SUS304LTP G3459 SUS310STP G3459 SUS316TP G3601 SUS304 G3459 SUS316LTP G3459 SUS321TP 3-4 .8 17155 St. German. 42. and then the details of the specifications should be compared to determine whether substitution is permissible.

41N 10Ni14 TT St.2 1775 St. Sheets. & Strips A299 A515–55 A515–60 A515–65 A515–70 A105 A182-F1 A182-F5 Forgings A182-F9 A182-F6a A182-F11 A182-F12 BS 3605 347S18 3605 3603 HFS303 HFS3410 3603 HFS590 4360 40B 4360 43B 360 1501–151 400 1501–151 360 1501–161 400 1501–161 430 1501–161 1503 221–490 1503 245–420 1503 625–520 1503 410S21 1503 621–460 1503 621–504 DIN 17440 x5CrNiNb 18 9 TT St.5 17440 x10Cr13 17175 x13CrMo44 17175 x13CrMo44 JIS G3459 SUS347TP G3459 SUS347HTP G4360 STBL380 G4360 STBL450 G4360 STBL690 G 301 SS400 G 3101 SS400 G 3101 SB410 G 3115 SPV355 G 3103 SB410 G 3103 SB450 G 3103 SB480 G3202 SFVA2A G3202 SFVAF1 G3202 SFVAF58 G3202 SFVAF11 G3202 SFVAF12 3-5 .37.355 17155 H11 17155 H111 17155 H11V 17155 19Mn5 17155 10Mn5 16Mo5 WBL-400/590 12CrMo19.3 17155 H11 17155 H11 17102 Wst.45N X8Ni9 1775 Ust.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-2 (continued) Comparison of Selected Material Specifications for Piping Alloys Product ASTM/ANSI A312-TP347 A312-TP347H Piping Specifications (continued) A333–1 A333–3 A333–6 A333–8 A283-C A283-D A285-A/B A285-C Plates.44.

A320. and A563. A354. E315 10Ni14 JIS G3214 SFVAF22B G3214 SUSF304 G3214 SUSF304H G3214 SUSF304L G3214 SUSF310S G3214 SUSF316 G3214 SUSF316H G3214 SUSF316L G3214 SUSF321 G3214 SUSF347 G3205 SFL1 G3205 SFL2 G3205 SFL3 Carbon and alloy steel bolts and nuts are covered by specifications A193. A432.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-2 (continued) Comparison of Selected Material Specifications for Piping Alloys Product ASTM/ANSI A182-F22 A182-F304 A182-F304H A182-F304L A182-F310 A182-F316 Forgings (continued) A182-F316H A182-F316L A182-F321 A182-F347 A350-LF1 A350-LF2 A350-LF3 BS 1503 622–560 1503 304S31 1503 304S51 1503 304S11 1503 304S31 1503 316S31 1503 316S51 1503 316S11 1503–821 316S11 1503 316S11 1503 221–430 1640 WPL-0 1640 WPL-3 DIN 17175 x10CrMo9 10 117440 x5CrNi18 9 117440 x2CrNi18 9 117440 x5CrNiMo18 10 117440 x2CrNiMo18 10 117440 x10CrNiMo18 9 117440 x10CrNiMo18 9 TT41 17102 TT St. 3-6 . A449. A453. A540. A194.

was initiated by the ASA at the request of ASME. several of the original material specifications have been superseded by newer specifications. Concurrent with the evolution and development of the Power Piping code. Since 1942. a revision to this code was started in 1937. air and gas piping. and inspection techniques. Code for Pressure Piping. This was followed by a draft Code for Safety Rules and Regulations Covering the Installation of High and Low Pressure Steam Piping. zinc-coated. These revisions are developed and voted on by the Sectional Committee B31. steel. with addenda issued annually. and materials. and it was subsequently designated the American Standard Code for Pressure Piping [3-13]. Table 3-3 shows a representations of some of the more common ASTM/ASME steel specifications that have been superseded and the steel specifications with which they have been replaced. Code activities are subdivided according to the scope of the several sections and chapters. and various institutes with one or more representatives plus members at large to represent general interests. fabrication techniques. fabrication details. district heating piping. project B31. trade associations. New editions to ASME B31. Final approval of this revision was given in November of 1942. hotdipped. To bring uniformity between sections and to eliminate divergent requirements and discrepancies. black.Metallurgy of Steels Historical Perspective on Material Changes in the American Power Piping Standards In 1916. and seamless Carbon steel forgings for piping applications ASTM A105 A105/SA105 3-7 . This committee comprises members from some 30–40 engineering societies. oil piping. This work became the American Tentative Standard Code for Pressure Piping (B31. the Power Piping Society developed and published the first standard specifications for power piping to meet industry needs.1 are issued every three years. this code has grown to meet industry changes in materials development. bending and other special uses Material for forged and bored carbon-steel pipe ASTM/ASME Current Specification A53/SA53 Description of Current Specification Pipe. with general direction resting with the sectional committee officers and an executive committee. the Ohio Society of Safety Engineers completed a draft of Rules for Power Plant Steam and Water Piping. welded. government bureaus. This code contained sections on power piping systems.1) in 1935 [3-12]. and seamless for coiling. welded. Table 3-3 Superseded ASTM/ASME Steel Piping Specifications ASTM/ASME Superseded Specification ASTM A53 (see note) Description of Superseded Specification Pipe. Then in 1924. In March of 1926.

forge welded steel Lock bar steel pipe Pipe. is considered historical. sizes 8 in.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-3 (continued) Superseded ASTM/ASME Steel Piping Specifications ASTM/ASME Superseded Specification ASTM A106 Description of Superseded Specification Pipe. the previous version. and seamless No replacement No replacement No replacement Electric-fusion (arc)welded steel pipe (NPS 4 and over) Electric-fusion-welded steel pipe for atmospheric and lower temperatures Seamless ferritic alloysteel pipe for hightemperature service Seamless ferritic alloysteel pipe for hightemperature service No replacement Ductile-iron pressure pipe No replacement No replacement ASTM A120 ASTM A136 ASTM A137 ASTM A138 ASTM A139 (see note) A53/SA53 None/withdrawn None/withdrawn None/withdrawn A139/SA139 A671/SA671 ASTM A155 ASTM A158 A335/SA335 ASTM A206 A335/SA335 ASTM A211 None/withdrawn A377/SA377 ASTM A44 ASTM A72 ASTM A138 None/withdrawn None/withdrawn Note: Designated an ASTM historical standard. but not including. an ASTM standard might have a designation and year of F645-95. 30 in. hotdipped. electric-fusion welded. welded and seamless for ordinary use Pipe. steel. black. 3-8 . If this standard has been superseded by a new version (such as F645-99). F645-95. lap welded and seamless for hightemperature service Pipe. A historical standard is a version of an ASTM standard that has been superseded by a more current version. riveted steel and wrought iron Pipe. Electric-fusion-welded steel pipe for highpressure service Seamless ferritic alloysteel pipe for hightemperature service Seamless ferritic alloysteel pipe for hightemperature service Spiral-welded steel or iron pipe Engine bolt iron cast iron pit-cast pipe for water other liquids Welded wrought-iron pipe Riveted steel and wrought-iron pipe ASTM/ASME Current Specification A106/SA106 Description of Current Specification Seamless carbon steel pipe for hightemperature service Pipe. to. For example. welded. zinc-coated.

Table 3-4 presents examples of one of the more notable of these changes. Because condition assessment programs are frequently performed on units that have been in service for 30 or more years.800 4.0–3.200 4.550 6.800 7. to 1672K (2788°F–2550°F.000 9.000 3. The microstructures of steels can be understood from the iron-iron carbide (Fe-Fe3C) equilibrium diagram (see Figure 3-1). 1534°C–1399°). Table 3-4 Comparison of Select Allowables for Historic Editions of B31. the allowable stresses for specific materials at select temperatures have been modified.000 2. is present. α-iron.800 1050°F 1100°F Steel Metallurgy Iron-Carbon Systems Steels can be defined as iron-carbon alloys containing less than 2. δ-iron is present. From 0 to 1183K (1670°F.200 4. 910°C).000 11. From 1663K to 1183K (2534°F–1670°F [1390°C –910°C]). γ-iron.000 11.800 5.Metallurgy of Steels In addition to changes in material specifications. investigate the code of record used in construction of each unit and be aware that changes in code stress allowables can impact the assignment of risk to a specific unit or specific piping systems within that unit. called ferrite.0 wt% C. It has a BCC structure.000 11.800 7. It has a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. 1708K. with alloys containing higher carbon levels defined as cast irons or pig irons (usually with approximately 2.500 4.200 4. 3-9 . It has a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure.800 5.5 wt% C).200 5.300 A335 P22 1955 1967 1998 °C = (5/9) x °F – 32) 11.1 Code Edition 950°F 1000°F A335 P11 1955 1967 1998 11.000 7. called austenite. • • • From the melting point.800 5.300 7.800 6. is present.050 4.

and the microstructure is fully austenitic. the remaining austenite transforms to pearlite. Above these solubility limits. 1130°C). on cooling below point d. called cementite). Because steels contain less than 2.0 wt% C. a liquid changes to a two-phase solid).02% C dissolves in ferrite at 996K (1333°F. The eutectoid structure is called pearlite. 3-10 . This is called the eutectoid temperature. at the eutectoid point (0. This eutectoid region is similar to a simple eutectic except that. the microstructures of steels cooled at equilibrium rates can be understood using only the eutectoid region of the Fe-Fe3C diagram.0% at the eutectic temperature of 1403K (2066°F. the temperature is greater than approximately 1470°F (800°C). carbon usually exists as iron carbide (Fe3C. 723°C). the solid austenite changes to a two-phase eutectoid of α-iron and Fe3C (whereas with a eutectic. whereas a maximum of 0. When cooled to just below point c.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-1 The Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram Showing How the Phases Change with Temperature and Carbon Composition Carbon dissolves interstitially in iron.8 wt% C). Continued cooling to a point just above point d increases the amount of ferrite. so the maximum solubility of carbon in austenite is 2. Figure 3-2 illustrates the microstructures present for equilibrium cooling for a 0. but the interstices in FCC austenite (γ) are larger than those in BCC ferrite (α). ferrite grains nucleate at austenite grain boundaries. At point c.4 wt% C steel. it consists of alternating fine platelets of ferrite and cementite.

02 = 0.8 − 0. Illustrating Microstructures Formed During Equilibrium Cooling At a given carbon level. the remaining austenite has transformed to pearlite. 3-11 . Immediately above the eutectoid temperature represented by point d. Immediately above the eutectoid temperature represented by point d. the weight fraction of austenite is given by Equation 3-1.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-2 Detail of the Iron Carbon Diagram. for a 0. austenite is transforming to ferrite. therefore. the first ferrite begins to form along the austenite grain boundaries.03. cementite begins to form on cooling to temperature c.02 Eq.51. As an example. Similarly. the proportion of each equilibrium phase present can be calculated using the Lever rule. at point a. the weight fraction of austenite is given by Equation 2-2. for a 1 wt% C steel.49 and the weight fraction of proeutectoid ferrite is 0. the microstructure is essentially 100% austenite. The ferrite that forms is referred to as proeutectoid ferrite.4 − 0. Throughout the temperature range from point c to point d. 0. 3-1 Upon cooling to a temperature just below the eutectoid temperature.4 wt% C steel. At a temperature given by point c. and the weight fraction of cementite is 0. and the weight fraction of ferrite is 0. the weight fraction of pearlite is 0.49 0.51.

the weight fraction of pearlite is 0. the hardness and the strength increase (but the ductility and the toughness decrease) with increasing carbon content as the proportion of cementite increases.97 6. quenching from the austenite range can produce two entirely different types of structures: bainite and martensite.67 − 1.67 − 0. by quenching into oil). the eutectoid transformation can be suppressed. Nonequilibrium Cooling of Steels Eq. giving a progressively softer but less brittle product. that is. combined with the marked change in carbon solubility. Bainite consists of a fine submicroscopic dispersion of Fe3C particles in a highly strained α matrix. the transformation of austenite to martensite is diffusionless and almost instantaneous. In this case. Because ferrite is soft and ductile. Bainite is formed when austenite is quenched to temperatures around 356°F–800°F (180°C– 425°C) and held at the quench temperature for some time (or frequently. the severe quench retains carbon in solid solution in a distorted body-centered tetragonal iron lattice. Upon cooling to a temperature just below the eutectoid temperature. that accounts for the enormous range of microstructures and properties possible in steels. 0. Unlike slow cooling from the austenite range (called annealing). In contrast.77 wt% C) and the transformation of austenite to bainite (at any carbon content) occur by diffusion-controlled processes of nucleation and growth of the new phases so that. The transformation of austenite to pearlite (at the eutectoid point. 3-2 It is the existence of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation. The size and spacing of these cementite particles increase with increasing tempering times and temperatures. therefore.8 This is referred to as proeutectoid cementite.97 and the weight fraction of proeutectoid cementite is 0. resulting in a higher proportion of pearlite with decreased platelet size and spacing. Equilibrium slow cooling from the austenitic range results in microstructures containing either ferrite or cementite.03. heating martensite to 392°F–1330°F (200°C–720°C) allows transformation to a structure consisting of very small Fe3C particles or precipitates in ferrite. air cooling is called normalizing. and further time is needed before the transformations are complete.Metallurgy of Steels 6. Heat treatment of steels by quenching and tempering therefore offers a means of optimizing strength and toughness. Martensite is hard and brittle.0 = 0. together with pearlite. the remaining austenite transforms to pearlite. 3-12 . With even more severe cooling procedures. some time elapses before the transformations begin. Normalizing allows less than the equilibrium proportions of ferrite or cementite to separate from the austenite. whereas cementite is hard and brittle. Martensite is formed following rapid quenching to lower temperatures than those involved in forming bainite. but the toughness can be improved with a corresponding reduction in hardness by tempering—that is. on quenching austenite to temperatures that allow these transformations.

The additional alloying elements present in 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel increase hardenability.Metallurgy of Steels Continuous Cooling Transformations Continuous cooling transformations (CCTs) are distinct from isothermal transformations in that the time at temperature is dictated by the cooling rate that a sample has experienced. respectively [3-7. the dimensional changes on cooling allow the specific transformation temperatures to be determined so that the transformation behavior can be established by conducting a set of experiments on a selected alloy. the heating curve shows inflection points allowing the AC1 and AC3 temperatures to be determined. CCT diagrams show the transformations that take place in a continuously cooled sample of material. 3-13 . Welding is a typical process in which an understanding of transformation behavior is important because the practicalities of welding mean that isothermal transformations cannot be applied and weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ) microstructures are thus a function of the time at peak temperature and the subsequent cooling rate. Because there will be a change in dimensions when transformation from BCC ferrite-type microstructures to FCC austenite occurs. The effect of heating and cooling cycles on specimen dimensions is illustrated in Figure 3-3. Similarly. CCT diagrams are generated from controlled heating and cooling experiments carried out while monitoring the physical dimensions (diameter or length) of the sample. and the required conditions for given alloys are specified in applicable codes. 3-15]. These diagrams can predict the microstructure of a sample at any cooling rate covered by the diagram. allowing bainite and martensite to form at slower cooling rates than for carbon steel. with the CCT curves measured for carbon and 21/4 Cr 1 Mo steel shown in Figures 3-4 and 3-5. The use of preheating can assist in controlling the cooling rate. 3-14.

T. Steels: Metallurgy and Applications. Llewellyn and R. Hudd. 3-14 .Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-3 Dimensional Changes That Occur on Heating and Cooling through the Temperature Range in Which Microstructural Transformations Take Place Source: D. C. Third Edition [3-7].

Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-4 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for Carbon Steel Source: Key to Steel database. 3-15 .com [3-14]. www.key-to-steel.

One important factor to be considered is the prior austenite grain size (that is. is given by Equation 3-3 [3-16]. is the activation energy. Eq. For a given temperature. For any time and temperature combination. the grain size at a given time (t). Steam. is the final grain size. For example. the grain size at the time of the first transformation from austenite). it is important that the thermal cycle used to produce the CCT curve is relevant to the particular process. the grain size increases parabolically with time. However. CCT curves can be used to develop required microstructures through control of the applied thermal cycles for a number of different manufacturing processes.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-5 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel Source: Babcock & Wilcox. ⎛ − Qc ⎞ Dt2 − Do2 = Kt exp⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RT ⎠ Where: Do Dt K Qc 3-16 is the initial grain size. The austenite grain size can be controlled through a change in the temperatures used or through a change in the time held at a single temperature. a variation in the peak temperature between 1751°F and 2534°F (955°C and 1390°C) for CrMoV piping steel results in an increase in the grain size from 20 μm to 200 μm. Fortieth Edition [3-15]. is a constant. 3-3 .

the temperature will result in zones in which partial reaustenitization takes place. so the predominant microstructure is bainite. is the temperature. Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components [3-17]. because of the differing thermal histories. the cooling rate is relatively rapid. However. a wide range of prior austenite grain sizes is present. Within the weld and HAZ. known as intercritical zones. 3-17 . Variations in peak temperature and cooling rate result in a range of grain sizes and transformation microstructures within the weld metal and the HAZ (see Figure 3-6).Metallurgy of Steels R T is the gas constant. The influence of thermal cycles in modifying microstructure is most commonly noted in weldments. followed by a tempered zone adjacent to the unaffected base metal. Toward the parent material. Figure 3-6 Peak Temperature Variations in the Weld and Heat-Affected Zone Result in a Range of Prior Austenite Grain Sizes Source: R. Viswanathan.

and copper. nickel. and silicon. cobalt. however. titanium. 3. 3-18 . With this approach. tungsten. Elements that tend to form carbides: chromium. tungsten. These elements alter the critical points of iron in a way similar to carbon by raising the A4 point and lowering the A3 point. vanadium. vanadium. A useful approach to grouping is based on the effect of the element on the stability of carbides and the stability of austenite. alloying elements are classified as follows: 1. cobalt. 2. On the binary equilibrium diagram of these elements with pure iron. These elements are more soluble in α-iron than in γ-iron. depending on the quantity used and other elements present. unless elements from group 1 are added to counteract the effect.Metallurgy of Steels Effects of Composition on Microstructure and Properties This section provides background regarding the influence of composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of steel. molybdenum. Only a small proportion of these elements can be added to the steel before graphite forms during processing. molybdenum. Adding elements from group 3 of the periodic table. columbium. and nickel. until the two points merge to form a closed gamma loop. 4. Elemental Effects Classification of alloying elements according to their effect in the steel is difficult. Elements that tend to graphitize the carbide: silicon. Aluminum has the reverse effect in 12 wt% chromium steel. 2% nickel is added to the 18 wt% chromium stainless steel to enable it to be refined by normal heat treatment. with attendant ruin of the properties of the steel. and they also tend to retard the separation of carbides. the A4 point is lowered and the A3 point is raised (although it might be lowered initially). For example. the austenite phase disappears and ferrite exists from the melting point down to room temperature. They have a crystal lattice (FCC) similar to that of γ-iron. aluminum. can counteract this effect. in which they are more soluble than they are in α-iron. because the influence varies so widely with each addition. They diminish the amount of carbon soluble in the austenite and thus tend to increase the volume of free carbide in the steel for a given carbon content. The mixture of complex carbides is often referred to as cementite. This information is followed by general comments describing selected physical and mechanical properties relevant to engineering issues in boilers and piping. and manganese. thus increasing the range in which austenite is stable. carbon has the same effect. Elements that tend to stabilize austenite: manganese. Elements that tend to stabilize ferrite: chromium. with a certain amount of each of these elements. Thus.

Benefits of having fine. thus not sacrificing ductility. Aluminum is also an extremely effective nitride former in nitriding steels. The significant increase in hardenability with increasing carbon content results in decreased weldability. Environmental concerns are resulting in a decreased usage of lead in the steel industry. for normal cooling rates.0005% and 0. Compared to steels with similar microstructures. It is used in low-alloy steels to increase the following: – Resistance to corrosion and oxidation – High-temperature strength – Hardenability – Abrasion resistance in high-carbon alloys Straight chromium steels are susceptible to temper embrittlement and can be brittle. so steels for elevated-temperature service tend to contain both chromium and molybdenum.003% to significantly increase hardenability. The general effects of individual elements are summarized as follows: • Aluminum (Al) is used to deoxidize steel and control grain size. the increased hardenability is such that.Metallurgy of Steels The microstructure and properties of steels are determined primarily by composition and heat treatment. and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature are increased with increasing carbon content. and it can reduce creep ductility. In the absence of nickel. It does not affect the strength of ferrite. Toughness and ductility of pearlitic steels are decreased with increasing carbon content. size. Carbon (C) is the most important alloying element and is essential for the formation of cementite. • • • • • • Copper (Cu) is detrimental to hot workability and subsequent surface quality. It is used in certain steels to improve resistance to atmospheric corrosion. hardness. It does not dissolve in steel but is present as metallic globules. formability. 3-19 • . and iron-carbon martensite. well-distributed inclusions include improved toughness and machinability. Grain size control is achieved by forming a fine dispersion with nitrogen and oxygen. especially for low-carbon steels. Antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) are trace elements that are believed to reduce ductility through temper embrittlement. Boron (B) is added between 0. the properties of strength. Lead (Pb) improves machinability. Chromium (Cr) influences hardenability and is a carbide former and stabilizer. martensite is formed. Calcium (Ca) is used to control the shape. or machinability in the annealed state. At composition levels of approximately 9% to 13% Cr. which restricts austenite grain growth. bainite. Applicable references should be studied for detailed information regarding the microstructure and properties of a specific alloy or alloy type. pearlite. highchromium steels (above approximately 18% Cr) are fully ferritic and are used where high resistance to corrosion is required. hardenability. and distribution of oxide and sulfide inclusions.

Titanium (Ti) is added to steels containing boron because it combines preferentially with oxygen and nitrogen. also known as columbium (Cb). and distribution. and it acts to reduce the effects of trace elements such as phosphorus in causing temper embrittlement. but it has been shown to increase temper embrittlement caused by segregation of trace elements in low-alloy steels. The resulting sulfide-type inclusions are finer and remain ellipsoidal in shape following hot working. morphology. thereby improving both toughness and strength. • • • • • • • • • • 3-20 . Even in small amounts (0.04 wt% to minimize its detrimental effect on ductility and toughness. Silicon can increase high-temperature strength and reduce the amount of surface scale formed during exposure to high temperature. and atmospheric corrosion resistance. thereby improving transverse fracture properties.5%). strength. In aluminum-killed steels. with the amount used dependent on the deoxidization practice. Is added to austenitic stainless steels to form carbides in stabilized grades to reduce risk of sensitization. Sulfur (S) is detrimental to fracture strength. Manganese increases the tendency for trace elements to cause temper embrittlement. thus allowing the boron to increase hardenability. the austenite is stabilized to room temperature. hardness. Nitrogen can reduce the effect of boron on the hardenability of steels. In stainless steels. and it facilitates hot working of the steel by reducing the susceptibility to hot shortness caused by the presence of free sulfur—that is.1% to 0.Metallurgy of Steels • Manganese (Mn) is important because it controls transformation kinetics on cooling from austenite. nitrogen combines with the aluminum to provide grain size control. and machinability of steel. These manganese sulfide stringers can reduce transverse strength and impact resistance. Molybdenum (Mo) increases hardenability of steels and helps to maintain a specified hardness. forms stable carbides that increase strength at elevated temperatures and. Nickel (Ni) is used in low-alloy steels to reduce the sensitivity of the steel to variations in heat treatment and to distortion and cracking on quenching. and fine inclusions on grain boundaries can facilitate the formation of creep cavities. lowers the fracture transition temperature. it combines with sulfur to form MnS inclusions. by providing a finer grain size. Phosphorus (P) is generally restricted to levels below 0. It also improves low-temperature toughness and hardenability. at levels above approximately 8% Ni. Tin (Sn) is a trace element that is believed to increase temper embrittlement and has been shown to reduce creep ductility and accelerate creep damage development. but it decreases the ductility and toughness. Niobium (Nb). Certain steels can contain higher levels to enhance machinability. as titanium nitride. Tellurium (Te) can be added to modify sulfide-type inclusion size. it deoxidizes the melt. Silicon (Si) is one of the principal deoxidizers. also provides grain size control at elevated temperatures. so manganese must be added to form inclusions. Titanium. molybdenum increases high-temperature tensile and creep strengths. Nitrogen (N) increases the strength.

superior performance is achieved with alloys that exhibit an appropriate balance between strength and ductility—that is. In general. Tensile strength considerations ensure against failure by plastic collapse. [5 cm]) or as a reduction in cross-sectional area. Other potential failure modes require consideration of different material properties—for example. The following paragraphs explain why specific properties are important in the selection and assessment of component performance. and inhibits grain growth during heat treatment. it is manifested as the initiation and stable propagation of a crack. The presence of vanadium carbides or carbonitrides improves elevated strength. plastic deformation will be introduced. In the majority of cases. They are of vital interest to the performance of components and the associated welds because the weld must provide mechanical properties in the same order as the base metals being joined. alloys that have excellent toughness. Strength Strength is often the primary consideration when manufacturing a component because it is essential that loads are limited to a safe fraction of the material yield point. It acts in a similar manner to molybdenum. Ductility refers to the ability of an alloy to withstand plastic deformation without failure. at high temperatures. Final failure in a component subjected to fatigue ensues when a critical crack size is reached and failure occurs by fracture or by overload. a key property is fracture toughness because toughness is a major factor in establishing critical crack size and thus whether components will be subject to sudden brittle fracture. failure can be defined by the initiation of a crack. Fatigue depends on the frequency and magnitude of the stress 3-21 . provides resistance to tempering and hydrogen attack. creep performance might be important.05% increase hardenability. In some situations in which crack growth is very rapid. however. Data are normally presented as elongation for a standard gauge length in a laboratory tensile test (typically 2 in. Vanadium (V) additions of up to 0. The performance of a welded joint depends on whether it provides properties equal to or exceeding those of the metals being joined. Proper application leads to improved strength and toughness of hardened and tempered steels. for a cyclically loaded structure. fatigue properties must be taken into account. excessive strengthening can lead to reheat cracking associated with welds.Metallurgy of Steels • • Tungsten (W) increases hardenability and forms carbides. Fatigue Fatigue is the phenomenon of damage accumulation caused by cyclic or fluctuating stresses. Generally. For many components and welds. whereas larger amounts tend to reduce hardenability because of extensive carbide formation. If the yield point is exceeded. as strength increases. ductility is reduced. Mechanical Properties The mechanical properties of a metal determine the range of usefulness of the metal and establish the service that can be expected from it.

surface conditions. The examination of high-cycle fatigue fracture surfaces will usually reveal a relatively smooth. and aggressive environments. Creep Creep is a time-dependent deformation and fracture that takes place at elevated temperatures under the application of a load. with low-cycle fatigue.000 stress cycles to failure. Secondary creep is a period of essentially constant creep rate. at the end of which the material ultimately fails. For the stress levels encountered in most power generating or petrochemical plants. residual stresses. it is generally defined as requiring more than 10. Tertiary creep is a period of increasing creep rate. Low-strain failures are the result of the coalescence of grain boundary microvoids into grain boundary cracks. voids link up to form microcracks. in the primary stage. during which the material’s creep resistance increases by work hardening (that is. creep is not a concern for low-alloy steels below 752°F (400°C) and for austenitic alloys below 1000°F (538°C). void development. Increasing creep rate can be a result of microstructural aging. Local fracture occurs when the microcracks link to form macrocracks. or a combination of the two effects. In contrast. the strain rate is continuously changing). For most thick section components. the fracture surface is somewhat rougher. Eventually. The metallurgical variables having the most pronounced effects on the fatigue behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels are strength level. ductility. Thus.000 stress cycles of higher amplitude. which then leads to rapid failure. The creep strain versus time curves have traditionally been described using three stages: primary. Fatigue cracks are usually transgranular. Stress cycling can be induced mechanically or thermally. at high temperatures at which creep-fatigue interactions become important. For common engineering steels. where Tm is the absolute melting point.Metallurgy of Steels cycles and is generally independent of stress duration. the damage level depends on stress duration. it is difficult to distinguish the direct effects of other variables such as composition on fatigue from their effects on the strength level of steel. At least partly because of the characteristic scatter of fatigue-testing data.4 Tm. depending on the range of stress intensity at the crack tip. Beach marks can also be evident in low-cycle fatigue. the existence of even a macrocrack does not necessarily constitute the end of life because a period of stable crack growth usually occurs until a critical crack size is reached. However. in which failure occurs after fewer than 10. creep becomes a significant concern only at temperatures exceeding approximately 0. the fatigue limit is approximately half the ultimate tensile strength. High-cycle fatigue consists of crack initiation or fracture brought about by fluctuating stresses of low amplitude. secondary. 3-22 . cleanliness of the steel. For most steels with hardness values below approximately 400 HB (excluding precipitation hardening steels). Each stage can be characterized in terms of creep rate (the change in strain with time). and tertiary. flat surface with beach marks. Microstructural changes that occur during creep in chromium-molybdenum steels include precipitation and growth of chromium and molybdenum carbides (spheroidization). Primary creep is a period of relatively high but decreasing creep rate with time. any heat treatment or alloying addition that increases the strength (or hardness) of a steel can be expected to increase its fatigue limit.

Increasing numbers of components must operate under creep-fatigue conditions because power generating systems are seeking maximum flexibility from available generating plants. a parameter known as C* describes the crack tip region. at least in the beginning stages of crack growth. up to 0. The problem of material degradation under the combination of cyclic loading and high temperatures is currently under intensive study in many laboratories. In the limit of widespread creep deformation. for most general purposes.06 wt% P and S. in which strain rates and displacement rates have been substituted for strains and displacements.6 wt% C) 3-23 . plain carbon steels are grouped as follows: • • • Low-carbon or mild steels (<0. silicon. Classification of Steels Used in Power Plant Applications In addition to containing carbon.25 wt% C) Medium-carbon steels (0. Ct = C*. and so on. For the more general case in which significant creep strains occur only in the localized region near the crack tip. Creep-Fatigue During elevated-temperature operation. all commercial steels contain varying amounts of manganese. components can be subjected to both creep and cyclic loading.25–0. specifying only the composition is insufficient to provide an adequate description of properties. a parameter Ct has been proposed. C* is an energy-rate line integral that is the creep analogue of the J-integral. However. C* can be calculated by finite-element methods and used as a parameter to predict creep crack growth. phosphorus. and other trace impurities that are present as a result of the methods used during steel production. 0. sulfur. Consequently. Although there is no universally agreed system of steel specifications. Under the special conditions in which secondstage creep deformation is widespread in the body. These concepts have been confirmed by applying them to explain the observed creep lifetime of cracked components such as superheater outlet headers.6 wt% C) High-carbon or plain carbon tool steels (>0. Consequently. the initiation of a crack is normally followed by a period of stable crack growth. gases. This condition is termed creep-fatigue.Metallurgy of Steels Creep Crack Growth In thick section components. steels are defined as plain carbon even when they contain 1% or more manganese.3 wt% Si. such as main steam piping and secondary superheater headers. and the effects can be either interactive (they can cause component damage to accumulate significantly faster than would be expected by considering each mechanism separately) or simply additive. Significant effort has been expended toward understanding the factors that determine crack growth rate and developing procedures for predicting behavior. the structure and properties of plain carbon steels depend not only on composition but also on the heat treatment and on the hot and cold working operations before or after heat treatment.

4 wt% Cr. which limits hardenability—that is. and springs. and so on. and 0. stronger but lighter components and structures can be made without sacrificing some of the most desirable features of plain carbon steels. with rapid quenching. even water-quenching austenite does not produce a fully hard martensitic product. but excluding steels for electrical and magnetic applications and certain other special products. Medium-carbon steels are chosen for casting. These property limitations can be alleviated. The elements nickel. The amount of any alloying element present is usually less than 2%. For example.and heat-resistant steels usually rely on additions of chromium to provide protection—for example. there is a maximum section thickness that can be hardened from surface to center. tungsten.75 wt% C. 6–22 wt% Ni. such as easy workability. gears. The low diffusion rates of elements such as tungsten. it is possible to consider the following three broad categories of alloy or special steels: • Low-alloy structural steels are grades for which strength is a major criterion for selection. chromium oxidizes form a protective coating on the steel. forging. ball bearings. turbine blades. to the section sizes that can be fully hardened. the critical cooling rates are high.2 wt% C) are used as weldable structural steels. the critical cooling rate needed to form martensite depends on the carbon content. and to the temperatures at which even high-carbon steels can operate without softening. Although plain carbon steels are perfectly satisfactory for most applications.2 wt% C. l wt% V. • • 3-24 . molybdenum.2 wt% C. and so on of axles. in which ductility and toughness combined with reasonable strength are required. Even with higher carbon levels. With plain carbon steels. austenitic stainless steels. chromium. which combine corrosion resistance and ductility.Metallurgy of Steels The low-carbon grades are used for sheet and strip manufacture for cans. there are distinct limits to the combination of strength and toughness attainable. wire ropes. so elements such as chromium. chromium.15–1.3 wt% C. by alloying. The stronger mild steels (0. except that nickel can be up to 4 wt%. with less than 0. and vanadium improve strength and toughness. No classification system is universally accepted for alloy steels. (2–3 cm). This category is dominated by the stainless steels. have compositions in the range of 12–18 wt% Cr and 0. weldability. stable carbide dispersions in the steel. and vanadium are added to provide hard. hardenability. The hardness and strength of high-carbon steels result in their selection for tools.03–0. and 0. usually contain 16–23 wt% Cr. because of the relatively low thermal conductivities of steels. tantalum. For example. this hardening depth is not more than approximately 1 in. a typical high-speed tool steel can contain 18 wt% W. (It is the nickel that stabilizes the FCC structure so that austenite is present at room temperature. which combine hardness and corrosion resistance. the volume change accompanying the austenite-martensite transformation can cause severe distortion and cracking of higher-carbon steels.) Martensitic stainless steels suitable for valves. 5 wt% Co. and vanadium in the iron alloy matrix minimize strength loss at high temperatures. therefore. and new property ranges introduced. and dies. pressings. and cost. and so on. Tool and die steels must maintain strength and hardness at temperature. and bolts. With plain carbon steel. Corrosion.

Nutting. 3-25 . The strength of steel is affected by the following typical strengthening mechanisms: • • • Grain refinement Solid-solution hardening Precipitation hardening Of these various strengthening mechanisms. therefore. These steels can be used in applications in which operating temperatures do not exceed approximately 800°F (427°C). Institute of Materials [3-18]. Detailed metallurgical analysis has shown that the precipitates present in 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel change with time at high temperature (Figure 3-7) [3-18. the refinement of grain size is unique—it is the only strengthening mechanism that also increases toughness. “The Structural Stability of Low-Alloy Steels for Power Plant Applications. Above these temperatures. These steels experience a progressive change in the type and size of the precipitates present. alloy steels must be used at higher temperatures and when additional corrosion resistance is required.Metallurgy of Steels Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels Carbon and low-alloy steels are the most commonly used steels for power plant applications. Carbon steels typically exhibit mixed ferrite and pearlite microstructures. Figure 3-7 Changes That Occur in the Precipitates Present in Cr Mo Low-Alloy Steels with Exposure to Elevated Temperatures Source: J. The high-temperature strength of chromium-molybdenum steels is mainly derived from a complex combination of solid-solution and precipitation effects. significant softening occurs. 3-19]. the percentage of pearlite depends on the carbon level.” Conference Proceedings: Advanced Heat-Resistant Steels for Power Generation.

but complex combinations of elements can be involved). However. Volume 1. the dislocation slip processes become easier. CrMo-based steels have provided excellent service in a range of high-temperature applications. alloys with greater strength and ductility have been developed [3-20. However. 3-4 Equation 3-4 indicates that the number of carbide types present increases with time in elevatedtemperature service. Metals Handbook. 3-26 . The changes that take place depend on time and temperature.Metallurgy of Steels The most recently reported sequence is shown in Equation 3-4. Figure 3-8 provides some historical background on these developments [3-4]. Figure 3-8 Historical Background of the Development of Power Plant Steels Source: ASM. indeed. 3-21]. to realize the benefits of more efficient operation at higher temperatures and pressures. where M denotes the metal element (typically iron. M3C → M3C + M2C → M3C + M2C + M7C3 → M2C + M7C3 + M6C + M23C6 Eq. chromium. the creep strength decreases because the carbides present after long periods are less effective in terms of strengthening—that is. or molybdenum. this microstructural instability limits the useful operating temperature for low-alloy steels to less than approximately 1065°F (575°C). Properties and Selection: Iron and Steels [3-4].

Ferritic and Advanced Ferritic Boiler Steels The nominal compositions of ferritic boiler steels are shown in Table 3-5. ISIJ International. and the development stages are shown in Figure 3-10 [3-21]. 6 [3-21]. No.Metallurgy of Steels These steels were developed in an effort to optimize performance through careful control of composition and heat treatment. It is apparent that these new generation steels have been successful in increasing strength. History of Power Plants and Progress in Heat Resistant Steels. Masuyama. High strength and ductility are achieved only through careful control of composition and heat treatment (see Figure 3-9). Figure 3-9 Variation in Strength and Ductility for New 9 wt% and 12 wt% Cr Steels as a Function of C + N and Chromium Equivalent (Based on Irving) Source: F. 3-27 . 41. Vol.

10 0.45 0.3 0.06 0.0 2.0 2.5 0.40 0.0 11.0 9.3 Mn 0.0 9.008 0.08 0.25 0.0 0.07 0.20 0.4 0.0 12.05 0.45 0.004 0.20 0.0 1.20 0.06 0.10 0.60 0.10 Si 0.60 0.8 1.45 0.04Nb Others - 3-28 .60 0.0Cu 0.20 0.25 0.06 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.5 1.10 0.8 W V Nb 9 Cr 1 Mo 9 Cr 2 Mo 9 Cr 1 Mo V Nb 9%Cr 9 Cr 1/2 Mo 2 W V Nb 9 Cr 1 Mo 1 W V Nb Low C 9 Cr 1 Mo V Nb 9 Cr 2 Mo V Nb 12 Cr 1 Mo V 12 Cr 1 Mo W V 12 Cr 1 Mo 1 W V Nb 12%Cr 12 Cr 0.1 1.25 0.11 0.4 0.005 0.0 11.45 0.0 12.6 1.05 0.4 0.3 0.25 0.20 Chemical Composition (mass %) Cr 2.3 0.0 9.007Ta.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-5 Nominal Compositions of Ferritic Piping Steels Steels C 2%Cr 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo 2-1/4 Cr 1.0 1.5Ni 1.45 0.2 W 1.25 9.0 0.0 Mo 1.08 0.3 0.2 0.4 Mo 2 W Cu V Nb 11 Cr 2-1/2 W 2-1/2 Co V Nb B N 11 Cr 3 W 3 Co V Nb Ta Nb N 0.30 0.0 0.25 0.45 0.20 0.0 2.20 0.25 2.0 1.004 0.0 2.0 9.5 1.08 0.0 12.60 0.0 9.40 0.50 0.0 1.5Ni 0.008 0.0 12.20 Nb 0.0 V 0.008 0.10 0. 0.20 0.2 0.45 0.05 0.6 3.07 B 0.4 0.6 0.12 0.0 0.55 0.07 0.0 1.4 0.07 0.06 0.0 9.

The creep rupture strength is between those of 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels and TP304H. modified 9 Cr grade 91 steel has a high allowable stress and has already been used extensively worldwide. Masuyama.8 W V Nb [ASME T/P92] and 9 Cr 1 Mo 1 W V Nb [ASME TP911]) with a higher allowable stress than that of the grade 91 have been developed. The emergence of this material made it possible to use ferritic steels for fabrication of major pressure parts for ultrasupercritical pressure power plants using temperatures up to 1099°F (593°C). Low-carbon 9 Cr 1 Mo V Nb.5 Mo 1. in comparison with the conventional 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels. and 9 Cr 1 Mo V Nb (ASME grade 91) are modified 9% Cr steels with high-temperature strength enhanced by adding carbonitride-forming elements such as vanadium and niobium. and 1% tungsten was added to T/P91 in the case of TP911. ISIJ International. Molybdenum was decreased to 0. Furthermore.5% and 1. 9 Cr 2 Mo V Nb. These were obtained based on steels with molybdenum content replaced by addition of tungsten. Of these. Vol.8% tungsten was added to T/P91 in the case of T/P92. No. Furthermore. and oxidation and corrosion resistances can also be enhanced. History of Power Plants and Progress in Heat Resistant Steels. Alloy 9 Cr 2 Mo is a low-carbon steel that has been used successfully in superheater and reheater tubes and piping. 9% Cr steels (9 Cr 0. 3-29 . The high strength 9–12 wt% Cr steels exhibit relatively good corrosion resistance and can be used as low-cost alternatives to l8%Cr-8%Ni steels. pipe wall thickness can be reduced. not only for superheater tubes but also for thick-walled components such as headers and main steam pipes.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-10 Development of High-Strength Boiler Steels Source: F. 6 [3-21]. 41.

Metallurgy of Steels Of the 12% Cr steels. has been produced with a fine-grained structure (ASTM grain size 8 and finer) for improved steam oxidation resistance and creep strengthening. because this steel has a carbon content as high as 0. weldability is relatively poor. TP32IH. and because high-temperature strength is not satisfactorily high. Austenitic Steels Chemical compositions of austenitic heat-resistant steels are shown in Table 3-6. and so forth. Because 18%Cr-8%Ni steels are used for the highest-temperature boiler components. which has the highest allowable stress among these four types of steels. 3-30 . various improvements have been made to enhance corrosion resistance while maintaining high creep strength. and TP347H are still used for fossil-fired power plants operating under conventional steam conditions. This steel is very useful for improved performance in superheater tubes for ultrasupercritical pressure power plants operating at temperatures up to 1099°F (593°C). for example 12 Cr 1 Mo 1 W V Nb and 12 Cr 0.2%. However. The 18% Cr-8% Ni steels such as TP304H. Steel TP347H. and development stages are presented in Figure 3-11 [3-21]. improved 12% Cr steels for boiler applications. and has a large amount of service experience. steam pipes. In addition.4 Mo 2 W Cu V Nb (ASME T122). TP316H. However. 12 Cr 1 Mo V (DIN X20CrMoV121) is used extensively in Europe for superheater tubes. this alloy is designated as TP347HFG by ASME. have been developed with improved performance. this material is hardly ever used in Japan or in the United States. new steels with chromium content of 20% or more have been developed for the purpose of improving creep strength and corrosion resistance.

5 0.2N 0.2 1.06 0.0 16.08 Si 0.6 0.5 0.12 0.0 10.0 14.0Cu 0.2 1.0Cu.08 0.1 0.0 22.2 Chemical Composition (mass %) Ni 8.0 10.0 21.4Al 0.0 20.4 Mn 1.0 1.6 0.6 0.002 0.5 2.7 6.18 Ti 0.6 1.5 0.08 0.08 0.8 0.0 18.2 1.5 Cr 18.0 20.5 6.15 0.0 25.12 0. 0.6 1.0 W 1.6 0.6 0.0 0.08 0.4 1.10 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.2N 0.8 0.0 1.05 0.0 25.45 0.10 0.0 Cr 18.5 2.0 9.6 0.5 0.2 0.08Zr - 20% to 25% Cr 3-31 .006 0.0 15.6 1.0 Mo 2.08 B 0.5 1.6 0.08 0.0 18.0 23.7 0.4 0.6 0.0Cu.0 0.0 23.08 0.06 0.10N 3.0 1.003 Others 3.5 0.0 10.2 Nb 0.0 18.12 0.45 0.6 0.0 10.0 18.6 1.0 16.0 1.0 10.1 0.0 12.2 0.0 32.0 43.5 0.08 0.0 18.0 V 0.3 0.5 Ni W Cu Nb N High Cr-High Ni 30 Cr 50 Ni Mo Ti Zr 23 Cr 43 Ni W Nb Ti 0.0 25.06 0.6 1. 0.0 15.0 50.0 18.15N 3.10 0.8 1.40 0.08 0.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-6 Chemical Compositions of Austenitic Heat-Resistant Piping Steels Steels C 18 Cr 8 Ni 18 Cr 9 Ni Cu Nb N 18 Cr 10 Ni Ti 18% Cr8% Ni 18 Cr 10 Ni Nb Ti 16 Cr 12 Ni Mo 18 Cr 12 Ni Nb 18 Cr 10 Ni Nb (FG) 15% Cr15% Ni 17 Cr 14 Ni Cu Mo Nb Ti 15 Cr 10 Ni 6 Mn V Nb Ti 25 Cr 20 Ni 25 Cr 20 Ni Nb N 21 Cr 32 Ni Ti Al 22 Cr 15 Ni Nb N 20 Cr 25 Ni Mo Nb Ti 22.0 20.0 30.

History of Power Plants and Progress in Heat Resistant Steels.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-11 Development of High-Strength Boiler Steels Source: F. versatile mechanical properties. with 0. Graphitization can occur with both these alloy types. and pressure vessel components because of their low cost. and chemical plants. Vol. The result is a potential loss of strength combined with a significant decrease in toughness of the steel after high-temperature exposure. 41. depending on details of initial manufacture and on the time that the material is at or above 800°F (425°C). Carbon Steels Carbon steels are the predominant materials in tubing.50% molybdenum. Although the ASME code gives allowable stresses for temperatures greater than 800°F (425°C). is used for piping and superheater tubes operating at metal temperatures to approximately 850°F (455°C). 3-32 . 6 [3-21].15% carbon and 0. and availability in a wide range of product forms. No. They are the most common materials used in noncorrosive environments in the temperature range of -20°F to 800°F (-29°C to 425°C) in power plants. Masuyama. piping. Steel P1. ISIJ International. it also notes that prolonged exposure at these temperatures can result in the carbide phase of the carbon steel being converted to graphite. refineries.

Metallurgy of Steels

Microstructure Classified according to various deoxidation practices, carbon steel is designated variously as rimmed, capped, semikilled, or killed steel. The deoxidation practice and the steelmaking process affect the properties of the steel. However, variations in carbon have the greatest effect on mechanical properties, with increasing carbon content leading to increased hardness and strength. Therefore, carbon steels are generally categorized according to their carbon content. In the vast majority of boiler applications, carbon levels are below 0.3% (see Tables 3-7 and 3-8), and the microstructure is predominantly ferrite and pearlite (see Figure 3-12).
Table 3-7 Specified Composition and Tensile Properties for Selected Carbon Steels Chemical Composition Alloy C Mn P 0.005 max 0.035 max S 0.045 max 0.035 max Si Yield (ksi) (note 1) 26 30–40 Tensile Properties UTS (ksi) (note 1, 2) 30–35 48–70 Elongation (%) 25 Hardness HRB / HB

SA 53 SA 106

0.25–0.35 0.25– 0.35

0.95–1.20 0.27–1.06

0.10 max

77 / 137 79 / 143

Notes: 1. 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa 2. UTS = Ultimate tensile strength

3-33

Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-8 Specified Composition and Tensile Properties for Representative Pipe Alloys Chemical Composition ASTM Grades C 0.1–0.2 0.1–0.2 0.05– 0.15 0.05– 0.15 0.05– 0.15 0.05– 0.15 0.05– 0.15 0.15 max 0.15 max 0.08– 0.12 0.15 max Cr NA 0.5–0.81 0.8–1.25 NA 1.0–1.5 0.9–2.6 2.65– 3.35 4.0–6.0 6.0–8.0 8.00– 9.50 8.0–10.0 Mo 0.44– 0.65 NA 0.44– 0.65 0.44– 0.65 0.44– 0.65 0.87– 1.13 0.80– 1.06 0.45– 0.65 0.45– 0.65 0.85– 1.05 0.9–1.1 Mn 0.3–0.8 0.3–0.61 0.3–0.61 0.30– 0.60 0.3–0.60 0.3–0.60 0.30– 0.60 0.3–0.60 0.3–0.60 0.30– 0.60 0.3–0.60 P 0.045 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.020 max 0.025 max S 0.045 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.025 max 0.010 max 0.025 max Si 0.1– 0.5 0.1– 0.3 0.5 max 1.15– 1.65 0.5– 1.0 0.5 max 0.5 max 0.5 max 0.5– 1.0 0.20– 0.50 0.25– 1.0 Yield (ksi) (note 1) 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Tensile Properties UTS (ksi) (note 1, 2) 55 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 Elongation % 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Hardness HRB / HB 80 / 146 85 / 163 85 / 163 85 / 163 85 / 163 85 / 163 85 / 163 85 / 163 89 / 179 89 / 179 89 / 179

P1 P2 P12 P15 P11 P22 P21 P5 P9 P91 P92

Notes: 1. 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa. 2. UTS = ultimate tensile strength.

3-34

Metallurgy of Steels

Figure 3-12 Typical Micrographs of Carbon Steel, Showing (a) Predominantly Ferrite with Approximately 10% Pearlite and (b) Detail of the Pearlitic Microstructure

For plain-carbon steels and carbon-1/2 Mo steels, the expected microstructure is ferrite (nearly pure iron) and pearlite, as shown in Figure 3-12a. Details of the lamellar structure of alternating layers of ferrite and iron carbide in pearlite are shown in Figure 3-12b. This structure, called the normalized structure, is produced by slowly cooling the finished product from approximately 1650°F (899°C). In this condition, the steel will meet all specification requirements and is as strong as it will ever be. The microstructural changes that might occur during service will decrease the strength of this pearlitic structure. Plain carbon steels include SA210, SA192, and SA178 for boiler tubes and SA106 for piping and headers. The measured Rockwell B hardness varies with the specific carbon level, but it is usually approximately 75. The pearlite is made up of alternating layers of iron carbide and ferrite, referred to as a lamellar structure (see Figure 3-12b). The amount of pearlite depends on the carbon content, with the spacing of the individual platelets related to the specifics of the thermal treatment. The individual plates of iron carbide or cementite in the pearlite are shaped like playing cards, long in two dimensions and short in the thickness direction. Each cluster is referred to as a pearlite colony. The apparent spacing or thickness of the iron carbide and ferrite layers depends on how the pearlite colony is sliced. When sliced perpendicularly to the colony, the spacing is close, perhaps too fine to be resolved by optical microscopy. However, when cut at an angle, the apparent thickness between the lamellae is greater. Mechanical Properties The wide range of microstructures and the associated strengths of steels are largely a result of the significant effect of carbon. In particular, increasing the carbon content leads to significant increases in strength (see Figure 3-13) [3-4]. However, increases in strength are typically associated with reductions in ductility.

3-35

Metallurgy of Steels

Figure 3-13 Changes in Strength and Ductility with Increasing Carbon Levels for a Simple Carbon Steel Source: ASM. Metals Handbook, Volume 1, Properties and Selection: Iron and Steels [3-4].

Much work has been carried out to develop empirical equations for ferrite-pearlite steels that relate strength and toughness to microstructural features—for example, grain size and percentage of pearlite as well as composition. One such equation for ferrite-pearlite steels under 0.25% carbon is shown in Equation 3-5. Yield Strength = 53.9 + 32.34(Mn) + 83.2(Si) + 354.2(Nf) + 17.4(d-1/2) Where: Mn Si Nf d is the manganese content (%). is the silicon content (%). is the free nitrogen content (%). is the ferrite grain size (mm).
Eq. 3-5

Equation 3-5 shows that manganese, silicon, and nitrogen have a pronounced effect on yield strength, as does grain size. However, in most ferrite-pearlite steels, nitrogen is quite low (<0.010%) and thus has minimal effect on yield strength.

3-36

Metallurgy of Steels

The regression equation for tensile strength for the same steels is shown in Equation 3-6. Tensile Strength = 294.1 + 27.7(Mn) + 83.2(Si) + 3.9(Pl) + 7.7(d-1/2)
Eq. 3-6

The tensile strength is in MPa, and Pl is the pearlite content (%). Thus, in distinction to yield strength, the percentage of pearlite in the microstructure has an important effect on tensile strength. Toughness of ferrite-pearlite steels is also an important consideration in their use. It has long been known that the absorbed energy in a Charpy V-notch test is decreased by increasing carbon content. In Figure 3-14, showing the variation of impact energy with test temperature, the shelf energy decreases from approximately 200 J (150 ft-lbf) for 0.11% carbon steel to approximately 35 J (25 ft-lbf) for 0.80% carbon steel. Also, the transition temperature increases from approximately -60°F to 300°F (-50°C to 150°C) over this same range of carbon content [3-22].

Figure 3-14 The Influence of Increasing Carbon Level on Charpy Impact Tests for Carbon Steels Source: K. W. Burns and F. B. Pickering, Deformation and Fracture of Ferrite-Pearlite Structures. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, Vol. 202, No. 110 [3-22].

The effect of carbon is due mainly to its effect on the percentage of pearlite in the microstructure. This is reflected in the regression equation for transition temperature (for temperature in °C) shown in Equation 3-7. Transition Temp = -19 + 44(Si) + 700(Nf) + 2.2(Pl)—11.5(d-1/2)
Eq. 3-7

3-37

Metallurgy of Steels

It can be seen in all these relationships that ferrite grain size is an important parameter in improving both strength and toughness. Although pearlite is beneficial for increasing tensile strength, and nitrogen is beneficial for increasing yield strength, both are harmful to toughness. Allowable Stress Values The allowable stress values according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II, Materials, are presented in Table 3-9 [3-10]. At lower temperatures, these allowable stresses are based on the tensile properties; therefore, no variation of allowable stress is recommended. However, above approximately 700°F (371°C) for the carbon steels and approximately 750°F (399°C) for the carbon-1/2 Mo steel, diffusion processes begin to become significant, and the allowable stress is reduced. With further increases in temperature, the allowable stress is further reduced, as creep damage development becomes the dominant process.

3-38

Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-9 ASME BPVC Section II Maximum Allowable Stress for Selected Carbon Steels Alloy Metal Temperature (°F) (note 1) 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

Carbon Steels (note 2) SA 53 SA 106 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 12.5 12.5 9 9 5 5 — 1.5 — — — — — —

Low-Alloy Steels (note 2) P1 P2 P12 P11 P22 P5 P9 13.8 15 15 15 15 14.4 14.4 13.8 15 15 15 15 14.4 14.4 13.8 14.7 15 15 15 14.1 14.2 13.8 14.2 15 15 15 13.7 13.7 13.5 13.5 14.8 15 15 12.8 12.3 12.7 12.8 13.1 13.1 13.1. 10.9 11.4 4.8 5.9 6.6 6 7.8 5.8 7.4 — — 2.8 3 4.2 2.9 3.3 — — 1 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.5 — — — — — — —

Austenitic Stainless Steels (note 2) 304 316 321 321H 347 347H 13 13.4 17.1 17.1 15.5 15.5 12.2 12.5 17.1 17.1 14.9 14.9 11.4 11.8 16.4 16.4 14.7 14.7 11.1 11.3 15.8 15.8 14.7 14.7 10.6 11 15.5 15.5 14.7 14.7 10.2 10.8 15.3 15.3 14.7 14.7 9.8 10.6 13.8 14 14 14.4 8.9 10.3 6.9 9.1 9.1 13 6.1 7.4 3.6 5.4 4.4 7.9 3.7 4.1 1.7 3.2 2.2 4.4

Martensitic Steels (note 2) P91 (note 3) P91 (note 4) P92 (note 5) 21.2 — — 21.1 — — 20.8 — — 20 22.9 22.4 18.7 21.3 21.4 16.7 19.1 20.1 14.3 10.0 18.3 10.3 9.6 12.3 4.3 4.3 5.9 — — —

Notes: 1. °C = (°F - 32) x 5/9. 2. Units = ksi. 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa. 3. Values according to ASME Section I [3-23] 4. Values for thickness >3 in. (7.62 cm) from Vallourec Mannesmann Tubes. The T91/P91 Book [3-24]. 5. Values from ASME Code Case 2179-6 [3-25].

3-39

the results available from API STD 530. In Table 3-10.Metallurgy of Steels Creep Properties The Larson-Miller parameter (LMP) is frequently used to represent the variation of creep life with stress and temperature. 3-8 The normal value of the constant for the majority of power plant steels is 20. for carbon and carbon-1/2 Mo steel have been assessed to provide a representation of average behavior [3-26]. Table 3-10 Larson-Miller Parameters for Stress Rupture Properties Alloy 10 9 8 7 Stress (ksi) 6 5 4 3 2 Carbon Steels SA 53 SA 106 32200 33900 32650 34300 33100 34750 33600 35200 34150 35750 34800 36400 35500 37100 35400 38000 — — Low-Alloy Steels P1 P2 P12 P11 P22 P5 P9 35900 36350 36850 36550 36950 36500 37600 36100 36650 37200 36850 37350 36950 37900 36400 36950 37600 37150 37800 37400 38250 36700 37300 38200 37500 38350 37900 38650 37050 37800 — 37900 38900 38500 39150 37450 — — 38350 39550 39250 39700 38000 — — 38950 40250 40100 40400 38650 — — 39700 41000 41200 41300 — — — — — — 42550 Austenitic Stainless Steels 304 316 321 321H 347 347H 33600 33700 32700 33300 33900 33900 34000 34100 33050 33700 34050 34050 34500 34450 33400 34100 34650 34650 35050 34900 33850 34650 35100 35100 35700 35400 34300 35250 35600 35600 36450 36050 34900 35950 36250 36250 37400 36800 35600 36800 37000 37000 38600 37750 36500 37900 37950 37950 — 39150 37750 39500 39300 39300 3-40 . Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries. LMP = (T + 460)(constant + log time) Eq. the available dataset values of LMP are typically plotted against stress. allowing minimum and average behavior to be described. For a given alloy. The approach is based on the assumption that tests performed under accelerated temperature conditions can be used to define the long-term performance at service conditions. The LMP is given by Equation 3-8. T.

the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Table 1A warns of the change in iron carbide to graphite for plain carbon steels and carbon-1/2 Mo steels. graphitization occurs before the steel is fully spheroidized. Changing its shape to a sphere reduces the internal energy of the carbide. Materials. Section II. For plain carbon (SA53. The excess surface energy is the driving force for the change. At temperatures above approximately 1000°F (538°C). SA106) steels. a further step in the microstructural changes is the formation of graphite particles within the steel. the plate-like shape of the pearlite is unstable and will change to a sphere-like shape. graphite will appear after spheroidization. Spheroidization and graphitization are competing processes (see Figure 3-15) [3-27]. Another factor in addition to temperature that will promote spheroidization is high stress. in fact. the iron carbide itself is unstable and will transform to graphite and ferrite. At temperatures below approximately 1000°F (538°C). Part D. a process known as graphitization.895 MPa. Aging Effects At temperatures above approximately 800°F (427°C).Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-10 (continued) Larson-Miller Parameters for Stress Rupture Properties Alloy 10 9 8 7 Stress (ksi) 6 5 4 3 2 Martensitic Steels P91 P92 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Note: 1 ksi = 6. Thus. The process that leads to the new shape is known as spheroidization. 3-41 . Graphitization is a well-known phenomenon.

Graphitization occurs when iron carbide decomposes into ferrite and graphite. if they form a continuous zone. seems to be associated with locations that have been subjected to large plastic deformations. The formation of graphite particles or nodules. referred to as non-weld-related graphitization. L. approximately 1340°F (725°C). Of the two. recently it has been observed from field experience with degraded materials that the graphitization-to-spheroidization temperature can differ somewhat from the accepted value. it is more serious when it does occur. 3-42 . usually at a characteristic distance from the weld. however. which is the reason that graphitization damage is mostly associated with the HAZs of welds. Because of the difference in activation energies of the two processes. it can be dependent on steel composition and microstructure. is not considered a problem. graphitization is less common. Such a temperature regime occurs during the welding process. but because it results in embrittled material. it has generally been considered that graphitization is preferred at temperatures below approximately 1020°F (550°C). However. Hemingway.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-15 Variation of Microstructural Changes Resulting from Spheroidization and Graphitization with Time at Elevated Temperature Source: W. The Study of Graphitization [3-27]. its true equilibrium structure. if they are dispersed throughout the metal. Recent field investigations have identified graphitization that has occurred in base metal removed from the influence of welds [3-28]. and it can occur in a manner that is not completely predictable. A complete explanation of this second type of graphitization is not yet in hand. This phenomenon. the resulting embrittled material can fail catastrophically by brittle fracture. Pearlite decomposition tends to become unstable when the steel has been heated briefly above the A1 temperature. Boiler tubes are among the power plant components in which this recently recognized form of graphitization has led to failure. Carbide spheroidization is also a mechanism of pearlite decomposition.

3-43 . Chromium-containing steels are highly resistant to graphitization and are therefore preferred for service above 850°F (455°C). or annealed condition. The chromium provides improved oxidation and corrosion resistance. the resistance to oxidation increases with increasing chromium level.5%–10% chromium and 0. for example. However.025%.42% Mo.17% C and 0.5%–1.2% molybdenum. unless the aluminum content is restricted to <0. and the molybdenum increases strength at elevated temperatures. In these tests. once in common usage. The greatest creep strength is found in 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels (see Figure 3-18) [3-30].2%. have been shown to be more susceptible than steels deoxidized with silicon or titanium. The carbon content is usually below 0. is shown in Figure 3-16 for several initial metallurgical structures (normalized or annealed). These alloys are generally supplied in the normalized and tempered. The effect of spheroidization on the rupture strength of a typical carbon-molybdenum steel containing 0. The specified alloy compositions for selected steels within the classification are given in Table 3-6. Although the spheroidized structure is weaker than the normalized pearlitic microstructure. the rupture values for all the structures tended to approach a common value. Chromium-Molybdenum Steels Chromium-molybdenum heat-resistant steels encompass a number of different alloys that contain between approximately 0. at 900°F and 1000°F (480°C and 540°C). the structure of the steel affected the rupture strength. a coarse-grain normalized structure was the strongest for both short-time and long-time tests. The use of carbon-molybdenum steel has been largely discontinued for higher temperatures because of problems associated with graphitization. As the test time increased. quenched and tempered. the stress for failure of a spheroidized structure in a given time was sometimes only half that of a normalized structure [3-29]. Aluminum-killed steels.Metallurgy of Steels The propensity toward graphitization damage has also been considered to depend on the steelmaking practice used. This is because the platelets of cementite in pearlite are relatively brittle and therefore offer planes of relatively rapid fracture within the pearlitic microstructure. At 900°F (480°C). The spheroidized structures were weaker than the normalized or annealed structures for short-time tests at both 900°F and 1000°F (480°C and 540°C). a greater life in cyclic fatigue loading has been observed (see Figure 3-17) [3-4]. Chromium-molybdenum steels are widely used in the oil and gas industries and in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants.

20 Si 0. Proceedings of the ASTM. Weaver.42 Mo) Source: S. 3-44 .Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-16 Effect of Spheroidization on the Rupture Strength of Carbon-Molybdenum Steel (0. H. The Effect of Carbide Spheroidization Upon the Rupture Strength and Ductility of Carbon Molybdenum Steel.88 Mn 0. 46 [3-29].17 C 0. Vol.

P. 7%. Volume 1. Metals Handbook. H. The 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steel is used for piping and tubes for boilers with service temperatures to 950°F or 1000°F (510°C or 540°C). Harth and T. Vol. 226–229 [3-30]. The similar 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo steel is used at up to 1100°F (590°C) and has stress-rupture and creep properties comparable to those of the 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steel. pp. Thus. The 5%. The 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel has better oxidation resistance and creep strength than 1 Cr 1/2 Mo and 1-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steels. and 9% chromium steels are generally lower in stress rupture and 3-45 . Sherlock. Properties and Selection: Iron and Steels [3-4].Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-17 Differences in Fatigue Behavior for Carbon Steels with a Pearlitic or a Spheroidized Microstructure Source: ASM. this alloy has been used at temperatures up to approximately 1200°F (650°C) without the presence of hydrogen or to approximately 900°F (480°C) in a hydrogen environment. in Transactions of the ASME. 107. Figure 3-18 Variation of Creep Strength with Chromium Content for a Series of Low-Alloy Steels Source: G.

Under intermediate conditions. The effect of differences in thermal cycles in modifying microstructure is most commonly noted in weldments. However. Guidance regarding the specific microstructures developed is obtained from the CCT diagram. The main advantage of these steels is the improved oxidation resistance from the increased chromium content.Metallurgy of Steels creep strength than the lower-chromium steels because the strength at elevated temperatures typically drops off with an increase in chromium. Variations in peak temperature and cooling rate result in a range of grain sizes and transformation microstructures within the weld metal and the HAZ. A macrograph of a typical CrMo low-alloy steel weld is shown in Figure 3-20a. within the weld and heat-affected zone. mostly bainitic structures will be present. For samples that are cooled slowly. Figure 3-19 Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel Source: Babcock & Wilcox. a wide range of prior austenite grain sizes is present. which presents information on the structures formed for particular cooling rates. the microstructure will be ferrite and pearlite. the predominant microstructure is bainite. for parent sections that have been cooled rapidly. Microstructure The microstructures present depend on both the composition and the thermal history. Steam. because of the differing thermal histories. the structure will contain ferrite with a range of transformation products. therefore. with bainitic structures formed at faster rates. Fortieth Edition [3-15]. As shown. and details of typical weld metal and HAZ microstructures are presented in Figures 3-20b and 3-20c. The CCT diagram for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel is shown in Figure 3-19 [3-15]. 3-46 . Relatively slow cooling rates in the parent result in a predominantly ferritic microstructure. respectively [3-1]. the cooling rate is relatively rapid. however.

a supplementary requirement for toughness is available when needed. However. the procurement specifications for the CrMo steels require that the room-temperature elongations meet or exceed values in the range of 18% to 22%. no variation of allowable stress is recommended. Mechanical Properties Clean steelmaking practices have significantly improved the toughness of CrMo steels over the last 15 years by reducing the content of residual elements responsible for some types of embrittlement. Typically. Toughness criteria derived from the Charpy V-notch or other types of toughness tests are often invoked for nuclear applications. Refinement of grain size and shape control of inclusions have produced additional improvements in toughness. Materials. these allowable stresses are based on the tensile properties. such as plates.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-20 Typical Weld Microstructures in Cr Mo Low-Alloy Steel Shown in (a) Macrosection. 3-47 . (b) with Details of Typical Microstructures in the Weld Metal. With further increases in temperature. above approximately 750°F (399°C) for the majority of steels and above approximately 800°F (427°C) for the grades 11 and 22 steels. are presented in Table 3-9. therefore. Allowable Stress Values The allowable stress values according to the ASME Boiler Pressure and Valve Code. and the allowable stress is reduced. depending on the strength and other factors related to the specific grade. and (c) Heat-Affected Zone Source: EPRI 1011912. A maximum ultimate strength or hardness is sometimes specified to ensure adequate toughness in the delivered product. At the lower temperatures. Section II. Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers [3-1]. For thick-section products. diffusion processes begin to become significant.

pp. Sherlock. The LMP is given by the following relationship: LMP = (T + 460)(constant + log time). the available dataset values of LMP are typically plotted against stress. the results available from API STD 530 for selected chromiummolybdenum steels have been assessed to give a representation of average behavior [3-26]. Figure 3-21 Variation of Allowable Stress Values for Grade 11. allowing minimum and average behavior to be described. T. Harth and T. Figure 3-21 shows the reduction in allowable stress that resulted from reevaluation of appropriate creep data [3-30]. For a given alloy. Creep Properties The LMP is frequently used to represent the variation of creep life with stress and temperature. In Table 3-10. For a particular temperature. The normal value of the constant for the majority of power plant steels is 20. the highest values of allowable stress are given for grade 22 material. Therefore. in Transactions of the ASME. as creep damage development becomes the dominant process.P. and the allowable stress recommendations were reduced. For example. the values for grade 11. 1-1/4 Cr Mo steel were reevaluated during the 1960s. The 3-48 . Vol. 1-1/4 Cr Mo Steel at Different Metal Temperatures Source: G. it is important to be aware of the recommended allowable stress values that were used during plant design and construction and of any changes that might have occurred. The approach is based on the assumption that tests performed under accelerated temperature conditions can be used to define the long-term performance at service conditions. 107. H. The recommended allowable stress values can be changed as further information becomes available.Metallurgy of Steels the allowable stress is further reduced. 226–229 [3-30].

Smith. any differences in creep strength early in life will gradually be reduced as a result of long-term aging during service. The mean line in the figure is a representation of the lives for annealed material. (See Figure 3-22.) However. Figure 3-22 Variation of the Larson-Miller Parameter with Creep Stress for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel Source: G. Indeed. even within the classification of normalized and tempered steel. 3-49 . for example. greater short-term strength will be noted for material with the highest tensile strength. Thus. with the data shown by the symbols representing results obtained for normalized and tempered steel heat treated to different tensile strengths [3-31]. V. microstructural changes occur with exposure to high temperatures. Because the most stable microstructure is independent of initial structure. Supplemental Report on the Elevated-Temperature Properties of Chromium-Molybdenum Steels (An Evaluation of 2 Cr 1 Mo Steel) [3-31]. normalized and tempered material will exhibit higher creep strength than annealed material.Metallurgy of Steels initial heat treatment condition affects relatively short-term creep life.

M3C → M3C + M2C → M3C + M2C + M7C3 → M2C + M7C3 + M6C + M23C6 Eq. Typically. (Figure 3-23 shows an optical micrograph from a section of P22 material after long-term service. Figure 3-23 Optical Micrograph Showing Precipitate Coarsening of P22 Material The changes in microstructure occurring with time at temperature have been monitored in a number of studies. preferential growth of precipitates at grain boundaries cause the precipitates in regions adjacent to the boundaries to dissolve. the initial regular distribution of relatively fine precipitates changes.Metallurgy of Steels Aging Effects Carbide Changes and Coarsening The types of precipitates formed depend on the composition. and the time and temperature of in-service exposure. These changes reduce strength and can also lead to reductions in ductility through carbide embrittlement or temper embrittlement. Thus. chromium. size. It has been suggested that tracking changes in microstructure either directly (using metallographic evaluation) or indirectly (using 3-50 . It is generally agreed that the sequence of precipitation will be as shown in Equation 3-9.) Networks of relatively coarse-grain boundary carbides will be developed. the temperature history during fabrication. where M denotes the metal element (typically iron. it has been shown that the changes in precipitate type. For example. but complex combinations of elements can be involved). showing the precipitate coarsening that had taken place. and distribution lead to a gradual reduction in creep strength. 3-9 Not only does the type of carbide present change with time but also the size and distribution of carbides are modified. or molybdenum. Different carbide types will be present depending on service conditions.

as shown in the typical micrographs presented in Figure 3-25 [3-32]. The Structure and Properties of 1%Cr-0. 3-51 . In Figure 3-25. Figure 3-24 Progressive Changes in the Microstructure of 1 Cr Mo Steel Source: L. Stages B through F indicate progressively increased levels of microstructural change. A.Metallurgy of Steels hardness measurements) is a useful approach to aid in condition assessment evaluations. H. Mardsen. Proceedings of the Conference on Structural Processes in Creep [3-32].5%Mo Steel after Service in CEBG Power Stations. Toft and R. An example of the microstructural changes and reductions in properties for a set of 1CrMo steel samples is shown in Figures 3-24 and 3-25. stage A is new material before entering service.

000 hours at 1022°F (550°C).5%Mo Steel after Service in CEBG Power Stations. The points representing samples of steel aged at 1112°F (600°C) for 10.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-25 Variation in Creep Strength of 1 Cr Mo Steel Samples as Microstructural Aging Progresses Source: L. and 1157°F (625°C).000 hours simulate the change in FATT measured after prolonged service. 1112°F (600°C). significant reductions in FATT were found after aging at 1022°F (550°C). Mardsen. Toft and R. In contrast. The complete transition curves both for the virgin steel (at implementation into service) and for samples heat treated under laboratory conditions to increase the size of the carbides are shown in Figure 3-26 [3-33]. H. A. Carbide Embrittlement The influence of carbides on the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) of 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel has been evaluated in a series of aging experiments using an alloy that was very low in trace elements. The Structure and Properties of 1%Cr-0. This figure also includes data from an ex-service sample that had experienced 88. 3-52 . Proceedings of the Conference on Structural Processes in Creep [3-32]. Step-cool heat treatment typical of the type used to evaluate temper embrittlement revealed that relatively low temperature exposure did not change FATT.

antimony. and to steelmaking practices that lead to higher levels of impurities. and stainless steels. there is an increase in FATT. because these higher temperatures result in larger grain sizes. Slow cooling following tempering or post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). ISIJ International. which under extreme situations can be as much as 572°F (300°C). including low-alloy steels. Wignarajah. or service exposure in this temperature range. particularly involving elements such as phosphorus. This problem has been identified in a wide range of alloys. can lead to embrittlement. with respect to the behavior observed during Charpy impact testing. Temper Embrittlement Temper embrittlement is a major cause of degradation of toughness of ferritic steels. 3-53 . Evaluation and Simulation of the Microstructural Changes and Embrittlement In 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel Due to Long-Term Service. Vol 30 [3-33]. This increased susceptibility is related both to higher normalizing temperatures. Masumoto. higherstrength alloy steels. tin. I. the critical crack size can become very small. Temper embrittlement occurs when these trace elements diffuse to grain boundaries so that. Numerous components become candidates for retirement if they are severely embrittled because under these conditions. Hara.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-26 Charpy Impact Transition Curves for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel Source: S. and it is traditionally of greater risk with components manufactured using older methods. and T. intergranular fracture rather than cleavage occurs in the brittle lower shelf region and the brittle-to-ductile transition takes place at a higher temperature—that is. The problem is encountered as a result of exposure of a range of alloy steels in the temperature range 650°F to 1000°F (345°C to 540°C). and arsenic.

the columbium plus tantalum cannot exceed 1. 3-54 . the final heat treatment is performed at a temperature of 1900°F–2000°F (1038°C–1093°C). as this ensures the proper carbon content and solution heat treatment for use at temperatures where creep strength is the important design consideration. There are different ASME specifications. 321. That is. For high-temperature boiler applications. based on the carbon content. three general grades—304. pipes are covered in SA376. There are also some other minor differences in the nickel range. C ≤ 0.04–0. depending on the particular grade. A solution anneal at 2000°F (1093°C) minimum is usually sufficient to meet this specification requirement. and the L again signifies a maximum carbon content of 0. they all fall within the broad classification of the 18-8 austenitic stainless steels. C 0.035%. Tubes are covered in SA213. 304N and 304LN. Within these classifications are other grades. with some slight variations in the range of these alloying elements. There are two other grades. and 347 grades are all in the classification of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. the H grade is preferred. these alloys are not commonly used for piping applications at temperatures above approximately 150°F (66°C). The material specification requires all of these materials to be provided in the solution-annealed condition. because of their susceptibility to halide stress corrosion cracking. For the 321H grade.035%) or H (high carbon.10%). The N indicates a nitrogen content of 0. The differences lie only in the carbon content.16% (for improved strength). austenitic steels have been used in superheaters and reheaters for approximately 35 years and have provided excellent performance. Part D requires a minimum of 0. For 321. there is a further requirement: a grain size of ASTM No. and for 347. and 347—are the most widely used.60% maximum. For superheater and reheater applications.0%. In contrast.04% carbon for adequate creep strength [3-10]. Other differences among these three grades are the addition of titanium in 321 and the addition of columbium and tantalum in grade 347. depending on the product form. For use at temperatures above 1000°F (538°C). Each product form has a slightly different composition range. There are other requirements for the minimum amount of these alloying elements. Section II. except for these relatively minor differences.Metallurgy of Steels Austenitic Steels Austenitic steels have excellent corrosion resistance and excellent high-temperature tensile and creep strength. 321. the titanium is 0.10%–0. designated by a following capital letter. However. depending on the form in which the material is used. However.7 or coarser is specified to ensure adequate creep strength. The 304. L (low carbon. and plates are covered in SA240. the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

as temperature increases. The approach is based on the assumption that tests performed under accelerated temperature conditions can be used to define the long-term performance at service conditions. which have dramatic microstructural changes depending on the peak operational or failure temperature. there are no abrupt microstructural changes in the austenitic stainless steels. apparent within the microstructure. no chromium carbide can form. additions of titanium to make the alloy 321 and additions of columbium and tantalum to make the alloy 347 were introduced. titanium carbide or columbium-tantalum carbide will form preferentially to chromium carbide. there is a gradual loss of strength. above approximately 1000°F (540°C). The LMP is given by the following relationship: LMP = (T + 460)(constant + log time). which are inherent to steelmaking. Section II. and thus no sensitization. For a given alloy. with this crystallographic structure. This gradual decrease occurs because the microstructure of austenitic alloys is FCC. However. The material is in the fully annealed condition and is a single-phased material with only some nonmetallic inclusions. and the allowable stress is reduced dramatically as creep damage development becomes the dominant process. the results available from API STD 530 for selected austenitic stainless steels have been assessed to give a representation of average behavior [3-26]. diffusion processes begin to become significant. In Table 3-10. allowing minimum and average behavior to be described. because 321 and 347 in boiler applications are not given a stabilization anneal. If these alloys are given a second heat treatment. these two alloys will sensitize just the same as 304. 3-55 . Unlike the ferritic steels. the microstructure will be equiaxed austenite. no loss of corrosion resistance.Metallurgy of Steels Microstructure After the high-temperature solution anneal. the available dataset values of LMP are typically plotted against stress. With all of the carbon removed as innocuous carbides. Allowable Stress Values The allowable stress values according to the ASME BPVC. regardless of orientation or direction. The word equiaxed means that the dimensions of an individual austenite grain will be essentially the same. The austenitic grades will form chromium carbides along the austenite grain boundaries. There is no loss of chromium at the grain boundaries. Even at the relatively low temperatures at which the allowable stresses are based on the tensile properties. T. at 1600°F–1650°F (871°C–899°C) after the solution anneal. there is a gradual decrease in recommended stress. Creep Properties The LMP is frequently used to represent the variation of creep life with stress and temperature. To prevent sensitization. The formation of these carbides reduces the chromium content of the austenite grains at the boundary and therefore reduces the local corrosion resistance along the grain boundaries. The microstructural changes that do occur take place at high temperature. The normal value of the constant for the majority of power plant steels is 20. called a stabilization anneal. are presented in Table 3-9 [3-10]. However.

temperature. Remaining Life Assessment of Austenitic Stainless Steel Superheater and Reheater Tubes [3-34]. Figure 3-27 Stress Rupture Curves for a Weak Heat (Heat A) and an Average Heat (Heat B) of Type 304 Stainless Steel Tubing Material Source: EPRI Report 1004517. which led to precipitation of aluminum nitride associated with the grain boundary sigma phase. and time to failure [3-34]. This caused a reduction in life or strength as a result of early formation of cracks in the sigma phase.047 wt%) aluminum content. 3-56 . which shows the four unique stress rupture cracking mechanisms as a function of stress.Metallurgy of Steels The details of the creep failure mode of austenitic stainless steels change with stress and temperature. See Figure 3-27. The weak heat contained a high (0.

Creep cavities nucleate at the interface between the sigma phase and the austenitic matrix. Figure 3-28 Etched Surface of a Service-Degraded Type 304H Stainless Steel Tube Sample Source: EPRI Report 1004517. in addition to time and temperature. Fracture occurs as a result of interlinking of the crack-like voids. metallographic evaluation of the sigma phase can provide useful information regarding the lifetime average tube metal temperature before cavitation becomes the dominant metallographic feature. Creep cavities grow to crack-like voids along the grain boundaries. Combined with tube stress and creeprupture material properties. showing stained sigma-phase particles with fully developed microvoids (the arrow in the figure marks a carbide). this information can provide an approximate indication of the tube service exposure and degradation relative to the accumulation of creep damage. In these cases. Tube degradation and creep damage accumulate in the following sequence [3-34]: 1. 3. Remaining Life Assessment of Austenitic Stainless Steel Superheater and Reheater Tubes [3-34]. compositional differences influence sigma formation. 3-57 . 2. However. Figure 3-28 illustrates the etched surface of a service-degraded Type 304H stainless steel tube sample. 4. Sigma phase precipitates at grain boundaries. some uncertainty is introduced into this analytical method because. Although cavitation is considered the primary controlling and recognizable feature in tubing that has been degraded by elevated temperature.Metallurgy of Steels Long-term creep-rupture failures of stainless steel tubes that have operated at conditions moderately above the normal design stress and temperature initiate creep cavities at the interface between the sigma phase and the austenite matrix. the rupture life is controlled primarily by growth of these creep cavities.

in Materials Science and Technology. 795–806 [3-35]. pp. Figure 3-29 Microstructural Changes That Occurred in 321H Stainless Steel After Exposure at Elevated Temperatures for Different Times Source: Y. H. Typical changes are shown in micrographs in Figure 3-29 (321H stainless steel) and Figure 3-30 (347H stainless steel) and described in the following sections [3-35]. and Y. Minami.Metallurgy of Steels Aging Behavior Exposure to elevated temperatures for long periods can cause microstructural changes to take place. Vol 2. Ihara. Kimura. 3-58 .

silicon. 795–806 [3-35]. 3-59 . as long as the component continuously operates at the elevated temperature. unless the material has been put into service with considerable residual cold work. depending on the thickness and the amount of sigma that has formed. Sigma phase forms in ferritic and austenitic stainless steels from ferrite or metastable austenite during exposure at 1100°F–1700°F (593°C–927°C). Vol 2. care must be taken to avoid impact or suddenly applied high stress when the unit cycles to the lower temperature range. manganese. (See Figure 3-31 [3-35]. Minami. Both of these phases can be redissolved by holding the material at 1850°F–1950°F (1010°C–1066°C) for one to four hours. creep strength can be adversely affected. and so on.) It causes loss of ductility and toughness at temperatures below 250°F– 300°F (120–150°C) but has little effect on properties in the temperature range where it forms. there will be little consequence. and Y. pp. However. in Materials Science and Technology. Sigma Phase In ferritic stainless steels. Otherwise. In this case. the sigma phase is composed of iron and chromium alone. niobium. Ihara. in addition to iron and chromium. it is much more complex and includes nickel. Formation of the chi phase during exposure in the 1100°F to 1700°F temperature range also causes low-temperature embrittlement. In austenitic stainless alloys. Cracking can occur if the component is impacted or stressed during maintenance work. H.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-30 Microstructural Changes That Occurred in 347H Stainless Steel After Exposure at Elevated Temperatures for Different Times Source: Y. Kimura.

Kimura. In this sensitized condition. intergranular stress corrosion cracking. However. Sensitization Another form of elevated temperature degradation of austenitic stainless steels is sensitization (see Figure 3-32). Fortunately. the rate and temperature range over which sensitization occurs increases. and Y. Vol 2. sigma phase formation is unavoidable in many of the commercial alloys used within the temperature range where it forms. or through service exposure in the temperature range of 900°F–1500°F (482°C– 815°C). in Materials Science and Technology.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-31 The Development of Sigma Phase for Different Austenitic Stainless Steels Exposed at 1292°F (700°C) Source: Y. Sensitization can occur during fabrication from the heat of welding. an immune or more stable material should be used. Ihara. This can be determined using the Schaeffler diagram or the more recently developed DeLong diagram. if a component is to be exposed in the critical temperature range and subsequently subjected to extensive cyclic conditions or shock loadings. The immediately adjacent chromium-depleted zone is susceptible to accelerated corrosion in some aqueous corrodents. few failures have been directly attributed to it. Minami. This condition results in a chromium-depleted region along the grain boundaries. With increased levels of dissolved carbon. Over time. the material has increased susceptibility to intergranular corrosion. pp. and creep cavitation. from improper heat treatment. H. Increased resistance or immunity is achieved by selecting a composition that is balanced with respect to austenite versus ferrite-forming elements so that no free ferrite is present. 795–806 [3-35]. 3-60 . Sensitization is caused by the precipitation of chromium carbides preferentially at grain boundaries.

This usually results in higher strength.03%. 3-61 . (Type 321 does not respond acceptably to this treatment. However. 316L) with carbon <0. To minimize the effects of frequent or continuous exposure within the susceptible temperature range. The higher carbon content of heat-resistant alloys and the presence of other elements cause these alloys to age during exposure to elevated temperatures. Aging results from formation of secondary carbides and other precipitates.) Use of the low-carbon grades would be better still. The most common are titanium (Type 321) and niobium (Type 347). carbide-forming stabilizers are added. Remaining Life Assessment of Austenitic Stainless Steel Superheater and Reheater Tubes [3-34]. The iron sulfide corrosion product combines with air and moisture to form the acid and induces intergranular corrosion and cracking. Polythionic acid can form during downtime on equipment that has been even mildly corroded by hydrogen sulfide at elevated temperature. As long as their lower strengths are taken into account. on the basis of stability. but it can lead to severe intergranular corrosion in aggressive aqueous environments such as polythionic acid.Metallurgy of Steels Sensitization has little or no effect on mechanical properties. a thermal stabilization treatment of Type 347 at 1600°F–1650°F (870°C–900°C) for four hours is recommended. leading to potential fabrication problems. This is more of a problem with cast than wrought heat-resistant alloys because of the typically higher original carbon content. Figure 3-32 When Austenitic Stainless Steels Are Exposed to Prolonged Exposure to Temperatures in the Range of 805°F–1650°F (430°C–900°C). but it also causes loss of ductility at ambient temperature. To minimize the chance of sensitization during fabrication. another alternative is to use low-carbon grades (Types 304L. Chromium Carbides Form on the Grain Boundaries Source: EPRI Report 1004517. their lower strength or code limitations can preclude this alternative.

and it is now in use in many countries around the world. and problems were encountered with welding. the metal temperature will typically be below the temperatures at which grain growth will be significant. For the 300 series stainless steels. the effect is relatively minor. Recovery is not permanent. Vol 2. grain growth can begin at temperatures as low as 1150°F–1200°F (621°C–649°C) if the time is long enough. Other steels based on 9% Cr have been developed. this alloy has a relatively high carbon content. Kimura. 795–806 [3-35]. Depending on the time and temperature. The first martensitic steel used in boiler construction was the 12Cr German X20 steel. H. pp. These steels in general seek to improve high-temperature strength by ensuring that the fine dispersion of precipitates present stabilizes a relatively high dislocation substructure. The development of P91 (or 9CrMoVNb) at Oak Ridge from the traditional grade 9 chromium-molybdenum steel involved relatively low levels of carbon and specified nitrogen contents. including P92 (also known as NF616) and E911 (see Table 3-11). 3-62 . the biggest change in boiler materials has been the introduction of the martensitic steels. Figure 3-33 Typical Micrographs of Grade 91 Martensitic Steel Shown in (a) an Optical Micrograph and (B) a Transmission Electron Micrograph Source: Y. followed by rapid cooling.Metallurgy of Steels Recovery from all of these forms of degradation is possible by solution annealing the material at temperatures appropriate for the alloy grade. (See Figure 3-33 [3-35]). in Materials Science and Technology. Advanced Ferritic Steels Concerning creep strength. Although grain size can play a role in the number and distribution of creep microvoids. Minami. For a conventional fossil-fuel-fired plant. Reexposure to the causative conditions will result in redegradation of microstructure and properties. and Y. annealing can be done at 1950°F (1066°C). Grain Growth Another change in the microstructure that will occur over long periods of time is grain growth. However. Ihara. This steel has been considered more weldable than X20. while the high-carbon heat-resistant alloys can require treatment as high as 2150°F (1177°C).

10– 0.007 0.3– 0.60 0.5 8.01 max 0.12 0.50 max W NA 1.6 Mo 0.04– 0.09– 0.40 max 0.3 Cb 0.10 NA 0.5 0.060– 0.13 0.10% Ti.01 max 0.25 0.020 max 0.6 0.100 B NA 0.18– 0.60 Mn 0.04–0.2–0.0–9.090 0.4 max NA T/P91 T/P92 T23 T24 (note 1) TP911 TP122 2.3 max 0.1 0.03–0.25 0.3– 0.09 0.0 1.4 max 0.2– 0.006 0.5 max 0.50 max 8.02 max 0.70 max P 0.006 0.010 max Si 0.01 max 0.85– 1.5–9.3– 0.5 max 0.02 max 0.10 0.100 0.90– 1.0005– 0.90– 1.040– 0.15– 0.1 0.006 0.1 0.1 0. T24 also contains between 0.50 Note 1.3– 0.07 0.08 N 0.3 0.7 0.001– 0.25– 0.2–2.6 0.18– 0.6 0.25 0.040– 0.01 max 0.50 0.05 0.6 0.012 max 0.45– 1.03 max 0.13 0.0015– 0.15– 0.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-11 Typical Composition for Selected Advanced Ferritic Steels Grade Composition (%) C 0.50– 2.4 max 0.45 0.02–0.9– 1.40 max Ni 0.2 max 0.06–0.50 V 0.14 Cr 8.1– 0.6 0.005 max Al 0.10 1.5–9.05– 0.30– 0.40 max 0.03–0.4 max 0.05% and 0.003– 0.2–0.9–2.00– 12.5 1.3 0.15– 0.03 max 0.07– 0.05– 0. 3-63 .5 10.020 max S 0.30 NA 0.75 NA 0.5– 2.04–0.07– 0.07 0.010 max 0.08– 0.02 max 0.

P24 is a European steel. Of the two alloys. This in turn increases the rate of oxide growth. but difficulties have been encountered with the following: • • • The fabrication of welds between new grade 91 material and previously exposed chromiummolybdenum steel. TP23 and TP24 now approach the strength values of the martensitic steels at lower temperatures. Both show parent properties better than P91. Cracking near the weld fusion line in welds that did not have PWHT immediately after welding. giving a runaway effect. For supercritical boiler designs. increasing the tube temperature. the temperature of a heat transfer component such as a superheater or reheater tube is controlled by the rate at which the fluid (in this case. The actual cross-weld strength varies with material and temperature. for example in membrane waterwalls. the problem is more complex. For the 9% Cr steels. therefore. Essentially. steam) within the tube can absorb the heat being absorbed by the tube from the boiler gases. For boiler manufacturers. In practice. As the internal oxide on the steam side of the tube increases in thickness. but P92 has higher design stresses than does E911. Two advanced ferritic steels that are variants of 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel have been developed (see Table 3-11). where temperatures at the top of the boiler wall can reach 1112°F (600ºC). This type of failure occurs at the rear of the visibly transformed HAZ and is associated with a region of reduced hardness. it is also believed to vary from weld to weld. Creep-related problems known as Type IV cracking.Metallurgy of Steels Welding consumables have been developed for P91. and data have been accumulated. evidence has accumulated that at higher temperatures the rate of oxidation in steam can lead to problems. There is considerable debate about the advantages and disadvantages of these alloys. The addition of similar microalloying to the base 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo system has led to considerable increases in the creep strength of the materials. so does its oxidation rate. it acts as a barrier to heat flow. P23 was developed in Japan. Microalloying systems capable of increasing the creep strength of steels have been extensively used in the development of the martensitic (9%–12% Cr) steels. involving scale exfoliation potentially leading to tube blockage. Both P92 and E911 also exhibit Type IV cracking. Code Case 2199 [3-36]. developed by Mannesmann. only TP23 is presently approved for ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. It was originally designated as HCM2S and is still widely identified by this name. As the operating temperature of the tube wall increases. These factors will allow thinner wall components to be designed. Section I. 3-64 . which can reduce the cross-weld properties to approximately 60% of that of the parent. this offers a commercially viable route for membrane wall manufacture. Power Boilers. An additional difficulty that has been encountered with grade 91 tubing is the corrosion and oxidation resistance. and then to be fabricated without PWHT. and tube thinning. the real importance of these steels lies in their relatively low chromium content and hardenability. originally designated as 7CrMoVTiB 9 10. turbine damage.

Failure to cool below the MF temperature so that significant fractions of austenite are retained. with carbide precipitates present on the prior austenite grain boundaries and within the grains. 3-65 . Problems with the heat treatment can lead to a range of problems. heat treatment must be carried out to temper the structure and thereby improve ductility. To overcome the severe brittleness associated with martensitic microstructure. Under normal conditions. Reheating above the A1 temperature during either tempering or PWHT. the microstructure of the 9%–12% Cr alloys developed following normal cooling rates will be martensite [3-24]. • • Aging produces no obvious changes in microstructure that could be determined from optical microscopy.Metallurgy of Steels Microstructure As illustrated in Figure 3-34. the properties are inferior to normal strength and ductility. Again. Typically. this microstructure will exhibit a hardness of approximately 250 HV. including the following: • Very slow cooling. To monitor microstructural changes. This microstructure is soft and significantly weaker than the hardness and strength achieved for the normal tempered martensitic microstructure. Exceeding A1 leads to partial transformation back to austenite and then retransformation upon cooling. the microstructure of grade 91 steel consists of tempered martensite. leading to the formation of relatively coarse carbides in a ferrite matrix (see Figure 3-35). the higher resolution of electron optics must be used.

Figure 3-35 Ferrite and Coarse Carbides Formed in Grade 91 Steel 3-66 .Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-34 Continuous Cooling Transformation Results for Grade 91 Steel Source: Vallourec Mannesmann Tubes. The T91/P91 Book [3-24].

Metallurgy of Steels Mechanical Properties The tempered martensitic microstructure provides excellent strength with good ductility (see Table 3-12).1 20.1 400 24.2 — 3-67 .3 6. UTS = Ultimate tensile strength.1 23.3 25.7 23.9 6.8 23.3 25.6 25. Furthermore.6 600 23.7 300 24.3 18.3 25.7 1100 10.5 17.1 23.5 25.4 21. Table 3-13 Allowable Stress Values for Selected Advanced Ferritic Steels (Units: ksi) Grade 100 T/P91 T/P92 T122 T911 24. The strength is retained even at elevated temperatures—for example the ultimate tensile stress at 1112°F (600°C) is 43.4 1200 4.1 20. 2. or fabrication processes has been inadequate.3 21.1 Metal Temperature (°F) 500 24.9 22.3 13.7 300 24.7 25. 1 ksi = 6.2 700 22.7 25. Charpy impact energies above 111 ft-lb (150 J) are typically obtained for Grade 91 material at room temperature.9 11.7 23.3 18.6 21.5 22.2 23.6 12. Table 3-12 Tensile Properties and Hardness for Selected Advanced Ferritic Steels Grade Yield Minimum (ksi) (note 1) 60 64 58 65 64 58 UTS Minimum (ksi) (note 2) 85 90 74 85 90 90 Elongation Minimum (%) 20 20 20 20 20 20 Hardness (HB) Maximum 250 250 220 250 — — P/T91 P/T92 T23 T24 T911 T122 Notes: 1.4 22.7 800 21. Allowable Stress Values The allowable stress values for selected steels are given in Table 3-13.895 MPa.1 1000 16.3 20.5 ksi (300 MPa). heat treatment. The strength of these alloys is markedly greater than noted for the traditional creep-resistant chromium-molybdenum steels.7 25.2 24.3 25.7 900 19.7 25. Problems with the advanced steels have been noted when control of composition.0 24.

6 21.2 300 18.3 20.0 450 17.32) x 5/9 °F = (°C x 9/5) + 32 Creep Strength The advanced ferritic steels have excellent strength (see.895 MPa °C = (°F .8 575 10.1 19. The T91/P91 Book [3-24].7 600 8.1 5. for example.0 19. 3-68 .6 13.1 17.2 200 18.6 21.6 650 (3.3 9.0 18.3 500 16. Figure 3-36). Figure 3-36 Comparison of the Creep Strength of Grade 91 with P22 and X20 Source: Vallourec Mannesmann Tubes.0 525 15.2 100 18.2 550 12.Metallurgy of Steels Table 3-13 (continued) Allowable Stress Values for Selected Advanced Ferritic Steels (Units: ksi) Grade 20 T23 T24 18.6) — Notes: 1 ksi = 6.2 16.6 Metal Temperature (°C) 400 18.

Figure 3-37 Summary of the Microstructural Changes Noted During Long-Term Aging of Grade 91 Material at 1112°F (600°C) Source: E. which indicated that after approximately 130. the strength of grade 91 was below the minimum data for as-tempered material. 3-69 .000 hours in service. Of particular importance are the formation of the Laves phase. the greater resolution of electron microscopes makes it possible to see that phase changes and coarsening of precipitates do take place. However. An example of this trend in behavior is summarized in Figure 3-37 [3-37]. Cerjak. and the Z-phase. which removes significant amounts of vanadium and niobium and significantly reduce the strength. the creep rate measured in a postexposure test was 10 times that for an unexposed specimen under the same conditions (see Figure 3-38 [3-38]). Proceedings of the International Conference on Microstructure and Performance of Joints in High-Temperature Alloys [3-37].Metallurgy of Steels Aging Behavior Aging of tempered martensitic microstructures typically produces no changes in microstructure that can be determined from optical microscopy. Moreover. These microstructural observations appear to provide an explanation for an earlier investigation. which can introduce embrittlement. Letofsky and H.

D. ASM International. Steels—Microstructure and Properties. 1989. American Society for Metals. Metals Park. A. First published by Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. 1011912. K. Leslie. T. 1982. C. Properties and Selection: Iron and Steels. W. Brinkmann. American Society for Metals. OH. 1979. 1998. 3-2. Volume 1. H. W. J. Reprinted by TechBooks. K. MA. W. Hudd. 3-5. 3-6. and C. 3-7. 3-3. PA. Ferrous Physical Metallurgy. Steels: Metallurgy and Applications. EPRI. R. Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components. OH. Sinah. 3-70 . Maziasz. Boston. Proceedings of the International Joint Power Conference [3-38]. Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers. Third Edition. 1992. R. 3-4. H. Honeycombe. OH. Institute of Materials. London. Metals Handbook. Butterworths. P. Showing the Decrease in Strength Compared to Unexposed Material R. 3-8. 1981. C. R. Metals Park. Metals Park. 1991. Bainite in Steels. Llewellyn and R. Butterworth-Heinemann. Herdon. CA: 2006. Viswanathan. The Physical Metallurgy of Steel. References 3-1. 1989.Metallurgy of Steels Figure 3-38 Results of Postexposure Testing on Grade 91 Material. K. Palo Alto. Badheshia. D. Swinderman.

pp. Steels Heat Treatment and Processing Principles. Palo Alto.” ISIJ International. ASM International. J. 2004. Ed. pp. 3-71 . Vol. “History of Power Plants and Progress in Heat Resistant Steels. Nutting. 3-11. pp. 899–906. 202.” Metals Technology. http://www. 1999. No. 4. 1992. Bringas. Babcock & Wilcox. 3-15. Viswanathan. Seamless 9Cr-2W Material. American Standards Association. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. London. EPRI. 3-12. Masuyama. 3-10. No. 612–625 (2001). 360–364 (1977). N.com. “Deformation and Fracture of Ferrite-Pearlite Structures. Key to Metals Group. G. Badheshia. No. 3-21. New York. Power Boilers. TR-114750. 1989 3-18. ASME Code Case 2179-6. Key to Steel database. ASTM International. Pickering. K. 760–769 (2002). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. C. Division I. Steam. 3-25. “Modelling Simultaneous Alloy Carbide Sequences in Power Plant Steels. P. Vallourec Mannesmann Tubes.” Conference Proceedings: Advanced Heat-Resistant Steels for Power Generation. 1942. Alberry and W. Section I. 1990.” Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. Metals Park. John E. DS67B.7.” ISIJ International. 3-13. OH. ASA B31. Metals Park. K. Vol. 3-14. American Standards Association. “Diagram for the Prediction of Weld Heat Affected Zone Microstructure. 110. Jones. W. H. PA. 2006. Krauss. 42. Vol. No. Institute of Materials. Materials. OH. Section II. Section I and Section VIII. Case 2179-5. 3-20. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. D. Fujita and H. Burns and F. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. American Standard Code for Pressure Piping.1.key-to-steel. 41. 2002. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. OH. New York. R. F. 4. 3-24. American Society for Metals. B. Fortieth Edition. The T91/P91 Book. “The Structural Stability of Low-Alloy Steels for Power Plant Applications. American Tentative Standard Code for Pressure Piping. ASA B31.1. Barberton. West Conshohocken. Third Edition. Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components. CA: 2000. pp. 6. 3-22. 3-16. 3-19. 2004. Materials for Ultra Supercritical Fossil Power Plants. K.Metallurgy of Steels 3-9. 3-23. J. 12–30. Vol. pp. 1935. Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards. 3-17.

American Petroleum Institute. R. 795–806 (1986). Remaining Life Assessment of Austenitic Stainless Steel Superheater and Reheater Tubes. JISI. W. Weaver. 3-30. pp. 2003. 275. & Materials Society. V. March 1971. S. 2006.” Proceedings of the ASTM.Metallurgy of Steels 3-26. Minami. P. 3-35. Vol. “Graphitization of Steels in Elevated Temperature Service. 3-29. 3-28. G. Vol. Harth and T. 856–866 (1946). Mardsen. in Materials Science and Technology. 61–69. Kimura. Supplemental Report on the Elevated-Temperature Properties of Chromium-Molybdenum Steels (An Evaluation of 2Cr-1Mo Steel).5%Mo Steel after Service in CEGB Power Stations. Ihara. R. Wignarajah. Institute of Materials. Smith. DS6S2. The Study of Graphitization. Vol.6W-V-Cb Material. Cerjak. and Y. Maziasz. G. Hemingway. 1004517. 3-27. 226–229 (1985). and C. L. Foulds and R. 107. 3-33. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. H. Toft and R. in Transactions of the ASME.38. 1993. 2. JIM (London). A.” Proceedings of the Conference on Structural Processes in Creep. 3-37. Hara. 58–63. Edwards Valve Co. Brinkmann. Viswanathan. H. “The Effect of Carbide Spheroidization Upon the Rupture Strength and Ductility of Carbon Molybdenum Steel. W. American Society for Testing and Materials. “The Structure and Properties of 1%Cr-0. 3-72 . pp. The Minerals. Sherlock. Swinderman. 2000. I. 1963. Letofsky and H. Vol. pp. p. 2. 1–4. Section I. ASME. Warrendale. H. ASME Code Case 2199. 1990. Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries. 1952. PA.” in Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials. L. Case 2199-3. EPRI. CA: 2002. “Evaluation and Simulation of the Microstructural Changes and Embrittlement in 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel Due to Long-Term Service. London.25Cr-1. 3-34.. in Proceedings of the International Joint Power Conference. 3. 46. in Proceedings of the International Conference on Microstructure and Performance of Joints in High-Temperature Alloys. 3-31. S. J. Masumoto. and T. pp. pp.” ISIJ International. Metals. API STD 530. 3-32. 30. 2002. P. 3-36. E. Palo Alto. pp. J. R. Y. H.

and SAW processes. the most common method for joining high-energy fossil piping systems is welding. from a practical standpoint. most welding is accomplished using SMAW. GTAW. as long as it is qualified in accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. including the following: • • • • • Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) Submerged arc welding (SAW) Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) ASME B31. Seal welds can be used to avoid joint leakage but shall not be considered as contributing any strength to the joint. Although GMAW and FCAW welding can be used in both field and shop applications. and compression joints (for tube sizes ≤2 in.WELDING FUNDAMENTALS 4 Introduction A variety of joining methods are allowed for use in the fabrication of fossil piping systems.1 does not place a restriction on the selection of welding process. the increased equipment requirements associated with these processes inhibit widespread field application.1 allows the use of butt welds. flareless. socket welds. including the following: • • • • Flanged joints Threaded joints Flared. SAW is primarily limited to shop welding. 4-1 . Welding and Brazing Qualifications [4-1] However. and fillet welds as long as they comply with the additional restrictions listed within the standard. Welding Processes Several welding processes can be used in the fabrication and erection of fossil piping systems. Section IX. GTAW and SMAW welding can be used for both field and shop applications. ASME B31. [50 mm] outside diameter [OD]) Brazed and soldered joints However.

a welding lead incorporating an electrode holder at one end. to 18 in. Tiny droplets of molten weld filler metal are transferred through the arc stream into the molten weld pool. (230 to 455 mm) long. In terms of equipment. which is also known as manual metal arc welding.Welding Fundamentals Shielded Metal Arc Welding Figure 4-1 shows the basic equipment and set up for SMAW. The intense heat of the arc locally melts the surface of the base metal and the end of the electrode. requiring a power supply. Alloying additions can be incorporated into the wire material or incorporated as ferroalloys or pure metal powders. and a consumable shield electrode. The standard diameters of the electrode core ranges from 1/16 in. and scavengers to cleanse the weld Provide ionizing elements to alter electrical characteristics and improve arc stability . to 5/16 in. The arc is struck between the tip of the consumable electrode and the workpiece. Figure 4-1 Schematic of Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process The filler metal for the SMAW process consists of individual electrodes that typically range from 9 in. The welder feeds the electrode into the weld pool while maintaining an appropriate arc length and progressing along the weld. fluxing agents. a grounding cable.6 mm to 8 mm). The core of the covered electrode consists of a solid metal rod of drawn or cast material or one that has been fabricated by encasing metal powders in a metallic sheath. however. the electrode covering can also perform one or more of the following functions: • • 4-2 Provide deoxidizers. SMAW is the simplest. The primary function of the electrode covering is to provide shielding to the molten weld pool to prevent excessive atmospheric contamination of the molten filler metal. (1.

The simplicity of the equipment lends this process to applications offering limited access. a spool of wire (semiautomated and automated processes). Protection of the molten weld pool and adjoining base metal is provided by means of a shielding gas. assist in shaping the weld contour. and welding parameters. For heavy wall piping. it is less sensitive to wind and draft. which also contributes to arc stability and improved welding characteristics. Filler metal is added to the welding arc from an external source in the form of a bare rod (manual process). Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Figure 4-2 shows the basic equipment and setup for GTAW. This combination of processes is capable of producing high-quality production welds suitable for both shop and field welding of fossil power piping. and improve weldability Provide iron powder to improve deposition rates when welding ferrous alloys The equipment for SMAW is relatively simple and inexpensive. Depending on the selection of electrode size. SMAW can be suitable for welding in all positions and progressions for both open root welds and welds with backing. or a consumable insert. It is also readily portable. Unlike the other welding processes used in the production of fossil power piping. GTAW uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to maintain the electric arc. Figure 4-2 Schematic of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process 4-3 . making it well suited for use in field welding. SMAW is frequently used in combination with a GTAW root pass. electrode covering.Welding Fundamentals • • • Provide alloying elements to modify the composition of the weld metal Provide a slag blanket to protect the solidifying weld pool. Because this process does not require an auxiliary shielding gas.

The initial widespread use of GTAW was for welding magnesium and aluminum aircraft components using helium (an inert gas) as the shielding gas. the use of a backing gas on carbon and low-alloy steels can improve the quality of the root pass and should be considered for thin wall or critical applications. assisting in the removal of dissolved oxygen and sulfur. the welding arc is not visible during SAW because it is submerged beneath a mound of granular flux particles. a nitrogen or argon backing gas is generally used for stainless steel and high-alloy materials. While carbon and low-alloy steels can be butt welded without the use of a backing gas. it is still reasonably portable and allows access for most fossil pipe welding applications. nitrogen. use of GTAW in windy or drafty locations is limited unless external shielding can be provided. GTAW is a low heat input. high cleanliness. The flux mound is partially melted during welding and serves to protect the molten weld pool from the ambient atmosphere and to act as a fluxing agent for the weld pool. argonoxygen mixtures. the welding flux can contain alloying additions or supplemental iron powder to modify the composition of the weld deposit and increase deposition rates. Because of the dependence on shielding (and possibly backing) gas. Although the equipment for GTAW is somewhat bulkier and more complex than that for SMAW. argon-helium mixtures. which is the reason for the alternative names for this process. 4-4 . and argon-hydrogen mixtures were used. The granular welding flux is contained in a hopper adjacent to the welding gun and is continuously added in front of the arc as weld travel progresses. GTAW is suitable for allposition welding and can be used to weld almost all metals. this welding process is best suited for groove welding in the flat position (1G) and fillet welding in the flat and horizontal positions (1F and 2F). The primary application of GTAW in fossil power piping fabrication is for welding the root pass of butt welds where the root area is inaccessible for back gouging and back welding or where the use of backing rings is to be avoided. In addition.Welding Fundamentals GTAW is also referred to as tungsten inert gas welding and Heliarc welding. As the use of this process expanded. The arrangement of the SAW welding process is shown in Figure 4-3. relatively low deposition process. The weld filler metal is a bare wire supplied on a spool that is fed to the workpiece through the contact tip on the welding gun. Submerged Arc Welding Process Description The submerged arc welding process joins metals by heating them with an arc that is formed between a bare metal electrode and the workpiece. In addition. additional shielding gasses such as argon. Unlike other arc welding processes. Because of the requirement for the granular flux.

however. To manufacture a fused flux. cleans. Consumables During SAW. the microstructural effects of the higher heat input and coarse solidification structure should be considered. The electrode wire is the main component of the weld metal. deposition rates can also be increased by adding iron powder to the flux. However.6 mm to 6. For ferrous alloys. Alloy additions can be incorporated through the use of an alloy wire or through a cored wire consisting of a lowcarbon metal sheath surrounding a core of alloy material. 4-5 . SAW fluxes are classified as fused or bonded. have low moisture pickup during storage and use. Fused fluxes have good chemical homogeneity. The welding electrode is a bare wire that is provided on spools or in drums for a continuous wire feed. (1. and acidic or basic. and shapes the weld bead. to 1/4 in. the raw materials are melted together and cooled to produce a glassy flux that is crushed and screened for size. In practice. The electrode diameter ranges from 1/16 in. The flux shields. multiple electrodes (two or three) can be used to increase deposition rates. supplemental filler metal can be included with the flux. flux and electrode wire feed simultaneously to the joint.Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-3 Schematic of Submerged Arc Welding Process While single electrode welding is the most common. and can be readily recycled and reused without a significant change in particle size or composition. active or neutral.4 mm). supplemental filler metal is generally used only in welding mild carbon steel because the recovery of alloying elements can be greatly affected by variations within welding parameters.

Metallurgical Modeling of Welding [4-2]. Welding Process SMAW—basic electrode SMAW—rutile electrodes SMAW—acid electrodes GTAW—Ar or He Shielding GMAW—Ar-O2 mixtures GMAW—CO2 FCAW—self shielded cored wire SAW—calcium silicate flux (acid) SAW—basic fluxes Material Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Low-alloy steel Oxygen Content (ppm) 250–440 500–1300 700–1400 50–100 200–1300 500–800 130–200 450–2600 180–350 4-6 . CaO + CaF2 + MgO + K 2O + Na2O + Li2O + BaO + SrO + 1 SiO2 + ( Al2O3 + TiO2 + ZrO2 ) 2 1 (MnO + FeO ) 2 BI = Eq.5 are considered basic. After bonding. However the disadvantages to bonded flux include possible change in flux composition due to segregation. Basic weld fluxes tend to produce welds with lower oxygen content. possible gas evolution from the molten slag. and a tendency for some fluxes to absorb moisture from the atmosphere.Welding Fundamentals Bonded fluxes are manufactured by dry-mixing powders of the various raw materials and bonding them with either potassium silicate. or a mixture of the two.5 to 3. An advantage to bonded flux is the ability to easily add deoxidizers and alloying elements. while those less than 1. Fluxes with a basicity index greater than 1. Finally the backed and bonded flux is broken up and screened to size. a finer grain structure. and improved impact toughness. 4-1 BI typically has values ranging from 0.0. Gröng. increased numbers of oxide inclusions. the wet mix is palletized and baked. Table 4-1 Summary of Measured Weld Metal Oxygen Contents Source: Ø. Typical weld metal oxygen contents for various welding processes are shown in Table 4-1.0 are considered acid. as shown in Equation 4-1. The basicity of the SAW flux plays an important role in governing the composition of the weld metal. The basicity of a flux (BI) is given by the ratio of the sum of the weight percentages of basic oxides to the sum of the weight percentages of the acidic oxides. The basicity index is essentially an estimate of the oxygen content of the weld metal. and a coarser microstructure. sodium silicate. and it has an impact on the weld composition and total inclusion content. Acid fluxes have higher oxygen content.

The consideration of flux characteristics is particularly critical for SAW welds operated at elevated temperatures (within the creep range). GMAW was originally developed as a process to improve production on welds that were being performed by GTAW. In contrast. A schematic of the GMAW process is shown in Figure 4-4. and they improve resistance to porosity. Fluid flow patterns within the weld pool can result in localized increases in inclusion density. Active fluxes are frequently used for single-pass applications. Neutral fluxes are primarily used for multipass welds. the process has become known as GMAW. This effect has been attributed to a higher inclusion content (volume percentage) and inclusion density. active fluxes readily transfer manganese and silicon to the weld metal. Figure 4-4 Schematic of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process 4-7 . The majority of in-service HRH seam-welded piping failures have occurred in seam welds produced using the SAW process and an acid or neutral flux. As the application of this process has expanded to other metals and the use of a wide range of active as well as inert shielding gases. the increased inclusion content associated with active fluxes can degrade impact toughness and creep resistance. Gas Metal Arc Welding GMAW uses a continuous wire-fed consumable electrode to maintain the arc and supply the weld deposit with filler metal. the term metal inert gas welding was used. Studies have indicated that the creep rupture properties of SA welds made using acid or neutral fluxes can be inferior to those of the base metal [4-3].Welding Fundamentals Neutral fluxes contain little or no deoxidizers such as manganese and silicon and will not produce any significant change in the weld metal composition as a result of a large change in arc voltage. Because these initial welding applications were primarily limited to magnesium and aluminum using inert shielding gas. However.

a very stable arc is established between the consumable electrode and the workpiece. low deposition welding on thin sheet-metal applications and for high heat input. short circuiting does not occur and spatter is minimal. and a relatively spatter free process occurs. In spray transfer. Instead. which is melted off. 4-8 . The high deposition rates. This process results in a characteristic sound reminiscent of a sewing machine or sizzling bacon. Short Circuiting Arc Transfer In the short circuiting arc transfer mode. discrete droplets are formed and accelerated across the arc by arc forces at velocities that can overcome the effects of gravity. high deposition weld deposits on heavy wall components. However. In spray transfer. therefore. spray transfer can be used for out-of-position welding. this tip of the electrode touches and short out against the base metal several (20 to 250) times per second. result in increased productivity. very small. depending on the specific welding parameters. Because the individual droplets are smaller than the arc length. In short circuiting mode. along with the continuous wire feed. The characteristics of GMAW can be varied depending on the transfer mode selected. GMAW can be performed in the following four primary transfer modes: • • • • Spray transfer Globular transfer Short circuiting transfer Pulsed Spray Transfer For high quality. the relatively large welding gun and the requirement for gas bottles and wire feed equipment limits the application of this process in the field. a stable welding arc is never established. The high heat input results in high deposition rates. GMAW is used for low heat input. the primary transfer mode is spray.Welding Fundamentals GMAW is a highly adaptable process used for semiautomatic manual and machine welding as well as fully automatic robotic welding. The short circuit results in resistance heating of the tip of the consumable electrode. the welding wire is fed across the gap between the contact tip and the workpiece until it actually short circuits against the base metal as shown in Figure 4-5 [4-4]. high deposition welding on heavy wall components.

Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-5 Schematic of Short Circuit Cycle in Gas Metal Arc Welding Source: Miller Electric Manufacturing Co. In that case. A common mixture is 75% Ar and 25% CO2. Because of the lower heat input and low deposition rates. Carbon dioxide generally produces high spatter levels. and are eventually transferred across the arc. and deposition rates are lower than with other types of metal transfer. the low heat input increases the likelihood of poor penetration and the occurrence of lack-offusion defects. if the arc length is too short. Globular transfer is characterized by a drop size with a diameter greater than that of the electrode. short circuiting arc transfer is used for out-of-position welding and welding of sheet metal. the arc becomes unstable. however. and an active gas is normally used for short circuiting arc transfer. If carbon dioxide is used as the shielding gas. Globular Transfer Globular transfer represents a condition between that of spray and short circuiting arc transfer. The selection of the shielding gas has a significant impact on welding characteristics. Under these conditions. a stable arc is established between the consumable electrode and the workpiece. 4-9 . the droplet can become so large that it will short out against the workpiece. molten drops form on the end of the electrode. and droplets can short circuit against the base metal. Initially the electrode shorts out against the base metal. it is sometimes used to place the root pass in noncritical applications. In heavy wall applications. This large droplet size is easily acted on by gravity making this process difficult for out-of-position welding. Gas Metal Arc Welding [4-4]. grow in size. after that. In the short circuiting transfer. In globular transfer. however. a randomly directed globular transfer can occur when the welding current and arc voltage are significantly greater than those used for short circuiting arc transfer.. voltages. To achieve a good compromise between spatter and penetration. wire feed speed. While globular transfer can be obtained with an essentially inert shielding gas. but it also promotes base metal penetrations. mixtures of argon and carbon dioxide gas are frequently used. the welding process becomes unstable and excessive spatter is produced.

However. there is little or no spatter with relatively high deposition rates. 2 [4-5]. Vol. Figure 4-6 Pulsed-Spray Arc Welding Current Characteristic Source: American Welding Society. and welding guns are also similar to those for GMAW. Welding Handbook. along with slag that covers the molten droplets.. As a result of the lower heat input. pulsed-arc spray transfer can be suitable for out-of-position welding and for root passes. However. the resulting heat input is lower than an equivalent spray transfer procedure. FCAW uses a continuous wire-fed consumable electrode to maintain the arc and supply the weld deposit with filler metal. because weld metal transfer occurs near the peak current. as shown in Figure 4-6 [4-5]. protect the molten weld pool during welding. and the background current is set at a level that will maintain the arc but is too low for metal transfer to occur. Because there is no metal transfer during the background portion of the cycle. the effect of the additional deoxidizers on weld metal properties must be considered. Power sources. In self-shielded applications. shielding is obtained from vaporization of flux ingredients to form a gaseous atmosphere around the weld arc and.Welding Fundamentals Pulsed-Arc Spray Transfer Pulsed-arc spray transfer mode is a variation in GMAW in which a pulsed current is used. While self-shielded FCAW can be beneficial for outdoor welding when drafts or mild breezes are present. self-shielded FCAW is limited to welding carbon steel. The use of a shielding gas is normally required for radiographic-quality welds. 8th ed. FCAW uses a tubular filler metal with a core that contains flux. Flux Cored Arc Welding Similar to GMAW. FCAW can be performed with or without shielding gas. Typically. unlike GMAW. Metal transfer occurs in spray mode at the peak current. the weld puddle cools slightly. 4-10 . wire feeders. Because of the lower average current. A schematic of the FCAW process is shown in Figure 4-7.

25. and in particular the self-shielded process. Most butt welds are fabricated using a GTAW (or GMAW) root pass or when access permits. the application of backing rings has been limited. the application of FCAW to field welding is limited because of the increased complexity of the equipment and the frequent requirement for shielding gas. The relatively wide included groove angle allows complete access for 4-11 . any end preparation that meets the applicable welding procedure specification is acceptable [4-6]. For high-pressure and high-temperature applications that require radiographic inspection of the weld. Common butt weld end preparation dimensions are contained in ASME B16. and the flux assists with forming the weld shape. Although the use of backing rings is permitted—except in those applications where their presence will result in severe corrosion or erosion. The selection of weld end preparation for butt welds primarily depends on weld thickness. in which case the ring must be removed—from a practical standpoint. (19 mm). FCAW. produces copious fumes.Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-7 Schematic of Flux Cored Arc Welding Process Similar to GMAW. Buttwelding Ends. making out-of-position welding easier than with GMAW. and weld spatter can be a problem.1 allows the use of butt welds. GTAW root pass presents a distinct advantage in that there is no backing ring to distort or mask the image. the root is back gouged and back welded. deposition rates are typically higher than all other processes other than SAW. a 37-1/2°. For wall thickness up to 3/4 in. double-bevel weld (as shown in Figure 4-8) is commonly used [4-7]. socket welds and fillet welds for the fabrication of fossil piping. However. however. Weld Design ASME B31.

4-12 . and from a practical standpoint. Figure 4-9 J-Bevel Weld End Preparation Source: Navco Piping Datalog [4-7]. the application of this joint geometry is limited to 3/4 in. however. Figure 4-8 Standard 37-1/2° Weld Bevel Source: Navco Piping Datalog [4-7]. With increasing wall thickness. a J bevel (see Figure 4-9) or compound bevel (see Figure 4-10) can be used. These joint designs allow access to the root area while reducing the overall volume of weld metal required to complete the weld.Welding Fundamentals welding. (19 mm) or less. the volume of filler metal increases rapidly with increasing pipe wall thickness.

4-13 .1 requires the weld end of the component with the larger OD to fall within the envelope defined by the solid lines in its Figure 127.Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-10 Compound Bevel Weld End Preparation Source: Navco Piping Datalog [4-7].4. The weld is required to form a gradual transition not exceeding a slope of 30° from the smaller to the larger diameter component. When both components to be welded (other than pipe-to-pipe) have a transition from a thicker section to the weld end preparation. When piping components of unequal wall thickness or differing OD are to be welded together. ASME B31. the included angle must be greater than 150°.2 (see Figure 4-11).

4. Power Piping.1.Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-11 Allowable Weld End Transition for Components With Different Wall Thickness or Outside Diameter Source: ASME B31.2 [4-8]. Figure 127. 4-14 .

Microstructural Development Solidification Structure Numerous investigations over the past two to three decades have demonstrated the significant impact of microstructure on the performance. electromagnetic forces. In addition to convective fluid flow. whereas weld deposits for conventional welding processes such as SMAW. 4-15 . the molten weld pool is subjected to electromagnetic effects from the welding arc. The development of the weld metal microstructure begins with solidification. sometimes competing. 4-10]. the extent of boring shall not result in the finish wall thickness after welding being less than the minimum design thickness. Unless artificially stirred. the welding process involves rapid. of welds. shallow deposit (see Figure 4-12). Cooling rates experienced by castings are on the order of 10-2 to 10-3 °Ks-1. whereas the electromagnetic effects force deeper. For example. Buoyancy effects tend to promote a broad. processes including buoyancy effects. circumferential butt welds are frequently counterbored.Welding Fundamentals To limit internal misalignment. the transition from the counterbored region to the original pipe ID shall not exceed 30°. however. localized melting and freezing. These variations in density result in convective fluid flow through buoyancy effects. Buoyancy and Electromagnetic Effects Variations in temperature across the weld pool result in variations in liquid density. in particular creep and creep-fatigue performance. formation and development of oxide and other nonmetallic inclusions. and SAW range from 10 to 103 °Ks-1. Fluid flow behavior is also expected to be different. This section reviews those factors contributing to the development of carbon and low-alloy steel microstructures. GMAW. narrow cross sections (see Figure 4-13). and compositional segregation. whereas fluid flow behavior in the weld pool is controlled by several. In addition. If component ends are bored. Electromagnetic forces are approximately opposite in effect to those resulting from buoyancy forces. Much of the knowledge base regarding weld metal solidification has come from studies on solidification in castings. fluid flow in castings is primarily controlled by buoyancy effects. and surface tension forces. The solidification structure impacts the property development through grain orientation. These electromagnetic effects result from the interaction between the divergent current path and the resultant magnetic fields. Reviews by Davies and Garland and David and Vitek provide a comprehensive overview of the microstructural development in fusion welding [4-9. there are significant differences that can be expected to modify the behavior of weld deposits.

This effect will result in an outward flow away from the arc.Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-12 Weld Metal Fluid Flow as a Result of Buoyancy Effects Figure 4-13 Weld Metal Fluid Flow as a Result of Electromagnetic Force Surface Tension The surface tension of molten metal depends on temperature and composition. This reversal in the temperature coefficient of surface tension promotes an inward flow along the surface. Surface active impurities such as oxygen and sulfur result in a positive temperature coefficient of surface tensions. tending to promote a broad weld pool with limited penetration (see Figure 4-14a). result in gradients in surface tension. Compositional variations across the surface of the weld pool also affect the surface tension. promoting deeper penetration (see Figure 4-14b). because of the presence of the arc. The temperature variations across the weld pool surface. the surface tension decreases with increasing temperature. For iron. 4-16 . so that surface tension increases with increasing temperature. toward the center of the arc.

toward the rear of the weld pool. fluid flow occurs along the weld direction. which forces the melted metal to flow underneath and on both sides of the depression. Behind the arc. Arc forces create a depression at the forward edge of the pool.Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-14 Weld Metal Fluid Flow as a Result of the Variation of Surface Tension of (a) Iron and (b) Surface Active Elements (Such As Sulfur and Oxygen) As a Function of Temperature In addition to fluid flow transverse to the weld direction. the flow direction is reversed. Figure 4-15 Weld Metal Fluid Flow Along the Direction of Welding 4-17 . and the metal flows back along the metal surface. as shown in Figure 4-15.

Those grains that are most favorably oriented will grow rapidly. although this is not the usual case for conventional arc welding processes. Because the base metal melts during the welding process. Under the conditions represented by Figures 4-16b and 4-16c. Solidification tends to proceed along the easy-growth direction that is most favorably oriented with the thermal gradient. On further cooling. the base metal and molten weld pool have similar compositions. eventually inhibiting less favorably oriented grains. both δ-ferrite and austenite have preferred easy-growth directions. In more highly alloyed weld deposits. Figure 4-16a illustrates a case in which the material solidifies completely to δ-ferrite. This significantly lowers the barrier to nucleation. austenite forms either within the δ-ferrite grains or at the δ-ferrite–liquid interface as shown in Figure 4-16. or if the cooling rate is high enough (as can be experienced with high-energy welding processes such as electron beam or laser welding). there is always a region of solid metal in contact with the molten weld pool. A coarse grained HAZ will promote a coarse grain structure in the weld. then austenite forms through a solid-state transformation. Figures 4-16b and 4-16c illustrate the cases in which the peritectic temperature is reached before solidification to δ-ferrite is complete. and vice versa. Figure 4-16d illustrates the case in which the material solidifies completely as austenite. however. the liquid can solidify directly as FCC austenite. Figure 4-16 Different Solidification Processes in an Iron Base Alloy 4-18 . The solidifying grains tend to grow in the direction of the maximum thermal gradient. Low-carbon and low-alloyed steel weld deposits begin to solidify as BCC δ-ferrite at temperatures of approximately 2732°F to 2822°F (1500°C to 1550°C). austenite forms in the boundary between the δ-ferrite and liquid iron.Welding Fundamentals The fusion zone grain structure is determined in large part by the structure of the base metal HAZ. In most welding applications. and epitaxial growth from the partially melted grains at the fusion line is expected.

4-12]. no one grain experiences favored growth throughout solidification. In contrast. Sugden and Bhadeshia produced a series of carbon-manganese SMA welds designed to produce welds with primary 4-19 . curvature is generated by repeated side-branching of the solidification substructure. Garland. and the corresponding isotherms are elliptically shaped. The effect of primary solidification mode on inclusion distribution has been investigated by Sugden and Bhadeshia and Kluken et al. more of the fusion line nucleated grains survive to reach the center of the weld. [4-11. This growth behavior results in fewer grains surviving to reach the weld center line. the two-dimensional appearance of the weld pool (looking down on the surface of the weld) is an ellipse (see Figure 4-17a). Under these conditions. While the crystallographic orientation of the curved grain does not change. any grain that survives over any great distance in an elliptical weld pool will exhibit significant curvature. Sugden and Bhadeshia proposed that because the distribution of inclusions in the weld microstructure is determined during solidification when inclusions are mobile. Figure 4-17 Two-Dimensional Appearance of the Weld Pool Showing the Columnar Grain Development Source: G. therefore. Davies and J. welds made at higher travel speeds can take on a tear-drop shape (see Figure 4-17b). they can be pushed by the solid–liquid interface. 83– 106 [4-9]. pp. if solidification occurs with austenite as the primary phase. Figure 4-17a shows the columnar grain development in an elliptical weld pool where the progressive change in direction of the maximum thermal gradient is reflected by the survival of many more columnar grains.Welding Fundamentals For weld pools made at low to moderate speeds. J. The direction of the thermal gradients is nearly invariant along the edge of the pool. the inclusions tend to remain at the austenite grain boundaries (see Figure 4-18b). Figure 4-17b shown the columnar grain development in a tear-dropshaped weld pool where the direction of the maximum thermal gradient is almost invariant along the edge of the pool. subsequent austenite transformation causes the inclusions to end up near the center of the columnar grains (see Figure 4-18a). In contrast. In addition. For steel solidifying as δ-ferrite. perhaps to the columnar grain boundaries. G. 20. Vol. in International Metallurgical Reviews. The invariant thermal gradient allows those grains growing with the most favorable orientation to continue to grow and widen across the deposit.

The distribution of oxides. They observed that large (1 to 3 μm) inclusions tended to concentrate along the grain boundaries of the first phase to solidify. 4-20 . A. At low temperatures. Vol. It has been proposed that oxide and other nonmetallic inclusions can play a critical role in the performance of weld metal properties. pp. D. Numerous studies have shown that there is a critical growth velocity of the solidification front below which particles are rejected [4-13–4-16]. 8A. H. they can assist in the development of creep cavities and result in a reduction of creep and creepfatigue performance. it can either push it or engulf it. 1107–1115 [4-11]. Sugden and H. When a solidification front intercepts an insoluble particle. inclusions can serve as potential crack nucleation sites.Welding Fundamentals ferrite and welds with primary austenite solidification. Bhadesia. Figure 4-18 Schematic Illustration of Location of Inclusions in the Microstructure of a Weld Solidifying As (a) δ-Ferrite and (b) Austenite Source: A. and they attributed this to a surface tension effect (Marangoni effect) at the solidification front or a pushing of the inclusions by the solid–liquid interface. B. K. at elevated temperatures. especially those forming at temperatures above the liquidus (before any solid formation) can be influenced by their interaction with the solid–liquid interface. in Metallurgical Reviews A.

Finer prior austenitic grain boundaries and the presence of certain intragranularly nucleated microstructural constituents (that is. with oxide densities in the range of 107 to 108 oxides per mm3 of weld metal. and aluminum. including carbon. acicular ferrite) can be promoted by the presence of nonmetallic inclusions. depending on alloy deposit composition. 4-18]. deoxidizing elements such as silicon. manganese. It is generally accepted that nonmetallic inclusions in steel weld metals are complex and of a heterogeneous chemical nature [4-19–4-21] and that. The maximum temperature of the weld pool is primarily controlled by the boiling point of iron. The remainder of the dissolved oxygen from the molten weld pool will have been removed as slag. and it will be removed as oxygen-rich phases and compounds. magnesium. The dissociated oxygen is adsorbed into the weld pool. copper. In contrast.000°F (10. have shown that oxides can be detrimental to weld metal toughness by initiating brittle fracture [4-17. and iron. the equilibrium level of oxygen in liquid iron at the melting point is reduced to low levels. the solubility of oxygen in pure liquid and solid iron decreases with decreasing temperatures. and aluminum are added to the filler metal to react with the oxygen. sulfur.Welding Fundamentals Inclusion Formation During arc welding processes. manganese. manganese. Thus. Oxygen can be expected to react with a variety of elemental species present in the weld metal. the solubility of oxygen is approximately 8000 ppm at 3992°F (2200°C) and 1600 ppm at the eutectic temperature of 2781°F (1527°C). In the presence of deoxidizing elements such as silicon. a supersaturation with respect to the products of various oxidation reactions occurs. the flux is the primary source of oxygen.000°C) or higher—result in dissociation of oxygen in the shielding gas or arc atmosphere. and carbides—can have a profound effect on weld metal microstructure and properties. At relatively low temperatures. For slag-protected processes. the optimum weld metal toughness is not associated with very low oxygen levels. Typical steel weld metals contain 200 to 400 ppm of oxygen. This solubility continues to decrease upon solidification to 82 ppm in δ-ferrite upon solidification. upon cooling. and aluminum. Tweed and Knot and Almond et al. silicon. providing the driving force for the nucleation of oxides. titanium. iron. the presence and nature of inclusions can alter the toughness of the weld. Henry et al. silicon. the solubility of oxygen is decreased. have attributed the degradation of creep rupture properties to the presence of significant densities of nonmetallic inclusions [4-3]. nitrides. primarily in the form of μm-sized oxide inclusions. they can be composed of a wide variety of elemental species including aluminum. As the welding arc passes and the weld pool cools. In contrast. calcium. oxysulfides. For liquid iron. The maximum solubility of oxygen in γ-iron (austenite) is 28 ppm at 2534°F (1390°C). As expected. Both the composition and the distribution of these inclusions are likely to impact creep performance. The presence and nature of nonmetallic inclusions—which are predominantly oxides but can also include sulfides. which is approximately 5400°F (3000°C). manganese. To reduce weld metal porosity. Kluken and Gröng proposed 4-21 . the high arc plasma temperatures—on the order of 18.

The HAZ is commonly divided into a number of subzones. the base metal is rapidly cooled. 4-22 . partially transformed (intercritical). or zone.Welding Fundamentals that inclusions will have a heterogeneous structure composed of an oxide core that is formed during the primary deoxidation stage [4-22]. It has frequently been observed that the oxide core is partly covered by secondary reaction products such as MnS (see Figure 4-19). The number of subzones depends on the material being fabricated. The major zones include grain growth (or coarse grained). For carbon and low-alloy steels that undergo an allotriomorphic transformation. This volume of metal. a complex range of microstructures develop as shown in Figure 4-20. as the welding arc passes. and tempered zones. is referred to as the HAZ. Figure 4-19 Transmission Electron Microscopy Images of Weldment Oxides Exhibiting MnS Caps on the Surface of the Oxide Microstructure of the Heat Affected Zone When components are joined together by welding. the surfaces of the adjoining base metals must be heated to their respective melting points. recrystallized (or fine grained). however. The microstructure of the HAZ depends on the specific metal being joined. The server thermal cycle results in an alteration of the microstructure of the base metal immediately adjacent to the fusion line. The composition of the oxide core will vary depending on the specific deoxidizing species present and the resulting thermochemistry.

15 Wt% Carbon Source: K. Easterling. Each of the microstructural zones within the HAZ can be expected to exhibit mechanical properties specific to that zone. the constraint affects from surrounding microstructures will affect the composite performance of the joint. Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding [4-23].Welding Fundamentals Figure 4-20 Schematic Diagram of the Various Subzones of the Heat-Affected Zone Approximately Corresponding to a Carbon Steel Containing 0. In addition. including the following: • • • • • • • Slag inclusions Porosity Incomplete fusion or lack of fusion Lack of penetration Cracks Undercut Underfill 4-23 . Welding Defects Welding is subject to a wide range of discontinuities.

DIN. most code acceptance criteria (including those of B31. the free surface of a part is a defect in the structure of the metal. Proof testing (hydrostatic testing) and visual inspection were the only tests required. NDE methods such as liquid penetrant. early versions of B31. Therefore. intervals on both sides of the welded joint. and ultrasonic testing were not available.1 allowed the following: …welded joints may be given a hammer or impact test where such a test is feasible. Most code-based acceptance criteria are not deterministic (stress and fracture mechanics-based). Each industry uses specific codes or standards that identify the acceptable limits for discontinuities. they are developed empirically.1) were first developed. However. although the concept of fracture-tolerant designs are based on the initial work of C. Inglis in 1913 and A. The primary purpose of NDE is to ensure that the welder continues to produce a quality weld. Most discontinuities develop during the welding process. These intrinsic defects include grain boundaries. In the strictest sense. After the acceptance criteria are exceeded. and nonmetallic inclusions. with agreement between the purchaser and the contractor. Griffith in 1920. however. This hammer or impact test shall consist of striking the pipe at 6in. and JIS standards. In fact. inspection methods and acceptance criteria are established in ASME B31.1) represent a quality standard based on the philosophy that a qualified welder using a qualified welding procedure is capable of producing a weld meeting the intended design. all materials (including weldments) contain intrinsic defects. A. substitutional and interstitial alloying elements.Welding Fundamentals These discontinuities can occur within the weld metal or in the base metal adjacent to the weld (in particular the HAZ). however. radiography. eddy current. Similar criteria exist in equivalent EN. in a macro sense. certain forms of cracking can develop a significant period of time after completion of the weld (hydrogen cold cracking) or during heat treatment after welding (reheat cracking). modern analytical fracture mechanics methods did not enter into code design until the early 1970s. For fossil power piping systems in the United States. dislocations. In addition. magnetic particle. the discontinuity is classified as a defect. When the early fabrication codes (ASME BPVC and B31. these codes and standards are adopted by and enforced by local jurisdictions. and they represent a quality standard. but shall not exceed 10 lb. 4-24 . The weight of the hammer in pounds shall be approximately equal to the thickness of the pipe wall in tenths of an inch. E.1. BS. the term defect is used to identify imperfections or discontinuities that exceed an established acceptance criteria or that otherwise impair the function of the component. Typically.

and ambient temperature. The key cracking mechanisms are the following: • Solidification cracking (hot cracking). Cracks that form as a result of fabrication in either the weld metal or the HAZ can be the result of a number of mechanisms. A weld metal with a wide solidification range or that contains sulfur or phosphorous promotes solidification cracking. Hydrogen cracking can be either transgranular or intergranular. Solidification cracks occur near the end of the weld and are the result of residual stress development during solidification before the weld metal obtains sufficient strength to resist the stress. and certain microalloyed steels. • 4-25 . Hydrogen cracking (cold cracking). and hydrogen levels. The presence of hydrogen can promote the formation of cracking in the weld metal or HAZ. A stateof-the-art review of the mechanism’s damage is provided in “Hydrogen Trapping in Steel Weld Metal. with sharp ends. it generally occurs within 8 hours. These low hydrogen practices include proper filler metal control. This mechanism is most prevalent in austenitic steels. The use of low-hydrogen welding practices greatly reduce the likelihood of hydrogen cracking. the residual stress. and those lying perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the weld are called transverse cracks. although a similar mechanism called liquation cracking can occur in the HAZ of some materials. Depending on the total amount of available diffusible hydrogen. monatomic hydrogen must first diffuse the crack site. While the specific mechanism has been the subject of extensive research. creep-enhanced ferritic steels. Susceptibility to hydrogen cracking increases with increasing hardness. although intergranular fracture along the prior austenitic grain boundaries is the most common. The phenomenon tends be more associated with the HAZ and is thought to be closely related to creep rupture. constraint. Reheat cracking develops during stress relief or when heating the weldment after welding. adequate preheat. Those lying parallel to the longitudinal axis are referred to as longitudinal cracks. Cracks are described by their primary length direction with respect to the longitudinal axis or the weld. no single mechanism adequately describes the process and the observed characteristics. Cracks are characterized as linear. • Reheat cracking. however. Crater cracking can be eliminated by using a welding technique that backfills the terminal weld pool. a form of hot cracking referred to as crater cracking can result. the direction is determined by the combined effect of the highest stress and the most susceptible microstructure. Solidification cracks most often occur in the weld metal. this form of cracking can take more than 72 hours to develop. If there is insufficient filler metal to compensate for shrinkage in the terminal weld pool. and cleanliness of the weld preparation. In order for hydrogen cracking to occur.” an International Materials Review paper by Maroef and Olson [4-24].Welding Fundamentals Cracks Cracks (and crack-like indications) are considered the most detrimental of all weld discontinuities and are generally unacceptable. Hydrogen cracking can be transverse or longitudinal to the weld axis.

Incomplete Fusion Incomplete fusion between adjacent layers of weld metal or between weld metal and base metal can occur at any point in the welding groove. Prince. the damage type is denoted by a Roman numeral. Incomplete fusion can be caused by the following: • • • Improper technique Improper joint configuration Excessive contamination 4-26 . This system was initially used for girth welds in 1/2 Cr 1/2 Mo 1/4 V piping made with 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo weld metal that experienced solidification cracks in the weld metal (classified as Type I) and stress relief cracks in the coarse-grained HAZ (classified as Type III). but propagates out of the weld metal into the adjacent HAZ and base material. with values of I to IV. R. Type IV damage is typically service-induced and develops in the fine-grained and intercritical regions of the HAZ. Type II damage is similar to Type I. This crack classification system is shown in Figure 4-21. In this system. Hagan. and D. Figure 4-21 Classification Scheme For Cracks in Steam Pipe Weldments Source: W. J. Chan. A nonstandard term for incomplete fusion is cold lap. Type III damage is located in the coarsegrained region of the HAZ. Service Experience in Operating Plants [4-26]. Metallurgical Experience with HighTemperature Piping in Ontario Hydro. McQueen. and Woitscheck [4-25].Welding Fundamentals An alternative classification scheme for cracks in steam pipe weldments was developed by Schuller. L. Type I damage is either longitudinal or transverse and is located and remains within the weld metal. Sides.

They are caused by improper manipulation of the welding electrode and insufficient cleaning between weld passes. tungsten. Several nonstandard terms for incomplete joint penetration are inadequate penetration or IP and lack of penetration or LP. such as the SMAW process. although the complete elimination of undercut can be difficult. The tungsten electrode makes contact with the weld puddle. Undercut Undercut consists of a groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe. Inclusions could be slag. Undercut is generally the result of improper welding technique or parameters. they can be either metallic or nonmetallic. Incomplete joint penetration can be caused by the same conditions that result in incomplete fusion. Porosity is normally considered to be the least detrimental discontinuity because of the characteristically spherical shape and the lack of sharp end conditions. therefore. Tungsten inclusions are almost always associated with the GTAW process. 4-27 . Porosity Porosity can occur on or near the surface of the weld. Porosity is typically classified as follows: • • • Scattered porosity—randomly or uniformly scattered throughout the weld Cluster porosity—cavities grouped together Linear porosity—cavities that are grouped in a straight line Porosity is normally caused by contaminants or moisture on the surface to be welded or in the welding consumables. Inclusions Inclusions are foreign solid material entrapped in the weld. Slag inclusions can result only when the welding process uses some type of flux shielding. The solubility of gasses is much greater in liquid metals than in solid metals. In the extreme temperature of the arc. these contaminants decompose and are absorbed into the weld metal. the weld solidifies the excess dissolved gasses and can form porosity in the weld. which uses a tungsten electrode to produce an arc. It is characterized by a rounded or elongated shape resulting from gas being entrapped during solidification of the weld.Welding Fundamentals Incomplete Joint Penetration Incomplete joint penetration is a discontinuity associated only with groove welds. the arc is interrupted. in which the weld metal does not extend entirely through the joint thickness. flux. The tip of the electrode breaks off and remains embedded in the final weld. or oxide. It is located adjacent to the weld root. and molten metal solidifies around the tip of the electrode.

A. pp. London. F. H. 4-2. Gröng. ASME B31. G. Pittsburgh. 10. 4-28 .Welding Fundamentals References 4-1. Cisse and G. November 1988. No. 116 ASME B16. 1991.1. S. Buttwelding Ends. 213– 245.. in International Materials Reviews. O. 25–28 (1971). Vol. Section IX. Cisse. K. and C. 4-14. Bolling and H. 67–76 (1971). pp. Garland. 4-10. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.. Vol. 56–66 (1971). 4-15. R. F. L. 4-4. G. NC. David and J. G. Bhadeshia. 21A. and G. Gröng. p. 4-13. F. 5. 4-12. pp. 19A. Ed. in Metallurgical Transactions A. J. J. 34. 20. Rorvik. Miami. on the Elevated Temperature Properties of Submerged-Arc Weldments. 4-6. PA. Vol. 8th ed. 4-8. 83– 106 (1975).” WELDTECH 88. Bolling. 1994. 4-7. Vol. pp. Cisse and G. 2: Welding Processes. in Journal of Crystal Growth. in Metallurgical Transactions A. 2047–2058 (July 1990). 11. F. Vol. O’Brien. New York. Henry. Ø. 4-3. Lundin. Ellis. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Appleton. “The Effect of Inclusions. London. D. 2004. Metallurgical Modeling of Welding. in Journal of Crystal Growth. Vol. Navco Piping Datalog. J. BASIC-PSA. 4-9. Gas Metal Arc Welding. in International Metallurgical Reviews. 11-1984.. B. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1994. Construction Trades Press. ed. (1989) 4-11. Davies and J. Bolling. New York. Welding Handbook. Sugden and H. as Controlled by Flux Composition. Clinton. 669–674 (March 1988). Code for Pressure Piping Standards: Power Piping. V.. pp. 10. Klueken.25. Inc. Miller Electric Manufacturing Co. Ed. International Conference on Weld Failures. D. M. The Institute of Materials. 2004. 1984. pp. 2004. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. J. A. 4-5. in Journal of Crystal Growth. WI. New York. National Valve and Manufacturing Co. Vol. Vol. A. pp. Welding and Brazing Qualifications.11-1984. Vitek. Ø. American Welding Society. F. A.

and G. R. Mills. W. pp. Vol. Welding Journal. A. Klueken and Ø.” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fracture. D.Welding Fundamentals 4-16. A. New York. J. 1611–1623 (September 1986). Keville. Thewlis. in Metal Science. O. H. April 1969. 4-24. M. L. M. K. 1051–1061 (December 1987). Vol. A. pp. 253–264. 4-18. 2nd ed. R. H. D. Vol. 62. A. 47. Brighton. 4-26. “Hydrogen Trapping in Steel Weld Metal. 4-22. 17A. 4-29 . B. Vol. L. Sidey. 45–54 (February 1983). and H. Jordan Hill.” International Materials Review. 20A. J. “Metallurgical Experience with High Temperature Piping in Ontario Hydro. 47. 97–105 (1991). and J. Olson. and A. pp. 4-25. No. Dowling. H. “Influence of Second Phase Particles on Brittle Fracture. pp. Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding.” Service Experience in Operating Plants. in Metallurgical Transactions A. in Materials Science and Technology. Oxford. R. J. Linacre House. 97–105 (1991). pp. Uhlmann and B.” Der Masinenschaden. 1335–1349 (August 1989). Vol. Schulleer. McQueen. 199–223 (August 2002). Easterling. and D. 253s-260s (1983). in Journal of Applied Physics. Almond. G. Chan. 2986–2993 (October 1964). Knott. I. R. J. D. Welding Research Supplement. Kerr. Tweed and J. D. pp. pp. Edwards. F. D. 1992. Whiteman. J. 35. Eberhart. 4. No. ASME. R. 4-20. Vol. and J. Chalmers. 4-21. E. Vol. L. 4-23. pp. pp. 4-19. “Cracking in the Weld Region of Shaped Components in Hot Steam Pipe Lines—Materials Investigations. Maroef. pp. Vol. 3. W. 17. Hagan. Embury. M. 10. Woitscheck. Prince. Timbres. Corbett. Gröng. 4-17. in Metallurgical Transactions A.

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Historically. and welding of individual materials into integral pieces of piping (spool pieces) ready for assembly. 5-1 . With larger-diameter piping (typically larger than 24-in. positive confirmation by etching or other means of positive verification of the use of seamless components is recommended. that equipment is not readily available in the field. there has been a preference to use seamless pipe and components for high-pressure and high-temperature service. bending. flanges. and inspection. Commercial pipe fabrication shops generally have specialized equipment for bending and heat treatment. it consists of field assembly. require a fixed-position application and are more suitable for shop fabrication. fabrication.1 does not have a penalty associated with the allowable stress for the use of seam-welded piping or fittings. however ASME B31. These materials can be forged. Therefore. tees. even when engineering drawings indicate seamless piping was used. elbows. threading. In addition. FABRICATION.MANUFACTURE. (61-cm) diameter) and as the result of scheduling impacts associated with obtaining seamless piping during construction. such as submerged arc welding (SAW) and many automated processes. piping systems smaller than nominal pipe size (NPS) 2 are frequently field-fabricated and erected whereas piping systems NPS 2-1/2 and larger are shop-fabricated into subassemblies for field erection. and this change might not have been reflected on the original engineering documents. cast. valves. AND ERECTION 5 Introduction Fabrication applies to the cutting. seam-welded piping was regularly used for the HRH system and occasionally for the main steam link piping (boiler external piping) from the 1960s into the early 1980s. Many substitutions of seam-welded piping for the specified seamless piping occurred during construction of units. sweeps (3D/5D bends). certain welding processes. forged fittings (such as Weldolet and Sockolet fittings). forming. laterals. including pipe. Fabrication can be performed in the shop or in the field. or fabricated by welding. A variety of materials are used in the construction of fossil piping systems. Erection refers to the complete installation of a piping system. Assembly applies to the joining of piping components into their installed location as specified by the engineering design. As a rule. wyes. testing.

For sizes NPS 12 and greater. 5-4]. for seamless pipe and pipe fabricated by welding the under-tolerance always controls the selection of wall thickness. Functionally. 5-2 . For example. The general requirements for pipe are contained in ASME specifications SA-530 (for carbon and alloy steel) and SA-999 (for alloy and stainless steel) [5-3. The first system uses the following designations: • • • STD. (219. From Sch 10 through Sch 40.625 in. regardless of size. wall thickness. the permissible variation in wall thickness for pipe is shown in Table 5-1. from Sch 40 through Sch 160. pipe and tube are equivalent. Each schedule corresponds to a specific wall thickness for each pipe size so the pressure-carrying capacity (pressure stress) is the same. such as main steam and HRH piping. Fabrication. the tolerance applies to a nominal wall thickness. These geometric anomalies are more prevalent for thick-walled pipe than for thin-walled pipe. standard wall thickness is 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) and Sch 40 wall thickness increases with diameter. the schedules increase in increments of 10. extra strong pipe has a wall thickness of 1/2 in. for tubes.1 mm). For NPS 14 and larger. it applies to a minimum wall thickness. and most codes allow the design of either to be selected by the sizing equation of choice by the designer. NPS ranges from 1/8 to 80.Manufacture. the outside diameter in inches is equivalent to the nominal pipe size.10. the outside diameter is larger than the nominal pipe size. For pipe sizes greater than NPS 8. and tolerances. and Erection Piping Piping materials are commonly produced in standard schedules that are defined in ASME standards B36. standard XS. special wall pipe is frequently used. These broad tolerances can also allow pipes to be produced with poor concentricity or with multiple lobes on the ID. extra strong (also called extra heavy) XXS. Possibly the greatest difference between the two product forms is the magnitude of the tolerance for wall thickness. The major distinctions between pipe and tube are in the method of specifying the outside diameter. Standard wall and Sch 40 are the same through NPS 10.7 mm) and Sch 80 wall thickness increases with diameter. double extra strong (also called double extra heavy) The second system developed from an attempt to establish a set of schedules (Sch) from Sch 5 to Sch 160. Because the designer must use the minimum specified wall thickness to ensure conservatism. Extra strong and Sch 80 are the same wall thickness for pipe sizes through NPS 8. For ASTM/ASME piping materials.19 [5-1. Although standard schedule pipe is frequently used for small-diameter application. 5-2]. the schedules increase in increments of 20. in accordance with B36. For pipe sizes up to and including NPS 12.10 and B36. (12. Two systems are commonly used to describe standard wall thicknesses. for large-diameter heavy wall applications. For pipes. NPS 8 has a nominal outside diameter of 8.

This variation in outside diameter can have an impact on the hanger clamp fit. 1/8 to 1-1/2. inclusive > 26 to 34. Fabrication. inclusive > 1-1/2 to 4. Additional controls are placed on variations in mass per unit length and straightness. and Erection Table 5-1 Permissible Variation in Wall Thickness for Pipe Made to NPS Schedules Product Seamless and welded Forged and bored Cast Minimum Wall Thickness 12. 1/32 1/32 1/32 1/32 1/32 1/32 1/32 Under mm 0. Ovality in thinwalled pipe (t/D≤3%) in any single cross section is limited to a maximum of 1.4 0. 5-3 .8 0.8 in.8 0.6 2. Table 5-2 Permissible Variation in Outside Diameter for Pipe Made to NPS Schedules Permissible Variations In Outside Diameter NPS in. inclusive > 8 to 18. inclusive > 18 to 26. inclusive > 34 to 48.8 0. there will be considerable variation in outside diameter between the straight pipe runs. and the sweeps (long radius bends).8 Piping can be purchased by specifying any of the following: • • • NPS and Sch Outside diameter and nominal or minimum wall thickness Inside diameter and nominal or minimum wall thickness. the elbows.0 4.8 1.8 0.2 4.8 0.5% under nominal unless a minimum wall thickness is specified and then there shall be no variation under the specified wall thickness No variation under the specified thickness No variation under the specified thickness The OD of pipe is controlled to reasonably close tolerances (see Table 5-2).5%. inclusive 1/64 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 Over mm 0.4 3.8 0. inclusive > 4 to 8. If piping is purchased based on inside diameter.Manufacture.

Fabrication. The primary difference between boiler external and nonboiler external piping is that the quality control requirements (including authorized inspection and stamping) of Section I still apply to boiler external piping. Nonboiler external piping (piping from the boiler to the Section I code boundary) is designed and fabricated in accordance with ASME B31. is classified as boiler proper piping. Revisions to this code are typically issued every three years (early editions were not issued on this schedule). all of it was just treated as piping.1. such as downcomers. In the late 1960s. and turbine piping. boiler external piping. refer to the specific codes. and district heating piping. gas and air piping. oil piping. is the steam isolation valve or. Development of ASME B31. fabrication techniques. However. Since 1942. Turbine piping is generally limited in scope. it became apparent the piping rules of ASME Section I were no longer adequate to cover the design of modern steam piping systems.Manufacture. For additional differences. but it is the design and fabrication responsibility of turbine manufacturers as a portion of the mechanical equipment supplied by them. 5-6] was first published. This code contained sections on power piping systems. which for the main steam piping system.1) was published. the responsibility of most aspects of the construction of boiler external piping was transferred to ASME B31. and Power Piping Piping in fossil power plants can be divided into four distinct sections: boiler proper piping. In 1942. The 5-4 . Historically ASME Section I maintained responsibility for the boiler proper and boiler external piping and made no distinction regarding these two portions of piping. These additional considerations were the responsibility of the boiler manufacturer. Section I never developed sophisticated design rules associated with piping flexibility analyses and hanger design. risers.1. the American Standard Code for Pressure Piping (ASA B31. Boiler External. nonboiler external piping. Piping that is integral with the boiler. and Erection Historical Perspective on Piping Codes—Boiler Proper. In 1972.1) [5-5.1 In July 1935. the American Tentative Standard Code for Pressure Piping (B31. and piping between headers. Boiler external piping refers to the piping that begins where the boiler proper terminates at any of the following points: • • • The first circumferential joint for welding end connections The face of the first flange in bolted flanged connections The first threaded joint in that type of connection It extends up to and including the code-required valves. this code has grown to meet industry changes in materials development. in the absence of an isolation valve. the turbine stop valves. and inspection techniques. who was free to use design approaches based on experience and good engineering practices.

and magnetic particle testing. liquid penetrant. design.1 draw a distinction between boiler external and nonboiler external piping [5-7. In the American Tentative Standard Code for Pressure Piping (B31.1. materials acceptance. all of which appear in B31. and Erection American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates the development and use of voluntary consensus standards in the United States. ASME Section II lists “SA” and “SB” counterparts to many of the ASTM specifications.1. the responsibility for this standard rests with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Fabrication of Piping Components Section 3 of this report provides an overview of the applicable material specifications for piping and piping system components.1 as their ASTM counterparts. for boiler external piping. including B31. in addition to the specified hydrostatic test and visual examination. Fabrication. and inspection have evolved to reflect changes. ASME Section I and B31. There have also been significant advances in the choice and availability of NDE techniques. Both the boiler external and nonboiler external piping are fabricated in accordance with ASME B31. branch connection.1 as the piping that begins where the boiler proper terminates at any of the following points [5-8]: • • • The first circumferential joint for welding end connections The face of the first flange in bolted flanged connections The first threaded joint in that type of connection 5-5 . however. In particular. only materials approved for use by Section I. Boiler external piping is defined by ASME B31. inspection of welds under the current edition of ASME B31. the weld could be checked by trepanning out a coupon large enough to show a clear cross section of the weld. JIS. and BSI. The specific testing methods are established based on weld type (butt weld. changes in materials or improved understanding of material properties have necessitated the inclusion of these new materials or changes in allowables for existing materials. ASTM standards are listed as “A” (such as A335) for ferrous materials and “B” (such as B167) for nonferrous materials.1. However. fabrication.1 might require radiography.Manufacture. so has this standard. Specific fabrication methods are listed within these reference standards. Similar material standards have been published by various international organizations such as DIN. If there was any reasonable doubt of the satisfactory quality of a weld. can be applied. this section provides a summary of fabrication methods. Throughout the history of B31. ASME B31. or fillet weld) and service conditions (temperature and pressure).1 references numerous ASTM specifications and a limited number of American Petroleum Institute (API) and American Water Works Association (AWWA) standards. however. In contrast. testing of welds consisted of a hydrostatic test at twice the normal service pressure and visual examination. 5-8]. while still setting forth the minimum engineering requirements deemed necessary for safe design and construction of pressure piping.1) issued in 1935. As technology has advanced.

to produce a hollow shell with a closed base. boiler external piping is to be fabricated and installed by manufacturers or contractors authorized to use the appropriate ASME symbol as defined in paragraphs PG-105. Pipe can be seamless or seam welded. inspection.3 of ASME Section I [5-7]. [61 cm]). including the following: • • • • • • Pierce and pilger rolling Plug rolling Pierce and draw Extrusion Forged and bored Centrifugally cast Pierce and Pilger Rolling Process The pierce and pilger (or Mannesmann) process is commonly used for production of seamless carbon and low-alloy steel pipe up to 26 in. and stamping required by Section I are to be provided for boiler external piping. because of the greater flexibility of production facilities.1. Fabrication. seam-welded pipe was often available with shorter lead times. In general. the starting material is frequently a polygonal ingot. Larger diameter piping can be produced by hot working the pipe. After the ingot is heated to the rolling temperature. For large diameter pipe sizes. by pulling through a plug. 5-6 . engineers and designers favored the use of seamless pipe for main steam and HRH piping. it is inserted in a round die on a vertical piercing press. All data reports. welded pipe is predominately manufactured in large outside diameters (typically greater than 24 in. or by rolling on a becking mill. (125 mm). however. Frequently.1 through PG-105. (660 mm) diameter and wall thicknesses up to 5 in. the turbine stop valves. followed by final sizing on a sizing mill. this results in a reduction of wall thickness. Historically. often with weights in excess of 1 ton (900 kg). In addition to the design requirements of ASME B31. Seamless Pipe Seamless piping can be produced by a number of processes. ASTM A335).Manufacture. A brief description of the fabrication methods for piping components is provided. and Erection It extends up to and including the main steam isolation valve or. the hollow shell is elongated in a pilger mill. The specific method of manufacture applicable to each material is addressed by the specific material specification (for example. The wall thickness of the hollow shell is then reduced in a cross roll mill and the closed end is pierced. The basic sequence of the process is shown in Figure 5-1. in the absence of an isolation valve. The solid ingot is then pierced by a cylindrical punch of approximately half the diameter of the die. Finally. the substitution of seam-welded pipe for seamless pipe occurred during the construction phase and might not be reflected in the design documents. however.

For larger diameters.Manufacture. (406 mm) diameter. a second plug mill can be used. Fabrication. A schematic of the plug rolling process is shown in Figure 5-2. the bloom is pierced in a cross roll piercing mill. In plug rolling. 5-7 . following high-pressure water jet descaling. the bloom is heated to the forming temperature. and Erection Figure 5-1 Pilger Mill Process for Seamless Pipe Manufacture Plug Rolling Process The plug rolling (or Stiefel) process is commonly used for the production of seamless pipe up to approximately 16 in.

Fabrication.Manufacture. and Erection Figure 5-2 Plug Rolling Process for Seamless Pipe Manufacture 5-8 .

the hollow cylinder is elongated to final size on a horizontal drawing press with a mandrel corresponding to the final inside diameter. After the horizontal drawing press. Figure 5-3 Pierce and Draw Process for Seamless Pipe Manufacture When the drawing is completed. After the vertical press. This process was developed by Heinrich Erhardt in Germany in 1891. it might be necessary to reheat the material before additional drawing is accomplished. and stainless steel pipe up to approximately 60 in. Depending on the number of drawing steps. followed by forming a hollow shell with a closed base in a vertical piercing press as shown in Figure 5-3. (1500 mm) diameter and wall thicknesses up to 10 in (250 mm). The application of this process is limited because of the low rate of production. is used for the production of seamless carbon. Typically five passes are possible before reheating. also referred to as hollow forging or the Erhardt process. the mandrel and hollow shell are pushed through a sequence of drawing dies of decreasing diameter until the desired outside diameter is obtained. low-alloy. and Erection Pierce and Draw Process The pierce and draw process. the finished component is stripped from the mandrel. After the material has cooled.Manufacture. 5-9 . Fabrication. The starting material is frequently a mold-cast ingot weighing up to 28 tons (25 tonne) which is heated to the forming temperature in a soaking pit. the integral bottom is cut off.

A number of welding processes can be used in the production of seam-welded pipe. the primary welding process for heavy wall power piping is SAW. In this process. 5-10 . U-ing and O-ing press. these processes quickly gained acceptance and became widely used for the production of large diameter pipe. (1220 mm) with wall thicknesses up to approximately 6 in (152 mm). the mating edges are heated and mechanically brought together in a draw bench. Welded Pipe Welded pipe is produced by forming a cylinder from a plate and fusion welding the seam. the cylinder is formed. including GTAW and GMAW. The earliest method of pipe production was forge welding.Manufacture. Fabrication. which was originally patented by James Whitehouse in 1825. The ID and OD of this forging will be slightly smaller and larger. The forming can be accomplished using a C-ing press. a billet is heated to the forging temperature and forged to make a hollow shell using heavy presses or forging hammers. is used for highalloy pipe. Finally a ram is activated to apply pressure to the billet and extrude it through the annulus formed between the mandrel and the die. and the ID is bored to the specified inside dimension. also referred to as the Ugine Sejournet extrusion process. however. Subsequently the pipe is machined on both the inner and outer surfaces. Because forged and bored piping is also lathe turned. The billet is pressed with a hydraulic ram and then pierced with a mandrel to produce a cylinder. The rough forged cylinder is then lathe turned to the desired OD. At least one major boiler manufacturer frequently lathe turned the OD of seam-welded pipe used for link (boiler external) piping. than the finished dimensions. and Erection Extrusion Process The extrusion process. respectively. With the development and improvement of electric arc welding following World War II. the presence of turn marks on the OD surface of the pipe might not be sufficient to indicate the pipe is seam welded. This process can be used to produce heavy wall pipe with diameters up to approximately 48 in. Centrifugally Cast Centrifugally cast pipe is made by pouring molten metal into a rotating mold and continuing to spin the mold as the metal cools and solidifies. Forged and Bored In the forged and bored process. In forge welding. The U-ing and O-ing presses are the most common for large-diameter heavy wall pipe. The production of seam-welded pipe starts with the formation of a cylinder from plate. or a three-roll bending process. a descaled billet is heated to the forming temperature and placed in a vertical press with an extrusion die at its bottom.

No. cold forming occurs below the recrystallization temperature. Tolerances. however. along with tolerances and process and material requirements are covered in the Pipe Fabrication Institute (PFI) Standard ES-24. 1) 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo (P No. and induction bending are hot bending processes. roll bending.100°F (56°C) where Tcrit is the lower critical temperature of the material. 1) Carbon-molybdenum steel (P No. ASME B31. The arc melts a portion of the flux Pipe Bends There are multiple processes for pipe bending. In the general sense. incremental. Cold bending or forming is performed at a temperature below Tcrit . rotary draw bending. Gr. Gr. Gr. No. Pipe Bending Methods. and an arc is struck between the workpiece and the bare wire electrode. The approximate lower critical temperatures for key alloys listed in ASME B31. Of these processes.1 are given in Table 5-3.1 Material Carbon steel (P No. The wire is spool-fed through a contact tube. ram bending. ram bending. These bending methods. Fabrication. The following sections describe the key bending methods.1. 3 Cr 1 Mo (P No. incremental bending. SAW is an electric fusion welding method performed using a concealed arc. Gr. 1) 9 Cr 1/2 Mo (P No. furnace. 5A) 5 Cr 1/2 Mo (P No. No. rotary draw bending. Process and Material Requirements [5-9]. 5B. No.100°F (56°C). and roll bending are cold bending processes. 2) 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo. and Erection As described in Section 4. The tip of the arc is covered (submerged) in flux that is supplied by hopper mounted to the side of the welding torch. and induction bending.Manufacture. and hot forming occurs above the recrystallization temperature. Table 5-3 Approximate Lower Critical Temperatures As Given in ASME B31. 3) 1 Cr 1/2 Mo (P No. defines hot bending or forming as occurring at a temperature above Tcrit . 5B. 2) Approximate Lower Critical Temperature °F 1340 1350 1375 1430 1480 1505 1490 °C 725 730 745 775 805 820 810 5-11 . including furnace bending. 4. 4.

The induction bending process does not require any forming tools. An induction-bent pipe attains high accuracy of shape. the pipe is removed from the furnace and placed on a bending table. usually a gas torch ring burner. the pipe can be sand packed to provide rigidity. when the diameter-to-thickness ratio exceeds 30:1. 5-12 . The incremental length is selected to be less than the buckling wave length of the pipe. sand packing will lose effectiveness and buckles can begin to appear. These limits are graphically outlined in PFI ES-24. describes a circular arc around the pivot point. W. Depending on equipment. set to the desired radius. pipe diameters in the range of 3. induction bending has recently achieved prominence because of its adaptability to a wide range of pipe sizes and bend radii.5 in. Depending on the ratio of the diameter to the thickness. and a bending moment is applied at the other. the front end of the pipe is clamped to a pivoting arm. Bend radius-to-diameter (R/D) ratios of 1. depending on diameter and thickness. The bending force pushes axially on the pipe. One end of the pipe is retained by holding pins. The bending arm. Incremental Bending The equipment used for the incremental bending process (originally developed by M. The radius of the bend is controlled by dies. the heating device is moved to the next successive increment. Induction bending is a technologically advanced and largely automated process in which the pipe is gradually bent in consecutive narrow circumferential zones heated by an inductor ring to a temperature of 800°F–2200°F (425°C– 1205°C). When the pipe has been firmly packed with sand.) consists of an anchor box and a hydraulic cylinder. After the pipe has attained the required temperature throughout. Sand packing is generally not effective in preventing buckling at pipe sizes larger than NPS 24. Fabrication. The furnace is usually gas fired through ports along its length that are placed to direct the flames around the pipe and avoid direct flame impingement. The heated band is then cooled as required by the bending procedure. it is heated in a furnace to approximately 2000°F (1093°C). stops. to 64 in. Induction Bending For hot bending. and Erection Furnace Bending The traditional method of hot bending is performed on a bending table.5 to 10 are typical. There are limits to the combinations of diameter. and refined by Pullman Power Products Corp. A force is then applied by a hydraulic cylinder to bend the small increment a predetermined amount. (89 mm to 1626 mm) can be bent [5-10]. heats a narrow circumferential band (approximately one to two times the wall thickness in length) to the proper bending temperature. Sand packing is typically used for diameter-to-thickness ratios greater than approximately 10:1. Kellogg Co. The heating device.Manufacture. or templates. and bend radius that can be accommodated by the furnace bending method. thickness. and the pipe conforms to the desired radius as it is incrementally pushed through the inductor. however. and the process is repeated.

Such effects are not unique to induction bending. Fabrication. and material chemistry. specific problems were encountered in bends made with low-alloy steels such as 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo Si (P11) and 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo (P22) [5-12]. Tube & Pipe Association. 5-13 .Manufacture. one for small-diameter pipe and one for large-diameter pipe [5-11]. International. creating changes to the metallurgical and mechanical properties. After passing through the inductor. Both of these problems can be overcome by selecting the right induction bending temperature. bending speed. This particular machine is equipped with two bending arms. Prudence dictates that preproduction test bends be made using prototype material and process parameters followed by laboratory examination to demonstrate bend integrity. Figure 5-4 Induction Bending The advantages of induction bending should not be allowed to obscure the fact that pipe undergoes a complex process of heating. and Erection The left side of Figure 5-4 is a sketch of an induction bending machine. The right side of Figure 5-4 is a photograph showing the hot circumferential band produced by the inductor. the pipe can be either forced to cool or naturally cooled. In the early development. as required by the metallurgical characteristics of the material. deformation and cooling as it passes through the bending machine. has prepared a recommended standard dealing with induction bending [5-13]. they are typical of any hot bending process that stretches the material within its low ductility temperature range. The forming issues included a ductility trough in the range of 1650°F–1800°F (900°C–980°C) that limited the formability and resulted in the occurrence of grain boundary microfissures that looked like creep. radius.

Manufacture. two pressure dies. A hydraulic ram then presses a forming die against the pipe. Figure 5-5 Ram Bending Process Rotary Draw Bending In rotary draw bending. are mounted in a fixed position on the machine frame (Figure 5-5). which are free to rotate. the pipe is secured to a bending die by a clamping die. Fabrication. to prevent wall collapse. it draws the pipe against the pressure die to form the bend. An internal die can be used. and the pressure dies rotate on their mounting pins so that they follow the piping and maintain support. Figure 5-6 Rotary Draw Bending Process 5-14 . As the bending die rotates. and Erection Ram Bending In ram bending. if necessary.

Process and Material Requirements [5-9]. Standard ES-24. three power-driven rolls of approximately the same diameter. Pipe Bending Methods. and Erection Roll Bending In roll bending. The pipe is passed through the rolls. 5-15 . usually arranged in a pyramid. The two fixed rolls oppose an adjustable center roll. Figure 5-7 Roll Bending Process Figure 5-8 shows the approximate bend radius as a function of diameter-to-wall thickness ratio for the various cold bending processes [5-9]. Fabrication.Manufacture. Tolerances. with the position of the adjustable roll controlling the bend radius (see Figure 5-7). Figure 5-8 Cold Bending Ranges Source: Pipe Fabrication Institute. are used.

This standard covers carbon-molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low-alloy steels as well as martensitic. bars. ANSI B36. Wrought fittings are typically manufactured in accordance with ASME/ASTM SA234/A234. Fittings can include short radius elbows. The material for fittings can consist of forgings. ASA B31. 5-2. If seam-welded pipe was used. General Requirements for Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe. or solution treating and quenching. or quenching and tempering. and chromium-molybdenum alloy steels. 5-5. or solution annealed. ASME SA999. Washington.19. References 5-1. Clam-shell elbows contain a seam weld along both the extrados and intrados of the elbow. and Erection Pipe Fittings Fittings for pipe can be wrought (seamless and welded construction). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. normalizing and tempering. ASME Standard Specification for General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe. duplex. bifurcations (wyes). and seamless or fusion-welded tubular products. annealed. forged. Stainless Steel Pipe. carbon-molybdenum. ferritic.Manufacture. DC. Carbon steel forgings are manufactured in accordance with ASME/ASTM SA105/A105. and tees. New York. and austenitic stainless steels. post-forging heat treatment can consist of annealing. Wrought austenitic stainless steel fittings are manufactured in accordance with ASME/ASTM SA403/A403. subcritically stress relieved. 5-6. post-forming heat treatment can consist of hotformed. Depending on the application. Welded and Seamless Wrought Iron Pipe. ASME SA530. Depending on the grade.1. and the weld can be located at any position circumferentially. carbon steel forgings can be left as forged or can be heat treated by annealing. For elbows. ASA B31. 5-4. Depending on the grade. ANSI B36. New York. American National Standards Institute. American Standards Association. This standard covers carbon. American Standard Code for Pressure Piping. 5-3. plates. Fabrication. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. it might contain only a single weld. Washington. Forgings are typically manufactured in accordance with ASME/ASTM SA182/A182.10. American National Standards Institute. American Standards Association. 5-16 . this weld is typically located along the intrados. laterals. normalized. 1935. normalizing and tempering. 1942. but there are no specific requirements specifying this location. normalizing.1. DC. normalized and tempered. Welded tubular products can contain one or two welds depending on the method of manufacture. or cast. American Tentative Standard Code for Pressure Piping.

J. pp. Code for Pressure Piping Standards: Power Piping. 5-10. Pipe Bending Methods. McGraw-Hill. B. December 1987.Manufacture. Process and Material Requirements. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Power Boilers. Hahn. 1998. L. Bendick. 33-34. Rockford. Fabrication. Tube & Pipe Association. 2004. IL. 2003. Pipe Fabrication Institute. 2000. ASME B31. New York. Piping Handbook. 5-12. 2002. Section I. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. C. Valliant. Vandenberghe. Tolerances. Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes. The WB 36 Book (15NiCuMo) for Feedwater Systems. and W. “Watch Materials Properties During Induction Bending. 5-17 . International. 2004. 5-13. New York. Nayyar. B. M.1. 5-9. Recommended Standards for Induction Bending of Pipe and Tube. John Reason. 5-11. New York. PFI ES-24. Seventh Edition.” Power Magazine. 5-8. and Erection 5-7. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

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OPERATION 6 This section will be included in a future update. 6-1 .

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damage developed as a result of long-term. With an estimate of current damage.DAMAGE MECHANISMS AND MODELS 7 Introduction In general. Table 7-1 lists common damage mechanisms for various components and locations. two or more damage mechanisms are at work simultaneously on a component. Indeed. Fortunately. in-service mechanisms. to determine the root cause of the damage. or significant cracking has been found during plant inspections. However. and failure criteria. in the majority of cases. so that appropriate remedial action can be undertaken to minimize the risk of future problems. Which damage mechanisms are active depends on the component. for both the dispositioning of defects and the assessment of damage accumulation. if possible. in many other cases. The fundamental step in predicting a component’s effective lifespan and preventing failures is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the potential damage mechanisms affecting the component. Frequently. the local operating conditions. and the materials and methods used in fabrication. rules for damage accumulation. the number of catastrophic failures is relatively small. 7-1 . it is important to identify the mechanism responsible for damage and. high-energy piping service experience indicates that damage development and cracking have been encountered at specific base metal locations and at weldments. Root cause analysis should establish the reasons for the accelerated damage. However. The obvious goal for the electric generation industry as a whole is to predict and prevent failures before they occur. However. In some situations. damage development has resulted in steam leaks. several examples of catastrophic rupture have been recorded in which fracture has resulted in widespread damage. A root cause analysis is significantly more than simply identifying the mechanism. these problems have been related to deficiencies during welding or manufacture. the remaining life of a component can be assessed.

tee. small bore pipe connections Penetrations Supports 7-2 .Damage Mechanisms and Models Table 7-1 Damage Mechanisms for Main Steam and Hot Reheat Piping Component or Location Damage Mechanism Precrack and Type IV creep Creep cracking Fatigue cracking Combined creep-fatigue cracking Corrosion-fatigue cracking Corrosion pitting Weld flaws (including heat treat) Overheating Creep swelling Temper embrittlement Thermal softening and sag Oxide notching Corrosion pitting Overstress Bowing External creep cracking External thermal fatigue cracking Internal thermal fatigue cracking Combined creep-fatigue cracking Corrosion-fatigue cracking Corrosion pitting Overheating Precrack and Type IV creep Creep cracking (internal or external) Fatigue or thermal fatigue cracking Combined creep-fatigue cracking Corrosion-fatigue cracking Corrosion pitting Corrosion-fatigue cracking Weld flaws (including heat treat) Overheating Overstress Precrack and Type IV creep Creep or creep cracking at saddle welds Thermal fatigue cracking of saddle welds Overstress Creep or creep cracking Fatigue or thermal fatigue cracking. setting. especially with bimetallic welds Overstress of branch pipe and welds Creep cracking at borehole Thermal fatigue cracking at borehole Thermal shock cracking at borehole Creep cracking Fatigue cracking Overload Thermal softening Corrosion Improper alignment. and valve bodies Girth welds Saddle welds Radiographic testing plug and thermowell welds. or design Seam welds Spool pieces Wye.

There are at least two exceptions to the general observation. Depending on the active damage mechanism. crack initiation approaches are important. This primarily occurs in very thin section components. and stress states make it extremely difficult to determine actual component life. oxide scale growth. each unit and its components must be treated individually to obtain realistic life assessments. wall thickness). A component can be considered to have failed when it is more sensible economically to repair or replace it rather than continuing to operate with a high risk of catastrophic failure. In this case. The lifetime of any high-energy piping component is a complex function of factors such as operating conditions (stresses. and retirement is based on the economics of repeated repairs and the growth of a crack to critical size. the critical crack size at failure is sufficiently large that NDE for crack sizing along with crack growth analysis for life assessment is appropriate. The uncertainties associated with life assessment such as actual material properties. Determining the degree of damage to a component typically requires the application of one or more inspection methods. accelerated mechanical testing. In these cases. and fuel characteristics). water chemistry. 7-3 . A second exception is in Type IV cracking (creep cracking). excessive concern with refining the damage rules is unwarranted. hardness measurements. In some cases. and environment). several techniques and software programs can be used to predict the remaining life for a component. As a result. extrapolations of failure statistics. Techniques used for these conditions include calculations based on history. operating modes. even with good analysis techniques. material. and damage type. This is then followed by periodic monitoring of the progression of damage and benchmarking of analysis results against field observations. Determining the degree of damage required to cause failure requires the use of one or more analytical or experimental techniques. crack initiation can occur early in the total life of the component (10%–20%). in highly stressed components. support placement. In most instances of cracking in high-energy piping sections. however. life assessment is often focused on helping to set inspection intervals and is used as input to deciding whether to repair or replace a component. or in materials that have rapid crack growth rates or that are highly embrittled. microstructural evaluations. and advanced NDE techniques. fabrication tolerances. For those conditions in which crack initiation alone constitutes failure (or is a substantial portion of the useful life of a component). cracks are tolerated. If a material has suffered severe embrittlement. conventional NDE methods and fracture mechanics analysis are not helpful. in which cracks that form along the fusion line of the weld–base metal interface are hard to detect and can link up to grow rapidly. Assessing the rate of damage accumulation implies that the process of monitoring damage will be performed repeatedly or be ongoing. strain measurements. temperatures. geometry (piping layout. it is advisable to adopt a conservative approach.Damage Mechanisms and Models Because damage depends on factors specific to a generating unit (design.

case-specific approaches should be used rather than relying on generalized laboratory results. In the absence of component-specific data. repair technologies and practices for headers. 7-2]. and availability • A few other general observations about life assessment are the following: • The critical crack size to cause failure is not a constant in high-energy piping but will decrease with service exposure as embrittlement occurs. cracks can grow by creep or creep-fatigue at high temperature. repair. The validity of any damage approach must be evaluated with reference to the material and service conditions. embrittlement. Hydrostatic tests are often found to be the limiting condition for fracture. A considerable amount of materials data has been accumulated from service-exposed material. As a result.Damage Mechanisms and Models A survey of U. safety. only two used computer software for life assessment. However. high-temperature piping. The failure scenario must be understood. and turbine casings has been reported [7-1. 30% of utilities indicated that cost or economics often took priority over metallurgical or technical considerations in their decision making. Factors included in repair or replace decisions included the following: – – – – Contract cost of repair versus cost of replacement Requirements for analysis and testing Estimated remaining life of component before and after repairs Trade-offs among cost. and so forth) at which a component is considered nonrepairable varied considerably. or retirement before a crack grows to a critical size. risk. However. the ex-service property databases are very useful for life assessment.S. In thick-section components. tailored. The use of conventional NDE techniques (see Section 10) is based on the premise that a detectable crack will form and grow slowly enough to permit periodic inspection. Damage in welds can thus serve as an precursor index to damage and remaining life in the base metal. The level of damage (for example. creep cavitation. • • • • 7-4 . but failure can occur by brittle fracture at low temperatures during startup and shutdown sequences. Weld-related cracking in high-energy piping requires attention from a life assessment viewpoint because the deterioration in susceptible locations often precedes deterioration in the piping base material. The results for life assessment showed the following: • • Over half of the utilities indicated that they used some form of in-house life assessment. Slightly more than 30% of the utilities indicated that some minimum level of metallurgical damage was established. Ductile tearing or plastic collapse at operating conditions can also determine the limiting flaw size.

For common engineering steels. Tertiary creep is a period of increasing creep rate. the strain rate is continuously changing. and there is no mechanical degradation of the material. Curves that plot creep strain versus time have traditionally been described using three stages of creep: primary. and for austenitic alloys below approximately 1000°F (538°C). Typical loading in a high-energy piping system can include the weight of the pipe and the operating pressure stress. Volumes 1–2 (TR-102433) Boiler Tube Failure: Theory and Practice. Volumes 1–5 (TR-103377) Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Plant Boilers (1004509) Remaining Life Assessment of Austenitic Stainless Steel Superheater and Reheater Tubing (1004517) Creep Introduction Creep is a time-dependent deformation and fracture of metal components that takes place at elevated temperatures under the application of a load. creep is not a concern for low-alloy steels below approximately 700°F (370°C). Secondary creep is a period of essentially constant creep rate. 7-5 . the material fails at the end of this period. No observable microstructural changes occur during the primary period. Each stage can be characterized in terms of creep rate (the change in strain with time).Damage Mechanisms and Models The following subsections outline information about specific damage mechanisms that can affect high-energy piping. For the stress levels encountered in most power generating plants. Primary creep is a period of relatively high but decreasing creep rate during which the material’s creep resistance increases by work hardening. Additional information regarding these topics and applicable assessment methods can be found in the following EPRI reports [7-3–7-9]: • • • • • • • Boiler Tube Failure Metallurgical Guide. secondary. creep becomes a significant concern only at temperatures exceeding approximately half of the absolute melting point. Volumes 1–3 (TR-105261) Condition Assessment Guidelines for Fossil Fuel Power Plant Components (GS-6724) Guidelines for Controlling Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants (1008082) Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts. and tertiary (see Figure 7-1).

Eventually. even the existence of a macrocrack does not necessarily constitute the end of useful life. In general. The microstructural morphology and therefore the properties of each region differ. Curve B. a grain-refined region. voids can be generated in areas of high interfacial energy within the microstructure. welds and HAZs are considered to be undergoing creep cavitation and the base material to be undergoing thermal softening. Creep failures occur as a result of crack initiation and propagation as the material loses strength at operational temperatures. which then leads to rapid failure. HAZs consist of several metallographic regions. Increasing creep rate can result from microstructural aging or void development or a combination of the two. Local fracture occurs when the microcracks link to form macrocracks. Microstructural aging effects in plain carbon and low-alloy steels can include precipitation and growth of chromium and molybdenum carbides and pearlitic decomposition to spheroidized carbides. but they are typically all inferior to the base metal properties. Constant Stress Test) Source: G. which decreases the strength of the steel. including a coarse-grained region. For most thick-section components. At high operating temperatures and under stresses. A period of stable crack growth usually occurs until a critical crack size is reached. 7-6 . Constant Load Test. Third Edition [7-10]. and an intercritical region. Low-alloy Cr-Mo steel base metals generally have good creep rupture ductility with total uniaxial elongations greater than 10%. including grain boundaries and precipitate–matrix interfaces. HAZs generally have poor ductility with total uniaxial elongations less than 5%. Dieter. Mechanical Metallurgy. Low-strain failures are due to the coalescence of grain boundary microvoids into grain boundary cracks.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-1 Typical Creep Curve Showing the Three Steps of Creep (Curve A. voids link up to form microcracks.

The nonprimary alloying elements do not truly fit into the primary element atomic matrix. If the applied stress exceeds the ability of the atoms to stretch. Increases in operational temperature produce several key microstructural changes that decrease the strength of the alloy and its ability to resist applied stresses. If the applied stress exceeds the ability of the atoms to stretch or to change the crystal shape. then the crystal can plastically deform (change shape) by moving atoms from one location to another. as well as current creep modeling efforts. This is commonly called cracking. and it becomes easier for the atoms to move and therefore easier for the crystal to change shape to accommodate the applied stress.Damage Mechanisms and Models The following subsections describe the various stages of creep failure. Many high-temperature alloys depend on precipitated particles for their strength. including the following: • Metallic atom matrices become more energized. That is. it is easier for nonprimary alloying elements to collect and precipitate second-phase particles at elevated temperatures. Which option the atoms of the metallic crystals follow depends on the inherent strength of the alloy. the crystalline atomic matrix of any material has the following three basic options to respond to the stress: • • • The matrix can elastically deform. the atoms can break their bonds. separate. Small particles become larger particles by collecting the atoms of other smaller particles—the larger particles get larger. Therefore. This occurs at low values of applied stress. including crack initiation and crack growth. the strength (which is the ability of the crystal to resist deformation) decreases as the temperature increases. They are formed when a sufficient number of alloying atoms of the nonprimary element collect to form a new local matrix that differs from the overall crystal matrix. Creep is time-dependent deformation that occurs at relatively constant stress levels but at elevated temperatures. When a stress is applied. the atoms in the matrix stretch to accommodate the applied stress. and form two new surfaces. and the smaller particles dissolve. iron for steels). how quickly that stress is applied. the amount of stress applied. which are threedimensional matrices of atoms following the repetitive order of the primary alloying element (that is. Crack Initiation All engineering metals are essentially composed of many metallic crystals. Precipitates are second-phase particles (a separate atomic matrix) within the basic atomic matrix of the crystal. The new matrix accommodates the size and electronic difference of the nonprimary alloying elements. It is harder to move atoms through a “forest” of many small particles than it is to 7-7 • . Because diffusion of atoms is easier. and the operational temperature. The particles grow as more atoms collect at the particles’ interfaces.

The models vary in complexity. Thus. it acts as a sharp stress concentrator. or martensite—are metastable phases that will reorganize themselves into lower-strength microstructural constituents if given a sufficient amount of time at a diffusion-activated temperature. For a variety of alloys. phase boundaries). The stress at the very tip of the crack is amplified to levels significantly higher than the average applied stress (several orders of magnitude higher). log tr = m log ε Eq. grain boundaries. Therefore. (As an analogy. The rate of crack growth depends on the level of loading and the material’s inherent resistance to crack extension. The number and size of the voids depend on the amount of load. When a large enough microcrack has been initiated (no longer just a few coalesced voids). Because it can take time for a crack to propagate through the material. when a crack is initiated. shown in Equation 7-1 [7-11]. and the strength of the microstructural interfaces. and time to rupture. the amount of thermal energy. it tends to grow under continued applied loading. and specifically can be related to the strength and fracture toughness of the material. These microstructural changes can lead to losses in high-temperature strength. the number of void initiation sites. tr. bainite. Analytical Techniques Creep Deformation—Life Models Several mathematical models can be used to predict the operational creep life for a component under specific operating conditions (time at temperature). The formation of voids and the interlinking of these voids (microvoid coalescence) is the fundamental crack initiation mechanism for creep degradation. Crack Growth Cracks typically grow under tensile loading.Damage Mechanisms and Models move them through a lower number of large particles. and therefore it generally takes less stress energy to extend a crack than to plastically deform the material. 7-1 7-8 . As a tensile load is applied to the weakened microstructure. which are areas with the lowest cohesive forces. the metallic crystals lose strength. there is a simple relationship between minimum creep rate. the presence of a crack does not necessarily mean the end of useful component life. second-phase particle boundaries. creep cracks form where the microvoids initiate and coalesce.) Therefore as the particles coarsen at elevated temperatures. termed the Monkman-Grant correlation. • Many of the phase constituents that give steel higher strength—such as like pearlite. which in turn depends on the material’s microstructural morphology. ε. imagine how much harder it is to walk through a dense forest of small-diameter trees versus walking through a sparsely populated forest of large-diameter trees. voids can be created at phase interfaces (that is.

in which engineering stress (load normalized by initial specimen dimensions) is plotted against the logarithm of time to rupture. is easy to understand and use. 20 is commonly used for 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo and 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo. temperature. It is generated from test data or from literature values. The LMP can be used to estimate remaining life at a given service temperature and stress and to set reinspection intervals. These include the LMP. ε tr = constant Eq. For steady-state conditions. The result is a series of curves similar to the S-N curve for fatigue. any of the other parameters [7-12. There are several alternative parametric extrapolations that allow short-term creep test results to be extrapolated to long exposure times typical of power plant applications. or from short-term laboratory tests (isostress tests). at temperature (h) a constant that ranges from 10 to 40 depending on the material. to give estimates of rupture life. Figure 7-2 shows the curve relating stress to LMP. and has been proven to be at least as accurate as. m has a value approaching unity. A knowledge of expected operating temperature can then be used to predict remaining life. The service stress level (σ*) can be entered to read off the service LMP. given creep rate from dimensional measurements. tr. the theta projection concept. as shown in Equation 7-3. 7-2 Estimates of rupture life can be obtained with this equation for components removed from service. the stress rupture curves provide reliable design lifetimes. 7-9 . For most materials.Damage Mechanisms and Models In Equation 7-1. The LMP can be derived from the stress and temperature dependence of the creep rate or time to rupture. LMP = f (σ ) = T (log t r + C1 ) Eq. The most common accelerated test for creep is the creep-to-failure test. The resulting equation relates stress. Extrapolation to determine the probable time to rupture at service temperatures is then typically performed. so that the equation can be rewritten as shown in Equation 7-2. The LMP is the most commonly used. if not more accurate than. 7-14]. and various others [7-12–7-14]. 7-3 Where: T tr C1 = = = temperature in absolute units time to rupture. m is a constant. and 30 is commonly used for P91. and time.

C* is defined as shown in Equation 7-4. for fatigue. geometry and material constants. A variety of expressions have been developed to indicate the effects at a crack tip. respectively. C* is a path-independent energy rate line integral. including the stress intensity factor. and C(t) [7-15–7-18]. Γ. It is analogous to the J integral from fracture mechanics. K. J. There are also analogous methods to predict life based on creep crack growth rates (propagation rates). Remaining life assessment of cracking (in the creep regime as well as at lower temperatures) requires two relationships: 1) a means to relate the crack driving force to nominal stress. crack size. except that the strain and strain-energy density are replaced by strain rate and strainenergy-rate density. C* = ∫ dy − Ti Γ ∂ui ds ∂x Eq. Ct. 7-4 Where: Ti ui is the traction vector along the path. and the integral.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-2 Use of a Parametric Method (the Larson-Miller Parameter) to Estimate the Remaining Life of Service-Damaged Material Creep Crack Growth Models The mathematical methods treat creep damage holistically and describe creep deformation before crack initiation. 7-10 . is the deflection rate vector along the traction. along with three parameters which are been successfully correlated to creep crack growth: C*. and 2) a way to correlate the calculated driving force to the resultant crack growth rate for the material of interest.

C(t) cannot be measured at the load point. C* can be directly measured in laboratory tests on cracked specimens in which the creep deflection is measured. For the more general case in which significant creep strains occur only in the localized region near the crack tip. and can be both measured and calculated at the load point. 7-5 W = ∫ σ ij dε ij 0 Where: σij = εij = the stress tensor the strain tensor C* addresses the steady-state (large-scale) creep crack growth regime under the special conditions in which second-stage creep deformation is widespread in the body. is the strain rate density. a parameter Ct has been proposed. C* can be calculated by finite-element methods and used as a parameter to predict creep-crack growth. such as superheater outlet headers and high-temperature rotors. Eq. These concepts have been confirmed by applying them to explain the observed creep lifetime of cracked components. However. In the limit of widespread creep deformation. The use of Ct has been shown to have some advantages over the other two parameters. C* can be estimated from J integral expressions and from estimates of the J integral [7-14]. its use is confined to extensive creep. Therefore. C(t) is the near crack tip value of C* and is therefore useful for small-scale and transition creep regions. the expressions reduce to those for the stress distribution ahead of a crack tip as a function of the stress intensity. Where elastic strains are dominant. Also. Ct = C*. therefore. in these regimes. after they have been removed from service.Damage Mechanisms and Models ds W* ε ij * is a length element along the path. 7-11 . at least in the beginning stages of crack growth. C* can be related to the crack tip stress and strain fields. Ct can be used in all regimes. which is defined as shown in Equation 7-5. It has been shown that creep crack growth rate data for a wide range of conditions correlate with Ct. it can only be calculated. Ct and C(t) are ways to extend the C* concept to small-scale creep conditions. C* is not defined as path-independent in small-scale and transition creep regions. Figure 7-3 diagrams the typical fracture mechanics approach to estimating life after creep cracks are detected.

For example. The two most common rules sum time fractions or strain fractions. Because significant variation occur in these factors. Damage rules have been developed to calculate the amount of life expended as a function of specific conditions. in some materials. there is significant variation in the rate at which creep damage accumulates. creep damage is strongly influenced by local stresses and temperatures. The Robinson life-fraction rule sums time fractions as shown in Equation 7-6 [7-19]: 7-12 .Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-3 Flowchart of the Time-Dependent Fracture Mechanics Analysis Approach to Determining the Remaining Life in Creep and Creep-Fatigue Assessments Damage Accumulation Rules In field applications. changes as small as 10°F– 15°F (approximately 6°C–8°C) can double the creep rate of the material.

7-13 . Cumulative life-fraction at failure has been shown to be greater than. Strains are summed in the strain-fraction rule as shown in Equation 7-7 [7-20]: D=∑ Where: εi ε ri Eq. and the order in which stress changes and temperature changes are imposed [7-24]. there is no requirement for linearity. There has been a considerable amount of evaluation of the accuracy of the life-fraction rules [7-22–7-24]. low ductility cast version (FW) based on the life-fraction rule (LFR). 7-6 is the time spent under condition i. only for uniqueness of damage to life-fraction [7-21]. they are not [7-21]. equal to. or less than unity. In contrast.Damage Mechanisms and Models D=∑ Where: ti tri ti t ri Eq. incorrectly. problems developed with Robinson’s rule when it was applied assuming that stress changes were uniquely related to life-fraction. For example. Life-fraction rules have been shown to be generally valid for temperature changes and not for stress changes [7-24]. cumulative life-fraction is >1 and for brittle material life-fraction is <1. is the time to rupture under condition i. It is frequently called. and therefore life expenditures in each segment of time at temperature are simply additive. Robinson’s rule has been successfully applied to analyzing power plant components. depending on the nature of the prior degradation. As with fatigue. Temperature changes do not result in sequence effects. the ductility of the material. a linear damage rule. The original formulation was for temperature changes only. Results show that for ductile materials. Damage induced by variable temperature but constant stress is uniquely related to life-fraction. Some current views toward using these damage rules are the following: • • • Linear damage summation rules have been found to be just as accurate and useful as any other rule in the specific context that they are used [7-25]. Figures 7-4 and 7-5 show the correspondence between the actual life and remaining lifefraction for a ferritic 1/2 Cr 1/2 Mo 1/4 V pipe steel (MG) and a bainitic. the Robinson rule assumes that each fractional expenditure of life is independent of all others. 7-7 εi= the strain accumulated under condition i εri= the strain to rupture under condition i The Robinson life-fraction rule is analogous to the Palmgren-Miner rule in fatigue analysis.

Viswanathan and S. The figure shows the remaining life-fraction from postexposure accelerated tests versus the expended life under service conditions for three heats of low-alloy steel. The theoretical (linear) curve will be conservative for ductile materials and nonconservative for brittle materials. Gehl. First International Conference on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials [7-22]. Effect of Aging on the Creep Rupture Behavior of Steels. Revised curves to compensate for this effect are also shown in the figure. M.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-4 shows a comparison between life estimates based on the LFR and the observed life in postexposure accelerated tests [7-22]. Figure 7-4 Comparison Between Life Estimates Based on the Life-Fraction Rule and the Observed Life in Postexposure Accelerated Tests Source: R. A modified basis for the life-fraction rule to allow for the effects of ductility is shown in Figure 7-5 [7-22]. 7-14 . The LFR tends to underestimate the remaining life of ductile materials and overestimate the life of brittle materials.

Gehl. 7-15 . The example presented is a creep failure that occurred in a 3000 MW unit in a section of high-energy piping under 2400 psig (16. The crack resulted in a steam leak near a boiler stop valve. Example This section presents images of creep to illustrate failure appearance and to highlight some of the concepts described in the preceding subsections.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-5 Remaining Life-Fraction from Postexposure Accelerated Tests Versus Expended Life Under Service Conditions Source: R. Section 8 describes several of the models.000 hours. M. Viswanathan and S. Commercially Available Modeling Packages Several commercially available modeling packages can model creep damage and predict remaining life using algorithms based on the concepts in this section. First International Conference on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aging Materials [7-22]. Effect of Aging on the Creep Rupture Behavior of Steels.5 MPa) and operating at a temperature of 1000°F (538°C) that had operated for approximately 90.

the relevant weld was fabricated between the cast valve body and a forged tee. The pipe was specified as 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo.Damage Mechanisms and Models The failure occurred in a girth weld close to a boiler stop valve and only feet from a broken hanger (see Figure 7-6). this was a case of Type IV cracking. there was no damage on the forging side. note that cracking occurred on only one side of the weld. Figure 7-6 Schematic Drawing Illustrating the Location and Extent of Cracking Cracking developed at the edge of the HAZ adjacent to the parent metal on the casting side as shown in the macrograph (right image) of Figure 7-7. The cracks appear to have initiated subsurface and crack initiation seems to be associated with extensive creep cavitation as shown in the micrograph (left image) of Figure 7-7. 7-16 . In the macroscopic image of Figure 7-7.

making it a particularly good example. which propagate by void coalescence. Damage occurred in a specific region of the weldment. Creep voids tend to nucleate at grain boundaries. It takes a combination of stress and temperature over an extended period to initiate and propagate creep cracks. and creep cracks tend to stay in a specific morphological region. specifically at the edge of the HAZ in the intercritical region. where a similar but different microstructure would be expected. The micrograph clearly shows many crack and void nucleation locations on several different planes away from the main crack. but it is not seen in fatigue in which crack propagation is stress dominated and a single crack tends to grow in transgranular paths. The crack originated subsurface and not at specific stress concentrators as would be expected with a fatigue crack. This is typically seen in creep deformation. The features include the following: • The operational temperature was in the creep regime. • • • • 7-17 .Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-7 Micrographic (Left) and Macrographic (Right) Images of the Creep Crack Several features that are classically associated with creep crack initiation and growth are illustrated in the images of Figure 7-7. creep cracks. Cracking did not occur in the other intercritical region on the righthand side of the macro. tend to follow intragranular paths. The crack has an intergranular appearance to its propagation and does not seem to be stress dominated. and the component was under both high pressure stresses and unexpected loading because of the broken hanger. Creep cavitation is very sensitive to microstructural constituency. therefore.

Fatigue crack propagation depends on the frequency and magnitude of applied stress cycles and is generally independent of stress duration (at high temperatures in which creep-fatigue becomes the dominant mechanism. It is the magnitude of applied stress that dictates the number of cycles to failure (see Figure 7-8). however. the number of cycles to fracture increases dramatically and asymptotically. In cases of rapid crack growth. there is a dependence on stress duration). This level is commonly called the endurance limit of the material.000 or fewer cycles of applied stress. Figure 7-8 shows experimental results of fatigue testing for several commonly used engineering materials. and low cycle fatigue usually occurs in 10. High-cycle fatigue is usually thought to occur in 106 or more cycles. As the strain (stress) is lowered. the ordinate variable (Y axis) is the applied cyclical strain and the abscissa variable (X axis) is the number of applied cycles. 7-18 . in which a cyclical stress (alternating tensile stress. fatigue failure can occur in less than 100 cycles. Ultimately. Stress cycling can be induced mechanically or thermally. cracks grow for many stress cycles and the initiation of a crack does not necessarily mean the end of useful life for the component. failure can be defined by the initiation of a crack. At a high strain range (stress level). in this case) is applied to a component until it fails. Fatigue damage is commonly grouped into two categories—low-cycle fatigue and high-cycle fatigue. stress and strain are interchangeable because fatigue testing is normally performed in the elastic region of the stressstrain curve. Final failure in a component subjected to fatigue occurs in one of two ways: either 1) a critical crack size is reached and unstable rapid crack propagation leads to a through-component fracture or 2) losses in cross-sectional area as a result of crack propagation lead to stress overload.Damage Mechanisms and Models Fatigue Introduction Fatigue is damage accumulation caused by cyclic or fluctuating stresses that typically lie below the yield stress of the material and generally manifest as the initiation and stable propagation of a crack. In Figure 7-8. Whether a fatigue fracture is of a high-cycle or low-cycle nature is important in analyzing the failure and providing information to the designer to correct the problem. Although cyclic stress range is typically plotted on the ordinate axis. In many cases. there is a strain range (stress range) below which the component can be cycled indefinitely without failure.

the fracture surface is somewhat rougher. Beach marks denote large changes in stress cycle intensity or frequency. The analysis of fatigue behavior is also well established and sufficient materials data exist for all common construction materials to allow complete analyses of the expected life of components subject to fatigue. 7-19 . Manson. which are classically indicative of fatigue fracture. The detection of fatigue damage after a crack has initiated is well established by a number of methods. Beach marks can also be evident in low-cycle fatigue depending on the range of stress intensity at the crack tip. and are therefore more prevalent on fracture surfaces that take longer to develop and on softer materials. In contrast. Visual examination of high-cycle fatigue fracture surfaces usually reveal a relatively smooth. Pure fatigue damage creates thin cracks that follow a path determined by the direction and location of applied stress. magnetic particle.000 stress cycles of higher amplitude. rather than being a part of the fatigue process. Corrosion lobes along the sides of the crack develop after cracking exposes the metal to environmental effects. flat surface with beach marks (also known as progression marks or clam shell marks). beach marks. Thermal Stress and Low Cycle Fatigue [7-26]. including liquid penetrant. With an appearance similar to the marks that waves make in the sand on a beach. On a microscale. eddy current. the location of stress concentrators. ultrasonic testing. are optically visible semispherical lines that mark the progression of the crack and tend to increase in length as the distance from the crack initiation location increases.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-8 Compilation of Fatigue S-N Data for Common Engineering Materials Source: S. cracking tends to be transgranular and relatively straight. for low-cycle fatigue failures. S. and the weaknesses in weld metal or base metal. Cracks are often oxide-filled and sometimes widened at the mouth. and radiography. in which rapid failure is common and failures occur after fewer than 10.

The science of fracture mechanics tells us that the stress near the tip of a notch or other defect is amplified to levels many orders of magnitude higher than the average applied stress on the component. The abscissa is in units of stress intensity range (ΔK). This fatigue damage before initiation is difficult to detect. crack size. including the following: • • There is a threshold stress intensity below which cracks do not initiate. 7-8 The final stage is rapid. Classically. this scenario is usually true only for highly cycled components. therefore. Paris’ Law is used to describe stable crack propagation following the mathematical form shown in Equation 7-8. There are typically three regimes of crack growth rate that describe fatigue crack propagation. For low-cycle fatigue. Depending on the amplitude of alternating applied stress. the crack acts as a very sharp notch. and geometric parameters. Crack Growth Figure 7-9 shows a plot of typical crack growth per cycle (da/dN) data for A533 steel. which is the more common failure mechanism for high-energy piping. and which reflects the amplified effective stress experienced at a notch or crack tip.Damage Mechanisms and Models Crack Initiation Fatigue cracks typically initiate on surfaces exposed to tensile stresses at some form of surface irregularity or defect and then propagate into the material. initiating a fatigue crack can consume up to 90% of the total cycles imposed on a component. Therefore. initiation can consume less than half of the total stress cycles. Fortunately. which combines stress range. and growth of cracks found on inspection can be reasonably estimated. Thus. After initiation. When a crack is initiated. Several typical fatigue crack propagation features are demonstrated in Figure 7-9. 7-20 . it has a tendency to propagate under lower applied stresses than those required to initiate the crack in the first place. and fail by high-cycle fatigue within months after it is placed back in service. there is typically a period of fast crack growth when surface stress effects cause rapid crack propagation. appear to be satisfactory. Following that is a period of stable crack growth that typically follows some form of power law functionality. even if the average stress levels are well below the endurance limit. a component might be examined after 10 years of service. the effective stress range (or stress intensity range) can lie above the endurance limit in the vicinity of a stress concentrator. Because fatigue cracks initiate at surface irregularities or defects. the initial surface finish and environmental degradation of surfaces play integral roles in crack initiation. unstable crack propagation to failure after a sufficient amount of cross-sectional area has been lost that the part overloads. da = C (ΔK ) n dN • Eq. even with the most sophisticated techniques.

Section XI.Damage Mechanisms and Models The type of data illustrated in Figure 7-9 are used to project growth of cracks into the future. repair. which vary from component to component. and the approach is gaining acceptance in the fossil power industry as a basis for making run. or replace decisions [7-27]. Cracks can be left in a component for a limited amount of additional duty if they are subjected to a fracture mechanics analysis and meet acceptance requirements. Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components. The use of this fracture mechanics approach for nuclear power plants has been documented in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. based on stress ranges and number of applied cycles. Figure 7-9 Fatigue Crack Growth Data for Type A533 Steel 7-21 .

or both. Figure 7-10 Typical Steps to Calculate Total Fatigue Life (Initiation and Propagation) in a Fatigue Analysis 7-22 . typically using finite element methods. field measurements. This information is then input to global and local finite element models. to estimate the fraction of fatigue life consumed for each transient. and temperatures during all transients. the tools of fatigue analysis are powerful and can offer the analyst considerable insight about the accumulation of damage.Damage Mechanisms and Models Analytical Techniques Introduction Nearly all the methods described in this section are part of a Level III assessment (see Section 8). That is. such as Miner’s rule. they are analytical methods that will typically involve the following: • • • • Detailed NDE results Accurate estimates or measurement of materials properties Detailed stress analysis. After the local strain range is established for various anticipated strain reversals. Figure 7-10 shows a generic flowchart of the steps that are typically conducted as part of a fatigue analysis using methods that calculate both fatigue initiation and propagation. or both Choice among sophisticated damage algorithms Pure fatigue analyses are often of limited use in high-energy piping sections because fatigue damage is often complicated by high-temperature creep. Nonetheless. fatigue analysis begins by thoroughly reviewing the transient operational controls and limits of the unit or making measurements of displacements. this information can then be used with a rainflow algorithm or other appropriate cycle-counting algorithms in combination with a fatigue life-fraction rule. corrosion enhancement. strains. Typically.

A number of variables—including mean stress.Damage Mechanisms and Models A corresponding flowchart that examines the steps for propagation only (given an existing flaw found by inspection or a flaw of assumed size) is shown in Figure 7-11. 7-23 . specimen surface condition. environment. to failure against the stress range. which is a plot of the number of cycles. and stress concentrations—can impact the measurement of fatigue life. The number of cycles to failure at a given stress level is termed the fatigue life for that stress. A safety factor is typically applied to the S-N curve in design of components. partly to account for the effects of these variables. S-N curves are constructed using fully reversed loading on smooth fatigue specimens. temperature. N is usually the number of cycles to complete specimen fracture and the S-N curve does not distinguish between crack initiation and crack propagation. specimen size. Figure 7-11 Typical Steps to Calculate Fatigue Life in Propagation by Fracture Mechanics Analyses Given an Existing or Assumed Flaw Nominal Stress Approaches—Goodman Diagram and Modified Goodman Diagram The basic method for presenting fatigue life information is the S-N curve. N.

Sy.Damage Mechanisms and Models The Goodman diagram. The most widely used is probably the Gerber parabolic relation. As indicated in Figure 7-12. a number of nonlinear theories attempt to overcome the conservatism in the linear Goodman theory. kf. Figure 7-12 illustrates that fatigue life predictions can be made by plotting locations of mean stress (σM) and alternating stress (σA) and comparing failure lines. The Goodman diagram can. in principle. proposed by W. The Goodman diagram is a straight line connecting Su and Se. is used to represent the effects of mean and cyclic stress levels. Su. Failure in fatigue will occur whenever the combination of mean and alternating stresses calculated for a particular condition is above the Goodman line. along with a failure parabola by Gerber. proposed by J. Goodman of London in 1899. will initiate yielding and a mean stress equal to the ultimate strength of the material. However. The Goodman and Soderberg lines are shown. If the load is static (that is σa = 0) a mean stress equal to yield. Se. Plotted points of σM and σA that fall above and to the right of the appropriate line indicate conditions that will lead to failure by fatigue. be used to evaluate the combined effects of steady and dynamic stress. 7-24 . an analysis of cyclic stress-strain and a damage summation method are more widely used for fatigue analysis. Stress amplitudes for notched members are estimated from those for unnotched members by invoking a fatigue strength reduction factor. The stress condition for a given situation is plotted on a graph. given the complexity of load variations typical of high-energy piping components. Figure 7-12 Plotting Locations of Mean (σM) and Alternating Stress (σA) and Comparing Failure Lines Three points are known. On the ordinate. Gerber of Germany in 1874. kfm. if the mean stress is zero. the magnitude of the mean stress is plotted on the abscissa and the alternating stress level is plotted on the ordinate. which is found from laboratory testing. will cause failure (fracture). failure occurs at the endurance limit. Likewise a stress concentration factor for the mean stress. is also estimated.

is the fatigue strength coefficient. b. in Fatigue and Microstructure. The parameters. is the fatigue ductility exponent. Strain-life relations were shown by Coffin and Manson to be the sum of the elastic and plastic strain resistance as shown in Equation 7-9 [7-31–7-33]: εt = Where: σf E (2 N ) f b + ε f (2 N f ) c Eq. such as from the result of a finite element analysis or from a failure analysis. 7-9 εt σf E 2Nf b εf c is the total strain. The details of life prediction by the local stress-strain and damage-counting approach can be found in Fatigue Under Complex Loading: Analyses and Experiments. and in “Behavior of Materials Under Conditions of Thermal Stress” [7-28–7-30]. in a design situation. is Young’s modulus. Conversely. The local strain approach analyzes plasticity and mean stress effects in a rational and fairly rigorous manner. is the number of complete strain reversals to failure. thereby avoiding most of the empiricism of the nominal stress methods (such as with the use of the Goodman diagram). During the initiation stage. Given a strain. E. which is spent developing small cracks. limitations on the allowable total strain can be placed on a design for a desired lifetime (number of cycles). and a crack propagation life. and a damage-counting algorithm based on closed hysteresis loops to provide cumulative fatigue damage analyses. εf. is the fatigue strength exponent. the damage process is controlled by the cyclic plastic strain at the notch root. which is spent growing cracks to failure. the local strain approach to account for geometric notches. is the fatigue ductility coefficient. These successful methods combine cyclic stress-strain response. The strainamplitude versus cyclic life relationship is illustrated in Figure 7-13. the number of cycles to failure can be calculated. total fatigue life of a notched member is separated into a crack initiation life. 7-25 . and c are material properties that can be obtained from handbooks of such properties. This damage rule has been named the Coffin-Manson relationship. This leaves the total strain and corresponding number of cycles (strain reversals) as unknowns. strain-based material properties.Damage Mechanisms and Models The Local Strain Approach to Fatigue Traditionally. σf.

6 Δε t = ⎜ ⎟N f + D N f E ⎠ ⎝ Where: Eq. In the absence of εt versus Nf curves. is Young’s modulus (ksi). The knowledge of cyclic strains can be either measured or calculated by finite element methods.5σ u ⎞ −0. ⎛ 3.6 − 0. The implication of this equation is that in the elastic region. is ductility.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-13 Schematic Representation of the Strain-Amplitude versus Cyclic Life Relationship The fractional damage under varying strain range conditions are estimated using standard εt (total strain range) versus Nf (cycles to failure) curves and are summed up using the Miner rule (see the next subsection) to determine the total life-fraction consumed. If the temperaturedependent strength modulus and ductility are used. the method of universal slopes proposed by Manson can be used to estimate fatigue curves based on a knowledge of the tensile strength and ductility of the material [7-34]. and at large cyclic strains. 7-26 . it is governed by ductility. The equation is shown in Equation 7-10. fatigue strength is governed by tensile strength. 7-10 σu E D is the ultimate tensile strength (ksi). the universal slope equations can be used to estimate fatigue life at any desired service temperature. defined as D = ln [100/(100-RA)] where RA is the reduction of area in (%).12 0.

the method of analyzing nonconstant fatigue loading is a lifefraction rule (termed Miner’s rule or Palmgren-Miner rule). which states that life is exhausted when the sum of life-fractions in each load or stress regime reaches unity [7-35]. The allowable number of cycles is determined from a fatigue curve of log strain range versus log cycles to failure. and four cycles of strain range Δε3. Figure 7-14 shows a simple example of how the rule is applied [7-36]. 7-27 . Traditionally. n. D=∑ i =1 m nf Ni Eq. 7-11 Where: D is the fatigue damage fraction. N. is the number of applied stress-strain loops of this amplitude. of that strain range divided by the allowable number of cycles. Ni ni m To calculate the time to failure for a spectrum of loads.Damage Mechanisms and Models Miner’s Rule for Calculation of Fatigue Life-Fraction Actual service spectra almost always show an irregular variation with time. at that strain range. is the number of cycles to failure for cycle i. The increment of fatigue damage attributable to cycling at any one of the strain ranges is defined as the number of applied cycles. See Equation 7-11. it is necessary to add the incremental damage per cycle. is the number of stress-strain loops of various amplitudes within the load block. Here the assumed straintime history consists of three strain cycles of strain range Δε1. Realistic life predictions must account for irregular load histories in fatigue or irregular stress histories from other degradations. two cycles of strain range Δε2.

can accumulate nonlinearly. Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts. however. the damage must be uniquely related to life-fraction [7-29]. A considerable amount of evaluation of the accuracy of the life-fraction rules has been done [7-30. Damage. It is a common misconception that the Palmgren-Miner rule implies a linearity of some damage parameter with imposed cycles. Linear damage summation rules have been found to be just as accurate and useful as any other rule in the specific context that they are used [7-33]. This is because of Miner’s rule for fatigue as well as the analogous Robinson’s rule for creep damage and the combined rule for creep-fatigue. by whatever measure. 7-28 . Systematic laboratory evaluations of life-fraction rules for welds are not currently available.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-14 An Example of the Application of Miner’s Rule Source: EPRI Report 103377. Volume 3: Heavy Section Crack Initiation and Propagation [7-36]. 7-31].

the material. is applied stress. A stress intensity is calculated that specifies the stress state at the tip of a crack. Eq.0. The optimal approach is to consider both crack initiation and crack growth in design or life prediction. In general. da n = C ( ΔK ) dN Eq. the surface roughness. the analysis begins with the assumption of a sharp crack in the part and determines the time for that crack to grow to a critical size. assumed initial flaw sizes can be unduly conservative. for example). However. the existing crack size. The incremental crack growth can be expressed as a function of applied stress intensity range.0 to 5. as shown in Equation 7-12. the same equation is applicable and provides the cyclic stress intensity factor (stress intensity range).Damage Mechanisms and Models Fracture Mechanics Approaches to Crack Growth by Fatigue Fracture mechanics analyses can be invoked in situations where a crack is known to exist or is assumed to exist (sized just below the detection limits of an NDE technique. One difficulty in combining initiation and propagation is how to choose the crack size that can be considered the end of the initiation phase. the stress intensity is a function of the applied and residual stress fields. in damage-tolerant design. that is. K = A1σ a Where: K A1 is the stress intensity. is a crack and specimen geometry factor. 7-12 σ a For cyclic stresses. the exponent has been found to be approximately 3 [7-37]. where C and n are empirical constants derived from laboratory test data. as shown in Equation 7-13. and the weld quality. Initiation lives from strain life curves to a specific crack size can be combined with crack growth lives that start at the crack size at which initiation ended. 7-13 The coefficient C depends on the temperature. Fracture mechanics assumes that there is no initiation. the thickness of the member subjected to cyclic loading. For a wide range of weld configurations and weld materials. ΔK = Kmax . is crack size.Kmin. 7-29 . in part because no credit is taken for the crack initiation life of the component. the component is assumed to behave as a perfectly elastic material. and a factor that accounts for crack and specimen geometry. The exponent n is typically in the range from 2. the mean stress or strain. In linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analyses. the configuration of the design or weld detail.

crack growth is not observed. Structural Materials for Nuclear Power Systems [7-38. T. A. Figure 7-15 Schematic of Stress Fields in Cracked Bodies Sources: EPRI Report NP-701-SR. In most circumstances when analyzing high-temperature piping degradation. combinations of total stress state and flaw size that lead to failure can be calculated. and EPFM is properly applied to conditions matching those illustrated in image (c). EPRI Ductile Fracture Research Document and J. small plastic. that is. For the analysis of damage accumulation by fatigue.Damage Mechanisms and Models The rate at which the crack will grow is directly proportional to the applied stress and to the square root of the crack size. Using fracture mechanics analyses. The J-integral is an energy criterion that characterizes the plastic strain (stress) field at a crack tip. which accounts for plastic deformation of the material near the crack tip. 7-39]. 7-39] The J-integral concept and the crack-opening-displacement technique have been developed as part of the EPFM methodology. LEFM analysis is valid only for those situations in which the strain field at the crack tip is predominantly elastic. cracks are assumed to begin to grow when the stress intensity reaches a threshold value. and the use of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM). KIC. and large plastic field caused by a growing crack [7-38. below this threshold. Crack growth rates are typically determined in laboratory tests and then used to predict service performance for various geometries. the fracture toughness. ΔKTH. is appropriate. the plastic zone is small (brittle materials). The J-integral is a line integral defined as shown in Equation 7-14. this condition is not valid. Roberts. 7-14 7-30 . LEFM can be correctly applied to images (a) and (b) in Figure 7-15. ∂u ⎞ ⎛ J = ∫ ⎜Wdy − T ds ⎟ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ Γ Eq. Figure 7-15 illustrates the development of an elastic. Failure by rapid fracture is taken to occur at a critical stress intensity value. The J-integral concept is relevant because of its extension to creep conditions through the C* and Ct parameters.

stress corrosion cracking. 7-42]. the equivalence of J and K has been established (see Equations 7-15 and 7-16). Ti = σijnj). International standards such as the R6 procedure developed by the former Central Electricity Generating Board provide methods to analyze structures containing flaws [7-41. 7-15 JC = Eq. that is the critical value for the onset of fast crack propagation and is analogous to KIC for the linear elastic case. is the displacement vector acting along the integration path. termed JIC. = ∫ σ ij ε ij . 0 ε The J-integral can be used as a fracture criterion. and this equivalence can be invoked to allow the use of more common K solutions. and corrosion fatigue. The J-integral is applied in two different ways [7-7]. J IC 2 K IC (1 − υ 2 ) for plane strain conditions = E 2 KC for plane stress conditions E Eq. There is a value of J. is the traction vector defined according to the outward normal n along Γ (that is. Example This section presents images of fatigue to illustrate failure appearance and to highlight some of the concepts described in the preceding subsections. 7-31 . sections of collapsed metal piping were projected out of the plant’s building and into an employee parking lot.Damage Mechanisms and Models Where: Γ T u ds W is the counterclockwise contour around a crack tip. is an increment of length along the integration path. First. The example presented is a catastrophic fatigue failure that occurred in a section of cold reheat piping. The right image shows piping debris that was flung into the employee parking lot by the explosion associated with the catastrophic failure. Test methods are available for the measurement of JIC [7-40]. J expressions can be directly applied where they have been developed for the particular component geometry. The left image in Figure 7-16 shows the extent of damage caused by the ultimate failure. During the explosive failure event. 7-16 Several commercially available fracture mechanics programs an be used to evaluate the accumulation of damage by the crack-like mechanisms—fatigue. where σij and εij are the components of stress and strain. Secondly.

The seam weld was oriented at approximately the 2 o’clock position in a horizontal run of pipe. however. the pipe wall was actually 0.5 m) downstream of the attemperator.636 in.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-16 Damage Caused by Fatigue Failure in a Section of Cold Reheat Piping The crack initiated on the ID surface of the pipe at the toe of a seam weld. 70 ksi (482. (76-cm) diameter by 0. The crack had propagated approximately 92% through the pipe wall from the ID to the OD at the time of failure. showing significant oxide build-up.75 in. which indicates that the crack initiated early in the operational life. The section of pipe in which the crack initiated was located between a hanger and a girth weld. (23 cm from the girth weld. The right image in Figure 7-17 is a micrograph of the fracture surface. a brief leak before break period occurred. The left image in Figure 7-17 is a macroscopic etch of the seam weld. The pipe was specified as 30-in. Figure 7-18 provides a close-up stereoscopic view of the fracture surface. Analysis of the scale present on the fracture surface indicated that the crack probably initiated early in life.3 MPa) carbon steel. The crack initiated approximately 41 ft (12.62 cm) minimum wall thickness to be constructed of Class 1. 7-32 .9 cm) thick (thicker than specified). indicating the crack origin at the toe of the weld on the ID of the pipe. (1. (1. (46 cm) from the hanger and approximately 9 in. approximately 18 in.

Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-17 Macroscopic Etch of the Seam Weld and Micrograph of the Fracture Surface Figure 7-18 Stereographic Image of the Fracture Surface 7-33 .

Pressure stresses alone are typically insufficient to cause creep-fatigue. the introduction of a 16-hour elevated temperature hold period reduced the fatigue life from more than 10. temperatures above 800°F (427°C) for Cr-Mo materials. the exposed component is heated to temperatures within its creep regime—that is. Figure 7-19 shows the effect of prior creep damage (0. The resultant damage is termed creep-fatigue and the effects can be interactive or synergistic. That is. or both. the crack propagated across areas of both base metal and weld metal in a transgranular straight line. only inelastic strains are damaging in creep-fatigue [7-21]. or the effect can be simply additive.2 and 0. Specifically. 7-34 . if elevated temperatures influence the characteristics of damage or the rate of fatigue damage. and crack arrest locations (beach marks) are visible. the damage mechanism is referred to as creep-fatigue. As with simple fatigue.6 creep life-fractions) and tensile hold time on the fatigue life of 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steel base metal and HAZs tested at 995°F (535°C) [7-14]. These features include the following: • • The fatigue crack initiated at the toe of the weld. making this a particularly good example. and at the same time. For a strain range of 0. The fracture surface is relatively smooth. components can be subjected to both creep and cyclic loading.000 cycles to approximately 100 cycles to failure by the introduction of a 16-hour elevated temperature hold period. • • Creep-Fatigue Introduction During elevated-temperature operation.5%. K. Creep-fatigue is assumed to be active when the rate of fatigue damage is influenced by the rate of loading (strain rate) and hold times. The crack propagation path was stress dominated and not driven by microstructural morphology. where a notch was formed and a high stress intensity. More than 90% of the fracture occurred by fatigue cracking before the ultimate overload event that generated the shear lip (see the top of Figure 7-18). would be expected. That is. creep-fatigue can cause component damage to accumulate significantly faster than would be expected by considering each mechanism separately (see Figure 7-19).Damage Mechanisms and Models Several features that are classically associated with fatigue crack initiation and growth are illustrated in Figures 7-17 and 7-18.

spheroidization. depending on the nature of the prior creep damage [7-43]. Viswanathan. If the prior damage consists of softening. subsequent fatigue life is decreased [7-44]. subsequent fatigue life can be increased. Creep-fatigue is complicated. and it is far from understood. The mechanisms by which creep and fatigue interact usually occur during different periods in the thermal cycle. The complexities include the following: • • • The rate of damage accumulation depends on the waveform and frequency of cycling. In the case of prior creep cavitation. Different materials have different levels of susceptibility. 7-35 • • . The effect of prior creep damage on subsequent fatigue damage has been found to be either beneficial or detrimental. diffusion of elements such as carbon. Figure 7-20 shows that the interaction between creep and fatigue is more severe for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo than for other common power plant steels. sigma phase formation in austenitic stainless steel) and strainor temperature-influenced precipitation or growth. formation of ductility reducing phases (for example. Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High-Temperature Components [7-14].Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-19 Effect of Prior Creep Damage and Tensile Hold Time on the Fatigue Life of 1 Cr 1/2 Mo Steel Base Metal and Heat-Affected Zones Source: R. The role of damage can be influenced by subtle microstructural changes such as creep void formation.

Increasing numbers of components must operate in this condition to achieve faster response times for starts and stops. Traditionally. Depending on the exposure range.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-20 Schematic of Creep-Fatigue Curves (Design) For Some High-Temperature Alloys The problem of material degradation under the combination of cyclic loading and high temperatures is currently under intensive study in many laboratories. high-temperature service can also lead to the precipitation of embrittling 7-36 . Assessments based on average conditions do not provide proper evaluation of damage levels. Meaningful calculations thus depend on accurate knowledge of local conditions. the cracks can initiate at the surface. creep-fatigue cracks can initiate subsurface at creep voids or coalesced voids. or they can act to hinder crack initiation or crack extension. It is increasingly being appreciated that realistic recording of all cycles is necessary to properly account for fatigue behavior. similar to a typical pure fatigue crack. increased plasticity makes crack propagation more difficult. Crack Initiation Unlike pure fatigue cracks. steels can gain plasticity when exposed to high-temperature service. and then creep-fatigue synergism leads to more rapid propagation as a result of an easier crack path (associated with high-temperature embrittlement phenomena or microstructural damage) or reduced crack resistance (which can be the result of creep voids created throughout the cross section). In addition. because of load changes. Conversely. High-temperature microstructural changes can lead to rapid crack initiation or crack extension. or because operating practices such as soot blowing introduce thermal cycles. particularly temperatures and how those temperatures change with time. the potential for creep-fatigue interaction was assessed only for plants that accumulated large numbers of starts and stops. which tend to initiate at surface defects.

the amplitude and period of the applied stress range. This type of approach can be used to justify continued operation and determine appropriate reinspection intervals to ensure safe operation. The next subsection describes several calculation techniques in more detail. crack initiation and rapid fatigue crack propagation (classically associated with low-cycle fatigue) are possible after years of operation. crack initiation can be defined as component failure. Even if cracks are not detected. Both high-cycle fatigue behavior and low-cycle fatigue behavior can be experienced. creep-fatigue cracks are differentiated from pure creep and pure fatigue cracks because morphological characteristics of both phenomena are observed. calculational methods can be used to ensure safe operation until the next inspection cycle. which reduce plasticity and increase the likelihood of crack initiation or easy crack extension. A fracture mechanics approach can be used in which the maximum crack size that cannot be detected is postulated. locations for cracking are weldments because of their microstructural inhomogeneity. Analytical Techniques Life Prediction Techniques There are numerous rules and methods for estimating creep-fatigue damage. During failure analysis. and therefore probable. and calculations are performed to predict when the postulated crack will reach a size that will induce rupture or failure. Because microstructural embrittlement caused by high-temperature exposure is a time-dependent phenomenon. In this case. Several methods exist to enable the use of crack measurements made with NDE to predict remaining component life. The more common scenario is stable creep-fatigue crack propagation at definable and measurable rates. The steel’s initial chemistry and microstructural morphology are critical variables that determine a component’s resistance to creep-fatigue crack initiation or crack extension. As with most high-energy piping defects. the rate of strain application. which can be used to predict useful component life. creep-fatigue cracks typically experience a period of stable crack growth. the mean stress level. the most susceptible. Crack extension rates depend on the temperature of service. and the complex interactions of microstructural changes at high temperatures. including the following: • • • • A linear summation of Miner’s and Robinson’s rule Frequency-modified Coffin-Manson relationship [7-45] Strain range partitioning method [7-46] Ostergren damage function [7-47] 7-37 . Crack Growth Like both pure fatigue cracks and creep cracks.Damage Mechanisms and Models phases.

particularly in the United States. and there is a wide divergence of opinion about which rule provides the most accurate life prediction [7-14. which represent only the first step in the life assessment process. is the time-dependent creep fraction. An alternative approach. is the linear superposition of fatigue and creep damage (see Equation 7-17). The figure indicates the relative reductions in life for various levels of two-shift operation relative to the original. the elastic route. The solid line in Figure 7-21 shows the safe design limit as a fraction of creep life and fatigue life for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel. primarily base load operation. and then t/tr is computed and summed for each time block. One consistent finding is that even the most accurate rule is useful only to within a factor of 2 or 3 on remaining life prediction. is the time at a given stress. is not expected to be fruitful [7-54]. 7-17 Where: D N/Nf N Nf t/tr t tr is cumulative life. The most common approach to life estimation based on creep-fatigue damage. This approach is the basis of the inelastic route described by Viswanathan in “Life Prediction of Turbine Generator Rotors” [7-25]. 7-53]. incorporates the stress relaxation damage into the fatigue term by using fatigue curves that incorporate the effect of long hold times. D=∑ N t +∑ Nf tr Eq. This methodology is highly conservative [7-55]. Creep damage occurring under constant stress after stress relaxation is also included in the creep fraction. is the time to rupture at that stress. It has been suggested that further tuning of the damage rules themselves. is the pure fatigue life at that strain range. 7-38 . is the cyclic portion of the life-fraction. The stress relaxation period is divided into time blocks during which an average constant stress occurs.Damage Mechanisms and Models • • • • • Ductility exhaustion method [7-48] Bicego’s energy criterion [7-49] Ductility normalized inelastic strain range [7-50] Damage rate method [7-51] General damage function [7-52] The various damage rules for creep-fatigue have been compared by many investigators. is the number of cycles at a given strain range.

Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-21 Interaction and Consequences of Creep and Fatigue (Based on ASME N47) for a Typical Power Plant Steel (2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo) Source: EPRI Report 1001507. Figure 7-22 shows stress relaxation curves for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo at 1005°F (540°C) from an initial stress of 30. the Davis equation. et al. 7-39 . Other problems are that neither strain softening nor the effect of prior plasticity is incorporated. [7-56–7-58]. As for other mechanisms. Its applicability depends on the development of empirical constants that are material-dependent. The life-fraction rule also assumes that tensile and compressive hold periods are equally damaging. which is not consistent with experience [7-54]. The various approaches used to describe stress relaxation behavior are the Feltham equation. Damage to Power Plants Due to Cycling [7-55]. Stress relaxation properties are important for determining the damage occurring during creepfatigue. the life-fraction rule for creep-fatigue is purely phenomenological. however. it has no mechanistic basis [7-54]. remains popular because of the ease of use and the requirement for only standard S-N curves and stress-rupture curves [7-54]. Systematic laboratory evaluations of life-fraction rules for welds are not available.1 ksi (207.86 MPa) and the fits of three alternative stress relaxation equations. they are a fundamental part of the R5 methodology developed in the United Kingdom. and the relation due to Conway. The damage summation method.

Operational and Cost Issues—An International Seminar: Proceedings: "Two Shifting" Seminar [7-59]. Recognition of this leads to corrective actions that can. in certain situations. and conservatism of the existing creep-fatigue models. Croker. in some cases. usefulness. Williams. it is clear that. Cyclic Operation of Power Plant: Technical. there can be a strong synergistic effect of hold times at elevated temperatures on the fatigue response of high-temperature components including high-energy piping. Crack Growth Under Creep-Fatigue Loading The previous subsection described rules for predicting the initiation of creep-fatigue cracks. There is still extensive debate regarding the accuracy. C2. Methods for predicting creep-fatigue crack growth are somewhat analogous to methods described for fatigue. be different for creep-fatigue versus thermal mechanical fatigue only. Regardless of these debates. as shown in Equation 7-18 [7-60]. Δa = da ⎛ da ⎞ 2m 1− m * m =⎜ ⎟ + C2 (K ) (t h ) + C3 (C ) (t h ) dN ⎝ dN ⎠ 0 Eq. and Shih described a method for creep crack growth that was the sum of three terms. 7-40 . 7-18 Where: (da/dN)o is the amount of crack growth due solely to fatigue. C3. Saxena. Charman and A. “Monitoring of Boiler Life During Cycling Operation” in EPRI Report 1004655. m are experimentally derived constants.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-22 Stress Relaxation Curves For 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel Source: D.

The crack growth rate is a continuous function of frequency. 1 ⎛ da ⎞ 1 ⎡⎛ da ⎞ ⎛ da ⎞ ⎛ da ⎞ ⎤ = ⎢⎜ −⎜ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ dt ⎠ ave t h ⎝ dN ⎠ hold t h ⎣⎝ dN ⎠ Total ⎝ dN ⎠ 0 ⎦ Eq. The second term is the creep-fatigue interaction term. It has a nonlinear dependence of crack growth rate on hold time and pertains to intermediate hold times and frequencies in which the creep-fatigue interaction is present. 7-41 . even though the mechanism varies from transgranular fatigue at one end of the spectrum to intergranular creep at the other end of the spectrum [7-61]. 7-19 Ct(ave) is expressed by Equation 7-20. Ct (ave ) = 1 h Ct dt th ∫ 0 t Eq. A more recent model has been proposed. it corresponds to crack growth behavior at short hold times and high frequencies. ⎛ da Δa = ⎜ ⎜ dN ⎝ Total ⎞ ⎟ = CΔK n + bCtmave )t h ( ⎟ ⎠ Eq. combining the second and third terms into a single term. The third term is for pure creep occurring during long hold times and low frequencies. expressed as shown in Equation 7-21. is the hold time.Damage Mechanisms and Models K th C* is the elastic stress intensity. A plot of da/dN versus t shows three regimes of crack growth rates that correspond to the terms in the equation. 7-21 Figure 7–23 shows creep-fatigue crack growth data for a 1-1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo steel at various hold times from 10 seconds to 24 hours [7-61]. is the crack tip driving force in creep. as shown in Equations 7-19 through 7-21 [7-62]. The first term is the pure fatigue contribution with no effect of hold time. 7-20 Ct(ave) was observed to correlate well with average crack growth rate during the hold time.

Cyclic Operation of Power Plant: Technical. Viswanathan and H. “Some Issues in Creep Fatigue” in EPRI Report 1004655.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-23 Comparison of Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Rates With (a) Ct(ave). Operational and Cost Issues—An International Seminar: Proceedings: "Two Shifting" Seminar [7-61]. Bernstein. 7-42 . (b) ΔK Source: R.

In contrast. The da/dt versus Ct data obtained from creep crack growth experiments are also included on the figure for comparison. The dotted line in the figure is the cyclic-dependent crack growth rate. Palmgren-Miner Coffin-Manson relationship Statistical (probabilistic) analysis based on Paris equation Summation of Miner and Robinson rules Frequency-modified CoffinManson relationship Strain range partitioning Ductility exhaustion method Various other rules Other damage rules Rainflow counting (closed hysteresis loops) 7-43 . and Creep-Fatigue Technique or Measure Fatigue Nominal stress approaches (such as Goodman diagram and stress-life relation) Local stress-strain plus damage counting Total strain-life of small specimens Predicting initiation Local strain analysis plus damage counting Creep Nominal stress approaches (such as stress-rupture) Creep rupture of small specimens plus parametric analysis of crack growth (damage counting) Creep rupture of small specimens Short-term creep tests extrapolated parametrically to long times Time-dependent fracture mechanics Robinson rule Strain traction rule Various “mixed” rules incorporating t and strain proportions Creep-Fatigue Nominal fatigue approaches (such as fatigue at very low frequencies or with hold times) Strain-life with wave shapes dictated by service conditions Local strain associated with specific wave shapes. Fatigue. This observation is material-specific and might not be the case for other materials or conditions [7-61]. the bottom figure shows considerable scatter for ΔK. Table 7-2 Comparison of Assessment Methods for Fatigue. and then damage counting by interaction rule Predicting total life Predicting propagation Life-fraction damage rule Linear-elastic or elasticplastic fracture mechanics Miner. Creep. The result shows that creep-fatigue and creep crack growth rates can be expressed as a single trend if (da/dt)ave is characterized in terms of Ct(ave) or da/dt is characterized in terms of (Ct) [7-61]. and Creep-Fatigue Table 7-2 is a summary comparison of the various analytical techniques used when conducting a life assessment for components exposed to fatigue. creep. or creep-fatigue.Damage Mechanisms and Models The top figure shows good correlation between average creep-fatigue crack growth rates and the Ct(ave) parameter. indicating that it is not suitable for characterizing creep-fatigue crack growth rates during the hold periods. This considerably simplifies life prediction procedures because creep-fatigue and creep crack growth data can be used interchangeably for life prediction [7-61]. Comparison of Analytical Techniques for Creep.

Damage Mechanisms and Models Table 7-2 (continued) Comparison of Assessment Methods for Fatigue. and Barkhausen noise analysis Traditional NDE methods Advanced NDE methods Strain (dimensional) measurements Rupture testing Microstructural evaluations Traditional NDE methods plus microstructural evaluation for material condition assessment Between strain hardening and diffusion-controlled recovery (internal stress relaxation) Advanced NDE methods Strain (dimensional) measurements Rupture testing Microstructural evaluations Traditional NDE methods plus microstructural evaluation for material condition assessment Among cyclic strain hardening. and environmental effects Damage counting from hysteresis loops. largescale creep crack growth) C1 (non-steady-state crack growth regime) J-integral Advanced NDE method such as acoustic emission. position annihilation. although no agreement (because of environmental effects) Strain. strain rate. Upshock is caused by hot steam entering a cold thick-section 7-44 . and temperature No consensus Creep-Fatigue None generally accepted None generally accepted Assessing damage before crack formation Assessing damage after crack formation Mechanistic “competition” Between strengthening effect of strain or precipitation hardening and cyclic strain softening Example This section presents images of creep-fatigue to illustrate failure appearance and to highlight some of the concepts described in the preceding subsections. extrapolation by interaction rule Probably J-integral. Creep. and Creep-Fatigue Technique or Measure Generic plot Basic accelerated text Key variables in accelerated tests Variables changed for accelerated life testing Extrapolation of short-term results to long term Energy integral to describe plastic damage at crack tip Fatigue Stress versus life in number of cycles (S-N curve) Uniaxial push-pull with smooth or notched specimens Strain Cyclic frequency Creep Strain versus time to rupture (hr) Creep-rupture test Stress-rupture test Strain rate and temperature Temperature (preferred) Stress Stress-life curves Strain-life curves J-integral LMP Various other rules C* (steady-state. recovery. The example shows cracking that occurred in a section of main steam piping in Britain. the cracking was ultimately attributed to upshock and downshock.

in this case. counterparts.Damage Mechanisms and Models component. The instantaneous result can be compressive yielding of the inside surface. The reverse condition. which is well within the creep range. the main steam temperature was 1050°F (565°C). the right image shows creep-fatigue cracking from downshock. the base metal was CrMoV low-alloy steel. This gives rise to a transient tensile stress at the bore. Both images in Figure 7-25 are stereoscopic macrographs of creep-fatigue cracking that occurred in two different longitudinal seam weldments in the same main steam piping.S. a local tensile residual stress remains at the pipe bore. British plants tend to operate at higher temperatures than their U. Resultant cracking occurs by fatigue at a temperature close to the cooled steam temperature. 7-45 . which in turn acts as a stress riser. In this specific main steam piping. Resultant cracking occurs by intermittent creep at the operating temperature. and the weld metal was 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo. causing the inner part of the wall to cool faster than the outer. is caused by rapid steam cooling on a hot component. The residual stress creeps out during service. Figure 7-25 illustrates several features that are classically associated with creep-fatigue crack initiation and propagation. The stress-temperature profile is illustrated in Figure 7-24. Figure 7-24 The Initial Stress-Temperature Distribution Generated by Upshock When the through-wall temperature gradient has dissipated. The left image shows creep-fatigue cracking from upshock. making this a good example. downshock. causing the inner part of the wall to warm faster than the outer. but is regenerated at the next start-up.

the crack is classified as creep-fatigue. Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Introduction The phenomenon of FAC is well understood. the crack initiates at a stress concentrator toward the center of the weldment. Because these cracks demonstrate both fatigue and creep behavior. they are classified as creep-fatigue cracks. the crack is Type IV. In a similar but different way. In both images. Under normal conditions. both of these characteristics are classically associated with fatigue cracking. The upshock cracking shown in the left image of Figure 7-25 was initiated at the stress concentrators on either side of the weldments and was generated by repeated thermal shock loading cycles. it tends to follow the intercritical region of the HAZ.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-25 Stereoscopic Macrographs of Creep-Fatigue Cracking Resulting from (a) Upshock and (b) Downshock Creep-fatigue is differentiated from pure fatigue or pure creep because the cracking has features of both damage mechanisms. the cracks occur in the creep regime. In the right-side image. and it does not follow the stress path or propagate transgranularly. these behaviors are classically associated with creep cracking. both creep and fatigue factors and behaviors are present. and the propagation seems to be stress dominated—these are all classically associated with fatigue cracking. However. abnormal conditions can reduce or eliminate the protective oxide 7-46 . the crack shown in the image on the right side of Figure 7-25 is also classified as creep-fatigue. However. therefore. which is a necessary condition for creep-fatigue. the oxide growth and removal processes are approximately equal. Again. It is a process in which the normally protective magnetite (Fe3O4) layer on carbon steel dissolves in a stream of flowing water (single phase) or wet steam (two phase). it propagates transgranularly.

even with these systems. oxygen and reducing agents. The specific configuration has important ramifications on the choice of feedwater chemistry and hence on FAC. but the rate of damage is not as severe. This apparent anomaly is explained by the fact that the copper alloys and oxides act as a catalyst for the reaction between the reducing agent (hydrazine) and dissolved oxygen in the feedwater.120 in. including oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). The underlying mechanisms for single-phase flow are explored first. FAC mechanisms differ for the two conditions. wall thinning rates as high as 0. therefore. See the EPRI report Guidelines for Controlling Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Fossil and Combined Cycle Plants (1008082) for details [7-6].Damage Mechanisms and Models layer and lead to a rapid removal of the base material. and Mo The other materials in the feedwater system The fluid hydrodynamics. such as velocity. High-energy piping can contain single-phase (water) fluid flow or two-phase (wet steam) fluid flow. depending on the temperature and pressure conditions. The feedwater system in fossil plants can consist of all-ferrous materials or a mixture of coppercontaining feedwater tubes and ferrous piping (known as a mixed metallurgical system). it is important to differentiate between the two and explore them individually. temperature. geometry. or both. Cu. In the worst cases. Based on the seriousness of previously reported failures the most susceptible situation for FAC is one in which all the feedwater heater tubing (both low-pressure and high-pressure tubing) is stainless steel and the water chemistry is all-volatile treatment (AVT) reducing. Thus. it is still advisable to operate with a rigorous monitoring system. steam quality. The rate of metal loss depends on a complex interplay of many parameters including the following: • • • • The feedwater chemistry./yr (3mm/yr) have occurred. in particular the levels of Cr. and mass transfer The FAC process can lead to rapid rates of metal loss. Wall loss has been observed in ferrous parts of these systems. The two possible all-ferrous systems are those containing carbon steel piping and tubing. However. Operational Conditions The critical factors influencing FAC include the following: • • ORP Water pH 7-47 . and those with stainless steel tubing and carbon steel piping. Mixed metallurgical systems can use only AVT-reducing chemistry because the reducing environment is necessary to protect the copper-based tubing. it is important to implement effective FAC prevention programs. metal loss continues until the pipe or tube bursts. and pH The material composition.

the ORP is usually reported as a voltage versus that of an Ag/AgCl (sat. mass transport properties. Generally. ORP cannot be compared from unit to unit. the solubility of the oxide layer. Schmidt. ORP also changes with pH. the possibility for FAC increases. steam quality and void fraction). a higher pH reduces the amount of corrosion and FAC. ORP reflects the balance between various conjugate redox systems and must not be confused with the corrosion potential. ORP is sensitive to the materials of construction and to the temperature because of the effects of temperature on the redox reactions. 7-48 . KCl) reference electrode. it does provide a useful indicator of the corrosivity of the flowing water. therefore. In fossil and heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plants. partial pressure of oxygen in the flowing water. Changing to AVT(O) by eliminating the reducing agent or by adding oxygen (OT) essentially reduces the possibility of dissolution into the flowing water to low values. and flow rates. and the variables related to mass transfer (Reynolds. the rates of the oxidation and reduction reactions. Not only does ORP control the surface oxide that forms in feedwater or evaporator water—AVT reducing (AVT[R]) or AVT oxygenating (AVT[O]) or oxygenating treatment (OT)—but as the ORP becomes more reducing.Damage Mechanisms and Models • • • • Temperature Flow velocity Mass transfer Geometry The following sections describe these factors. However. Water pH Water pH is the second most important factor because it affects the solubility of the surface Fe3O4. FAC is directly related to the pH of the fluid in contact with the oxide surface at the hot operating temperature. and Sherwood numbers. even in areas where FAC was severe with AVT(R). not the cold pH as measured in the feedwater or HRSG evaporator. fluid density and viscosity. Oxidation-Reduction Potential ORP (or redox) is by far the most important factor for single-phase FAC. Laboratory data and field experience indicate that FAC tends to peak at temperatures in the range of 300°F–350°F (150°C–180°C). Temperature Temperature is important because it influences several fluid properties: the pH of the water or wet steam.

it is more often encountered in points of hydrodynamic disturbance. Often organizations use 1. Materials Influences Alloy composition is important because even trace amounts of chromium (and copper and molybdenum) can significantly reduce the solubility of magnetite. then FAC can continue to occur at other locations not changed to 1. even small additions that lead to small concentrations within the bulk can lead to higher concentrations at free surfaces. These include elbows. and thus of FAC. and temperature. and even fabrication discontinuities. Therefore. and there is evidence that amounts of chromium as low as 0. An alloy with a nominal chromium (Cr) content of 1% will have low or negligible FAC. steam quality and void fraction (for two-phase flow). flow geometry. unless the feedwater and evaporator chemistries are changed also. 7-49 .25% Cr alloys for replacement of FAC-damaged areas. Schmidt. however. alloying additions can have significant impact on surface oxide composition and morphology. Secondary alloying elements tend to collect at surfaces because of their misfit within the matrix crystal of the primary alloying element. FAC does not often occur in straight pipes or tubes. therefore. and turbulence. Certain geometries affect mass transfer as a result of changes in local velocity and turbulence. reducer tees. locations downstream of flow control orifices and valves. Geometry Geometry is the factor that decides where FAC will occur. This is not simply determined by the bulk fluid velocity but also by the factors that influence the local velocity: surface geometry. Mass Transfer Mass transfer is the process of transporting material (essentially magnetite) from the surface to the bulk of the flowing water or water-steam flow. and Sherwood numbers.1% will significantly reduce FAC. Mass transfer is usually described by the dimensionless parameters: Reynolds. The geometric discontinuity of these features generally increases turbulence. pipe or tube surface roughness. tight bends. flow path geometry. The local mass-transfer coefficient depends in a complex manner on fluid velocity.Damage Mechanisms and Models Flow Velocity Flow velocity must be considered because there is a strong dependence of FAC on flow velocity.25% Cr or higher. These alloys are also used in HRSG evaporator circuits susceptible to FAC.

and materials information to predict the FAC wall loss rate accurately. The nipple weld is shown. • • • • • The developer of the predictive methodology should periodically review the accuracy of the predictive correlations and refine it as necessary. fitting geometry. 7-50 . An example of a predictive methodology is the Chexal-Horowitz correlation incorporated in the CHECWORKS™ and CHECUP™ programs [7-63]. Consider the water treatments commonly used in power plants. temperature.Damage Mechanisms and Models Analysis Techniques A predictive methodology uses formulas or relationships to predict the rate of wall thinning in a specific piping component type such as an elbow. The typical orange-peel appearance of singlephase FAC is clearly evident on the inside tube surface. Address the range of hydrodynamic conditions (that is. Examples Figure 7-26 shows an FAC failure in an economizer inlet header tube [7-64]. The predictions must be based on factors such as the component geometry. quality. temperature. the damage starts approximately 1–2 in. Provide the capability to use measured wall loss data to improve the accuracy of the plant predictions (if a full-featured analysis program such as the CHECWORKS program is used). and velocity) expected in a power plant. Cover the range of material alloy compositions found in power plants. and flow conditions. The model should be validated by comparing its predictions with wall loss measured in power plants. and the ORP. All high-pressure and low-pressure heater tubing in this unit was stainless steel.5–5 cm) from the header bore. or straight run. and material content of each component. This is obviously an extreme example of FAC. water chemistry. tee. It is desirable to have the ability to calculate the flow and thermodynamic conditions in lines where only the line geometry and the end conditions are known. material. the concentration of dissolved oxygen. water chemistry. EPRI’s CHECUP and CHECWORKS programs are described in more detail in Section 8. Use the hydrodynamic. The water chemistry parameters that should be addressed are the pH range. velocity. diameter. (2. Provide the wall loss rates of components. the feedwater was AVT(R). the reducing agent. An effective FAC predictive methodology should incorporate the following attributes: • • Consider the geometry. operating time.

Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Power Plants [7-64]. the surface takes on the continuous scalloped or orange-peel appearance. these have a chevron or horseshoe appearance. (1 μm) the surface often has a metallic appearance because of the almost transparent film of oxide (magnetite).00004 in. The feedwater flow was from top to bottom. This scalloped appearance usually occurs in areas in which significant wall loss has occurred. Figure 7-27 shows a close-up of the superficial appearance of FAC. As FAC becomes more severe. there will be very little oxide remaining on the surface. Where the FAC is minor or just initiating (lower right of Figure 7-27) a series of pit-like features are evident on the surface. If these areas are analyzed metallurgically. these chevrons overlap until. when the area is first viewed. Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Power Plants [7-64]. it often has the orange color of flash rust if it is not protected from moisture during the shutdown process. Thus. This chevron appearance is the result of small turbulent effects near and on the surface oxide causing dissolution of the oxide because of increased mass transfer. where the FAC is most severe. In some cases. with the tip pointing in the direction of flow.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-26 FAC Failure and Damage on an Economizer Inlet Header Tube Source: EPRI Report TR-101611-R1. Figure 7-27 Typical Surface Appearance of FAC Source: EPRI Report TR-101611-R1. 7-51 . When the oxide is very thin (less than 0.

Figure 7-28 Typical Scalloped Appearance of Single-Phase Flow-Accelerated Corrosion as Viewed with a Scanning Electron Microscope Source: EPRI Report TR-101611-R1. however. Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Power Plants [7-64]. and therefore affect the mechanical properties of the component. Other Potential Damage Mechanisms The most relevant forms (that is. other degradation mechanisms that either are partially responsible for overall material damage or occur much less frequently than the four primary mechanisms. and FAC. thermomechanical processing. There are. 7-52 . The thermodynamic stability of all microstructural components is sensitive to operating temperature. Microstructural Degradation and Embrittlement Alloy composition. Several degradation and embrittlement phenomena relevant to high-temperature piping are described in the following subsections.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-28 shows a higher-magnification view of the surface of an active FAC site that shows the microscopic scalloped appearance. fatigue. At the higher operating temperatures of fossil plant highenergy piping. those that have the highest rate of occurrence) of degradation in high-energy piping are creep. Several other potential degradation mechanisms are briefly described below. and heat treatment determine what microstructural components are present in a metal component. creep-fatigue. The microstructure determines the mechanical properties. sometimes detrimentally. many microstructural components change.

is shown in Figure 7-29 for several initial metallurgical structures (coarse-grained and normalized or annealed). depending on the carbon content of the alloy. which is the stable lowtemperature iron phase. Because the austenite-to-ferrite transformation and related carbon rejection occurs on a planar front. As the test time increased. Changing its shape to a sphere minimizes the surface energy of the carbide. at 900°F and 1000 °F (480°C and 540°C). the rupture values for all the structures tended to approach a common value.Damage Mechanisms and Models Spheroidization As detailed in Section 3. and the iron-carbide constituent is driven to change to a spherical shape. the transformation occurs in the temperature range of approximately 1652°F–1341°F (900°C–727°C). Another factor in addition to temperature that can promote spheroidization is high stress. a coarse-grain normalized structure was the strongest for both short-time and long-time tests. At 900°F (480°C). 7-53 . for example. has lower carbon solubility than γ-austenite. When the carbon concentration of the region adjacent to the nucleating ferrite is high enough. All microstructures try to minimize their total energy. The effect of spheroidization on the rupture strength of a typical carbon-molybdenum steel containing 0. the structure of the steel affected the rupture strength. Pearlite is formed because the α-iron phase. the lamellar shape of pearlite is unstable. diffusion processes are accelerated as temperature increases. Although the lamellar pearlite structure is formed to reduce the energy of the ferrite phase because of its limited carbon solubility. the stress for failure of a spheroidized structure in a given time was sometimes only half that of a normalized structure. pearlite is an equilibrium steel phase that forms when austenite is cooled below its equilibrium thermodynamic stability. The process that leads to the new shape is known as spheroidization. which means that there are alternating sheets of ferrite and iron-carbide. The plate-like structure of pearlite makes it a very strong phase because it is difficult to move dislocations across the boundaries of the plates to change the shape of the steel crystals.17% C and 0. A spherical structure has the lowest possible amount of surface. As α-iron crystals grow into the austenite phase field. The spheroidized structures were weaker than the normalized or annealed structures for short-time tests at both 900°F and 1000 °F (480°C and 540°C). the pearlite has a lamellar microstructure. At temperatures above around 800°F (427°C). the planar structure has a high amount of interfacial area and therefore a high surface energy. Fe3C) is formed. carbon is rejected. Because it is easier to move dislocations through a distribution of large spherical carbides than through a lamellar pearlite structure. cementite (also known as iron carbide. Ironcarbide spheroidization is temperature sensitive because it requires diffusion of carbon atoms in large quantities. In these tests.42% Mo. spheroidization decreases steel strength.

Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants: Phosphate Continuum and Caustic Treatment [7-65]. a greater life in cyclic fatigue loading has been observed (see Figure 7-30).20 Si 0. 7-54 . This is because the platelets of cementite in pearlite are relatively brittle. Although the spheroidized structure is weaker than the normalized pearlitic microstructure.88 Mn 0.17 C 0. they offer planes of relatively rapid fracture within the pearlitic microstructure. therefore.42 Mo) Source: EPRI Report 1004188.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-29 Effect of Spheroidization on the Rupture Strength of Carbon-Molybdenum Steel (0.

Graphitization is a well-known phenomenon. notes in Table PG23. it has generally been considered that graphitization is preferred at temperatures below approximately 1020°F (550°C). At temperatures below approximately 1000°F (538°C). if given sufficient time at temperature. The changes to the shape of iron-carbide (spheroidization) and its decomposition into graphite (graphitization) are competing processes (see Figure 7-31). a further step in microstructural transformation is the formation of graphite particles within the steel. Thus. it will transform to graphite and ferrite. graphitization occurs before the steel is fully spheroidized.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-30 Difference in the Fatigue Behavior for Carbon Steels with a Pearlitic or a Spheroidized Microstructure Source: EPRI Report 1004925. At temperatures above approximately 1000°F (538°C). However. in fact. however. graphite appears after spheroidization. it has recently been observed from field experience with degraded materials that the graphitization-to-spheroidization temperature can differ somewhat from the accepted value. The formation of graphite particles or nodules. Graphitization In most steels. a process known as graphitization. and it can occur in a manner that is not completely predictable. Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants: Oxygenated Treatment [7-66]. iron carbide is not the final equilibrium stable phase. graphitization is less common. if they form a continuous zone. if dispersed throughout the metal. it is more serious when it does occur. is not considered a problem. it can depend on steel composition and microstructure. the resulting embrittled material can fail catastrophically by brittle fracture. Because of the difference in activation energies of the two processes. Of the two. 7-55 . but because it results in embrittled material.1 of ASME Section I warn of the change in iron-carbide to graphite for plain-carbon steels and carbon-1/2 Mo steels. Both spheroidization and graphitization are mechanisms of pearlite decomposition.

Aluminum-killed steels. once in common usage. Pearlite decomposition tends to become unstable when the steel has been heated briefly above the A1 temperature. have been shown to be more susceptible than those deoxidized with silicon or titanium. 7-56 . Chromium-containing steels are highly resistant to graphitization. and are therefore preferred for service above 850°F (455°C). usually at a characteristic distance from the weld. which is why graphitization damage is mostly associated with the HAZs of welds. Interim Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Combined Cycle HRSGs [7-67]. Recent field investigations have identified graphitization that has occurred in base metal removed from the influence of welds [7-68]. A complete explanation of this second type of graphitization is not yet in hand. This temperature regime typically occurs during the welding process. approximately 1340°F (725°C).025%. Use of carbon-molybdenum steel has been largely discontinued for higher-temperature applications because of problems associated with graphitization. Boiler tubes are among the power plant components in which this recently recognized form of graphitization has led to failure.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-31 Variation of Microstructural Changes Due to Spheroidization and Graphitization with Time at Elevated Temperature Source: EPRI Report TR-110051. This phenomenon. The propensity to graphitization damage has also been considered to depend on the steelmaking practice used. referred to as non-weld-related graphitization. unless the aluminum content is restricted to <0. seems to be associated with locations that have been subjected to large plastic deformations.

and it is traditionally of greater risk with components manufactured using older technologies. temper embrittlement continues to be a major cause of degradation of toughness in ferritic steels. under extreme situations. the diffusivity of these tramp elements is high enough that they tend to diffuse to and accumulate at grain boundaries (also known as grain boundary segregation). The problem has been identified in a wide range of alloys including low-alloy steels. intergranular fracture rather than cleavage occurs in the brittle lower shelf region. In the temper embrittlement temperature range. and arsenic (As). there is an increase in the FATT that can. antimony (Sb). and the brittle-to-ductile transition takes place at a higher temperature—that is. temper embrittlement was first experienced during the making of large cannons in Germany during the 1800s. can lead to embrittlement. higherstrength alloy steels. Numerous components become candidates for retirement if they are severely embrittled because under these conditions the critical crack size can become very small. This increased susceptibility is related to two factors: 1) the higher normalizing temperatures traditionally used in steelmaking (because higher temperatures result in larger grain sizes) and 2) traditional steelmaking practices lead to higher levels of trace impurities. The problem is encountered after exposure to the temperature range 650°F–1000°F (345°C–540°C). be as much as 572°F (300°C). When temper embrittlement manifests. or service exposure in this temperature range. tin (Sn). Today. particularly the elements phosphorus (P). Segregation of these elements to grain boundaries leads to grain boundary decohesion and a loss of impact resistance. Figure 7-32 demonstrates the loss of Charpy impact toughness associated with temper embrittlement. on the order of 100 ppm (0. 7-57 .01 wt%) or less have been shown to cause temper embrittlement [7-2].Damage Mechanisms and Models Temper Embrittlement Originally called Krupp krankheit (Krupp steel sickness). Slow cooling following tempering or post weld heat treatment. Relatively small amounts of these elements. and stainless steels.

and 1157°F (550°C. Molybdenum. 600°C. at implementation into service) and for samples that were heat treated under laboratory conditions to increase the size of the carbides. In contrast.000 hours at 1004°F (540°C). and 625°C). The influence of carbides on the FATT of 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel has been evaluated in a series of aging experiments using an alloy that was very low in trace elements. Figure 7-33 also includes data from an ex-service sample that had experienced 88. in amounts of 0. Carbide distribution and size also influence the fracture toughness of a material. Step-cool heat treatment typical of the type used to evaluate temper embrittlement revealed that relatively low-temperature exposure did not change FATT.5% or less. in addition to the known problem of temper embrittlement. 1112°F. significant reductions in FATT were found after aging at 1022°F. The points representing samples of steel aged at 1112°F (600°C) for 10. 7-58 .5%. Guidelines for Copper in Fossil Plants [7-69]. reduces susceptibility [7-70]. Figure 7-33 shows the complete transition curves both for the virgin steel (that is. Plain carbon steels are not considered to be susceptible to temper embrittlement if the manganese content is kept below 0.000 hours simulate the change in FATT measured after prolonged service.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-32 Shift in Impact Transition Curve to Higher Temperatures as a Result of Temper Embrittlement Produced in SAE 3140 Steel by Isothermal Holding and Furnace Cooling Through the Critical Range Source: EPRI Report 1000457.

metal is dissolving. and therefore prefer to exist as oxides. After Laboratory Aging. Figure 7-34 shows that—because corrosion involves the passage of electrons—for corrosion to proceed. Metals are metastable and are thermodynamically driven to oxidize. and electrons are being supplied) A cathode (where reduction is taking place and electrons are being consumed) Electrical contact between the anode and cathode A conductive electrolyte (aqueous solution) that completes the circuit 7-59 . Corrosion is essentially the electrochemical oxidation of metallic species to their natural state.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-33 Charpy Impact Transition Curves for 2-1/4 Cr Mo Steel Before Service. which are brittle and undesirable for structural applications. there must be a complete electrical circuit which includes the following [7-70]: • • • • An anode (where oxidation is taking place. and After Prolonged Service at 1022°F (550°C) Corrosion Most commonly used metals form thermodynamically stable oxides.

an even layer of oxide is typically formed on the surface of metal exposed to oxidizing conditions. one area of the metal surface becomes a fixed anode and another area becomes a fixed cathode. It is also one of the most destructive and insidious forms of localized corrosion because it can cause equipment failures as a result of perforation with essentially no weight loss of the component. the deeper the pits. In a high-energy piping system.Damage Mechanisms and Models Figure 7-34 Basic Corrosion Cell If any one of these components is not present. therefore. the concern is localized corrosion. Extreme value statistics can be used to make pitting prediction extrapolations. Like crevice corrosion. and the localized environment becomes acidified and enriched in damaging ions such as chlorides and sulfates. The relative probability of identifying a pit of a given depth is a function of the area—the larger the surface area. and lowtemperature aqueous corrosion is not a concern. and the primary limiting factor is the availability of oxygen to form oxide. laboratory tests cannot be readily used to predict the pitting depths on an actual component. The nature of localized corrosion tends to produce metal loss at ever-increasing rates as the environment within the pit or electrochemical crevice is isolated from the bulk environment. including crevice corrosion. the circuit is not complete. Therefore. Pitting is the most common form of localized corrosion damage in high-energy piping. pitting most often occurs in stagnant environments. Specifically. pitting corrosion. there are fewer impediments to oxidation reactions. corrosion will continue unfettered at the anodic site. Under these conditions. 7-60 . and under-deposit corrosion. corrosive processes become a concern only during lay-ups and maintenance activities where local pools of water can exist in places that catch water. that is. There are many forms of localized corrosion. At higher temperatures. Localized corrosion involves stationary electrodes. Pitting is typically characterized by an extended initiation period followed by an autocatalytic (snowballing) propagation. and corrosion will not occur. It is often difficult to detect pits because of their small size and because they are often covered by corrosion product.

Cracks initiated by stress corrosion can subsequently grow by other mechanisms or a combination of mechanisms. it is unlikely that pitting can lead to through-wall perforation. fast cycling loads can propagate a crack by standard fatigue processes without allowing any form of anodic dissolution at the crack tip. Erosion Erosion is the degradation of material resulting from severe fluid flow. there is a critical frequency (for each material) at which crack growth rate is a maximum. Because diffusion processes take time (diffusion rates depend on temperature). Corrosion fatigue is sensitive to the rate of cycling because most corrosion processes are dependent on both macroscopic diffusion of aqueous ionic species and diffusion of chemical species within the metallic microstructure. or air) can cause greater damage than the effect of either corrosion or fatigue independently. below K1SCC. stress corrosion cracking can take place at stress levels significantly below the yield strength of the material. corrosion fatigue is essentially indistinguishable from stress-corrosion cracking if the maximum applied stress-intensity factor (Kmax) is greater than KISCC. Stress corrosion cracks can be either intergranular or transgranular. After cracks have initiated. However. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and growth of cracks in a susceptible material by simultaneous exposure to stress and an adverse chemical environment. which is usually much greater than the stress applied to the overall component. or creep-fatigue). depending on its aspect ratio. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue As with creep-fatigue. or both. steam. The stress intensity factor is a description of the stress field at the tip of a crack. corrosion fatigue. however. in corrosion fatigue processes. or impingement of solid particles borne by fluid or gas flow. It results in a shorter life than would be characteristic of either the cyclic stresses (fatigue) or the corrosive environment alone. Corrosion fatigue is the initiation and growth of a crack brought about by the combined action of fluctuating stresses and a corrosive environment. crack propagation rates. 7-61 . stress corrosion cracking. Typically. the tip of the crack becomes an anodic region where metal dissolution occurs and can accelerate either crack initiation rates. The level of concentration of corrodents can be high in stress corrosion cracks. Fatigue-crack propagation rates are increased by corrosive environments both above and below KISCC. As a result of these concentration levels. Two types of environmentally assisted cracking are distinguished here. stresscorrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. These concentrations are caused by thermodynamic and mechanical factors that combine to collect contaminants in steam or water into relatively small regions. a pit can act as a very effective stress concentrator and therefore become an initiation location for cracking (either fatigue. KjSCC is the stressintensity factor below which stress-corrosion cracks do not propagate in static loading. impingement of steam or fluid directly on a surface.Damage Mechanisms and Models Because of the thickness of high-energy piping. the imposition of cyclic stresses in a corrosive environment (aqueous.

Damage Mechanisms and Models

Solid particle erosion is a common problem; for example, in turbine blading, erosion is caused by impingement of steam-borne oxide particles on the blades. Various explanations for the mechanism of damage through solid particle erosion have been proposed. Regimes of damage and rate of attack have been found to be a function of a number of parameters, including angle of impingement, particle size, shape, hardness, velocity, and the material properties of the target. In blading, for example, one mechanism in effect is ductile shearing resulting from impingement of particles at small angles to the surface. Internal erosion is usually attributed to the removal of protective surface films on a metal. Accelerated corrosion rates can occur as the protective film is removed. The combined process is referred to as erosion-corrosion. Higher alloy steels, nickel-based alloys, and stainless steels are generally considered resistant to erosion-corrosion. Another example of erosion is the degradation of blade airfoil materials caused by water droplets carried by the steam in a turbine. Erosion damage can predispose sites for damage from other mechanisms such as fatigue. More commonly, however, erosion continues to remove material until there is no longer sufficient area for the component to carry the steady load to which it is subjected, at which time failure occurs by an overload mechanism. The next subsection describes the operational conditions and mechanisms that lead to erosion in high-energy piping. Cavitation Cavitation occurs in two distinct forms in power plant equipment. Although the same word is used to describe both phenomena, they are distinctively different. For clarity, they are defined in the following paragraphs. Creep cavitation is the formation of microscopic holes or voids in a structure subjected to high temperatures and stresses; it is a volumetric phenomenon that affects steels operating above 700ºF (370ºC). The creep process is a slow, time-dependent mechanism that causes permanent deformation of the component, the very early stages of which are characterized by the formation of internal voids in the structure as a result of migration of atoms under stress. Grain boundaries are the preferred sites for the formation of these cavities, and replication techniques are used to determine their existence. Creep cavitation in itself is not harmful to the structure, but is a precursor of more severe damage. Cavitation or cavitation pitting occurs in components such as pumps and hydraulic turbines where water is compressed and decompressed for transport purposes. As the absolute pressure of the water changes with respect to the vapor pressure, bubbles can form and eventually collapse as the pressure rises and falls. When the bubbles collapse, there is a localized water hammer-type implosion, which can produce a high local stress on the surface of the component. The continuous action of multiple implosions can cause the surface material to crack and eventually disintegrate locally, resulting in the formation of minute pits. These pits can eventually grow by continued cavitation or by other means, and can eventually weaken the structure to the point at which failure occurs. In a high-energy piping system, cavitation or cavitation pitting is a concern only in the immediate vicinity of pumps where bubbles can be created and entrained in the fluid flow. 7-62

Damage Mechanisms and Models

Material Selection Considerations
The four primary damage mechanisms that are most likely to affect high-energy piping systems are creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue, and FAC. In each case, proper steel selection can minimize the probability of damage. Based on the relevant damage mechanism, Table 7-3 lists the type of steel that is most susceptible to damage and the preferred selection to resist that type of damage. Different steels have different levels of damage resistance, depending on the damage mechanism, and the preferred steel for resistance to one form of damage can have higher susceptibility to another form of damage. Therefore, optimal steel selection for a given application depends on a thorough understanding of the potential application’s operating environment.
Table 7-3 Steel Selection Guide Based on Damage Mechanism Susceptibility Damage Mechanism Necessary Conditions for Damage High-temperature exposure under sufficient stress for an extended period of time Most Susceptible Steel Brittle low-alloy steels Preferred Steel Selection Higher temperature, higher alloy content steels and newly developed ferritic steel grades Higher alloy steels with high tensile strengths and ductility Higher alloy content steels including stainless steel and Incoloy (Ni-based alloys) Stainless steels or steels that contain chromium additions Highly alloyed steels with stable carbide strengthening

Creep

Fatigue

Cyclical stress of sufficient amplitude to lie above the material endurance limit; presence of stress risers Combination of high-temperature exposure under a cyclical stress of sufficient amplitude and duration to lie above the endurance limit of the material Exposure to turbulent water flow at temperatures below 662°F (350°C), a reducing water chemistry, and a pH <9 High-temperature exposure above 900°F (490°C) for extended timeframe; presence of carbon and or carbides in the microstructural morphology; typically a method of pearlitic decomposition Occurs with extended exposure (greater than 1000 hours) of pearlitic steels to temperatures between 800°F and 1020°F (425°C and 550°C)

Pearlitic and martensitic plain carbon steels 21/4 Cr 1 Mo and lower alloy content steels

Creep-fatigue

FAC

Carbon and lowalloy steels

Spheroidization

Plain carbon or low-alloy structural steel

Graphitization

Typically experienced in only 1/2-molybdenum steels that were aluminum killed

Chromium-containing steels

7-63

Damage Mechanisms and Models Table 7-3 (continued) Steel Selection Guide Based on Damage Mechanism Susceptibility Damage Mechanism Necessary Conditions for Damage Undesirable impurities present in sufficient quantity in the chemistry of the steel; exposure to temperatures between 650°F and 1000°F (345°C and 540°C) for a sufficient time to allow impurity diffusion and segregation to the grain boundaries Presence of a low-temperature, stagnant and oxygenated aqueous solution for an extended period of time Exposure to a high-velocity aqueous solution with hard insoluble particle entrainment Extremely turbulent water flow in which air bubbles can be generated; typically seen only seen downstream of some form of impeller, as in a pump Most Susceptible Steel Thicker section components constructed of older plain carbon or low-alloy structural steels Preferred Steel Selection Steel produced using “clean steel” practices, which reduce the presence of tramp elements in the chemistry

Temper embrittlement

Corrosion (pitting)

Plain carbon or low-alloy structural steel Plain carbon or low-alloy structural steel Carbon and lowalloy steels

316 stainless steel with 2%–3% molybdenum has excellent pitting resistance Higher-strength steels and stainless steels Higher-strength steels and stainless steels

Erosion

Cavitation

Higher-strength steels are being selected more frequently for power plant applications, particularly in Europe. All things being equal, higher strength means that a thinner (and much lighter) cross section can be used for piping that holds the same pressure. Thinner cross sections lead to easier, faster, and significantly less expensive construction and repair. However, most of the analytical techniques used to predict remaining life are predicated on stable crack growth. If a crack is initiated, then component life is necessarily shorter for a thinner cross section than a thicker one. Although newly developed steels with higher strength (and ductility) often exhibit higher resistance to crack extension, the thinner cross section is a major factor in overall component life after damage has initiated. Construction, repair, and replacement decisions should be made keeping this in mind.

References
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7-56. P. Feltham, “Stress Relaxation in Copper & Alpha-Brasses at Low Temperatures,” Journal of the Institute of Metals, Vol.89, pp. 210–214. 7-57. E. A. Davis, “Creep and Relaxation of Oxygen-Free Copper,” Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 65, p. A-101. 7-58. J. B. Conway, R. H. Stentz, and J. T. Berling, “Fatigue, Tensile and Relaxation Behavior of Stainless Steels,” USAEC, TID-26135, pp. 228–262. 7-59. D. Charman and A. Croker, “Monitoring of Boiler Life During Cycling Operation,” in I. A. Shibli, F. Starr, R. Viswanathan, and D. Gray (eds.), International Seminar on Cyclic Operation of Power Plant—Technical, Operational and Cost Issues, pp. 4–3-1 through 4–3-11. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1004655. 7-60. A. Saxena, R. S. Williams, and T. T. Shih, “A Model for Representing and Predicting the Influence of Hold Times on Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior at Elevated Temperatures,” in Fracture Mechanics: Thirteenth Conference, ASTM STP 743, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1981, pp. 86–99. 7-61. R. Viswanathan and H. Bernstein, “Some Issues in Creep-Fatigue,” in I. A. Shibli, F. Starr, R. Viswanathan, and D. Gray (eds.), An International Seminar on Cyclic Operation of Power Plant—Technical, Operational and Cost Issues. pp. S2–1-1 through S2–1-23. EPRI, Palo Alto: CA, 2001. 1004655. 7-62. K. B. Yoon, A. Saxena, and P. K. Liaw, “Characterization of Creep-Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior under Trapezoidal Waveshape Using Ct Parameter,” International Journal of Fracture, Vol. 59, pp. 95–102 (1993).

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CA: 1998. 7-69 . ASM International. EPRI. Steels: Heat Treatment and Processing Principles. CHECWORKS™ Fossil Plant Application. Version 1. Chemical Metallurgy. Palo Alto. Palo Alto. Butterworths. CA: 2005. EPRI. 7-64. 7-65. 333. CA: 1998. 1004188. Palo Alto. 7-67. Guidelines for Copper in Fossil Plants. CA: 1998. 7-68. Palo Alto. 1995. EPRI. Palo Alto. EPRI. G. 4th Printing. J. p. 7-66. J. Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants: Phosphate Continuum and Caustic Treatment. 7-69. Krauss.Damage Mechanisms and Models 7-63. 7-70. Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants: Oxygenated Treatment. EPRI. 1990. TR-110051. TR-103198-P5R1. TR-106611-R1. Second Edition. Moore. Palo Alto. 1004925. Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Power Plants. CA: 2000.0. EPRI. Interim Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Combined Cycle HRSGs. 1000457. CA: 2004.

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because the information regarding condition is obtained in increments. Initially. yet the total cost of the multiple repair programs is usually far greater than the cost of complete replacement. This should allow a realistic knowledge of all major sections of a facility. Furthermore. The most effective approach is therefore to adopt a methodology that permits a relatively simple yet conservative assessment of the plant as a whole. inspections have been performed in stages with a full system evaluation requiring years to complete. Even when all the repairs are complete. or assessments have been carried out on a “random” sample of locations. In the worst-case scenario. both of these approaches have serious drawbacks. the general condition of all aspects should be established so that maintenance work can be focused in plant areas most in need. therefore. Moreover. Traditionally. In the most extreme case. recent methodologies for maintenance planning have advocated that components are identified as either critical or influence. Although the systematic. Such a task would be completely impractical because of the excessive costs and time that would be involved. costly repairs are carried out on different sections of the piping system during each maintenance period. judgment about the most appropriate maintenance action cannot consider an overall evaluation. However. without compromising safety. in view of the large number of components in a commercial generating plant. it is not practical or even possible to perform inspection at all possible degradation locations. therefore. accurate condition assessment would necessitate inspection of all the components in a system. Thus. the level of analysis performed will vary for different plant components and the selection of specific methods should be based on the consequences of local component failure. Unfortunately. in a balanced approach. However. staged inspection eventually covers the whole system. the approach based on selective examination is usually not completely random because criteria such as ease of access are frequently taken into account when selecting inspection locations. locations that are readily accessible are not always those of highest risk of failure.PROGRAMMATIC APPROACHES TO LIFE MANAGEMENT OF PIPING SYSTEMS 8 Introduction Condition assessment of critical components is essential to ensure safe and reliable operation of fossil-fueled power plants. the system is not new because the integrity of repair welds is a significant variable. A critical component is defined as one in 8-1 . Conversely. the locations at greatest risk are not necessarily inspected first.

In these cases. such components are high-energy pressure vessels and piping or turbine generator rotors. the cost of replacement components is high. this approach provides for specific actions based on the risk of failure. P(F). Furthermore. First. However. 8-1 The simplest approach to assess risk is to extrapolate from an experience base. However. In general. An example of an influence component would be tubing in a boiler or heat exchanger. for a particularly high efficiency unit. this approach cannot usually be adopted for critical components. a realistic condition assessment program will be achieved. In general. where risk can be defined as the product of failure probability. there are much lower populations for analysis. and failure severity. if the costs of specific technical programs can be balanced with the costs of replacement and the costs of failure. result in high costs for the associated losses in output. 8-2 . whereas for a low merit plant. without understanding the details of the relevant damage processes. This approach is frequently adopted for tubing failures because there is usually a statistically significant sample size available and the risk of underestimating performance and having one or two failures is usually not catastrophic. relatively high rates of failure can be tolerated. Thus. and second. in many situations. Risk = P(F) x S Eq. then run. if failures occur over a period of time with an increasing rate. failure can occur without warning. the level of failures considered unacceptable depend on the economics of a particular plant. eventually the rate of failure will be unacceptably high and remedial action must be taken. initial failure would be life threatening. S. when there is sufficient spare capacity. or replacement decisions will be optimized from both economic and technical standpoints. as shown in Equation 8-1. Typically. an influence component is defined as one in which failure would not normally be life threatening and a single failure does not have a major impact on cost. repair. Conversely. and the long lead times for replacement would. Thus. more than one or two failures per year can be considered excessive. it is unlikely that a single failure would lead to personal injury or major repair costs. Here.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems which failure would have significant safety or financial consequences. assessment programs for critical components must be capable of answering key questions such as the following: • • • • Where to look What to look for Which techniques to use At what frequency to carry out evaluations If these questions can be answered.

However. is based on practice from the former CEGB and derivatives of that practice [8-1. Figure 8-1 Data Requirements in Assessment Stages for the Three-Level Approach Source: EPRI Report CS-4778. Generic Guidelines for the Life Extension of Fossil Fuel Power Plants [8-3]. Level I generally involves calculations based on operating history and mainly screens components for the possibility of degradation. the results of which can be funneled back into Level I calculations to provide more accurate assessments of remaining life. 8-2]. As the assessment level increases. the next phase of the procedure is conducted. the more rigorous the assessment. Level III typically involves destructive testing (sample testing) and detailed analysis. If the estimated life is too short.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Three-Level. Phased Approach to Assessment A logical method of condition assessment therefore uses a phased approach. more accurate data are required and a more accurate estimate of remaining life can be calculated. and a three-level. This scheme. the estimated remaining life is compared to the desired remaining life. phased approach to life assessment is commonly followed worldwide. At each level. often with complex finite element modeling. performing progressively more rigorous evaluation procedures only if the desired remaining life is not shown from the lower level. the greater the cost and time required. 8-3 . Level II involves NDE. developed originally for high-temperature header life assessments. Using a phased approach means that inspection resources are targeted so that the right form of inspection is carried out at high-risk locations at the correct time. Figure 8-1 sketches out the progressively more intense assessment approaches [8-3].

The following subsections detail the three levels of phased approach. and a preliminary life-fraction. which is a Level II activity. Successful systems are already available that perform the following: • • • • Store all relevant information regarding the plant in a logical manner Allow sorting and retrieval of data so that required analyses can be performed accurately and efficiently Ensure that procedures are such that documentation. However. a piping survey. Figure 8-2 shows the generic steps in a Level I assessment for creep damage [8-4]. therefore. it is normal even at this stage to consider the results of component-specific instrumentation. with appropriate actions specified at each stage. Nevertheless. the final decision must be either to continue operation for a given time under specified operating conditions or to repair or replace the component. by considering relevant industry experience. analyses. investigators should start with Level I. Care must be exercised with this approach because instrumentation. 8-4 . the multiplicity of potential maintenance decisions facing a plant operator can be reduced with information supplied rapidly in an appropriate format.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems The application of the phased approach provides those responsible for plant maintenance with a logical progression to decision making. and inspections are fully verified by appropriate quality assurance procedures Provide consistency and continuity for all activities undertaken In this way. However. Thus. the more complex evaluations of Level II should be implemented. Each level of analysis can be conducted considering a specific degradation mechanism. When implementing the methodology. or Level I. assessments are based on established engineering guidelines. on the basis of the most conservative considerations. which in many cases will invoke at least some analytical techniques that are part of Level III. and to determine its significance. if doubt exists regarding the conservatism of the data available. It is possible to carry out this assessment without reference to plantspecific measurements provided that operating parameters do not exceed design. evaluation examines design or overall service parameters to ascertain whether. The Level I analysis is a preliminary or screening assessment of component condition based on maintenance history. The information gathered in Level I will be required for more detailed analyses of later levels. in that case. this methodology is amenable to the application of computer codes. the component has a remanent life greater than the anticipated service life. even if damage has been found in the component. Moreover. it will almost always be necessary to determine the extent of damage. Level I The initial. which monitors average conditions. it is usually possible to ensure that the data used are conservative. might not identify regions where extremes are present. With this approach. relevant experience.

The information to be reviewed during a Level I assessment includes the following: • • • • • • Applicable drawings as well as fabrication and material specifications Support details for pipes Operating hours and cycles Unit trips and excursions Maintenance history Inspection history 8-5 .Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Figure 8-2 Generic Steps in a Level 1 Assessment for Creep Adapted from EPRI Report GS-6724. Condition Assessment Guidelines for Fossil Fuel Power Plant Components [8-4].

details of failure analyses performed. to determine whether the attachment welds are high stress areas. hanger and pipe support information will qualitatively indicate whether the attachment junctions are potentially subject to significant damage from system loads. Creepfatigue of attachment welds will also include an analysis of unit cycling and survey of header attachments and supports. and operating hours. maintenance actions taken Design parameters. creep evaluation will involve design pressure. A hot walkdown survey for attachments to. The purpose is to benchmark the piping systems and attachments in the hot conditions so that the systems can be checked from hot to cold to determine actual deflections. if available. These deflections can then be checked against those predicted by stress analysis. design temperature. guides. For example. or restraints Proper clearances and gaps The survey is combined with a review of the piping stress analysis. there will be an emphasis on different data. the subject pipe should be conducted to assess the magnitude of system loads that would influence the accumulation of damage at the attachment welds. In the absence of a piping analysis. Supports and attachments should be reviewed for the following: • • • • • Compatibility between analyzed (design) and as-built (present) configurations Unacceptable vibrations Interference problems Signs of physical damage Operability of drains Supports should be surveyed for the following: • • • • • • • Operation within the travel range Actual and design support location consistency Proper installation and sizing of supports according to the design Support movements in agreement with design and analysis displacement Signs of transient and impact loads on pins and other devices Operability of any special supports. 8-6 .Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems • • • History of failures. and in the vicinity of. including temperatures and pressures Steam temperature records For specific damage mechanisms.

design or actual service temperatures. In general. As a result. However. or attachment welds in the past (other than during initial installation). Longitudinal seam welds. Some Level II triggers are the following: • • • • The life-fraction consumed. as calculated by the analyses described above. the inspections should provide information regarding condition through NDE. exceeds 50%. See EPRI report TR104631 for the value of material properties to use for considering the weld and HAZ [8-5]. The particular methods involved in these examinations will depend on the component and the type of operation. Level 1 analysis provided only gross estimates of damage as a result of inaccuracies in the assumed history of stresses and temperatures. The appropriate values to be used can be obtained from the methodology outlined in the EPRI report Guidelines for the Evaluation of Seam-Welded High Energy Piping (TR-104631) [8-5]. and minimum base metal properties.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems For high-temperature components. such calculations have been most useful for determining key locations to be evaluated more rigorously. The complexity and variability of damage precludes a definitive quantitative guideline for triggering a Level II assessment from Level I results. and screening for when inspections for damage should occur. design stresses. for scheduling maintenance outages. Other welds. temperature. Level II assessments require that specific plant examinations be performed. a preliminary creep rupture evaluation can be performed using code allowable stresses and operating temperature with properties as defined in EPRI report TR104631 [8-5]. Attachment welds (base and weld metal). Typical analyses might include the following: • • Piping. and a life-fraction rule. Creep rupture analysis. girth welds. although some care in this regard is required when extrapolating the current temperature backward over significant periods of 8-7 . It will typically use minimum materials properties. and the life-fraction rule. There is other evidence of known damage to the piping. It is the role of the initial evaluation to screen and identify the components that are at highest risk of failure and to select specific locations to be examined. The visual inspection performed during the hot walkdown indicates piping or piping support damaged. material properties. seam welds. • • Historically. Properties to be used are a fraction of those for the base metal. There have been repairs (except the most trivial) to the piping. Creep and fatigue analysis. Creep rupture analysis using operating pressure. Level II The basic steps in a generic Level II assessment are shown in Figure 8-3 [8-4]. Creep rupture evaluation can be performed. a preliminary life-fraction analysis should be performed. Stress analysis will generally be required. Level II can also involve the use of thermocouples to refine operating temperature estimates.

Understanding the potential NDE evaluation techniques is critical to a Level II analysis.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems operation. or specific indications of component damage are identified. A brief summary of their application during a Level II analysis is provided here. then more detailed evaluations are required. A visual inspection is primarily aimed at identifying regions showing gross dimensional distortion (for example. It is also conducted to obtain estimates of the condition and functional capability of supports and other sources of potential extra stress. Section 9 provides detailed information about various NDE techniques. Component-specific details. The visual examination can provide an 8-8 . swelling) from design conditions as well as macroscopically visible cracking. Figure 8-3 Generic Steps in a Level II Assessment Adapted from EPRI Report GS-6724. If the period of predicted remanent life is below that desired. Condition Assessment Guidelines for Fossil Fuel Power Plant Components [8-4]. together with more refined estimates of operating stress and temperature. are used to give a more precise estimate of performance than was obtained in the Level I assessment.

then angel beam UT or another volumetric method should be applied. All major welds should be inspected by magnetic particle testing (MT) and dye penetrant testing (PT). Replication of weldments can provide an indication of the severity of creep cavitation damage in the weld metal and HAZs. Thus. Thus. Conversely. if any.) For the base metal at stress concentrations. these methods are still limited because many of the steels used in steam plants are susceptible to changes in material properties with time. along with more detailed analytical techniques for a more precise life assessment. and hardness measurements. experience suggests that even with precise knowledge of stress and temperature parameters. Level III Figure 8-5 lists the generic steps in a Level III assessment [8-4]. In general. If flaws or cracks can be present at locations away from the accessible surface. The type of testing required for a Level III assessment will vary with component type and degradation susceptibility. PT. for example. This level is triggered by the need to ascertain remaining life more precisely on the basis of Level II results. Macrocracking associated with the inspected welds will thus be identified. condition 8-9 . These samples can then be analyzed using relevant laboratory test methods. a preliminary qualitative estimate of remaining life of the weldments can be made from the results of the replication. and UT examinations. sophisticated instrumentation and analysis procedures are required to document local operating conditions. should also be part of the visual inspection. However. All indications should be mapped and sized. The Level III assessment should be based on detailed knowledge of operating conditions and specific materials properties. Locating the longitudinal seam welds. changes in properties as a result of operation can be established only by postexposure testing. Probabilistic analysis methods have been introduced to reduce the overall conservatism of performance assessment based on lower bound properties. The effort at this level is relatively involved and is aimed at determining actual material properties and loads. Thus. or alternatively. High-priority locations for further inspection will be identified by the results of the Level I assessment and the Level II visual. MT. chemical analysis. In general.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems indication of high-temperature locations for more detailed inspection (or sampling as a part of a Level III assessment). the scatter in standard material properties will introduce unacceptable uncertainties in life estimates. Nominal compositions of piping base metal and surface weld beads can be verified with an alloy analyzer in situ. (See Section 10 for more information. if possible. tests are performed to evaluate creep strength and ductility. even if distributions of materials data are available for relevant alloys before service. Specialized techniques such as time-of-flight diffraction or linear phased array UT might be required. Further inspection will include replication. based on the appearance of the creep cavities. if the component is at risk of creep failure. However. simple estimates of remaining life based on the level of damage observed are more difficult. defect assessments are usually based on material toughness so that testing must establish fracture toughness. material can be removed using a clean tungsten carbide burr or other means.

A refined analysis of creep. A Level III assessment will typically consist of the following elements: • • • • • More detailed NDE to fully characterize defect dimensions. or corrosion-fatigue (depending on the situation) expected life.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems assessments will frequently be limited by the ability to characterize accurately the nature and extent of defects present and the uncertainty regarding component properties. creep-fatigue. an extension of the inspection to nearby regions might be indicated. It can also require more complete acquisition of information to characterize the extent of damage. More detailed or specific on-line monitoring for specific variables of interest. A refined analysis of all loads and stress analysis by finite element or other methods to identify and quantify the highly stressed regions. More detailed microstructural evaluation by more careful examination of the results of replication. fatigue. Sampling of piping and weld material for testing to establish the actual properties of the material. For example. This is particularly applicable to creep rupture or creep-fatigue properties in hightemperature components. See Section 10 for more information on accelerated testing and the use of miniature specimens. These limitations will be significantly reduced if techniques can be applied to remove material samples for laboratory testing. if an inspection of the main steam seam welds indicated some significant damage. depending on what was conducted during Level II. • 8-10 .

Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Figure 8-4 Generic Steps in a Level III Assessment Adapted from EPRI Report GS-6724. Condition Assessment Guidelines for Fossil Fuel Power Plant Components [8-4]. 8-11 .

After that decision is made. when the alternative is replacement or significant repair. even before the inspection outage is started. it is appropriate to attach a reevaluation period to the result. • In general. Modification of the methods to suit the demands of or resources available to a particular utility application might be required. In most cases. knowledge of what level of damage will necessitate a replace or repair option might be necessary for cost effectiveness. Certain critical components are more likely to demand such foresight for reasons of safety. These can typically include the unit plan. Planned maintenance outages can be aligned with required inspection and sampling projects for detailed component assessment.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems The detailed Level III assessment can be quite expensive and might require cost justification. a multilevel approach offers a logical and resource-effective way to evaluate most components. Clearly some types of components and damage are more amenable to the general methodology than others. This might be necessary when the expected time to evaluate any indications is expected to take longer than is allowed by the constraints of the outage. for example. or overall impact on scheduling. Hence. to refurbish by repair or upgrade. lead time on component procurement. a Level III assessment will be required to ensure that the component can be operated in a safe manner. Phased levels of assessment interface with ongoing plant operation. If thorough documentation of historical practice and current operations is in hand. cost constraints. and safety implications of component failure. a periodic inspection and reevaluation will be appropriate. At each level of analysis. access. ease of repair or replacement in case of failure. The multilevel approach can be modified when common sense dictates that some activities that are generally applied later in the sequence should be moved to earlier roles. Component assessment is normally described in terms of multiple levels of evaluation. the calculated remaining life is compared to the desired component life. The choice of an acceptable remaining life (or alternatively a safety factor on the calculation) will depend on a number of factors specific to each utility. • • • • • 8-12 . it is often expeditious to perform analyses to identify critical flaw sizes or locations (such analysis methods are generally considered a Level III activity) before embarking on certain inspection programs. or to replace. For example. time constraints. even for a short period of time. some components and damage types can be evaluated with only a Level I assessment. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Phased Approach to Assessment Several key points can summarize the role of component condition assessment in continued plant operations [8-4]. For any of the options. if significant damage is found and repair or replacement is not chosen. The final event in the assessment sequence is the decision about whether to run the component as is.

In addition. for all but the simplest cases. For example. More often. This could lead to a replacement of like with like and the assumption that it should provide a further 20 years of service. Damage found in a component after 20 years should not simply be assumed to have developed over the entire service life.). they are not specific to a multilevel approach. First. Damage can be found to have been caused by operating practice that has not been properly controlled. particularly without destroying the components. system loads. they do not detract from the efficacy of the process for components that are appropriate. Finally. uncertainties will be present in the methods used. the actual material properties can be difficult to evaluate. and future record keeping that would make the reevaluation easier the next time. geometric discontinuities. Even in Level III. each method (and Level) has inherent problems. Most of the required methods and techniques to make these determinations are well established. however. It might also be a time to examine operating procedures and routine aspects of maintenance to fine-tune them for longer life as well as for increased performance. and so on. (This is a typical problem with change of service from base load to cycling.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems • Before replacing a damaged component. close examination of the damage and unit history can indicate that in fact damage has developed in the recent past and a policy of straightforward replacement offers significantly less service. it is crucial to determine the cause of the damage and to estimate the probable damage accumulation rate. and what was overlooked are inherent in trying to answer the question about the amount of damage in the component. issues such as whether the worst damage was detected. For Level I. so that any form of Level I methods is immediately rejected. the use of design stresses can in certain cases allow a realistic bounding analysis to be performed. The point is made to emphasize the requirement for good judgment along with an understanding of the advantages and drawbacks of the various assessment methods. the rate of accumulation of additional damage. • Application of the progressive damage assessment scheme described depends on the ability to assess the degree of damage in the component. often operation can be modified to improve service performance without major cost or inconvenience. 8-13 . some continue to see improvements with time. These drawbacks are. and the degree of damage necessary to cause failure. accurate knowledge of local component stress values is often complex. monitoring. The completion of assessment of a particular component is also an excellent time to determine the nature of inspection. complications such as residual stresses. More often. If the root cause is identified. the issue of identifying locally inferior material and the choices of sampling schemes make the application of the assessment methods more difficult. inherent in any method of condition assessment. Further. As with inspection. in some cases there is insufficient historical information. will mandate more detailed methods typical of Level III analysis. Second. for the most part. However. The same observation pertains to other aspects of the assessment methods. as evidenced by the large and growing literature of life assessment techniques. the amount of damage (or size of flaw depending on the type of damage) can be hard to measure. where to look.

these are not included in BLESS calculations [8-9]. For component girth welds. an analytical tool that has been developed to incorporate the key aspects of high-temperature damage analysis. The primary focus of the EPRI BLESS code is an estimation of the initiation and propagation of ligament cracking in high-temperature headers [8-6–8-8]. This subsection introduces both the available American programs and those used in Europe. new high-temperature component designs.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Currently Available Prediction Tools Introduction A number of currently available software packages can be used to perform the different level analyses for high-energy piping life assessments. The BLESS code can be used to make either deterministic or probabilistic estimates of remaining life. The code facilitates analysis of high-temperature component life by eliminating the requirement for finite element stress analysis and thermal analysis. they are not calculated. and describes some operational details. For component seam welds. developing a complete analytical technique from first principles and applying it to the field situation can be an extremely daunting task. The restraint of thermal expansion stresses by piping systems dominates the stress state at girth welds. evaluates their effectiveness. But a secondary (and relevant) application is the initiation and propagation of girth and longitudinal seam weld cracking in headers and straight runs of steam piping. BLESS can also be used to evaluate alternative. This subsection describes BLESS. The program calculates the time to initiation and time to failure for a specific design. The description of its capabilities also highlights some of the key considerations for those who build their own analytical tools. the one-dimensional model is adequate without empirical modifications. 8-14 . BLESS (Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation System) When analyzing for creep and creep-fatigue. Restraint of thermal expansion stresses as well as deadweight stresses and bending moments must be calculated outside of the BLESS code and then used to define equivalent load-controlled membrane stress inputs to BLESS. The primary use for the BLESS code is to establish component inspection schedules. Inputs Operating conditions and header geometry are input to the program. BLESS is available to utilities from EPRI. although stresses from attached components and support loads are important.

material ultimate tensile strength and hardness. Materials included in the code include P11. Details about how this was done can be found in the EPRI report Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts. which are briefly described in “BLESS: Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation System. Volume 4: BLESS Code User’s Manual and Life Assessment Guidelines (TR-103377V4) [8-7].Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Material Properties All material properties required for analysis are contained in the program. the program permits adjusting the key inputs—including current crack sizes. A Computer Code for Reliability Analysis of Headers and Piping” [8-10. Material properties are best-estimate values. The simplified model provides reasonable values for stress distributions in areas removed from geometric discontinuities. The probabilistic functions of the code use a Monte Carlo simulation consisting of repetitive deterministic lifetime calculations [8-13]. such as boreholes. BLESS uses nonlinear creep-fatigue crack growth rates. Calculational Methods The program performs both thermal and pressure stress analysis of a high-temperature component. • • The BLESS program incorporates the effect of aging on material properties. The creep rupture properties are based on the ASTM compilation. 8-8]). The BLESS code can be used either probabilistically or deterministically. The simplification is made possible by using a onedimensional model (through-wall variation only) based on a simple thick-walled cylinder model to calculate transient temperatures and stresses.” of the Probabilistic Structural Mechanics Handbook [8-12]. Additional information can be found in the following documents: • • Properties for P11 are reviewed in “BLESS: Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation System. The constitutive relationships consider primary and secondary creep and use functional forms provided by Riedel in Fracture at High Temperatures. Properties for P22 are summarized in the EPRI report Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts. and therefore produce a best estimate for lifetime. The repetitive calculations use varying input values randomly sampled from their distribution. “Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics. and P91. P22. The model is modified to account for specific geometries with closed-form empirical equations based on detailed three-dimensional linear finite element analyses. The results of the simulations are combined into a histogram of results that is the probability of failure as a function of time. A Computer Code for Reliability Analysis of Headers and Piping” [8-8]. Volume 1: Executive Summary (TR-103377-V1) [8-13]. and oxide crack depth—to perform a sensitivity analysis of assumptions and to attempt to match the estimated flaw size or growth with what has been actually observed. The creep and fatigue crack growth properties are described in Chapter 5. 8-15 . “Supplemental Report on the Elevated-Temperature Properties of Chromium-Molybdenum Steels (An Evaluation of 21/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel)” [8-11]. The BLESS code allows for life assessment of components without the use of finite element thermal and stress analysis. For components already in service.

Structural Reliability Technology. or from component ID to OD. 2001 [8-15]. Anderson. OmegaPipe Version 2. growth can occur by fatigue. the Ct parameter. or by continued oxide notching. 2002 [8-14]. and from surface penetration to surface penetration. 8-3 Cracks can grow in an axial or circumferential direction. T.6 User’s Manual. by creep. crack growth can be calculated from Equations 8-2 and 8-3. The first involves inelastic linear damage summation. OmegaPipe Software Overview All of the information in this subsection was extracted and modified from the following two documents: • • T. BLESS allows for calculation of propagation by all of these mechanisms. It includes a damage fraction rule that consists of two parts—a rate-dependent creep portion based on Robinson’s rule and a rate-independent fatigue part based on Miner’s rule.. da ⎛ da ⎞ ⎛ da ⎞ =⎜ +⎜ ⎟ ⎟ dN ⎝ dN ⎠ cycle ⎝ dN ⎠ time Eq. where nfat. Cl. The second approach involves repeated cracking of oxide scale and oxide notching. the resulting creep-fatigue is covered by BLESS. L. When both fatigue and creep occur together. Life Assessment of Long Seam Piping. L. the value calculated for the contribution from that mechanism is negligible. The creep-fatigue interaction uses Robinson’s rule for creep and Miner’s rule for fatigue. as Implemented in the OmegaPipe Software. and q are constants determined from curve fit data. The Materials Properties Council. The crack driving force for fatigue is considered to be the cyclic stress intensity factor (ΔK) and for creep. After a crack has initiated. Inc. After a crack is initiated. Anderson. 8-16 . After (ΔK) and Ct(ave) are calculated. Elastic deformation with primary creep and secondary creep are considered. growth from creep and fatigue is calculated using nonlinear fracture mechanics using the Ct(ave) parameter.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems BLESS incorporates two alternative approaches for predicting crack initiation [8-4]. If either of the two constituent modes is not present. 8-2 da n q = C fat (ΔK ) fat + Cl (Ct (ave ) ) th dN Eq. These are evaluated from the analogous fully plastic J-integral solution.

which uses the local stresses computed in the other modules to predict remaining life in specific sections of pipe. which allows users to create a three-dimensional. and the other pertains to Type IV cracking in the HAZ. Inc. for the High-Energy Piping Project of the Materials Properties Council.. Two versions of a cavity growth model are incorporated into the software. material. A library of parametric equations. • • • The flowchart in Figure 8-1 illustrates the various modules and file types used in the OmegaPipe software [8-14]. codes and standards developers. the user creates a piping model that corresponds to the system of interest. OmegaPipe software also models creep relaxation in the system. A finite element analysis module. ASTM. (The Materials Properties Council is a nonprofit corporation founded in 1966 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. It is supported by industry. which performs a global stress analysis of the piping system models. More detail is provided below on several special features of OmegaPipe software that add to its utility in high-energy piping analysis. one model is used for life assessment of normalized weld metal. and then OmegaPipe performs a global stress analysis. A life assessment module for long seam welds and girth welds. elbow. ASM International. Unlike most piping stress analysis programs. or run) for which the software can probabilistically estimate the remaining life for that specific piping detail. Using a template provided in the software. 8-17 . The OmegaPipe software includes the following four main modules: • A Windows-based physical modeling editor. Anderson of Structural Reliability Technology. and remaining life predictions for seam-welded steam piping systems that operate at elevated temperatures (high-energy piping). graphical piping system model that incorporates dimensional. and the Engineering Foundation. which relate stresses in the pipe wall (obtained from the global stress analysis) to local stresses at the fusion boundary of a seam weld or girth weld. Ted L. life assessment. geometrically correct. and support data. The modeling editor displays an isometric view of the piping system on screen. sweep. technical organizations. The life prediction module combines a void growth failure model with the Omega creep crack growth equations.) The software package performs stress analysis. and government agencies.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems The OmegaPipe software was developed by Dr. The user can then select a portion of the piping system (for example.

accurate stress analysis is essential. In addition. Calculations of the remaining life of a component operating in the creep range are highly sensitive to the level of applied stress. Errors in calculated stress levels can result in significant errors in life estimates. These elements use axisymmetric shell theory with nonaxisymmetric boundary conditions. most modeling programs are limited to linear elastic material behavior. OmegaPipe Version 2. commercial programs for piping flexibility analysis perform an approximate stress analysis that represents piping components with straight and curved beam finite elements.6 User’s Manual [8-14].” that account for ovalization and warping in elbows and sweeps [8-16]. Typically. Anderson. et al. and therefore. based on the work of Yan. in “An Enhanced Pipe Elbow Element: Application in Plastic Limit Analysis of Pipe Structures. Piping Stress Analysis The OmegaPipe software package was specifically tailored for stress analysis of hightemperature piping. which are applied 8-18 . hightemperature ovalization effects in elbows are modeled with empirical flexibility factors and stress intensification factors. OmegaPipe software uses special piping finite elements.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Figure 8-5 Flowchart of the OmegaPipe Software Source: T. L.

Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems through harmonic analysis. If the seam weld location was not identified for a given element. At a given location around the circumference in a straight pipe or bend. Moreover. the stress distribution in a piping system’s weldments is very important because welds are the locations of highest susceptibility to damage. which were developed through complex finite element analysis and curve fitting. the HAZ is softer than the surrounding base metal and weld metal. In this case. these elements can account for the relaxation and redistribution of stresses that occurs during creep. the program conducts a deterministic life assessment on each element in the model at the seam weld location. the weld cusp in a double-V joint creates a local stress concentration. 8-19 . OmegaPipe software is designed to account for the effects of welds on actual stress distributions. OmegaPipe software reports its individual component life estimates with a relative life ranking system. the Material Properties Counsel’s Omega material model is used to characterize creep behavior at elevated temperatures. which were calculated at weld fusion lines. 8-17].0 would be expected to have a life 10 times greater than that of the worst location. Within the ranking methodology. During stress analysis. which increases the probability of cracking. As noted in the OmegaPipe literature. A series of parametric equations. which are averaged to give equivalent membrane hoop and axial stresses at the location of interest. During analysis. Upon completion of the piping stress analysis. In the alternative case of a weld that is not normalized. OmegaPipe software’s stress analysis module reports five stress values (calculated through the thickness). and therefore local deformation and triaxiality make the HAZ susceptible to Type IV cracking. Life Assessment OmegaPipe software includes subroutines that predict the remaining life in welded components exposed to high temperatures based on the analyses performed. nor does it account for local variations in geometry. are used to estimate prior damage and predict the remaining life at the location of interest. The local stresses. the physical constraint of the base metal creates a triaxial stress state in the weld metal. are used to relate stresses obtained from the seamless piping stress analysis to the local stress state at the weld fusion lines [8-15. the life assessment is performed at the 12 o’clock position around the piping circumference. the relative life ranking should be used with caution because this ranking does not account for possible random and unpredictable metallurgical variations throughout the piping system. The weld metal in a normalized weld creeps faster than the base metal. Local Weld Stresses The complex piping finite elements that OmegaPipe software uses do not account for the presence of seam or girth welds. Although the presence of seam welds does not have a significant effect on the global stiffness or relaxation of the piping system. For example. and therefore the stresses computed pertain only to seamless piping. a life index of 1. from the shortest predicted lifespan to the longest. such as pipe peaking or out-of-roundness [8-15]. and all other locations are scaled relative to that location. which also increases the probability of cracking. the location at which the shortest life is computed is assigned an index of 10.

The OmegaPipe software can also perform a Monte Carlo probabilistic life assessment for specific locations. Input data for a segment include the material. pipe size. inspected. Output data include the predicted wear of common types of piping components with some parametric variations of uncertainties. The same model is used for both normalized welds and Type IV cracking in nonnormalized HAZs. and number of operating hours since plant startup. 8-20 . Provision is made for selecting component types from a library of previously analyzed geometries. condensate cold pH. which creates a plot of probability of failure versus remaining life. dissolved oxygen. operating temperature. water treatment. and operating conditions. material. For the large number of piping runs and components that are potentially susceptible to FAC damage. CHECWORKS™ and CHECUP™ Programs Using the Chexal-Horowitz correlation incorporated in the CHECWORKS™ and CHECUP™ programs. This provides a cost benefit in reducing the number of inspections required to characterize the level of FAC damage for a specific unit. A piping segment is a portion of a line that has the same size. system identification. CHECUP provides a technical basis for selecting higher FAC risk locations for inspection from among the many possibilities. CHECUP predicts the wall loss of single-phase piping segments and components since plant startup. It can also be used for the feedwater piping of HRSG units.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems The life assessment model considers the combined effect of creep and cavity growth. flow rate. but not for economizer or evaporator tubing. The OmegaPipe software treats the difference between the two failure mechanisms with variations in local stress state and material properties (for example. A typical input screen for CHECUP is shown in Figure 8-5. CHECUP provides an analysis basis for the hydrodynamic factors. co-generation. relative creep rates and initial cavity size and spacing). CHECWORKS increases the confidence of plant owners and operators that the most damaged components will be identified. and industrial steam plants to rank the amount of wall loss that might have occurred at various piping locations due to FAC [8-18]. EPRI’s CHECUP technology was developed specifically for fossil. as shown in Figure 8-6. Material and chemistry conditions drive the FAC mechanism with the hydrodynamics setting the rate of damage. and repaired or replaced long before a rupture might occur.

Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Figure 8-6 Sample Input Screen for CHECUPTM Software FAC Analysis Figure 8-7 Sample Output Report from CHECUPTM Software FAC Analysis 8-21 .

CA: 1995. Central Electricity Generating Board. Palo Alto. R. Results can be easily evaluated to aid in the selection of inspection locations. Mann. References 8-1. and cold pH is also shown. Built-in properties of standard pipe sizes and common piping materials. May 1985. W. EPRI. 8-22 . 8-5. European Programs This section will be included in a future update.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems Key features of the CHECUP software include the following: • • • • • • All data input for a segment on one screen. 8-2. oxygen content. Coade and S. R. Built-in correlations of cold pH and water treatment (ammonia. Generation Operation Memorandum 101. CA: 1992.” Fitness for Adverse Environments in Petroleum and Power Equipment. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1997). D. CS-4778. EPRI. The FAC prediction results from the CHECUP software are intended primarily for prioritizing inspection efforts. D. Dedhia. they are not intended to provide accurate prediction of FAC damage. O. Issue 2. 8-3. 8-4. TR-104631. CA: 1990. “The Effect of Operational. Material and Geometric Variables on the Creep/Fatigue Life of Headers in Fossil Power Service. Harris. PVP Vol. several amines) with hot pH (hot pH impacts the rate of FAC). 8-6. Viswanathan. EPRI. State Electricity Commission of Victoria. Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts—Volume 4: BLESS Code User’s Manual and Life Assessment Guidelines. 1982. Ability to quickly evaluate operation at reduced or cycling unit loads. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Seam-Welded High-Energy Piping. Condition Assessment Guidelines for Fossil Fuel Power Plant Components. Creep Life Assessment Procedures and a Computer-Based Life Assessment Program. CA: 1986. Palo Alto. Sensitivity of results to plant variables—material alloy content (AC). temperature. SO/85/92. GS-6724. EPRI. and D. TR-103377-V4. Generic Guidelines for the Life Extension of Fossil Fuel Power Plants. Procedure for Boiler Header Creep Life Assessment. Palo Alto. Palo Alto. Actual inspection results are to be used to trend FAC damage and estimate remaining service life. Report No. 8-7. 359.

Viswanathan. Smith. pp. M. TR-103377-V1. 8-13. Finite Element Case Study of Local Stress Effects in Long Seam Welded Pipe. Springer-Verlag. Palo Alto.” ASTM Data Series DS6S2. Life Assessment of Long Seam Piping. C. CO. 2002. Probabilistic Structural Mechanics Handbook. 8-14. Boulder.” in C. D. 2001. H. CA: 2002. 8-18.0. Structural Reliability Technology. Ryder. Wells. Anderson. pp. Harris. “Supplemental Report on the Elevated-Temperature Properties of Chromium-Molybdenum Steels (An Evaluation of 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo Steel). Harris. 1003990. 8-23 .” Reliability and Risk in Pressure Vessels and Piping. 8-12. EPRI.” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. O. Palo Alto. Life Assessment of Boiler Pressure Parts—Volume 1: Executive Summary. CA: 1998. Riedel. CHECWORKS™ Fossil Plant Application. Palo Alto. L. R.). A. D. Sundararajan (ed. 1995.Programmatic Approaches to Life Management of Piping Systems 8-8. “Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics. 46. L. J. Philadephia. Fracture at High Temperatures. Bloom. “An Enhanced Pipe Elbow Element: Application in Plastic Limit Analysis of Pipe Structures. H. American Society for Testing and Materials. Schultz. PA. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. C. . G. Grunloh. Inherently Reliable Boiler Component Design: Interim Report. PVP Vol. 8-9. CO. 8-15. J. Version 1. G. J. New York. V. M. Anderson. TR-103198-P5R1. Vol. and D. T. Jospin. 106–145. R. 409–431 (1999). New York. pp. Thorwald and T. 8-10. 8-16. Boulder. H. T. CA: 1993.. 8-11. O. OmegaPipe® Version 2. Anderson. “BLESS: Boiler Life Evaluation and Simulation System: A Computer Code for Reliability Analysis of Headers and Piping. Chapman & Hall. and R. Berlin. EPRI. 2001.6 User’s Manual. L. H. V. C. 8-17. 1987. The Materials Properties Council. 17–26 (1993). Structural Reliability Technology. 251. Inc. EPRI. 1971. as Implemented in the OmegaPipe Software. Nguyen. H. Yan.

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It includes guidelines on evaluating the hanger and support performance and describes problems that can arise from hanger malfunctions. and the structures available for support. Hanger support systems are designed to accomplish the following: • • • • Support the dead weight of the piping. the contained fluid. it provides system survey checklists that can assist in the hanger system evaluation. Because the location of the supports is different for each piping system. This section provides a brief background of the various types of high-energy piping hanger supports and how they operate. Finally. or other attachment welds.PIPING SYSTEM SURVEYS 9 Introduction and Background Pipe support systems are a critical component of properly operating high-energy piping systems. wyes. It also describes how to conduct a thorough hot and cold walkdown of a system. the hangers should be located as close as possible to the load to minimize bending stresses. several considerations can help to create a successful hanger support system. Their primary function is to maintain the system stresses while the unit is in the on-line (hot) and off-line (cold) positions. the insulation. seam. Support System Design The method of determining hanger support locations that will allow the pipe to meet the code stress requirements is primarily based on the pipe’s diameter. or other exceptionally heavy loads within the piping run. Allow for thermal expansion of the piping and still provide weight support. and the weight of other attached components. the overall configuration of the line (including the span of the horizontal and vertical pipe runs). the location of heavy valves and fittings. Considerable stresses can be created in the piping and in the terminal point connections (boiler header and turbine) if the support system is not designed properly to accommodate thermal expansion differences or if the hanger supports malfunction. These elevated stresses can eventually lead to distortion of the steam piping or premature failure of the girth. Provide support and displacement control for wind and seismic loads. For areas with valves. Provide support for other dynamic load situations such as vibration and water or steam hammer. If the 9-1 . while minimizing the load transfer at the terminal points (the boiler header and turbine connection).

(2. Understanding the thermal expansion of the line is critical for determining the type of support needed on the piping.5 .-F x (55 ft x 12 in. the coefficient of expansion of the piping material the vertical spacing Eq.60 + 50. a complex finite element analysis is required.35/6. up or 4.1) = 119 mm up To determine the movement at an intermediate point (for example. 11/20) of the difference in displacement at the end points (D and K) and add it to the common displacement.8 mm) up. However. This will eliminate the tendency for the piping to rotate about the support. 9-1 The following examples describe the use of Equation 9-1 (see Figure 9-1): • For a rigid support at H-4. Thermal expansion is independent of pipe size or wall thickness and is entirely dependent on the temperature and material type. If point D moved 4. the amount of pipe displacement determines the type of hanger that should be used. For this example. (98.54 cm) typically require a constant-load hanger to prevent a load transfer back to the pipe or other adjacent hangers.67 in.0E-6 mm/mm-C x 16. (2. hangers should be positioned so that the elevation of support is above the midpoint of the length of pipe supported.21. up or (119 .67 . as shown by the following: (4. In addition. the movement at point D would be 7. using multiple hanger supports on the vertical pipe runs provides additional horizontal stability and distributes the piping load over the building structure.2E-6 in. the thermal movements of a piping system’s vertical span from a single reference point can be approximated using the thermal expansion calculation shown in Equation 9-1. interpolate using the displacements at the end points. If a change in direction occurs between supports./in. (119 mm) up and point K moved 2 in. and the direction of thermal expansion has nothing to do with the direction of fluid flow in the pipe. (50. the pipe span length should be less than 75% of the comparable straight run length.54 cm) or smaller. For pipe displacements 1 in. For vertical piping sections. calculate the proportion (in this case. After the load is known.70) = 4.8 mm up 9-2 • .89 in.50.8 mm) up. hangers should be positioned adjacent to the locations of direction change. H-2)./ft) x (1050 .Piping System Surveys piping changes direction.67 in. To determine the thermal movements and high stress locations of a piping system. Δthermal expansion = α l ΔT Where: ΔT α l = = = the change in the system’s operating temperature from cold to hot. point H-2 moved 3.89 in.8) x 3.2) x 11/20 + 2 = 3.8 = 98. Thermal displacement always describes the pipe movement as it travels from the cold to the hot condition. Displacements larger than 1 in.8 m x 1000 mm/m x (565. variable-load hangers can be used.

Piping System Surveys

Figure 9-1 Portion of Typical High-Energy Piping Isometric Drawing

Types of Hanger Supports Four general categories of hanger supports are used in power plant design. Each hanger type and style is used for a specific function and type of location based on the flexibility, size, and length of a piping run. The hanger categories include the following: • • • • Flexible supports Rigid supports Snubbers and sway braces Dampers and other horizontal restraints

9-3

Piping System Surveys

Flexible Supports Pipe systems move as a result of thermal expansion when the unit goes from the off-line (cold) to the on-line (hot) condition. Flexible supports use helical coiled springs and a bell crank lever arm to provide a continuous supporting force throughout the expansion and contraction cycle. Flexible supports are of the following two types: • Constant-load hangers are the most frequently used support in high-energy piping systems. They are used to prevent the transfer of the pipe load to any connected equipment or adjacent supports. When constant supports are used, the supporting force is the same in both the cold and hot positions. Each support has a travel scale and indicator that shows the position of the bell lever within the prescribed travel range. A locking device is available on the hanger for use during initial construction and maintenance periods. The locking device should never be in use during plant operation. Each support has a nameplate that provides the pertinent design and sizing information. Figure 9-2 shows a constant-load support hanger.

Figure 9-2 Cross Section of a Constant-Load Support Hanger

Variable-load hangers are used predominantly in noncritical piping systems, or in critical piping systems where the vertical movement is very small (1 in. [2.54 cm] or less). When used in critical piping systems, they are typically used adjacent to the piping’s terminal points in order to limit applied bending loads in the hot position. The variable load hanger provides a level of support (typically vertical) that changes as displacement of the attached piping occurs. Variable support loads are typically set to apply the required support load in the hot condition, transferring the load when the system returns to the cold position where the material’s allowable stresses are much higher. The spring rate of a variable support hanger cannot be adjusted; however, the load being carried is controlled though the length of the attachment rod (which in turn, changes the expansion and contraction of the spring or springs). Each support has a nameplate that provides the pertinent design and sizing information. Figure 9-3 shows a variable-load hanger.

9-4

Piping System Surveys

Figure 9-3 Cross Section of a Variable-Load Support Hanger

Rigid Supports Rigid supports are used in locations where the pipe movement needs to be limited or must be completely prevented. They are typically restraints, guides, anchors, or limit stops. Most main steam and HRH systems have one vertical rigid support located along the major vertical run. A system is termed a floater if no rigid supports are present. Many systems use piping guides and limit stops to direct piping deformation to designed expansion loops and to guard against severe distortion. A limit stop allows the pipe to have unrestricted movement for a preset distance before being restrained. Limit stops are frequently used near safety valves to counteract the thrust loads of the valves lifting. Figure 9-4 shows a rigid support.

9-5

Piping System Surveys

Figure 9-4 An Example of a Rigid Support

Snubbers and Sway Braces Snubbers and sway braces restrict the horizontal movement of the pipe through the use of rigid rods. Either one or two rods can be used, depending on whether the desire is to restrict the motion of the pipe to the axis of the brace or the axis of the pipe, respectively. Figure 9-5 shows the two arrangements of sway braces, a single-rod and a double-rod arrangement.

Figure 9-5 Sway Brace Arrangements

9-6

Piping System Surveys

Dampers Two commonly used dampers are vibration dampers and shock suppressors. Vibration dampers are installed so that no vibration load is applied to the pipe in the hot condition. They are essentially sway braces with double-acting springs. They have some adjustability after installation. Shock suppressors are designed to mitigate seismic events. They are not designed to support the weight of the pipe. They are required in nuclear piping systems, but in fossil plants they are often used on piping where there can be large dynamic loads. They are not effective against high-frequency, low-amplitude movements, and they require higher maintenance than vibration dampers do. Support Attachments (Pipe Side) The most favorable way to attach the hangers to the pipe is through the use of bolted clamps. This avoids adding welds to the high-energy piping and therefore minimizes the number of stress concentrators and future potential cracking areas. The clamps are held in place with either a twobolt or a three-bolt design. They must be fabricated from alloy steel suitable for high-temperature service when on the main steam or HRH lines. On vertical piping runs, the clamps support the pipe through the use of lugs welded to the line. The lugs frequently experience cracking, although they are not typically not detrimental to the line, and they should be periodically examined. Figure 9-6 shows an example of this configuration.

Figure 9-6 Configuration of Welded Attachment Lugs on Piping

Hanger plates welded to the elbow extrados are often used to attach a hanger where the pipe changes direction from a horizontal to a vertical run. Figure 9-7 shows an example of this arrangement. Again, these attachments are prone to cracking and should periodically be examined. 9-7

Piping System Surveys

Figure 9-7 A Typical Hanger Plate Attachment Configuration

Evaluation of Hanger and Support Performance
A good hanger inspection program is essential to maintain properly operating hangers and to reduce high-energy piping problems. Hanger failures result in increased load on the piping, which can result in deformation of the line, premature creep failures, and fatigue damage, all of which dramatically reduce the piping life. Frequent monitoring of the support system’s condition can identify broken or bottomed out hangers and make trending of the hanger readings possible so that potential problems with the critical piping can be identified before becoming significant issues. It is important to monitor the hangers in both the hot and cold conditions to ensure that they are operating properly and have not become locked into one position. What to Look for in a Hanger Support Evaluation The initial line inspection should determine whether the correct hangers are in place and whether they are located on the line as specified on the design drawings. The clearances between the support components, piping, and nearby plant structures and equipment should be checked to ensure that there will be no interferences when the pipe moves from the cold to the hot position. The hangers should be verified as having the correct size and being the correct type for the load they are supporting. The load is determined based on the actual pipe diameter and wall thickness, the type and thickness of the insulation, and the fluid capacity of the pipe. The total weight of the piping, insulation, valves, and so forth should be equal to the load carried by the hangers plus the load supported by the terminal points.

9-8

Piping System Surveys

ASME B31.1 recommends that the hangers be periodically examined to look for changes both in the piping and in the hangers [9-1]. Hangers can become inoperable as a result of creep deformation of the piping, a dynamic event in the line such as a water or steam hammer, or deterioration of the spring and other components. For constant-support and variable-load hangers, the code recommends that hanger readings be obtained both in the fully hot position and when the unit is off-line in the cold position. The hanger readings should be recorded and permanently stored. The temperature of the pipe at the time of observations should also be noted. Hanger load and travel adjustments might be necessary over the life of a critical piping system. As a result of relaxation in the material, the piping rarely returns to its exact original position after operating in the hot condition. Also, as high-energy piping ages, creep deformation results in permanent shifting throughout the system. Careful monitoring of the hanger loads will result in a better-balanced system and less permanent deformation. When a Hanger Support Problem Has Been Identified For the majority of hanger problems that are identified, an immediate shutdown of the plant for repairs is not necessary; however, a timely response is important. Engineering must assess the effect of the hanger failure on the unit’s continued operation. In addition, they must determine the cause of the hanger failure. Typically, a flexible support hanger failure is the result of the support exceeding its limit. The damage imposed on the piping as a result of the malfunctioning hanger is cumulative. High stresses can lead to either premature creep failure or fatigue cracks. Without a stress analysis, it is difficult to determine where damage will occur in the piping; it is not always in the proximity of the failed hanger. If the flexible support’s limits have been exceeded, adjustments should be made with the system on-line in the hot condition. This will ensure that the necessary loads are supported when the unit is most susceptible to creep degradation. (The allowable stress is much higher, and therefore the piping is more tolerant to high stresses, in the cold condition.) To ensure that the proper adjustments and maintenance have been performed on the hanger, the support’s readings in both the hot and cold positions should be taken over the next few months of operation. Replacing a Hanger Support If the hanger support is not repairable, then the entire hanger or the affected parts must be replaced. Hanger replacements typically occur with the unit off-line. Before removing the hanger, at least one support upstream and downstream of the affected support should be pinned, and the piping at the hanger should be supported. Lateral support might also be required. If a detached support (as in the case of a broken hanger rod) is being reconnected, the piping run must be brought back to the appropriate elevation and slope before attaching and setting the support.

9-9

Piping System Surveys Addressing Chronic Hanger Support Problems If a system has a history of constant hanger support problems. In addition to verifying the correct hanger size. In addition to hanger support issues. Sagging is typically found at the bottom of a vertical riser or in long horizontal sections. Unlike sagging. Care must be taken not to lift the pipe during the testing process. Sagging and Skews in Critical Piping A common problem in older critical piping systems is sagging of the pipe between the supports. If left unattended. Drains or taps should be added to the sagging piping to prevent any water that has accumulated in the pipe’s low points from being sent though the turbine during startup. In Situ Hanger Testing In situ hanger testing was developed to determine whether the system’s hangers are supporting the correct loads while they are still in place on the pipe. Repeated dynamic events such as water or steam hammer and thermal transients can cause significant hanger problems and degradation of high-energy piping. In situ hanger testing can be performed. Performing closed-form calculations or a more sophisticated stress analysis can help check the hanger needs (for improved design). which is a common problem in older systems. several things must be considered to remedy the situation. verify the accuracy of the specified load carried by each hanger support (as indicated on the hanger nameplate). hanger problems can result in rapid accumulation of damage. the results will be invalidated. Several different methods can be used to determine whether the hanger is accurately carrying the correct load. A shear pin load cell can be used on the hanger. If the pipe is lifted during testing. The load is then determined based on the knowledge of the ram pressure and area. Load results can then be compared to the hanger design loads or used in a stress analysis for the line [9-2]. It is indicative of a locked flexible support or snubber and can result in significant deformation in the pipe at bends and vertical sections. it is a result of improperly spaced hanger supports or prolonged operation of the piping at or above the design temperature. verify that they are sized correctly. Dynamometers can be installed in the support rods. 9-10 . It would also be prudent to add additional hangers to reduce the horizontal pipe spans. including the following: • • • • The support can be removed from the line and tested in a test stand. On supports that are frequently adjusted. The apparatus works by circumventing the rigid section of the hanger support and allowing the load to be directed into hydraulic rams. skewing is a sign of a significant problem that requires immediate attention. unit operations should be reviewed to determine whether system transients are contributing to the hanger problems.

This can be accomplished by the following: • • Review the piping system drawings (such as the line isometrics) to understand the overall piping layout and the location of the hanger supports.Piping System Surveys Hot and Cold Hanger Walkdown Inspections Preparation To perform a thorough walkdown inspection. and develop hanger travel sketches or data sheets to use for documentation of as-found conditions. adequate preparation should be made. become familiar with the piping system and hanger supports in use. Before performing a walkdown inspection. Prepare isometric sketches of the piping system (see Figure 9-8) to assist in support identification. Figure 9-8 A Simple Isometric Sketch of Piping System Showing Relative Locations of Supports with ID Names and the Type of Support Hanger 9-11 .

if available. if available. • Figure 9-9 Detailed Design Drawings for a Typical Constant-Support Hanger Showing the Pertinent Load and Travel Information 9-12 .Piping System Surveys • Review the hanger detail drawings such as those shown in Figures 9-9 and 9-10. the travel scale positions. to be aware of significant conditions that were observed in previous inspections. the predicted magnitude and direction of thermal expansion. and other relevant design data. Review any prior walkdown inspection data. to determine the design hot and cold support load.

and pens Shop towels and solvent to clean hanger nameplates or travel scales Piping system drawings or isometric sketches showing supports and ID names Data sheets or sketches for recording hanger data 9-13 . Several items that will facilitate remote hanger inspection include the following: • • • • • • • • • Binoculars or other high-magnification sighting tools to assist with inspection of remote hangers and hanger travel scales A high-intensity light source A tape measure or scale A camera for documentation of as-found conditions A paint stick or other marking tool to mark ID names on supports if they are not already present A clipboard. paper. therefore. many inspections must be performed remotely.Piping System Surveys Figure 9-10 Detailed Design Drawings for a Typical Variable-Load Support Hanger Showing the Pertinent Load and Travel Information Inspection Equipment and Documentation Aids Access to perform close inspection of the majority of hangers can be difficult unless scaffolding is erected.

Figure 9-11 shows a support hanger running through the floor grating. the megawatt load and the steam outlet temperature at the time of testing should be recorded. referring to the line sketch and verifying the information. not just the questionable or detrimental as-found conditions. This documentation will provide true baseline data should future problems with the pipe hangers occur. Measuring the clearance helps to determine whether there is sufficient room for expansion and contraction. If the unit is online. Measurement of gaps or clearances at limit-stops. Begin the hanger inspection at one end of the piping and work toward the opposite end. That system can include a standard north-south or eastwest direction and a relationship to the front or rear and left or right of the boiler. Figure 9-11 A Support Hanger Running Through the Floor Grating 9-14 . and at other locations can confirm whether or not piping is expanding from cold to hot as desired.Piping System Surveys Documentation of the Hanger Walkdown Document all conditions that are specifically examined. A consistent reference system should be established for the identification of the hangers and the documentation of the as-found condition. It is critical that the operating condition of the unit be noted at the time of the walkdown. These measurements are important should a stress analysis of the piping system be necessary to investigate problem areas or to predict pipe remaining life. at penetrations through wall or floor openings.

total available travel) Hanger travel or load scale configuration (such as 10 travel scale divisions with 0 at the top of the travel scale and 10 at the bottom) Hanger design cold and hot travel scale positions as indicated by stamps. pivots. or deformed structural steel members) System Survey Checklist The following list can be used as a checklist for observations that should be made during a hanger support evaluation. design cold and hot load. unit load or nominal steam outlet temperature) at the time of the inspection Hanger nameplate design information (hanger manufacturer.Piping System Surveys Summary of Hanger Walkdown Documentation Requirements The documentation requirements for a hanger walkdown include the following: • • • • • • Date and unit status (off-line or on-line. bent or broken support rods. Check for foreign matter such as fly ash or other debris in the springs that could restrict its movement. Check whether the supports are the right size and type for the load they are carrying. Check for any structural restrictions. Constant Load Support Observations • • • • Look for loose. Examine the springs. if present. Look for signs of corrosion on the springs. corroded or impacted spring hanger assemblies. Check whether the supports are free to move with the pipe. Check for damaged insulation adjacent to the hanger area. on the travel scale (typically H and C stamps or red and white markers) Current hanger travel scale position. hanger size or figure number. including a note for any hangers that are topped or bottomed out Details of any other observed detrimental conditions (such as loose support rods. 9-15 . design travel and direction. General Hanger Observations • • • • • Check whether the supports are located where they are supposed to be according to the design drawings. and cases for broken parts.

9-16 . bent. Note any hanger that is topped or bottomed out. Note any hanger that is topped or bottomed out. Check pipe-side lugs for deformation. or broken support rods. or broken support rods. examine the pipe-side hanger attachment lugs for cracking. Ensure that the locking devices are not engaged. then estimate the position from 0 at the bottom or lowermost scale position and 10 at the top or uppermost travel position. Check that the fluid reservoirs are filled to the manufacturer’s recommended level. Sway Brace Support Observations • • Look for loose. Check for foreign matter such as fly ash or other debris in the springs that could restrict its movement. and cases for broken parts. Ensure that the hanger is not bearing the pipe’s weight. Document the hanger load scale position. bent. or broken support rods. bent. Look for signs of corrosion on the springs. pivots. Rigid Support Observations • • • Look for loose. On vertical piping runs. Ensure that the locking devices are not engaged. Examine the pivot to ensure it is in proper working order Snubber and Shock Suppressors Support Observations • • • Stroke snubbers and shock suppressors to verify that they are not locked up and acting as rigid supports. Note the hanger design information from the hanger nameplate. Examine the springs. Look for signs of lateral interference with the surrounding structure. • • • Variable Load Support Observations • • • • • • • • • Look for loose. Note the hanger design information from the hanger nameplate.Piping System Surveys • Document the hanger travel scale position (if the hanger scale position is not legible.

or damaged pipe insulation or lagging. March 2004.” Proceedings of ASME Power 2004. May. Examine the insulation on the piping for interference or tight clearances between the piping and any adjacent piping. Baltimore. G. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. loose. 2004. surrounding structures. skews. 9-17 . “The Need for in situ Pipe Support Testing. permanent reference. floor gratings.1. MD. other equipment. Check for missing. New York. Look for damage or deformation of the structural steel at or near the pipe support attachment points. limit stops supports. 9.2 ASME B31. Code for Pressure Piping Standards: Power Piping. POWER2004-52031. or other locations where the pipe location can be measured relative to a fixed. and so on. Measure and document the pipe location at position indicators.Piping System Surveys General Piping Observations • • • • • Examine horizontal and vertical piping runs for sags. or other anomalies. References 9-1.

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less exhaustive (and therefore generally less expensive) options can be more than adequate and therefore appropriate. Even within the limitations of a single component. the problem was a lack of inspection and life assessment tools. as have the available NDE approaches for component inspection. which should include the impact of decisions on potential repairs or replacements. decisions are also based on the best available technology for the application. The list of components recommended for inspection has grown dramatically. 10-1 . Previously. The fossil power utility planner can then access and retrieve comprehensive information quickly and use the information in developing a condition assessment strategy. it places additional emphasis on selection of appropriate NDE and life assessment technologies to ensure that the component will operate through a longer cycle with acceptable risk. reliabilities. This situation has increased the need for a single document that presents NDE information in a concise format. and other indirect expenses associated with the inspection capabilities. reinspection intervals. decisions are made purely on the basis of inspection cost without due consideration of the true cost. The problem that the planner must currently address has evolved to the selection of appropriate inspection technologies and inspection scope to meet specific conditions and objectives in the most economic way. now. and level of maturity. the planner often finds an extensive range of available inspection technologies. Although this approach is perfectly valid. possible forced outages. Depending on the particular circumstances. each having its own inherent capabilities. Power utility NDE planners or purchasers must often make decisions based on limited information and without sufficient time and support to perform a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis. All too often. Reinspection interval extension is one way of reducing maintenance costs that is currently receiving significant attention.10 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING Introduction The status of fossil power plant condition assessment has changed dramatically over the past several decades. the problem centers on the vast array of options available to the planner. At the other end of the spectrum.

real time. eye fatigue. simple. alignment of field is important. painted. fast. The inspection or reinspection decision is based on the following parameters: • • • • Fabrication history Operating history Identification of the specific damage mechanisms that apply to a given component Risk-benefit assessment for optimizing resource management budgets Table 10-1 lists common NDE methods. porosity. loss of wall. requires good ventilation Magnetic Particle Surface and nearsurface discontinuities— cracks. warpage. Wet fluorescent technique very sensitive to small surface flaws 10-2 . portable. misalignment. inclusions. surface must be clean. will work on some coated materials Limitations Surface only. slag. Inexpensive. their advantages. distractions. laps. Table 10-1 NDE Methods Cross-Reference Method Applications Surface discontinuities— cracks. part might require demagnetization. requires good illumination Surface only. laps Material must be ferromagnetic. more sensitive to tight cracks than liquid penetrant. without being overwhelmed by the technicalities of the NDE technique. can eliminate the need for other methods.Nondestructive Testing Assessment Objective (Macro/Micro) The procurement objective is to enable informed NDE decisions to be made. or rough surfaces Comments Should always be the first method applied Visual Liquid Penetrant Messy. seams. not useful on hot. and their limitations. leaks Advantages Inexpensive. their applications. applicable to most materials Low cost. seams. porosity. In other instances. easy to apply. can do near-subsurface. a full inspection of the system can be scheduled to examine the system more comprehensively for damage such as weld cracking. and so on. porosity. High-energy piping systems are typically inspected every scheduled outage to ensure that the hanger support system is functioning properly. even by personnel who are not experts in NDE. variable and poor resolution. voids. portable. more sensitive than visual alone. fast. dirty. This might entail only a walkdown of the system. rapid. leaks Surface discontinuities— cracks.

boiling and cavitation. Damage assessment and determination of microstructure and heat treatment verification without sectioning the component. piping need not be taken out of service. use is growing rapidly Replication Surface microstructural condition Can reveal extent of creeprelated damage only at the tested surface 10-3 . permanent record. leaks. incomplete penetration. can be portable. double-wall exposures for large diameter piping Contact with system. corrosion. complex interpretation. composition Surface and subsurface discontinuities—crack initiation and growth. costs 50–90% less than direct costs for ultrasonic examination. Current practice is to confirm indications by other methods. orientation of discontinuity important. laminations. inclusions. lack of fusion. can give location and size of discontinuity. porosity. automated digital ultrasonic systems are highly developed Can be useful method to assist with disposition of ultrasonic indications Ultrasonic Radiography Subsurface discontinuities— cracks. voids. operatordependent Comments Requires the use of meaningful reference standards. system must be stressed. tests an entire vessel or system. radiation hazards. thin complex shapes are difficult. phase changes Provides permanent record. lack of fusion. thickness Advantages Portable. inspect from one side Limitations Couplant required. poor resolution on thick.Nondestructive Testing Table 10-1 (continued) NDE Methods Cross-Reference Method Applications Surface and deep subsurface discontinuities— cracks. good sensitivity. severity. inclusions. thickness variation. location. applicable to wide range of materials Not sensitive to misaligned planar. relatively expensive. might require many contact points. crack-like flaws. missing components. some systems are too complex Evaluates surface condition only Acoustic Emission Remote and continuous surveillance.

or economizer sections can provide critical information regarding flow balance across the boiler. or local overheating can be detected quickly and visually by experienced personnel during the walkdown. rubs. No Surface Preparation It is often recommended that a walkdown of the equipment be conducted with no surface preparation of the components because signs of unusual operation of the unit can often provide valuable evidence of the abnormal condition and aid in subsequent inspections and overall condition assessment. and so forth Interference with other projects in the plant Planning of the overall outage and inspections and coordination between the NDE personnel and contractors are critical to minimizing the cost and time involved in surface preparation. Damage to insulation and sagging can indicate hanger or support problems in piping systems. dusting or greasing of insulation components can provide valuable information relative to looseness between mating parts.Nondestructive Testing Access and Required Surface Preparation Preparation of various power plant component surfaces for inspection is governed by many variables. Signs of steam or water leakage. vibration. Similarly. this is not always the case. Deposits in the turbine stages can provide critical evidence of past exposure to contaminants for future use. access. including the following: • • • • • • • • NDE techniques to be used Type of NDE procedures to be applied Sequence of NDE techniques to be used Materials involved Component size and portability Costs of various surface preparation techniques Time required. and samples should be collected before being contaminated with cleaning media. Heat patterns in generator rotors or stators can be indicative of insulation breakdown. 10-4 . “What information might I lose by cleaning component surfaces?” Most inspection techniques require that a clean surface be obtained for inspection. However. Some exceptions can include electromagnetic acoustic transducer or focused beam UT of boiler tubes (particularly in gas-fired units) and internal inspection of heat exchanger tubing by eddy current testing (ET). before any cleaning is conducted. aggressive air penetration. Magnetic flux leakage inspections and even some general UT techniques can be performed with no surface preparation. including scaffolding. reheater. as well as the impact on other parallel plant projects being performed during the outage. which can be performed with no surface preparation unless deposits and debris accumulation are excessive. Patterns of coal ash deposition in superheater. and so on. One of the first questions to be asked after the unit is scheduled to be brought down is.

with proper air pressure and media density. little damage is done to the surface. the use of cleaning and inspection enclosures can often be required as a means of controlling ambient light. state. shallow cracks will be peened over with these latter techniques. the criticality of the inspection. particularly for PT and to a lesser degree MT and ET. cleaning is often accomplished in a confined area. In these cases. and other factors. or light grinding might be preferred because of their portability. such as certain generator retaining rings. which can slow down the inspection cycle. Consequently. This can be a particular problem when cleaning surfaces from which asbestos insulation has just been removed. Often the same enclosures used for cleaning provide suitable environmental protection for the inspection and for storage of the components until ready for return to service. Surface Debris and Scale Removal One of the most popular surface preparation techniques is grit or sand blasting. Particular care is recommended for thin or soft materials to ensure that small cracks do not go undetected. such as an erected tent. Infrared thermography and radiographic test (RT) inspections can often be done with no surface preparation. which can be important for cleaning parts with tight fit-ups and clearances that must be disassembled for inspection. The use of such surface preparation methods can lead to severe inspection limitations when certain surface inspections are to be conducted. Other components must be cleaned using chemicals because of surface finish requirements or dimensional tolerances that cannot be disturbed. For some components. the NDE personnel might be required to wear protective breathing apparatus. The need to perform any cleaning operations should be verified with the appropriate NDE personnel before proceeding with any cleaning operation. cannot be exposed to chemicals and must be cleaned using purely mechanical means. In addition. or federal regulations might dictate that cleaning techniques that cause potential airborne contamination in confined spaces (grit blasting of boiler tubes is a good example) require monitoring during and after the cleaning cycle. There is a possibility that some small. The materials involved should also be considered when considering appropriate cleaning methods. for example for the performance of fluorescent MT or PT inspections. needle gunning. local wire brushing. it is important to coordinate the type of surface preparation to be performed with the appropriate NDE personnel and materials specialists to make certain that the selected cleaning means is compatible with the NDE methods and techniques to be applied and with the materials involved. for example. Some material. For parts or components that can be moved.Nondestructive Testing depending on the as-found component surface condition. 10-5 . Large areas can be cleaned quickly and. temperature and humidity control is very important. For smaller areas requiring inspection. This limits the export of cleaning media or the import of airborne contaminants into the cleaning environment. Local.

The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) currently recognizes VT as a specific inspection discipline. heat exchangers. 10-6 . and so on. and repair cycles during future outages.Nondestructive Testing Access Limitations Internal inspections of boiler components. VT should always be the first method applied. they could cause considerable damage when the plant is brought back to power. Various devices and attachments have been developed to facilitate this task. inspection. permanent modification can pay for themselves many times over because improved access usually results in more timely maintenance. and so on can require considerable modifications to gain access. and so forth. metallurgy. Although it is not an NDE technique in itself. or nuts and bolts to drop into a component during maintenance operations. failure mechanisms. Application in Piping Systems VT can be applied to any component in which the damage manifests itself at accessible surfaces to a degree that permits detection by visual means. welding rods. Whereas VT once consisted of looking over a component. It is common for items such as screwdrivers. Visual Testing Overview Quality visual testing (VT) is one of the least appreciated and possibly the most demanding NDE activity currently used in power plant inspection. If the component is to be inspected frequently. consideration should be given to designing and implementing a convenient means of access that can be reused. When modifications are required to perform certain inspections. heat exchangers. They must be able to recognize the presence of different damage forms and classify the damage in terms of severity and implications relative to ongoing operation of the component. grippers. Qualified VT inspectors must have a good working knowledge of a vast array of plant components. Considerable ingenuity can often be exercised to produce a viewing and transport system for most plant components. assembled turbine and generators. thus eliminating cutting and rewelding at each outage. water and steam lines. and the requirements for acquiring certification are extremely demanding. Modifications to provide access should include consideration for both personnel and equipment and can involve larger access doors on boilers. If not removed. by current standards VT typically involves a great deal of training and practical experience before one is qualified for this inspection method. new or larger manways in turbine casings. based solely on what normally is very limited visual evidence. potential flaw types for various components. debris removal is often a substantial part of a visual inspector’s job.

which. including raw materials as well as finished components. will attract small magnetic or ferromagnetic particles that will indicate the location of such discontinuity. dependent on human factors (for example. will be best detected when oriented in a perpendicular position to the flux lines.Nondestructive Testing Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of VT include the following: • • • • • Inexpensive (excluding video borescope techniques) Fast and simple Real-time examination A permanent record can be produced when using video-based systems Can eliminate the need for other methods Disadvantages The disadvantages of VT include the following: • • • • • Limited to accessible surfaces Variable quality. the magnetic flux lines that flow from one pole of the magnet to the other will now travel within a surface layer of the test piece. The method is applicable to a variety of components. in turn. 10-7 . such as cracks. Tight discontinuities. The presence of a discontinuity that intercepts the magnetic flux lines will result in flux leakage. eye fatigue and distractions) Typically poor resolution Requires good illumination Does not lend itself to automation Magnetic Particle Testing Overview MT is a fairly simple inspection method that is useful for the detection of surface-connected and near-surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic material. tight cracks that are parallel to the flux are poorly detected or not detected at all. When a ferromagnetic material test piece is magnetized by bringing the poles of a magnet (either permanent or electromagnet) into contact or into close proximity.

particularly with the wet fluorescent method. With the exception of the permanent magnet. Application in Piping Systems MT is one of the most frequently used of the NDE methods applied in power stations for routine inspection. the magnetic particles (commonly fine iron filings) are applied as a powder (or liquid suspension of a powder). although surface finish can affect both mobility and retention of the particles. the molded rubber is removed and viewed for indications of the surface. MT can even be applied over thin surface coatings such as paint. and the magnetic particles are applied through the rubber suspension. MT can be applied essentially to any exposed surface of any ferromagnetic material. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of MT are the following: • • • • • • Relatively inexpensive Fast and simple Requires only minimal surface preparation Better surface preparation and the use of liquid fluorescent particles improves sensitivity Real-time examination A permanent record can be produced by photography 10-8 . When set. these are either colored to contrast with the test surface under visible light or coated with a fluorescent material that glows under ultraviolet (UV) light. Magnetization is accomplished by the most appropriate technique to produce directional magnetization for optimum detection of the prevalent flaw orientation.Nondestructive Testing In practice. a yoke or a coil can be energized either with ac or dc in order to obtain the needed mix of sensitivity and penetration. The rubber compound used must have very specific properties to maintain particle mobility while in the liquid state and to provide a contrasting background to the particles. Surface preparation is not as demanding as for dye penetrant inspection. called rubber-mag. The test piece is magnetized by the use of permanent magnets or an electromagnet yoke or by wrapping a length of electrical cable around the test section to form a coil that is then energized with a power supply that results in the magnetization of the wrapped zone. A special type of magnetic particle inspection that is useful for inspection of tight spaces that otherwise cannot be inspected with this method involves the use of rubber compounds for the suspension medium. Fluorescent particles are used for increased visibility and better sensitivity of detection. is one in which particles are mixed into a rubber compound that is in a liquid state. The process. and reasonable sensitivity can be achieved.

which requires application of an emulsifier (liquid that combines with the penetrant to make it water-washable) before water cleaning Solvent-removable penetrant. eye fatigue or distractions) Requires good illumination for visible particles. The penetrant is allowed to remain on the inspection surface for sufficient time to be drawn into the openings of the surface discontinuity by capillary action. configuration. or orientation. As a result of capillary action. Penetrant inspection can be broadly classified by the following types of penetrants: • • • Water-washable penetrant. providing both an indication of the presence of a surface discontinuity and a contrasting background which makes the indication more apparent under visual observation of the surface. Excess penetrant material is then removed.Nondestructive Testing Disadvantages The disadvantages of MT are the following: • • • • Limited to accessible surfaces Variable quality. Fluorescent dyes require the use of UV light and a darkened location for viewing. which can be removed adequately only by using the appropriate solvent 10-9 . and a developer is applied to the test surface (applied as a thin layer of white powder by a quick-drying propellant or suspension). A liquid penetrant containing a visible liquid (also called color-contrast) or fluorescent compound is applied to the inspection surface. provided the flaws are open to the inspection surface. The theoretical basis of penetrant inspection is relatively simple. The inspection of complex geometries is possible if the surfaces are accessible and the surface geometry complexity does not preclude complete removal of excess penetrant. PT can be applied to a variety of components including raw materials as well as finished components. Indications open to the inspection surface can generally be found regardless of the flaw size (above the detection threshold). which contains an emulsifier and therefore can be directly removed using water as the cleaning agent Post-emulsifiable penetrant. making the method well suited for detecting most imperfections in both ferrous and nonferrous metals. The developer absorbs the residual penetrant material held in the surface discontinuities and draws the penetrant to the exposed surface. penetrant materials are drawn into various types of surface imperfections. dependent on human factors (for example. or a darkened location for fluorescent Does not lend itself to automation Dye Penetrant Testing Overview PT is a nondestructive method for finding discontinuities that are open to the surface.

This is mostly because it requires more extensive surface preparation than MT. it is not able to detect near-subsurface discontinuities because the penetrating dye requires a path to the discontinuity that is open to the surface. such as austenitic stainless steels. where it is not possible to apply MT. PT is used by default for surface inspections of nonferromagnetic materials. dependent on human factors Requires good surface preparation and care to prevent laps that close off surface discontinuities Complete cleaning and removal of the dye is not always possible Requires good illumination for visible dye penetrants or a darkened location for fluorescent Does not lend itself to automation 10-10 .Nondestructive Testing Application in Piping Systems Although PT can be applied to essentially any exposed surface. unlike MT. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of PT are the following: • • • • • Inexpensive Fast and simple Better surface preparation and the use of liquid fluorescent dyes improves sensitivity Real-time examination A permanent record can be produced by photography Disadvantages The disadvantages of PT are the following: • • • • • • Limited to accessible surfaces Variable quality. yet results in only minimal increase of sensitivity. Also. it is not used as frequently as MT for NDE of piping systems. More commonly for piping systems.

and the relative magnetic permeability of the test material. and the electrical conductivity is a material constant. Mostly. replacing MT or PT. induces an electrical current into the near-surface volume of the test area adjacent to it. the ability to detect cracks is not diminished. or any other parameter of the discontinuity that was incorporated into the calibration process. Because the relative permeability of nonferromagnetic materials is 1. when the parameters of interest are affected by permeability. and partial saturation. it is applied for the detection of seam welds where there is no visual indication of the weld’s presence or location. However. typically with a coil-like construction. The eddy currents induced into such test pieces would be affected mostly by limiting the depth of penetration and the ability to measure crack depth by the phase angle shift method. it distorts the electromagnetic field that was created by the probe. the depth of penetration. ET can be used in lieu of other surface techniques. Electromagnetic NDE techniques for ferromagnetic materials include remote field eddy current. carbon and alloy steels) the relative magnetic permeability does not equal 1 and could vary across the surface as a result of compositional and heat treatment nonuniformities. Application in Piping Systems Conventional ET is not often used for the inspection of piping systems. When a discontinuity is present in the test volume under the probe. When applying ET to ferromagnetic materials (for example. Still. the electrical conductivity of the test piece. Such distortion is detected by the probe. size. and the ability to detect surface-connected cracks that go below the calculated skin depth is not affected. location.Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Testing Overview ET is used to inspect the surface or near-surface of electrically conducting materials. but at a greater cost. for a simplistic model. Advanced ET techniques. Otherwise. The test probe. can be varied by the selection of the test frequency. these are determined mostly empirically. 10-11 . it is possible to negate the effect by magnetically saturating (fully or partially) the test location next to the probe. such as remote field and flux leakage. but rather enhanced. are more commonly used for the inspection of boiler tubes rather than for large-diameter piping systems. and its indication on the instrument screen can be interpreted by the expert analyst as to the type. flux leakage. by the effect of the permeability being greater than 1. The other parameters that affect depth of penetration and sensitivity are the probe size and type. The theoretical depth of the surface region that can be inspected is governed by three parameters: frequency of the excitation current.

• • Conventional Ultrasonic Testing Overview UT technology encompasses a wide range of applications that vary dramatically in technological sophistication. The presence of geometric features and discontinuities near the region where flaws are expected can complicate the examination. implementation constraints. sizing accuracy. required equipment. complexity. much recent work has been aimed at developing equipment that can assist with data interpretation and flaw classification that minimize such concerns. and the equipment is relatively expensive. However. detection reliability.Nondestructive Testing Advantages and Disadvantages ET is limited to inspecting the surfaces of conducting materials. they require a higher level of training and experience to interpret. no contact is necessary between the test probe and the examined surface. it is an alternative technique to MT and PT inspection. as long as the probe proximity can be precisely controlled during scanning A permanent record can be created by the instrumentation ET can be easily automated. Advantages The advantages of ET are the following: • • • Probes can be constructed to be very small so they can enter components that are inaccessible to other techniques. There is no need for dyes and developers. speed of application. A careful assessment by an expert is required in order to make the proper inspection technique selection. There is little need for surface preparation. requisite operator skills. In many cases it is possible to inspect through surface layers such as paint. • • Disadvantages The disadvantages of ET are the following: • The signals produced on the instrument screen can be complex. and so forth. making ET attractive in applications where waste and contamination must be minimized. The selection of proper test coils for such cases can reduce or eliminate the problem. The 10-12 . Similarly.

flaw classification. and extraction of other useful information are described later in this section. then they might have a reasonable chance of estimating that feature. those characteristics of the response that are attributable to the beam and propagation material. hardness. Consequently. That is. part. anisotropy. sound travels in a given material at a constant velocity. A shortduration pulse of sound is generated in the part by a transmitter.5 MHz to 50 MHz—into a component. for fossil power plant inspection. the response from a reflector is a function of characteristics of the transmitted beam. specific techniques and application procedures designed to address certain desired performance characteristics are used for most components. or in some cases even possible. displays. Material characteristics that can be and have been determined ultrasonically include such items as material structure. immediately following which the ultrasonic instrumentation is switched to a listening mode. part. and others. the material through which it propagates. classification. for example flaw size. Shortduration sound pulses are used such that the instrumentation can quickly be switched to the listening mode for the detection of reflectors located close to the transducers. a precise measurement of the propagation time between initiation of the pulse and detection of a signal at the receiver provides the basis for calculating the position of the reflector relative to the transmitter and receiver positions. it is difficult to provide guidance that is concise and easy to understand and yet provide sufficient detail for educated decisions. Any detected return signal indicates the presence at some point in the sound field of a reflector that has redirected the propagating wave in the direction of the receiver. or deconvolve. as used for flaw detection and thickness measurement. ultrasonic inspection is used primarily for flaw detection. it is more important to concentrate on basic inspection approaches.Nondestructive Testing technology has evolved to a point at which very few components are inspected according to generic procedures. If ultrasonic practitioners can extract. The traditional ultrasonic implementation means and display were developed on the basis of the two fundamental principles—that time and amplitude are the main features of interest. stress (both residual and applied). UT. and sizing. However. Therefore. is analogous to active sonar. they are left with a response that is characteristic of the reflector. at this point. First. However. and certain characteristics of the reflector that causes the response. Other applications are possible and should be considered along with other competing or complementing technologies for the objective of determining other material characteristics. or structure for the purpose of determining some characteristic of the material from which the component. for a specific propagation mode. or structure is made. Flaw sizing. Second. for another. A cathode ray tube (CRT) 10-13 . UT is generally described as the introduction of high-frequency sound waves—generally in the range of 0. and other factors that will be found in use throughout the power plant. therefore having short propagation paths and correspondingly small propagation times. If they can further extract from this remaining reflector response the information that is related most directly to the feature of interest. What is optimum for one application simply might not be adequate. Flaw detection and thickness measurement applications of ultrasound operate on two fundamental principles. and for dimensional measurement (thickness).

Material attenuation is a function of test frequency. The term conventional is used as a descriptive term for pulse-echo or pitch-catch testing (pitch-catch only when the transducer elements are operated on the same surface in close proximity to each other) using broad beams whose beam characteristics are controlled only by transducer size and frequency and the inherent material considerations. Beam characteristics. attenuation. Careful selection of transducer size and frequency to optimize detection over the required depth range (for example by moving the peak beam intensity point. Response amplitude is affected by a number of parameters. increasing from the base level to saturation. to the appropriate depth) and properly control the beam spread can have a significant effect. as affected by certain material characteristics including material attenuation. primarily the beam shape and intensity at the flaw. Consequently. some of which are attributable to the beam (including the material effects such as attenuation) and others are attributable to the flaw. improve (that is. However. the design of a particular inspection approach can affect detection capabilities. or near field limit. pulse repetition rates in the hundreds or even thousands of pulses per second are achievable for most materials and typical material thicknesses. To a degree. as dictated by physics. Application in Piping Systems Probably 75% of all UT performed in power plants involves conventional S-wave or L-wave techniques. Flaw sizing is even more variable than detection when using conventional ultrasonic approaches in all but very limited cases for very specifically defined flaws. smaller flaws are theoretically more readily detected) with increased test frequency. Because propagation velocities are typically in the range up to 1 in. and beam spread. increasing from left to right. while still providing sufficient listening time. In certain instances. thereby adding position to the presented time and amplitude information. and the vertical axis represents intensity. these same features (and others) are converted to graphical displays that present responses in spatially correlated images. flaw detection is inadequate because sufficient beam intensity cannot be produced in a conventional inspection mode to detect the flaw of interest. where time is generally used to determine reflector location and amplitude is the basis of size estimates. computerbased ultrasonic systems. In addition. but more often because of unacceptable sizing error.54 cm/μs). with higher frequency being more susceptible to attenuation than lower frequencies. basic detection capabilities. By synchronizing the CRT sweep with the pulse rate such that each sweep represents a new pulse. at such high pulse rates the CRT display appears as continuous without perceptible flicker. as controlled by transducer size and frequency.Nondestructive Testing display is used where the horizontal axis of the display represents time. optimum test design often involves a compromise among basic detection sensitivity. can be either removed using deconvolution algorithms or at least 10-14 . these techniques have been found to be unsuitable for certain applications—in some cases even for detection. The measured parameters are limited to time and amplitude. near field limit. In more modern. This is normally attributable to flaw orientation relative to the achievable beam angle or simply because detection requirements are beyond the detection capabilities of this type of inspection./μs (2. The listening interval is set at sufficient duration to allow the wave to propagate to the maximum inspection depth and back to the receiver before the next pulse is generated.

and known. It requires the least investment in equipment as compared to other UT techniques. is an application whose goals are satisfactorily achieved by conventional UT without the need to resort to advanced methods. reflector orientation relative to the beam. amplitude-based sizing is acceptable. compensation can be applied for material effects (mainly attenuation). size can be estimated from response amplitude with reasonable accuracy. Similarly. Simple examinations can be performed by inspectors who are minimally trained. The equipment is highly portable and battery-powered. For specific cases in which shape. reflector efficiency is a function of many other variables in addition to reflector size. making it accessible to difficult-toreach locations. smooth. reflector morphology or surface roughness. However. any unknown deviations can have a profound impact on sizing accuracy. regular.Nondestructive Testing accounted for during calibration. and morphology are uniform. and the material composition of the reflector. including reflector shape. Accurate sizing of indications typically ranges from poor to none. dependent on human factors. Disadvantages The disadvantages of conventional UT are the following: • • • Good results are obtained only from locations and conditions that have simple geometry and favorable alignment with a sound beam. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of conventional UT are the following: • • • It is relatively inexpensive. and oriented normally to the beam. The mapping of wall thickness. Advanced Ultrasonic Testing Time-of-Flight Diffraction Overview A particular tip diffraction technique called time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) has been developed such that some of the limitations of other tip diffraction techniques are overcome. That is. TOFD is implemented using two transducers that are positioned facing each other on opposite sides of the 10-15 . It is of variable quality. mainly of piping elbows. However. of regular shape. for flaws that are flat. orientation.

to produce broad beam spread in the through-thickness direction). and the beam is specifically designed to flood the entire volume with sound (that is. such as welds) can be inspected using a uniaxial scan along the length of the volume. The transducers are operated in a pitch-catch mode. the lateral wave. Operation in a mode to optimize the detection of forward propagating tip signals eliminates the possibility of confusing specular reflections with tip diffraction signals in all but a few special cases. The general TOFD arrangement is shown in Figure 10-1. This arrangement is shown in Figure 10-2. two signals are present. with the transducers facing each other. represents travel of the beam just under the test surface. inspection time can be reduced significantly. with one operating as the transmitter and the other as the receiver. In most instances. and the backwall represents the longest propagation time. specular reflections are directed away from the receiver and are therefore not detected. In this arrangement. Figure 10-1 Transducer Arrangement and Coverage Volume for Time-of-Flight Diffraction In the TOFD mode. By eliminating the need for two-dimensional raster scanning. One. forward-propagating tip signals from flaws lying between the transducers at essentially any depth can be detected without scanning laterally. Figure 10-2 Time-of-Flight Diffraction Standing Waves 10-16 . The lateral wave represents the shortest possible propagation time in the volume.Nondestructive Testing area of interest in the component. linear volumes (that is. those having finite width but significant length. regardless of the position of the transducers on the part. Consequently. and the second represents the backwall reflection.

either a small scan can be conducted across the weld at the point of the flaw or offset scans can be conducted along each side of the weld at the appropriate point. lateral position is lost. Data are acquired sequentially along the length of the inspection volume at a specified interval and correlated positionally using an optical encoder or similar device to acquire position data along the length of the scan. however. and through-wall extent can be measured accurately from the D-scan image. while the offset scans indicate position by increased signal strength on one side scan and diminished strength on the other side. If lateral position (for example. and beam angle are the critical setup parameters. 10-17 . A single D-scan image showing the length and depth of the volume inspected is generally used for the TOFD display. Flaw length. Because pulse transit time is the basis for depth measurements. it is important that PCS be maintained at a constant value during a scan and that the time base be properly calibrated for the selected PCS. including through-wall dimension. These are selected such that beam spread provides coverage of the entire volume of interest. depth. determination of which side of a weld the flaw is located on) is important. This is shown in Figure 10-3. Any mid-wall flaw having significant through-wall dimension produces two tip signals—one from the near tip and a second from the far tip—that are displaced in time proportional to their depths. Tip depth calculations are based on PCS and measured pulse transit time for the tip signals based on simple triangulation algorithms. An example image is shown in Figure 10-4. The transverse scan shows the position directly. Figure 10-3 Tip Signals from Mid-Wall Flaw Transducer relative position. or probe center spacing (PCS). Simple transducer holders are used to maintain PCS during a scan.Nondestructive Testing Any indication falling between these two signals is indicative of a flaw between the front and back surfaces of the component.

the 10-18 . For thicker components. MidWall Flaw. particularly for situations in which broad PCS is used to increase the volume of coverage. such as synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and certain image-straightening capabilities that can be used by the operator to enhance data analysis. this can be overcome by shortening PCS. When a broad-beam L-wave is introduced from the end of a long. typically invoked through cursor position or a mouse. relatively thin component. Alternatively. They also typically have other features. They also have a convenient sizing feature.Nondestructive Testing Figure 10-4 Typical Time-of-Flight Diffraction Image Showing Lateral Wave. which increases the relative time difference between the flaw signal and the lateral wave. In certain instances. supplemental inspection techniques can be applied in a multichannel mode of operation A special technique that was developed specifically for axial inspection of shafts and similar long. Because all flaw signals represent a triangular beam travel path from the transmitter to the flaw tip and then to the receiver. narrow components to detect transverse flaws is the cylindrically guided wave technique. this can require more than a single scan pass with PCS adjusted to cover depth zones rather than the entire thickness in one pass. the image forms on the computer screen as the scan progresses. and Small Back Surface Flaw Most test systems built with a specific TOFD mode of operation feature real-time data presentation—that is. Backwall Reflection. such that size can be measured directly from the screen. One limitation of TOFD lies in its ability to resolve flaws near the test surface. very shallow flaws do not differ sufficiently in travel time from the lateral wave signal to be resolved.

Analysis of this portion of the presentation by a trained operator provides information on the presence of side-wall flaws that are not obvious if one is looking only for direct L-wave reflections. They then travel at S-wave velocity. with reflections and additional mode conversions occurring as they travel down the component. Data analysis can be performed off-line. However. The display shows a series of subsidiary signals following the L-wave. for example for fatigue cracks that initiate at the outer surface in a transverse direction due to cyclic bending. Application in Piping Systems TOFD is generally applicable to the inspection of a volume with a relatively simple and uniform geometry. It is not easily adapted to sections with complex geometry. Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of TOFD are the following: • • • It provides both detection and sizing capabilities in a single scan. It is not applicable to highly attenuative materials (for example. Disadvantages • • • • • It requires highly trained inspection and analysis personnel. 10-19 . The equipment is costly. austenitic and cast microstructures) or thick sections. only their depth and the location along the scan line. which provides for a permanent record and a baseline for future monitoring. The scan data are saved as a digital image. it is primarily used for the examination of seam welds and circumferential welds in piping systems. which speeds up the acquisition process. arriving at the receiver later in time than the primary L-wave because of the longer travel path and travel at least partially in the slower S-wave mode. where the outer surfaces are covered with other components or are otherwise inaccessible for inspection by more conventional surface NDE methods. This technique has proven useful for the inspection of shafts and other long components.Nondestructive Testing portions of the beam that reach the side walls are mode-converted to shear. The image does not provide the lateral position of indications.

inspecting a large portion of the component’s cross section. Figure 10-5 illustrates the coverage on a typical double-V seam weld that is being examined using a phased array probe and a line scan technique. multichannel phased array instrument (either linked to a laptop PC or with a built-in computer processor and the array software). Figure 10-5 Phased Array Coverage of a Seam Weld from Two Probe Positions 10-20 . resultant waveform. and analog-todigital converter. nonlinear delays to both the emission pulse and the received pulse for each element in an array of transducers. additional probe positions are sometimes added to improve coverage or in an attempt to improve the accuracy of flaw sizing. a single array probe can be made to simulate many different conventional probes. a slice of a component can be scanned electronically in milliseconds instead of being scanned mechanically in a few seconds. Beam focusing and angle control result from the application of precisely controlled. A typical phased array system includes a portable. the elements’ received waveforms are summed to form a single. The multiple beam angles effectively interrogate the entire fusion line region of the seam weld. Each array element is connected to a separate pulser. or phase. sound beams of many angles can be generated sequentially. However. it is easy to visualize the potential improvements that can be realized in both speed and flaw detection and sizing capabilities. After application of the reception delays. A phased array system permits the inspection of a cross-sectional area of interest with a minimal number of probe positions. Without moving the probe. receiver. The system operator can control the time at which each element is pulsed and the time delay applied to the response received by each element. and a multielement piezoelectric array probe unit. parallel elements. of each element’s excitation and reception. Instead of the slow. By using a large number of angles. the probe can simply be swept along the length of the weld one or more times at different array setback positions to achieve similar results. In this manner.Nondestructive Testing Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing Overview An array is a type of ultrasonic transducer that has been segmented into many individual. The ability to use this line scan procedure versus the more conventional raster scan can reduce scan times by at least an order of magnitude. By controlling the timing. two-dimensional scan pattern necessary to scan a weld joint using conventional methods.

Using phased array technology. Advantages and Disadvantages The advantages of phased array UT are the following: Advantages • • • • By virtue of dynamic focusing and beam sweeping. Typical examples are inspection of header ligaments and pipe welds (mostly circumferential welds) where geometrical limitations to TOFD favor the use of phased arrays. The equipment is costly. which speeds up the acquisition process. a flaw can be very clearly identified. which provides a permanent record and a baseline for future monitoring. Even with automated UT techniques. 10-21 . faster. volume coverage at complex geometries can be achieved with minimal or no probe movement.Nondestructive Testing In addition to improved coverage. The test data can be saved as a digital image. By reviewing the B-scan images of the different beam angles. Both detection and sizing information can be gleaned from a single image. the analysis of conventional ultrasonic data generally takes longer than the acquisition of the data. the data analysis process tends to be simpler. and more reliable than conventional data analysis. Application in Piping Systems Phased array technology is most beneficial in locations that have limited probe scanning space and complex geometries. Data analysis is simpler than for other UT techniques and can be performed off-line. Disadvantages The disadvantages of phased array UT are the following: • • It requires highly trained inspection and analysis personnel. the automated phased array technique offers a much simpler means of analyzing the resultant data. especially if many flaws are detected.

Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of AECD include the following: • • • A large volume of material can be tested very rapidly. which can be detected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the component. a very narrow window of opportunity might exist to detect the flaw(s). An array of sensors is usually used. Source location can be very difficult in complex geometries. 10-22 . Application in Piping Systems Currently. and one of the most common methods of stressing components is by a hydro test. In order to propagate the crack. If transient conditions are required to activate the source. It is this advantage of AECD that makes it attractive to utilities with long runs of insulated high-energy piping. PT. Sensors can be used in conjunction with waveguides that transmit the sound waves (usually through a stainless steel rod) to the sensor. For insulated structures. AECD is used primarily to monitor seam-welded HRH lines. so that the signals from a growing crack can be collected by sophisticated computers and the location of the crack can be identified by triangulation. and UT. The data can be stored digitally for future recall. Insulation removal and reinstallation represents a major portion of the cost of inspecting a high-energy line using conventional techniques such as MT. the component must be stressed when the sensors are attached.Nondestructive Testing Acoustic Emission Crack Detection Overview Acoustic emission crack detection (AECD) is based on the theory that a growing crack will emit energy in the form of sound waves. even with the use of the most advanced (and expensive) instrumentation. Disadvantages The disadvantages of AECD include the following: • • • It is sometimes difficult to separate the signal noise from background. only enough insulation must be removed to enable installation of the waveguides.

Its spatial resolution is much coarser than UT. Pulsed ET. it can also be used to find corrosion underneath insulation. 10-23 . Therefore. This provides the opportunity to perform inspections while the plant is on load when it might be more convenient logistically. the metal loss is on the inner surface of the pipe. The progress of the generated currents and their reciprocal effect on the probe coil are measured as a function of time. Application in Piping Systems The primary use for pulsed ET is to measure wall thickness reductions caused by FAC. on the other hand. changes in the decay of the interaction can be converted into measurements of the thickness of the component. and it also reduces or eliminates the costs of insulation removal and reinstatement. In this way. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantage of pulsed ET is the following: • It eliminates the high cost of insulation removal and restoration by making the wall thickness measurement through the insulation and the thin aluminum cladding. The equipment is expensive and highly dedicated. thickness values represent an average of a relatively large area.Nondestructive Testing Pulsed Eddy Current Testing Overview Pulsed eddy current testing (pulsed ET) technology is showing promise for measuring pipe wall thicknesses without the requirement to remove the thermal insulation first. Conventional ET generally uses a single high-frequency excitation to inspect the near surface of a component. it cannot be applied to perform other ET work. uses a burst of low-frequency excitation. but the technique works equally well when the wastage is on the OD. In this case. Disadvantages The disadvantages of pulsed ET are the following: • • • It is not as accurate as UT wall thickness measurement techniques.

or both. If the radioactive source is then triggered. as well as limiting the size of the area that is inspected. Normally. so it is usually superior to X-ray machines for field inspections. the vessel can be rotated. material handling equipment associated with the X-ray machine is used to rotate or otherwise move the component to allow a complete inspection. The stationary X-ray machine makes successive readings through the rotating weld until the entire weld has been inspected. The most common use in power plants is for inspecting repair welds in boiler tubes. The gamma radiation can be produced either by a radioactive source or by an X-ray machine. A common example is inspecting a circumferential weld in a pressure vessel. safety requirements such as area evacuation during the test can be more restrictive for the use of radioactive sources than for X-ray machines. and cobalt-60 for higher activity levels. The omnidirectional radiation field provided by a radioactive source can be used to inspect large areas quickly. and the outside of the circumferential weld can be wrapped with X-ray film. It is ideal for detecting macroscopic defects that are common to welds. such as porosity or slag inclusion. X-ray machines of sufficient power to inspect large. Whether an X-ray machine or a radioactive source is appropriate for a particular inspection depends on a number of factors. or radiographic testing (RT). including the following: • X-ray machines produce a directional radiation field that is concentrated in a smaller area. The source can be placed at the center of the vessel.Nondestructive Testing Radiographic Testing Overview Radiography. Radioactive sources produce an omnidirectional radiation field. the entire weld is inspected at the same time. This tends to reduce the peripheral shielding and safety requirements associated with the test. thick-walled components are usually stationary. 10-24 . A common example is a circumferential weld in a pressure vessel. Unlike the X-ray machine. This means that the component must be brought to the X-ray machine. • • • • Application in Piping Systems Generally. Radioactive sources commonly use the radioisotope iridium-192 for activity up to 370 E10 bq (100 Ci). has been a primary weld inspection technique for many years. no component rotation is required. To inspect this weld using an X-ray machine. The radioactive source can be transported to the component. X-ray machines produce gamma radiation by bombarding a metallic target with fast electrons in a vacuum. radiography is used to inspect welds. This technique passes gamma radiation through the component and records the exiting backside radiation by either photographic or electronic means. which must be limited by careful design of the source container or the use of auxiliary shielding. Generally.

Disadvantages The disadvantages of RT include the following: • • • There are significant safety requirements. which forces the transducers to form a tight contact with the OD surface of the pipe. The guided wave transmitted from the sensors propagates in the axial direction of the pipe. The test procedure must protect personnel from radiation exposure. The distance from the sensor to the location of the anomaly is measured by recording the round-trip travel time of the guided wave. In the United States. 10-25 . wall loss. or a t-branch) a transmitted wave is reflected back to the sensor. This belt is wrapped around the outer surface of the pipe using an inflatable bladder. whether it is full of water or empty. nonuniform section thickness can be difficult to interpret. and any other feature that deviates from the smooth pipe configuration. valves. A permanent film record of each inspection is available for archiving and later review. Interpretation of the data is also aided by drawings of the pipeline that show the location of welds. defects cannot be located (depth) or sized precisely.Nondestructive Testing Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of RT include the following: • • • It is a nondestructive method. It is nonquantitative. Results for components with complicated. The test probe is typically a flexible strip or belt equipped with multiple transducers along its length. a bracket. branches. and radioactive sources must be handled properly by qualified personnel. whether the pipe is insulated or not. The nature and magnitude of the anomaly can be deducted from an analysis of the detected waveform of the returning echo. and when it encounters an anomaly (for example. compacted soil or just loose gravel). Actual effective length of coverage depends on the contact that the pipe is making with other media on the ID and OD sides (for example. radiography is the most commonly recognized method for inspecting numerous types of welds. Guided Wave Ultrasonic Testing Overview In guided wave UT. the ultrasonic wave propagates in the axial (longitudinal) direction in the test specimen. The reach of the guided wave can extend to several hundred feet from the location of the sensor belt. or whether it is in contact with wet.

it is used to inspect service water lines. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages The advantages of guided wave UT include the following: • • • It allows the inspection of buried or otherwise inaccessible pipes from a small. Its spatial resolution is much coarser than conventional UT.Nondestructive Testing Application in Piping Systems Guided wave UT applies most commonly to the inspection of buried or otherwise inaccessible pipelines. It requires highly trained inspection and analysis personnel. The data acquisition step is very rapid and minimally invasive. Disadvantages The disadvantages of guided wave UT include the following: • • • It is not as accurate as conventional UT wall thickness measurement techniques. measured thickness values represent an average of full circumference at the location of the anomaly. exposed location. 10-26 . guided wave UT can also be applied to monitoring loss of wall of insulated lines with only minimal removal of insulation. It allows the inspection of insulated lines without complete the removal of the insulation. Because of its versatility. therefore.

quantitative knowledge of the current material condition is required. Statistically meaningful material sampling can be difficult to achieve. including the following: • • • • Material sampling is expensive and time consuming. which can make sampling difficult.11 METALLURGICAL EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS AND MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION Introduction Postexposure characterization of fossil plant materials is commonly conducted in two instances: 1) after a failure has occurred. The most susceptible materials can be difficult to reach. However. laboratory analysis. Destructive sampling of exposed material can be used as part of a comprehensive assessment program to determine the current actual accumulation of material degradation. material analysis is typically performed during a root-cause investigation. there are several drawbacks to material sampling. and 2) if a proactive Level III investigation and prediction of remaining life is being conducted. 11-1 . expensive. and material that shows limited damage can be collected for analysis within 2 ft (61 cm) of an area with extensive degradation. which often necessitates destructive sampling. which can result in false life estimation. and property determinations. Often laboratory analysis of piping material can provide more accurate degradation assessment and engineering design detail on the existing condition of the component than can be obtained through NDE techniques alone. and it typically requires some form of repair or remediation Repair or remediation activities can often lead to a more damage-susceptible section of piping. and sometimes dangerous.

HAZ damage (limited to exposed surface) Cavitation Cracking Slag inclusion density Spheroidization Sulfide segregation Hardness profile Grain size and type Fusion line cracking Removal of OD crack or weld flaw (adequacy of weld repair preparation) Replication Hardness testing Optical micrograph Electron micrograph Cryo-cracking Boat or core plug sample Cross-weld stress rupture test on miniature tensile sample Fusion line cracking Interior weld metal damage Cavitation Inclusion density Spheroidization Fine-grain HAZ damage Weld centerline Type IV Hardness profile Grain size and type Desired inspection interval confirmation 11-2 .Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Table 11-1 outlines many of the invasive testing options for high-energy piping. interior weld metal. Table 11-1 Invasive Testing Options for High-Energy Piping Sample Type Test Technique Replication Hardness testing Liquid penetrant testing (PT) Magnetic particle testing (MT) On-pipe (grind out to subsurface) Data Acquired Fusion line.

Large-Sample Collection Methods Large metal samples can allow full-size materials testing and multiple types of testing from a single sample. the ability to remove material in an effectively nondestructive manner has led to the development of a range of advanced approaches for measuring critical material properties from miniature tests. Material Sampling Direct laboratory analysis and testing of material removed from plants has been widely used to provide evidence regarding condition. post-sampling repair. Several techniques have been developed for removal of large pieces of material from components. Each technique requires good access in the region of interest both for sample removal and. The following sections review methods of material removal and describe recent advances in the measurement of properties. where appropriate. 11-3 .Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Table 11-1 (continued) Invasive Testing Options for High-Energy Piping Sample Type Test Technique Replication Hardness testing Optical micrograph Electron micrograph Ring sample Cryo-cracking Cross-weld stress rupture test Tensile and toughness tests Data Acquired Fusion line cracking Interior weld metal damage Cavitation Inclusion density Spheroidization Fine-grain HAZ damage Weld centerline Type IV Hardness profile Grain size and type This section briefly reviews several destructive sampling and analysis techniques that can be a vital part of an effective high-energy piping assessment program. Improved techniques for specimen removal have recently been established. Indeed. so the advantages of detailed metallographic characterization and testing are not always realized. the ability to undertake sampling in critical locations is often limited. However.

the component should be marked before sampling to allow sectioning and laboratory investigations to be performed with reference to selected component directions. A cutting head was developed that holds the nozzle of the abrasive jet at the correct angle and distance from the selected location and permits orbital movement such that a cone-shaped sample can be removed. In recent years.2 in. 11-4 . large sample removal either is not practical because it will require significant material repair or there is limited access. Significant amounts of material can be removed in this way with sample lengths typically in the range of 1–4 in. Repair procedures usually involve capping the hole with a blank. and sample removal is achieved by bombarding the surface with a stream of abrasive particles. Small Cone Sampling Small cone samples of approximately 0. oversized stub or socket-welding a purpose-made section of material into the hole. Samples of approximately 1–3 in. experience shows that the repair of the sampled region can itself develop cracks if the repair process is not carefully controlled.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Boat Sampling Boat samples are removed from the surface of components by the cutting action of a slightly concave. This approach has been successfully used to provide metallographic information and specimens for postexposure testing. The cutting head and its driving motor are secured to the component by mechanical clamps. circular saw blade. (5 mm) base diameter and 0.2 in. However. or is not possible because there is insufficient material available for large sample removal. the boat samples are used to characterize the damage present. a hole saw is passed through the component wall to remove a through-thickness section of material. Where no component feature is present to establish the orientation of the plug. In this case. Two adjacent cuts are made into the surface and the sample released resembles that of a boat hull. The samples can be used to examine the material microstructure using optical or electron microscopy. Uncertainties regarding the effects of local weld repair on future component performance usually limit the use of boat sampling to regions where extensive damage has been detected and major repairs are known to be required. (5 mm) height have been removed using a device based on the air abrasive technique used for hole cutting during residual strain measurement. (25– 75 mm) in diameter have been removed. small-sample analysis techniques that can be correlated to standard test results have increased the viability of small sample removal. With this approach. Several small-sample collection methods are described in the following paragraphs. Small-Sample Collection Methods Often. The method is limited to locations where good access is available for both sample removal and repair. (25–100 mm). In situations where samples of this type have been removed to evaluate the condition of undamaged components. it is usually necessary to weld repair the sampled location. Plug Sampling Cylindrical plug samples have been removed from header and piping components.

(12 mm) could be blended without the need for repair. This material could be subjected to a range of metallographic studies. and nozzle distance to the component. In general. When the drilling operations are complete. With this method. and the width depends on the depth of the cut. prismatic samples of material from headers using a chain drilling rig has been developed. Surface Sampling System The surface sampling (SSAM) system was developed to remove material from the surface of plant components without introducing thermal or mechanical damage to the sample removed or the component [11-1]. approximately disc shaped. Although these trials were successful in overcoming a number of difficulties.5 in. problems of nozzle erosion were reported. the sampled region must be blended to minimize stress concentrations. Sample Removal by Drilling A method for removing shallow.1 in. The cutting surface consists of cubic boron nitride grit applied to the edge of the shell. The feed rate is controllable to accommodate the very shallow entry angle that the cutter makes with the part and to maintain a constant cutting torque throughout the cut.5 cm).1in. but the particular application reported was to machine a blank cylinder approximately 0. (20 mm) in length and 0.6 in. After the device has been located. A sample. nozzle orbital rate. a section of material approximately 0. Thus.03 to 0. (76 mm) in diameter. In addition. it is possible to remove larger samples. 11-5 .5 mm). The method was developed primarily to extract material from thicksection components where excavations of approximately 0.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Laboratory trials were performed to optimize the operating parameters of air pressure. is removed by the action of a hemispherical shell cutter. no post-sampling treatment is required before further operation.8 in.4 in. with widths varying up to 1 in. having successfully removed the conical specimen. Thus. This cylinder was then used to manufacture a miniature test sample for postexposure creep testing. The machine that drives the cutter is designed for operation in confined spaces as small as 3 in. 01 in. (15mm) in length.76 to 2. (2. The device is positioned by the use of a rod coupled to the rear trunnion.25 mm) thick. Typical depths are from 0. powder type and flow. The cutter is a hardened steel. (0. By modifying the drilling jig.1 cm) in diameter and 0. (0. (10 mm) in depth is removed. Cutter drive-motor current and cutter feed position information are provided to the operator. in this case. repair of the component would usually be required. and the contour of the sampled surface. hemispherical shell that is 2 in. the equipment can be used inside relatively narrow tubes and pipes or inside the bores of turbine rotors. However. the sampling location is identified by visual examination or surface NDE. the cutter radius. a clamping shoe is actuated by an air cylinder that engages the upper surface. (3 mm) in diameter by 0. This shell is spun about its axis of symmetry at over 4000 RPM and rotated about an orthogonal axis through the material being sampled. the rig is attached to the component using straps and then a series of drilling operations are carried out. (5. The sample thickness depends on the depth to which the spherical cutter is set before beginning the cut.

Coolant is delivered to the inner diameter of the shell. which differ in the type. This feed motion is controlled by a stepper motor. and special attention should be paid to remediated areas. is then removed. repair welding overlays with weld metal. Weldments are always more sensitive to a variety of degradation mechanisms. Cracks will often continue to propagate into a newly welded region. Remediation of sampling damage can include repair welding buildup with filler material. The cutter is driven through a flexible shaft to accommodate the feed rotation. scratching. remediation of the damage caused by sampling is often necessary to maintain structural integrity in the component. The ratio of impact to rebound velocity is compared to a Leeb scale to determine material hardness. with the sample. Hardness Testing Overview Hardness is defined as the resistance of a metal to indentation. It is also important to understand the nature of the damage that is being removed and repaired. material removal does not always guarantee defect elimination. repair welding with pad overlay. clearing the cutter swarf and cooling the process. and lead screw mechanism to maintain a desired load on the cutter. Portable indention or impact hardness testers come in many varieties and are useful as NDE tools because they can indicate hard or soft spots in components. and so forth. size. gear train. Equotip testers use a spring-loaded impact body that is propelled against a test piece. The device. Because the microstructural changes that are created during hightemperature exposure affect tensile strength. which can be indicative of component damage. the depth of penetration can be correlated with the material’s tensile strength. Postrepair inspection is important. it is important that proper welding procedures with post.and preweld heat treatments be performed to minimize the variation in materials properties from the base metal to the weldment. Coolant is recovered through a suction tube and is recycled. This process is conducted with hardness testing machines or indenting equipment on scales including Rockwell. Brinell. In all cases. cutting. 11-6 . theoretically they should also impact hardness. Knoop or Vickers. therefore. and the repair weld can become a preferential location for future damage. When the cut is complete. Deactivation of the clamp allows the device to rise up on its suspension. and so on. welding of material plugs into extraction holes. where it flows outward along the cutter shell as a result of centrifugal force. for example. pipe cutout and replacement. When hardness is measured by pressing a very hard ball or diamond point into the metal under restrained conditions. so that the cutter is clear of the interior surface. There are other types of hardness measurements. a magnet attached to the underside of the cutter trunnion captures the sample. Remediation Following any sampling program. and geometry of indenter as well as the level of indentation force.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization The cutter is mounted on a spindle and trunnion that is rotated to feed the cutter into the work.

Because of its low cost. both within the population of a specific grinding technique and comparing one technique to another. Figure 11-1 Variation in Measured Hardness with Indenter Load for a 1 Cr 1/2 Mo Steel Sample Ground to a 300-Grit Finish 11-7 . Hardness traverses across welds can indicate whether the weld has been stress relieved. making accurate life assessment difficult if not impossible. simplicity. particularly at low loads for softer microstructural forms. estimates of hardness for high-energy piping components can be of assistance in predicting remaining life. and rapid data acquisition. However. the level of surface roughness affects hardness. Advantages and Disadvantages It has been suggested that hardness measurements made under ambient conditions can reflect the amount and rate of high-temperature damage development.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Therefore. hardness measurements taken under plant conditions are susceptible to wide scatter. The scatter in plant data can be explained in part by surface preparation. Figures 11-1 and 11-2 indicate that significant variations in hardness versus load were observed in 1 Cr 1/2 Mo steel parent or weld metal for surfaces ground to 300 grit finish versus those polished to l µm diamond finish (using standard metallographic preparation). this technique has many applications in a plant NDE program.

Figure 11-3 Variation in Hardness with Indenter Load for a 1CrMo Steel Sample That Had Been Repeatedly Polished 11-8 .Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Figure 11-2 Variation in Hardness with Indenter Load for a 1 Cr 1/2 Mo Steel Sample Polished to a 1-μm Diamond Finish For the same material. but with the overall effect being somewhat reduced. Measurements on similar weld metal specimens indicated similar trends. The extent of this worked layer increases for coarser mechanical operations and for softer substrates. only small changes in hardness with indenter load were found for samples prepared with repeat polish and etch cycles (see Figure 11-3). The results obtained in this investigation illustrate how mechanical preparation results in a worked surface layer.

grain size) and make simplifying assumptions regarding the relationship of hardness with interparticle spacing. for 2-1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel. In several cases.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization It has been suggested that the following factors that will influence hardness values for a given material: • • • • • • • • • Surface preparation Number of measurements Workmanship Wall thickness Degree of surface flatness Measuring orientation Type of tester Indenter load Oxidation or decarburization of the surface Application in Piping Systems A number of evaluations have examined the changes in hardness that occur with aging at elevated temperature. 11-2 Eq. HV = A . hardness can be described using a time and temperature factor in a similar manner to the LMP. Although this approach can be used as a guide to remaining life in some situations. where repeat measurements have been taken at different times at a given location. To use hardness measurements to estimate remaining life. using equations of the form shown in Equations 11-1 and 11-2. the decrease in hardness with increased tempering is sensible. it should not be applied when accurate estimates of condition are required. if proper care is taken in preparing the surface and making the measurements. the data should allow a reasonable estimate of the equivalent operating temperature.B * P where A and B are material constants and P is calculated from P = T (20 +log f) Eq. it is apparent that hardness data can be used to differentiate between hot and cold regions of a component. it appears that it is possible to apply a lower bound criterion to provide a realistic minimum remaining life indicator. analysis indicates that trends in behavior can be identified. 11-1 Thus. Moreover. Thus. 11-9 . Therefore. Where large databases have been developed for widely used alloys. one must ignore the well-known fact that hardness is affected by factors other than precipitate size and distribution (for example.

Field identification or verification of the materials of construction for fossil power plant components consists of various techniques. necessitating alloy identification. color coding or stenciling of new materials. foundry name or logo. Furthermore. and alloy type. The three primary methods are manufacturer’s identification. Additional information such as design pressure and temperature rating can also be included. and design pressure and temperature rating can be found in the stampings on forged components. Most field methods are nondestructive. manufacturers provide material certifications with critical components. so that the removal of a material sample is unnecessary. Materials specifications contained in materials lists. Physical identification of materials includes the use of symbols or markings that provide a code to the material identification of a component. which provide a chemical analysis of an ingot or billet that was used as the starting point in the fabrication of a component. heat number. and quantitative field identification. Foundry markings on castings can provide information on the ASTM grade. documentation of materials of construction can be lost. In general. When foundry or forging markings are not identifiable or are questionable. however. Similar information on ASTM grade. Quantitative identification is performed through the use of chemical analysis (in situ or otherwise). heat number. in situ alloy identification using qualitative or quantitative methods can be used. and so forth should not be used interchangeably with certificates of analysis. a minimal amount of surface preparation is required. and certificates of product analysis. accidental substitution of materials occurs and can have catastrophic results in critical applications should a lower grade of material be mistakenly substituted for the properly specified material. These symbols or markings include foundry marks embossed on the exterior of castings. which provide a chemical analysis of the actual component after fabrication. In addition. owners manuals. Qualitative field techniques include analysis of materials through tests other than chemical analysis. These certifications include certificates of heat analysis (or mill certs). The manufacturer method relies on the use of documentation and physical markings on components to identify or verify the materials of construction.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Alloy Identification Identifying component alloy chemistry is critical to predicting material degradation and predicting life. some of which can be performed in situ. the use of manufacturer’s identification necessitates an absolute correlation of the analysis certificate with the actual component. 11-10 . qualitative field identification. and stampings or embossing on forged components. design drawings. Manufacturer’s Identification Manufacturer’s identification relies on the use of documentation and physical markings on the actual components. This correlation is typically carried out through the use of physical markings. forge shop name. With time.

Even more sophisticated alloy identification techniques based on ET are available. the surface finish must be controlled through the use of grinding unless the test location is a finished or machined surface. These techniques are based on X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). oxide. number of elements to be analyzed. and optical emission spectroscopy—in the identification process. The use of metal color is a method to sort different alloy groups that exhibit unique color differences (such as dark yellow bronzes from reddish coppers or silvery white aluminums) but not to sort alloys within a group. Specifically. they are typically comprehensive enough to identify unknown materials and provide certain compositional data with a high degree of accuracy. deposits. an X-ray beam impinging on the surface of an unknown material causes the surface atoms of specific chemical elements in the material to emit fluorescent X-rays. In general. Magnetic behavior can be used as a simple test to separate magnetic materials from nonmagnetic materials. Typically. The selection of which instrument to use depends on time constraints. coatings. the accuracy of measurements depends on the specific instrument and the surface conditions at the test location. a test location must be selected that is representative of the bulk of the component because the fluorescent X-rays are obtained from only a comparatively thin layer of the material. some degree of surface preparation is required for the effective use of these instruments. 11-11 . In XRF. magnetic behavior. oils. and precision required from the measurements. Typically. These fluorescent X-rays have unique energy levels and wavelengths that are characteristic of the specific chemical elements in the unknown material. metallographic examinations. In addition.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Qualitative Alloy Identification Qualitative techniques include analysis of materials through tests other than chemical analysis. paints. the test area should be sufficiently large for the particular instrument. and displays the percentages of the measured elements. In addition. Many instruments used for this method of alloy identification are very portable for field applications and provide quantitative analysis results in an efficient and timely manner. the measurements are analyzed by a microprocessor that compares the percentages of the chemical elements present in the unknown material to programmed compositions of specific alloys. thermoelectric testing. and all extraneous surface materials (scale. chemical spot testing. Also. These methods use the physical properties of the material—including metal color. spark testing. These characteristic X-rays are passed through detectors to measure either the energy level or the wavelengths. Although in situ chemical analysis techniques do not typically analyze for all elements present in a material. Quantitative Alloy Identification Quantitative field techniques sort and identify material by actual chemical analysis of the component at one or more locations. density measurements.. Surface curvature and irregularities should be minimized. The instrument then identifies the alloy. or greases) must be removed. a range of instruments exist. if the measured composition matches a programmed alloy.

Creep tests measure deformation of a metal as a function of a constant load (typically a uniaxial dead weight) and temperature. An extensive description of toughness testing for high-temperature components can be found in Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High Temperature Components [11-2]. Many standard laboratory mechanical tests can determine the mechanical properties of a material. Creep testing measures the high-temperature response of a material to tensile loading. Toughness can be evaluated by either measuring the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature through a Charpy V-notch or other impact testing method or by using fracture toughness tests such as crack opening displacement testing. there must be ways of measuring and categorizing material behavior in a laboratory that will indicate mechanical performance in service. Therefore. Toughness Testing. including tensile testing. fatigue testing. Creep properties can be measured by creep. and creep rupture tests.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Material Testing Several forms of destructive materials testing techniques can reveal not only the mechanical properties of a material but also the fundamentally microstructural constituency that is producing those properties. The toughness of steels is directly related to the rate at which energy is imparted to the material and the temperature at which the testing is conducted. A small punch test can be used to determine the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) of service-exposed material [11-3]. and crack resistance. ductility. • Tensile Testing. creep relaxation. Basic strength properties—including yield strength. and reduction in cross-sectional area—are determined with a tensile test. Creep Testing. Engineering stress and strain are calculated by dividing the applied load by the original cross-sectional area and the specimen extension by the original gauge length. a uniaxial tensile load is applied continuously until the test specimen fails. are similar except that the load is continually decreased during testing instead of remaining constant. of less interest for power plant steels. The measured creep rate response can be used directly in life estimations or indirectly in time-dependent stress analyses or creep crack growth analyses. Creep relaxation tests. creep testing. and fracture mechanics testing. The method relies on empirical correlations developed between the transition temperature (the temperature range over which the ductile-brittletransition occurs) measured on small punch tests to the Charpy FATT values acquired on standard sized Charpy specimens. Tensile tests can be performed with a variety of round or flat specimen geometries. In both • • 11-12 . elongation. The following subsections describe various forms of mechanical testing and metallographic examination. in which the steel loses the ability to absorb impact-type energy and becomes brittle. Most steels go through a ductile-to-brittle transition at low temperatures (near 32°F [0°C] depending on several factors). During the test. Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy in the form of plastic deformation without fracturing. The most relevant of these are described in the following paragraphs. Mechanical Testing Structural alloys are selected by and used for their combination of strength. toughness testing. the applied load and change in gauge length are measured. ultimate tensile strength.

then comparison to postexposure properties can indicate the amount of microstructural damage and remaining life can be estimated. Intermediate-sized samples are amenable to metallographic evaluation. The fluids are dispersed on a mechanically rotating polishing wheel that has been covered with some form of paper or cloth. With relatively large samples.05 μm is used to continually decrease the size of the abrasive polishing marks until a mirror finish is achieved. a cascading order of decreasing particle size starting around 9 μm and finishing around 0. strain is measured during the testing. and the focus on welds. laboratory evaluation can be performed using normal practices. Weldments are often the primary locations of interest because their inherent morphological variation and resultant property inhomogeneity make them susceptible to many degradation mechanisms. the fundamental “cell” structure (actually the crystal structure) could be revealed. Metallographic Examination Metallography first gained prominence in the 1800s. The first step in metallographic preparation is to grind a metal surface to a fine finish by using abrasives of decreasing coarseness. except that no strains are measured. mechanical properties are directly related to microstructural morphology.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization cases. metallographers will start with 200 grit paper and reduce to a final paper size of approximately 800 grit. The second step is to take the finely ground surface and polish it to a mirror finish by using abrasive solutions of decreasing particle size. The surface is ground until the grooves from the previous grit size are no longer evident. If the original mechanical properties (in the as-delivered condition) are known. Metallographic sample preparation became an art form. In all cases. Stress-rupture and time-to-failure tests are similar to creep and creep rupture tests. it can be difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of postexposure material for accurate laboratory testing. sand paper of increasing grit size (decreasing coarseness) is used to grind grooves of finer and finer indentation on the surface of the metal at different angles for each grit size. Polishing. when the first modern metallurgists discovered that if a metal surface was properly prepared and attacked with acid. testing can be conducted in a laboratory with postexposure material if sufficient material is available to make standard specimen sizes. Again. it includes the following three basic steps: 1. For the most part. Grinding. it is described in detail in the “Accelerated CreepRupture Testing” subsection of this section. Considering the material volume requirements for standard testing. which collects and holds the polishing medium while preventing contamination of other sized hard particles that could scratch the surface. Typically slurries of diamond or alumina particles of a common particle size distribution (mesh size) are produced in colloidal suspensions. 2. Depending on the hardness of the metal being examined. the difficulties in obtaining statistically meaningful representative samples. but postexposure testing normally requires the fabrication of sub-sized specimens. Accelerated creeprupture testing has become a common method for determination of the remaining life of components subject to creep damage. as well. mechanical properties change. 11-13 . Because steel morphology changes with exposure to time at temperature. Typically. depending on the hardness of the material being polished.

many of the steels used in high-temperature service derive their creep resistance from a dispersion of second-phase precipitates. As specific locations on the perfectly flat. microstructural examination can indicate 1) the effective service temperatures of a specific component. polished surface corrode preferentially. The final step is to attack the perfectly flat surface with an acid and create controlled surface relief. Etching. Attempts have been made to link the size and distribution of precipitates present with thermal history. For example. the preferentially etched areas show as darker than the surrounding untouched matrix. Because all microstructural constituents have varying thermodynamic stability. size. microstructural morphology can and does change during high-temperature service exposure. While in most cases the uncertainties present render direct life assessment inaccurate. When an acid is applied. Despite the fact that most of these steels typically enter service in the normalized and tempered condition.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Ultimately. in circumstances where a representative value of operating temperature is required for calculation purposes. 11-3 . and 2) where the component is currently with respect to overall property degradation. there is a well-defined series of microstructural evolutional changes as a function of time at operational temperature. When the etched surface is examined under a light microscope. the various microstructural features can be seen on a pseudo-two-dimensional plane. Thus. The type. Five categories were established and related to creep strength by conducting laboratory tests. d3t-d30=Kt 11-14 Eq. these estimates are valuable. and distribution (known as morphology) of microstructural constituents determine the macroscopic mechanical properties of any structural alloy. Initial work in this area involved microstructural assessment using optical metallography with the microstructures classified using a simple assessment of the degree of spheroidization. Detailed assessment of changes in the precipitates present requires the application of electron optics (which have higher resolution than light metallographic sample preparations). it does not provide sufficient detail for acceptable operational performance. In this way. Grain boundaries (borders between crystals) and other discontinuities within the crystalline matrix have higher energy levels than the surrounding perfect crystal. Each of the various phases and microstructural constituents within a polycrystalline structure has a different level of internal energy. In fact. the goal of the grinding and polishing process is to create a perfectly flat surface that reflects light. 3. the surface begins to have areas of surface relief that scatter and reflect light. which still reflects all of the light back like a mirror. success has been achieved linking aging characteristics to an equivalent operating temperature. Therefore. which depends on exposure time to a specific temperature (amount of input energy). in general. Thus. the first locations to become anodes and corrode are the high-energy locations. In the majority of cases. this aging reduces the strength of the component. assessment of carbides in metallic samples removed from a plant or by undertaking specialist replication procedures allows assessment of coarsening behavior through application of an equation of the form shown in Equation 11-3. Although this was a reasonable approach where extreme aging had taken place (for example where overheating occurred in tubing). aging occurs during operation.

casting replicas are also commonly used in the assessment of component condition. Silicon rubber or acetate castings (replicas) can be made of components for laboratory examination of features associated with erosion. Examination of replicas using either optical or scanning electron microscopy is useful for evaluating and characterizing the microstructural morphological characteristics of the surface material of the component. Eq. For a particular component. Alternatively. dimensional changes. is a temperature-dependent constant for a given alloy. Comparison with values obtained from laboratory aging studies then allows the effective temperature to be determined. The most commonly referred to replication method is the reproduction of microstructural features using metallurgical replication. Casting Replication Quantitative assessment of macroscopic surface geometry is often a necessary step in the evaluation of numerous damage mechanisms that cause macroscopic changes. and cracking. d3f -d3t = K tf Where: tf is the failure time. Replication can be performed using a wide range of materials and procedures depending on the features to be reproduced and evaluated. castings can be sectioned to provide direct measurements of feature dimensions. an assessment of the remaining component life can be made by assuming the average particle size to give failure. In addition. 11-4 An average particle size of 330 nm has been measured at failure in 1/2 Cr 1/2 Mo 1/4 V pipe material in laboratory tests conducted above 1112°F (600°C). it must be realized 11-15 . however. the replication process can reproduce spatial geometry and orientation as well as morphological details comparable to those from optical metallography and in some case electron optics. corrosion. by using Equation 11-4. No information is available for tests under typical service conditions. the value of K can be determined by repeated sampling. Similar to the metallographic techniques described in the previous subsection. Metallurgical Replication Overview Replication is an in situ nondestructive method for reproducing the surface topography from a component. However. t.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Where: do dt K is the initial carbide size. df. is the average carbide size after time.

portable equipment is used for the grinding stages to prepare the surface for subsequent polishing. Metallurgical Replication Metallurgical replication is a field-implemented technique that allows for NDE of material microstructure and metallurgical condition. In lieu of replicas. It is the most commonly used form of replication in the condition assessment of fossil power plant components. a metallurgical evaluation of material condition or an identification of relevant damage mechanisms requires the destructive removal of material samples from a component. After polishing is completed. Service-induced damage mechanisms could include spheroidization. replication is performed in situ on the component under examination. these replicas provide archival evidence of the dimensions and morphology of a surface condition or feature against which future results can be compared to establish specific rates of change. and corrosion. Metallurgical replication allows metallurgical analysis of large numbers of locations in a timely manner without requiring repair. stress corrosion cracking. provided that the surface of examination is accessible. submittal of the samples to a metallurgical laboratory. slag. As with grinding. a thin piece of acetate film is moistened in acetone and applied to the prepared surface. Following proper procedures. creep. Metallurgical replication is performed following standard metallographic techniques used in a laboratory. graphitization. the surface is etched with a suitable etchant solution to reveal the microstructural features of interest. polishing is carried out in progressively finer steps to remove scratches and the deformed surface layer that can interfere with detailed microstructural interpretation. it is removed from the component and placed on a slide for analysis using a standard metallograph or portable microscope. 11-16 . or welded construction). The characterization of microstructures. In addition. with emphasis on identifying fabrication history (forging. The acetate conforms to the surface. casting.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization that the dimensional accuracy retained in a casting replica is highly dependent on the replication material used. Characterization can also include the separation and identification of benign fabrication-induced defects (laminations. preparation and analysis of the sample. When preparation is complete. duplicating the surface features (although in reverse). This form of replication is also routinely used as an effective method for the removal and preservation of surface deposits or contaminates for subsequent chemical analysis and identification. replicas can be produced that can be interpreted using optical microscopes at magnifications up to 1000X or scanning electron microscopes with up to 5000X magnifications. or liquation cracking) from deleterious service-induced damage. heat-treatment (annealed or as-fabricated). Specifically. spheroidization. quenched structures. however. When the acetate film is dry. and repair of the sampled location—all tasks that require significant time and expense to complete. and typical structures (decarburization. and graphitization) can be carried out on-site with the use of replication. Each mechanism can be identified so that only the appropriate remedial actions are undertaken. which minimizes unnecessary maintenance efforts. hydrogen cracking. curing times and temperatures. forging laps. fatigue (mechanical or thermal). and local environmental factors. porosity.

Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization Metallurgical replication is used extensively for the evaluation of microstructural degradation (such as thermal softening. When these microstructural changes are observed. Although the A-parameter method requires more evaluation effort and thus increases replication costs. allows for the qualitative development of reinspection intervals and serves as a baseline to estimate damage rates based on subsequent inspection results.) As damage progresses. for details. the most important use for metallurgical replication in the fossil power industry has been in the assessment and prediction of useful life of components subject to creep damage. In the A-parameter method. Microcrack development is followed by macrocrack formation and propagation. subjective) classification of creep cavitation and cracking that. or weld metal) to statistically correlate the number of damaged grain boundaries with the particular zone. it provides an objective approach for classifying creep damage. and decarburization) that occur due to long term exposure elevated temperatures. metallurgical replication has both strengths and weaknesses associated with its implementation. Creep is a progressive damage mechanism that begins as isolated grain boundary cavities. replication can provide assistance in the selection of critical material properties in the analytical prediction of crack growth or remaining life. when used with generalized correlations of life-fraction. Replication can be performed in situ. such as the Neubauer system and A-parameter method. 11-5]. and thus affect the service life. The Neubauer system allows rapid (however. Therefore. and provides for a quantitative measure of change in creep damage between inspections. graphitization. Advantages and Disadvantages Like all material assessment techniques. Damage Mechanisms and Models. quantitative metallography is performed on each creep-damaged microstructural zone (that is. and specifically high-energy piping systems. they can affect the materials properties selected in subsequent analytical assessments. the density of cavities increases until microcracks form. Advantages Replication has the following advantages: • • Replication is nondestructive. (See Section 7. minimizes differences in classification among different examiners. base metal. precipitation. coarse-grained HAZ. spheroidization. Creep damage detected through replication can be described using qualitative or quantitative approaches. Application in Piping Systems Historically. It must be realized that these changes can affect critical properties (such as creep ductility and strength) of the material. 11-17 . fine-grained HAZ. respectively [11-4.

11-18 . Replication is extremely technique dependent. When taken to a laboratory. Unlike many other NDE techniques that allow remote collection of data. Replication does not record this variation and can under-predict the level of degradation below the surface replicated. it must be performed by highly skilled inspectors with specific expertise and extensive experience. stress.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization • • Replication can provide rapid analysis to enable repair or replace decisions to be made in a short time and without requiring samples to be evaluated at a laboratory. Because creep degradation follows an Arrhenius functionality (that is. alcohol. constant-load testing at temperatures higher than actual in-service temperatures can lead to ruptures that occur in useful timeframes (typically in-service ruptures occur after many years of exposure). the degradation rate is an exponential function of temperature). Replication does not provide information on chemical makeup of phase constituents or second-phase particles. The specimen is stressed under a constant tensile load at a constant temperature until separation occurs. It requires the transport and use of hazardous materials (etchants. Stress rupture as a measure of component life is used mainly because the tests are relatively easy to perform. replication can be performed only at locations that are easily accessible to personnel. Replication is a much less expensive technique than destructive sample collection and analysis. and temperature factors. but only to limited magnifications. The microstructure can vary through the thickness of the pipe as a result of a number of fabrication. and solvents). • • • Accelerated Creep-Rupture Testing Accelerated creep-rupture testing has become a common method for determination of the remaining life of components subject to creep damage. • Disadvantages Replication is technique sensitive and includes the following disadvantages: • • • • Replication provides microstructural morphological information comparable to standard metallographic techniques. replication samples can provide extensive and timely metallographic or scanning electron microscope information regarding microstructural evolution or damage. Extrapolation to the service temperature is then used to estimate the remaining life of the component. The resultant data from multiple tests are plotted on a temperature versus time-to-rupture plot. Replication provides information on only the surface material of the component. Replication does not provide information on the measurable mechanical properties of the component.

“SSAM—A System for Non-Destructive Material Removal. 520–524. 1991. the ASME BPVC. but they are not accounted for in creep-rupture testing.” Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management. In the latter case. Damage Mechanisms and Life Assessment of High Temperature Components. References 11-1. 11-2.Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization High-temperature design is generally based on the stress to cause rupture (rupture strength) of a laboratory specimen in 100. inhomogeneous materials properties. it simply measures the time to specimen failure. D. Part D allowable stress is usually 67% of the average or 80% of the minimum stress to cause rupture in 100. 11-19 . Stress rupture does not require measurement of creep strain during the test. A first consideration before embarking on accelerated creep-rupture testing is to make sure that the component life is indeed limited by creep and creep rupture. Postexposure testing provides a direct measure of creep or creepfatigue life remaining in a component. This is in contrast to the more difficult job of measuring strain conducted in creep testing. stress concentrations. Mercaldi. the extrapolation of accelerated stress rupture testing data to service conditions is far from straightforward [11-6]. Two major problems arise with the use of literature creep-rupture data for remaining life prediction [11-6]. pp. There are a number of reasons for this. However. 1989. the use of worst-case creep-rupture data results in extremely conservative life prediction. the considerable scatter in the literature data results in large uncertainties in remaining life predictions. including the issues of stress redistributions. and general inability of tests to simulate the locations or causes of field failures. L. Section II.000 hours. Adam Hilger. First. Testing of actual service-aged material can reduce the uncertainty in life predictions. Viswanathan. H. Cyclic loads are often present in the service condition that can considerably shorten life. Bisbee.000 hours at the design temperature. Welds are particularly problematic. R. Parker and D. The tests are uniaxial. Second. rupture testing is mostly limited to helping characterize the crack initiation portion of the total life. For example. Rupture testing is largely irrelevant in components where life is controlled by environmental degradation or where lifetime is controlled by crack growth rate. ASM International. J. whereas the service stress state is almost always multiaxial. including the following: • • • • There is uncertainty about actual field stresses. where localized cracking is the majority of the lifetime.

Palo Alto. J. Whitehead (eds. 1984. 11-4. “Rest Life Estimation of Creeping Components by Means of Replicas. Foulds and R. Wedel. pp. 457–464 (1994).Metallurgical Examination and Analysis and Material Characterization 11-3. CA: 2006. A. pp. 116. Metallurgical Guidebook for Fossil Power Plant Boilers.). Vol. 11-6. Woodford and J. 11-20 . J. 1983. 307–314. R. Cane and M.” in Advances in Life Prediction Methods. 1011912. 1994. D. EPRI.” Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Viswanathan. Neubauer and U.” CEGB report TPRD/L/2645/N84. “A Method for Remanent Life Estimation by Quantitative Assessment of Creep Cavitation on Plant. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York. B. 11-5. “Small Punch Testing for Determining the Material Toughness of Low Alloy Steel Components in Service. Shammas. B.

a voltage gradient and. A thermocouple consists of two dissimilar metal conductors joined at their ends to form an electrical circuit. a current is produced. Instrumentation packages for units constructed through the 1980s utilized strip and circular charts to record operating data. For a calibrated circuit. the thermocouple is by far the most widely used because of its ruggedness. significant improvements in instrument accuracy and data availability have been realized. if one junction is heated or cooled with respect to the other. Thermocouples Two types of temperature-measuring instruments are most frequently used in power piping applications: thermocouples and electrical-resistance thermometers.12 INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING Introduction Efficient operation of high-energy piping systems and components requires the monitoring of several critical operational characteristics such as fluid pressure. the temperature of the other junction can be determined by measurement of the circuit current produced. Both instruments are based on the relationship between temperature and the subject material’s electrical properties. as well as steam quality and purity. With the introduction of digital data acquisition and recording methods. therefore. if one junction is maintained at a known temperature. Instruments that provide measurements of these characteristics are required to provide accurate readings (of adequate quality) over an extended period of time. versatility. and flow. and ease of use. Based on the Seebeck effect. rapid response time. Measurements are typically performed at the support locations. The magnitude of the current is a function of the temperature difference and the materials used in the junction. The high-energy piping system characteristics that are most frequently monitored are associated with physical displacements of the piping. temperature. This section describes selected instruments and techniques that provide the required data inputs for any comprehensive piping management effort. 12-1 . Of these two instruments. but it is not uncommon for specific displacement pointers to be installed in areas of concern.

sheathed thermocouples have become more common. At the tip of a grounded junction probe. K (chromelalumel). the thermocouple junction is detached from the probe wall. This results in good heat transfer from the outside. and E (Chromega-constantan). Figure 12-1 Thermocouple Junction Types 12-2 . the thermocouple wires are physically attached to the inside of the probe wall. to the thermocouple junction. although the maximum temperature varies with the diameter of the wire used. also known as calibrations. The four most common calibrations are J (iron-constantan). C. including the following: • • • • The temperature range The need for corrosion resistance The need for abrasion or vibration resistance Installation requirements (any new equipment might be required to be compatible with existing equipment. the wires are insulated with an inert insulation material (typically stainless steel or Inconel) to protect them from deteriorating as a result of extended environmental exposure. ungrounded. In a sheathed thermocouple. In an ungrounded probe.Instrumentation and Monitoring Thermocouples are available in different combinations of metals. These calibrations are standards established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology [12-1]. The type of thermocouple best suited for a specific application depends on several factors. but the ungrounded offers electrical isolation. This type offers the best response time. existing holes might determine the probe diameter for new thermocouples) In power generation environments. or exposed. through the probe wall. Each calibration has a different temperature range and environment. T (copper-constantan). Specifications and selection guides for thermocouples can be readily found from commercial suppliers. In addition. There are also high-temperature calibrations for temperature measurements greater than 2500°F (1371°C): R. and GB. That is. a very thin thermocouple will have a faster response time but might not reach the full temperature range. The thermocouple in the exposed junction style protrudes out of the tip of the sheath and is exposed to the surrounding environment. Sheathed thermocouple probes are available with one of three junction types: grounded. S. but is limited in use to noncorrosive and nonpressurized applications. Response time is slower than the grounded style. a thinnerwired thermocouple will be more susceptible to corrosion.

This changes its resistance (R) in proportion to the strain sensitivity (S) of the wire’s resistance. metallic wire-type gages consisted of a grid of wire filament (a resistor) bonded directly to the strained surface by a thin layer of epoxy resin. all strain gages are designed to convert mechanical motion into an electronic signal. For material stressed in the elastic range. When selecting a strain gage. Strain is calculated by dividing the total change in length by the original length. Either the component can elastically absorb the applied energy or it can plastically deform to accommodate the applied energy. it gets slightly longer and its crosssectional area is reduced. and it is typically measured by strain gages. Strain is defined as the amount of deformation per unit length when a load is applied. However. knowledge of the axial strain alone might be insufficient for a complete analysis. or resistance is proportional to the strain experienced by the sensor./in. bending. stress can be calculated by dividing the force (F) applied by the unit area (A). Stress is defined as the component’s internal shape-change resisting forces. ΔR GF = R Strain Eq. temperature and drift compensation must be considered. however. The foil diaphragm and the adhesive bonding agent work together to transmit the strain data. component temperatures greater than 400°F (204°C) are common. Regrettably. 12-3 .002 cm/cm). This phenomenon was first put to practical use in the 1930s. the bonding media. stress and strain result. and torsional strains might also require measurement. material properties. The first bonded. temperature. Poisson. typical values for strain are less than 0. inductance. It was Lord Kelvin who first reported in 1856 that metallic conductors subjected to mechanical strain exhibit a change in their electrical resistance. and strain is defined as the displacement and deformation (elastic and plastic) that occurs. one must consider not only the strain characteristics of the sensor but also its stability and temperature sensitivity. for continuous measurement. the strain sensitivity or gage factor (GF) is given by Equation 12-1. and the adhesive also serves as an electrical insulator between the foil grid and the surface. and stability of the metal all affect the detected change in resistance. Because most materials do not have the same properties in all directions. Fundamentally.Instrumentation and Monitoring Strain Gauges When external forces are applied to a stationary component.002 in. in real applications. A change in capacitance. (0. 12-1 The ideal strain gage changes resistance only as a result of the deformations of the surface to which the sensor is attached. in power plant applications. this variation might not be a concern. For a uniform distribution of internal shape-change resisting forces. the most desirable strain gage materials are sensitive to temperature variations and tend to change resistance as they age. For short-duration tests. If a wire is held under tension. When a strain is introduced. Strain can be compressive or tensile.

In free filament gages. respectively. and duration) to provide confidence that the analysis results are conservative. therefore. less conservatism will be included and a more cost-effective evaluation will result. Current methods of life assessment use sophisticated stress and defect initiation and propagation analysis methods to determine current damage levels and predict rates of future accumulation. the implication is that by providing more accurate and current operating data. thermal coefficient of receptivity. the sensors are usually prebonded to a superalloy shim stock using ceramic materials and are subsequently attached to the component using spot welds around the periphery of the shim stock.Instrumentation and Monitoring Each gage wire material has its own characteristic gage factor. real-time. Typical materials used for strain gauges include constantan (copper-nickel alloy). Both calculations are based on a review of past operating data (such as number of starts and time of operation) that is used to assemble a history of operational experience and assist in projecting current operating experience into future performance. or nickel-chrome alloy wires. In weldable gages. the sensor wires are not encapsulated but instead are bonded directly to the subject component by flame spraying or with ceramic cement. Creep-FatiguePro On-Line Damage Monitoring The principal degradation mechanisms affecting the long-term reliability of high-energy piping systems are creep and fatigue. resistance. Typically. 12-3]. To address this issue. 12-4 . nickel-iron alloys. essential in developing an effective life assessment strategy for any component or system. but rather a matter of when. EPRI sponsored the development and implementation of two stand-alone Windows software-based computer programs: Fatigue Pro for nuclear applications (components subjected to only fatigue damage) and Creep-FatiguePro for fossil plant applications with components operating in the creep range [12-2. For high-temperature applications in the range of typical main steam and HRH system operation (approximately 1000°F [538°C]) free filament or weldable gages are typically used. plant operating data to track fatigue and creep-fatigue damage accumulation. Clearly. the growth of these cracks can lead to leakage or rupture. foils. or semiconductor materials. In extreme cases. Nichrome V (nickel-chrome alloy). The accumulation of material damage during the course of power generation operations eventually leads to crack initiation and propagation. It is not a question of whether it will occur. The most popular alloys used for strain gages are copper-nickel alloys and nickel-chromium alloys. the analyst makes conservative assumptions regarding service history characteristics (frequency of occurrence. magnitude. temperature coefficient of gage factor. platinum alloys (usually tungsten). Both programs have the ability to access and process actual. The monitoring and prediction of the rate of accumulation of creep-fatigue damage is. and stability.

Instrumentation and Monitoring The monitoring approach used by Creep-FatiguePro can be summarized as follows (see Figure 12-2): • Applicable operating parameter data (temperature. pressure. The determined damage accumulation rates are projected into the future to predict the calendar time required to reach critical damage levels. and defined material properties. Plants approaching the age at which service-related damage is expected (around 15 years) and that has limited personnel available at the plant for life assessment and inspection planning activities. Component-specific stress transfer functions are programmed into Creep-FatiguePro to determine creep and fatigue stresses as a function of time from the collected operating data. • • Plants with components recently inspected and found to contain significant service-induced damage or cracks. determined stresses. flow rate and load for highenergy piping) for each monitored component are collected from the plant’s data collection system at prescribed time intervals and stored in a form that can be processed by CreepFatiguePro. • • • Figure 12-2 Flowchart Illustrating the Creep-FatiguePro Monitoring Approach Plants exhibiting the following characteristics are excellent candidates for a monitoring system such as Creep-FatiguePro and can expect to achieve cost benefits through its use. 12-5 . Creep and fatigue damage increments (initiation and propagation) are calculated using the monitored temperatures.

and avoidance of in-service component failures. Creep-FatiguePro offers the following benefits: • By accounting for periods of low-stress operation. plants can expect acceleration of component life consumption rates compared to that of base-load operation. twinning and phase transformation in crystalline materials. 12-6 . the effects of potential operation revisions can be evaluated before implementation. crack opening and closure. • • Acoustic Emission On-Line Damage Monitoring As a corollary to the quantitative analytical tracking of damage development and progression provided by a system such as Creep-FatiguePro. Monitoring tools such as Creep-FatiguePro allow plants to develop economic models that convert monitoring results into plant cycling costs. the detection and monitoring of these emissions are commonly used to predict material failure. On-line monitoring is the best alternative for tracking remaining useful life and equipment wear and tear. This enables decreased inspection frequency and extension of the predicted life of critical components. In this case. Automated tracking of damage in critical components eliminates the need for manual remaining life calculations. therefore. To date. dislocation movement. load-following or on-off cyclic operation. Advanced data trending and analysis tools allow users to identify and adjust operating procedures to minimize creep and fatigue damage at monitored locations.Instrumentation and Monitoring • Plants currently operating under. Possible causes of internal structure changes include crack initiation and growth. or contemplating a shift to. in addition to basing calculations on actual operating conditions. In addition. Most sources of AE are damage-related. changes to operating procedures. acoustic emission (AE) technology has been applied in high-energy piping systems by several utilities to act as an “early warning system” for damage development. more accurate damage predictions than those based on maximum design or operating conditions are obtained. Acoustic emissions are the audible stress waves produced by the sudden internal stress redistribution of a material. Each plant has realized considerable cost reduction through lengthened inspection intervals. which is one of the most difficult costs of unit cycling to quantify. created by changes in its internal structure. accurate and timely information on component condition is vital for input to repair or replacement decisions and outage planning and scheduling. FatiguePro. In the cost-competitive deregulated environment. Through automation of damage accumulation and remaining life computation. reduction in unnecessary component replacement. and fiber breakage and fiber-matrix debonding in composites. more than 30 power plants are using Creep-FatiguePro or its nuclear counterpart.

They always contain varying amounts of suspended and dissolved materials. Water sources used to provide feedwater to a boiler are never 100% pure. clay. Aside from organic material that might be present. Flushing of loose debris from the feedwater system and boiler in combination with the use of high-quality water must supplement waterside surface cleaning efforts. This has opened up a new range of technical capabilities for the AE method—the frequency domain. In high-temperature applications associated with high-energy piping. The difference between AE and other NDE methods is that AE detects changes occurring inside the material while they are occurring. One of the disadvantages of AE is that commercial systems typically estimate only qualitatively how much damage is present in the material at the time acoustic emissions are detected. lake. Clearly. AE needs only the input of one or more sensors on the surface of the component being examined. Water Chemistry Water cleanliness is important to all waterside boiler and steam transport components. Over the past five years AE instruments have transitioned to digital signal processing. which in turn can result in superheater tubing problems and turbine blade deposits. these types of solids include mud. and the AE signals are usually weak. while other NDE methods examine the internal structure of the material (in whatever state it is in at the time of inspection). Dissolved solids are those that are present in solution. and sodium. yet they are extremely important for successful acoustic signal interpretation. other NDE methods are needed to provide more quantitative results. Suspended solids are those that do not dissolve in water and can be removed or separated by filtration. No documented validation of the detection of creep void formation through the use of AE currently exists. magnesium. water contains solids that are either dissolved or suspended. and metallic oxides. 12-7 . Therefore. real-time wave form analysis was performed on a small set of features that were measured with bulky electronic circuits. silt. service environments are generally noisy. Research in this technology continues. The ability to capture full waveforms allows advanced post-test analysis. the type and amount of materials present will depend on the water source (river. the goal has been the detection of the formation of creep cavities. signal discrimination and noise reduction are difficult challenges. calcium. AE systems are designed to monitor acoustic emissions during system operation. and no historical information is acquired. and therefore cannot be removed by filtration. Water impurities can lead to boiler tube failures and carryover of solids in the steam. the primary dissolved solids in most waters include iron. silica. In high-energy piping applications. sponsored by EPRI and others. Therefore. previously.Instrumentation and Monitoring AE has been demonstrated as a viable technique in the detection of defect initiation and propagation through fatigue [12-4]. and so on).

typically ammonia. the best defense is to maintain an airtight system. To minimize corrosion.Instrumentation and Monitoring Chemistry control begins with treatment of the feedwater to the boiler.0 and 9. but when and how much. and iron to form soluble complexes that can be removed during continuous blowdown. and consequently an increase in the amount of carryover solids. Chelants (<1000 psi [<6895 kPa]) are complex acids that are added to react with metal ions. Therefore. plants maintain water pH between 8. typically through pitting. 12-8 . All methods use either sulfite or hydrazine to control free oxygen. In general.411 MPa]) or hydrazine act to scavenge oxygen that is dissolved in solution. magnesium. The optimal pH level for a given unit will be the one that results in the least amount of iron and copper corrosion products. while chemical treatments with sodium sulfite (up to 1800 psi [12. permanent deformation of the system (through creep). oxygen gas dissolved in solution increases corrosion rates of waterside surfaces.5. no solid chemicals are added— only amines. During volatile treatment (all pressures). calcium. Because corrosion of steel typically involves the reduction of dissolved oxygen in water. It is not a question of whether it will occur. The long-term temperature and stress exposure of the piping material results in inelastic. Dimensional Measurements One of the basic characteristics of a high-energy piping system is its physical size. High pH levels can lead to foaming. Monitoring the position of selected points in a system and the magnitude of motion that occurs in a system when transitioning from ambient to operating conditions can provide indication of support malfunction and help identify those locations that are most susceptible to damage. feedwater and condensate must be maintained at the proper pH and ORP levels and free of dissolved carbon dioxide and oxygen gases. Deaerators are used to capture and expel gases. Phosphatehydroxide (<1000 psi [<6895 kPa]) and coordinated phosphate (all pressures) methods target water pH and precipitate calcium and magnesium compounds so they can be removed in blowdown. Water chemistry control for drum-type boilers is typically performed by one of four chemical additions: • • • • Phosphate-hydroxide Coordinated phosphate Chelant Volatile The choice of chemical is usually governed by the pressure range in the unit. Volatile treatment is sensitive to water hardness (because no phosphates are used) and condenser leaks. This consists of not only the outside diameters and wall thicknesses of the constituent piping but also the run lengths and elevation points that define the overall geometry of a system.

In addition to positional measurements. construction. EPRI. 12-2. and W. and correlating those readings with the travel range of the support.Instrumentation and Monitoring Recording the hot and cold dimensions of a piping system is an integral part of any piping management program. G. Actual thicknesses of delivered spools are typically thicker than the specified minimum diameter (usually by 10%). Burns. T. selected locations should be monitored to periodically record the pipe position in space. F. Temperature-Electromotive Force Reference Functions and Tables for the LetterDesignated Thermocouple Types Based on the ITS-90. which provide ample accuracy to detect swelling strains in excess of 2%. TR-100907. Coulter. For wall thickness measurements. Scroger. References 12-1. With the intent of tracking the general deformation of a system. To ensure a correspondence between the system geometry and the drawing record. J. E. CA: 1988. 12-3. spool diameters and wall thicknesses should be measured as accurately as possible to provide a basis to monitor swelling and assist in stress evaluations. F. EPRI. Strouse. Palo Alto. NP-5835-SP. As-built. Pipe spools are ordered to a specified minimum thickness. Sherlock. Knowledge of the actual wall thickness of a pipe segment allows more accurate modeling of the piping by eliminating the assumption of minimum wall thickness. G. Swelling of the pipe cross section can occur as a result of overpressure or extensive creep deformation. this monitoring is accomplished by performing periodic walkdowns. C. G. selected system dimensions should be checked. and design drawings in many instances might not reflect the current configuration of a system. 12-4. Guthrie. recording support indicator readings. Palo Alto. W. M. 12-9 . PA (March 1987). CA: 1992. Pipe OD measurements can be performed with outside calipers or PI tape measures. pointers or other indicators can be fixed to the piping and used as reference points for collecting position data. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Creep-FatiguePro: On-Line Creep-Fatigue Damage and Crack Growth Monitoring System. ultrasonic methods should be used. M. In its basic form. et al. “Acoustic Emission Monitoring or Fossil Power Plants. This becomes more evident as systems age and exposure time increases. When more accurate positioning is required at a position not coincident with a support. P.” Paper presented at the Third EPRI Conference on Incipient Failure Detection in Power Plants. Croarkin. Monograph 175 (1993). Philadelphia. FatiguePro: On-Line Fatigue Usage Transient Monitoring System.

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retrieval and analysis are the lifeblood of any optimally operating process. storage. and review) in many cases implies that this statement be reworded to say. Effective data collection. Projections of damage development related to specific operating practices. Having large volumes of data is insufficient. and replacement planning. RETRIEVAL. How many times have you heard someone say. Data must be stored in useable format that is easily queried for analysis. Basis development for safe operating periods and expected remaining life Monitoring. after they are stored. Verification of prediction inputs. Should be designed and implemented to have minimal impact on continued degradation and maximum serviceability Inspection. Identification of damage mechanisms allowing application of appropriate initiation and propagation models NDE. data must be trended and analyzed to detect trends and issues before they become problems. The combination of engineering analyses and financial and safety consequences in light of unit availability targets Another key element missing from this list but essential to the effective implementation of any program is data management. “I wish I knew then what I know now”? Utility experience (with respect to data collection. repair. Data management provides the unifying line among the elements. 13-1 . including the following: • • • • • • Materials. storage. Detection and quantitative characterization of damage Engineering analysis. Institution of consistent data gathering and structured cataloging and storage of information provides the foundation for analyses and evaluations required by the key elements. identify damage-producing operating modes and optimize component operation Repair technology.” The underlying meaning of this last statement is that without good historical records you will receive minimal value from collecting further data. AND EVALUATION Introduction Implementation of an effective piping management program involves the integration of several key elements.13 DATA STORAGE. “I wish I knew now what I knew then. Storing large volumes of data that nobody can access is not useful.

Analysis tools provide plant personnel with the ability to perform comprehensive quantitative evaluations of component and system life. Many PC-based software tools have been developed to facilitate the management and analysis of piping data. Retrieval. videos. and so on—but the basic problem of managing the information and putting it to good use remains. and Evaluation Advancing technology. recordkeeping was locally driven by plant personnel responsible for specific equipment. images. Regardless of the specific methods used to secure plant data. used. Hardcopy records required significant personnel and physical space commitments for their organization and storage. a large percentage of information was not analyzed to assess its meaning regarding component reliability. In many instances. Spreadsheet programs and database applications such as Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access provide platforms for the collection of component information. This section describes the evolution of data storage and analysis as it relates to high-energy piping and provides guidance concerning the criteria for its management. logistical problems—specifically. Computers can store all forms of information—records. data collection was. creating the potential for data overload.Data Storage. shifts in management philosophy and personnel changes collectively influence how data (and knowledge) are collected. Aside from the ability to collect more data and perform sophisticated evaluations. and program overviews were not developed. documents. it is essential that the information be available from some central location to facilitate its distribution and analysis. maintaining current software versions and ensuring their compatibility with operating system changes—exist. In addition. scientific data. a manual task resulting in the generation of hardcopy records. As a consequence. sound recordings. of necessity. and archived. Traditional methods of data analysis involve plotting information and identifying trends. Traditional Methods Before the proliferation of computer technology in the 1980s. Planning software is available to help evaluate multiple inspection and replacement scenarios and view the problem from a financial perspective. PC-Based Applications The increase in computer applications for both data acquisition and analysis has greatly expanded the volume of information available. Evaluation methods from hardcopy data are usually less quantitative because more assumptions are made during interpretation of written data. 13-2 . failure to centralize data places an unnecessary burden on staff to actively search for information pertinent to the problem at hand.

Virtual Private Network (VPN) encryption technology and managed routing should be used as part of a security plan for remote support. System Isolation and Security The control system must be isolated by an effective firewall and traffic must be monitored by intrusion detection sensors. Only specific traffic should be allowed into the system network. virus protection definitions. To achieve this goal requires involvement of information technology (IT) personnel to ensure rapid data transmittal. and Evaluation Web-Based Applications The next generation of data management systems is already in use. 13-3 . It is suggested that—as a minimum—two to three years of information should be directly accessible on the system. A procedure for archiving data that exceeds the established limits should be developed. Your IT department should also conduct corporate security assessments at periodic intervals. Retrieval. Periodic security evaluations by an expert third party should be performed to ensure that effective security protections. It should be the goal of each station to have the ability to use real-time information to track and evaluate components and systems. web-based systems take advantage of readily available computing components and operating systems. and remote support. The only requirements are Internet access and a web browser. data integrity. Patches. Installation of patches and updates should be approached with caution. This forces hardware upgrades and increases maintenance. such as supplemental data for the historian. and security. and Upgrades In many instances. policies. Increased costs associated with the use of proprietary systems force many users to accept this increased risk. using the Internet to eliminate the need for local software. Data Collection Periods The time period over which data is maintained should be decided. Areas that should be addressed when developing a web-based data management system are described in the following subsections. Software Changes. The disadvantage of this open system is the increased vulnerability to hacking and virus attacks. and procedures are in place to protect the system. The trade-off for using a nonproprietary system is the increased frequency of operating system patches and security upgrades.Data Storage.

Retrieval. patches. 13-4 . and upgrades. and support. and remote access). the amount and frequency of data collection and the techniques used to meet the other requirements (system isolation and security.Data Storage. To ensure adequate system performance. the benefits of remote access to the system for data review or support should be considered. additional system capacity might be required. a firewall can allow the connection of defined users for remote console control. IT personnel should be part of station meetings regarding data collection. data collection periods. software changes. project planning. System Capacity Depending on the architectures selected for a production system. By using Virtual Private Network connections and specific transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) ports. and Evaluation Remote Access While security is the primary concern.

and availability of replacement material. tees. The applicability of NB-23 or the original fabrication code depends on implementation by the local jurisdiction. Technical factors include the type. consequence of a failure. consideration must be given to the type of repair to be performed. and severity of the damage. extent. availability of craft labor. however. Risk factors include the time to predicted failure. Specific damage mechanisms associated with each piping system within a fossil generating station will be described in Volume 2. Piping System Surveys. Type and Extent of Repair Repairs can be considered long term or temporary. or attachment welds. and Volume 3. Governing Codes The design codes address fabrication and erection of new piping systems. Financial factors include unit availability requirements. of this report. Temporary repairs can be performed to allow operation of the generating unit until a more permanent repair can be affected. type. location. Based on these competing factors. a 14-1 . When damage is identified. as well as suggestions for ongoing damage assessment. a decision for repair or replacement will be based on a number of technical. Section 9. However. wyes. alteration and repair of the piping systems are generally performed under the National Board Inspection Code NB-23 [14-1]. and impact of a failure on surrounding equipment. and Volumes 2 and 3 provide specific guidance regarding the best-suited NDE techniques for each damage mechanism associated with specific piping systems. financial. timing of the repair or replacement. and extent of damage. Damage can occur at any point in the piping system. it is necessary to fully characterize the location. but is most frequently associated with high constraint regions including valves. after the piping system has been commissioned. Performance of Steam Piping.14 REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT Introduction As a result of either regular inspection protocols or an unanticipated occurrence. Before any decision of repair or replacement is made or undertaken. of this volume describes available inspection techniques. These codes generally serve to provide guidance for any repair or replacement. damage can be detected in piping systems that requires repair or replacement of the component to ensure continued safe operation. and risk factors. Performance of High-Energy Water Piping.

If the defect is eliminated by localized removal of material. the life of the repair should be established by analysis or experience. complete removal of the heat-affected material is recommended. If thermal processes are used. consideration should be given to the inspection of similar locations on the affected unit or other units in the fleet that are operating under similar conditions. Temporary Repairs In some instances. If the minimum wall thickness has been violated. the need to incorporate an inspection protocol for similar damage into an overall condition assessment program should be evaluated.Repair and Replacement thorough understanding of the extent of damage. It is 14-2 . and a conservative estimate of the service life of the temporary repair must be made and communicated to responsible individuals. The need for redesign to eliminate the reoccurrence of damage should be evaluated. material or component replacement might be required. NDE should be performed to confirm removal of the defect. The use of temporary repairs should be limited to only those applications that are considered safe with limited exposure to consequential damage. If the minimum wall thickness has not been violated. however. periodic reinspections should be performed to assess damage progression within a timeframe based on a conservative calculation of damage accumulation. When temporary repairs are implemented. When considering the appropriateness of a temporary repair. weld repair is required. the excavation area can be blended into the surrounding material and no further repair might be required. and repair techniques can locally modify the microstructure and thus the performance characteristics of the material. a local thin area calculation should be performed to determine whether sufficient reinforcement is provided by adjoining material. Whenever damage is detected. temporary repairs can be performed to allow operation of the unit until a permanent repair can be designed and implemented. impact of the repair on the progression of damage. the consequence of the failure of the repair must be considered. the remaining service life should be quantified. Available life prediction tools are described in this volume. Often replacement components are not readily available and require extensive lead times to procure. repairs can impart unanticipated stresses that can be difficult to quantify. If damage remains after the repair. Permanent Repairs Permanent repairs normally require complete removal of the defect. The use of thermal processes such as arc gouging should be restricted because the localized heat input can cause an existing defect to run. the depth and extent of the excavation must be quantified. and this life should be communicated to responsible individuals. After the cause and extent of damage have been quantified. Defect removal typically involves grinding or machining to either remove the defect or reduce the defect to an acceptable size. if it is determined to extend beyond the remaining life of the facility. if it is not. For more extensive damage.

Caution: Because the HAZ has been removed. greater care must be taken to ensure that adequate restraint and support are provided during the repair operation. a number of alternative repair designs can be considered.4 mm) from the original weld toe. Repair Design Depending on the nature of the repair. To prevent weld cracking and limit additional creep damage from the stresses imposed by welding and PWHT. it is necessary to eliminate or minimize stresses in the repair area until PWHT has been completed. and they contain applicable cautions. When reestablishing the weld bevel on a pipe or component that will be reused. the component should be properly supported and restrained. light-wall piping systems typically can be adequately supported and restrained by using mechanical means (chain falls or come-alongs) and by pinning adjacent hangers. A stress analysis can be performed to determine whether the additional stresses that are introduced into the system are acceptable. a standard weld joint design should be used (Figure 14-1). or if the specific repair approach is not addressed within the text of this procedure. Heavy rigging and the installation of temporary structural steel will often be required to support and restrain a large-diameter. This can typically be accomplished by machining back into the base metal approximately 1/4 in. Limited input from the system design engineer is required for the repair of small diameter piping systems. particularly if the system was designed and installed with significant cold spring. Particular attention should be given to the repair of longitudinal seam welds because of long-term serviceability issues and the risk of catastrophic failure. Piping System Support or Restraint Before any repair is performed. Pipe or Component Replacement When a pipe or component is to be replaced. A brief description of these options is included in this section. than a more detailed analysis is required to ensure the structural integrity of the repair. Alternatively. Involvement of the system design engineer is often required. Small-diameter. The designs represent typical repairs that can be encountered. If these repair approaches cannot be performed as shown. the length of pipe removed can be made up in the replacement pipe or component. For large-diameter or heavy-wall piping systems. heavy-wall piping system during a repair. The supports and restraints will also support the component during the required PWHT and prevent sagging or movement of the piping system.Repair and Replacement recommended that systems be established to ensure that a permanent repair or replacement is effected in a timely manner. 14-3 . (6. This can require the use of temporary supports. the pipe or component will be shorter than originally installed. it is recommended that the original HAZ be removed.

it might be necessary to counterbore the pipe or component to bring the inside diameters within the tolerances required by the fabrication code. as a minimum.Repair and Replacement Figure 14-1 Standard Weld Joint Details When a pipe or component is replaced. equal the wall thickness of the pipe. A typical counterbore is shown in Figure 14-2. The counterbore shall not reduce the wall thickness below minimum design wall thickness and the counterbore length should. 14-4 .

Repair and Replacement Figure 14-2 Typical Counterbore Design Complete Weld Removal—Through-Wall Weld Repairs If a weld is to be completely removed and the pipe or component is to be reused. a stress analysis can be performed to determine whether the additional stresses introduced into the system by shortening a spool are acceptable. it might be necessary to remove the component (valve. and so on) or a section of pipe to allow this to occur. A stress analysis can be performed to determine whether the additional stresses that are introduced into the system are acceptable. If the second cut occurs in an existing weld. removal of the weld and adjoining HAZs will shorten the section of piping system. Alternatively. Caution: If the pipe or component requires buttering to reestablish the length. elbow. This additional weld must be factored into the decision to use this repair method. the HAZ of that weld must also be removed and the length reestablished by buttering that location. 14-5 . as well. As with the replacement of a pipe or component. The final weld bevel shall be as shown in Figure 14-1. the HAZ must be removed from both sides of the weld. or the pipe or component length can be reestablished by buttering one end as shown in Figure 14-3.

(3. but in no case should it be less than 1/8 in. or they can be localized. (6. Nonthrough-wall weld repairs can remove the entire circumference of the weld to a specified depth.2 mm). 14-6 .4 mm) for heavy-wall applications.Repair and Replacement Figure 14-3 Weld Buttering to Reestablish Pipe or Component Length After Removal of Heat-Affected Zone Non-Through-Wall Weld Repairs Non-through-wall weld repairs do not penetrate through the full thickness of the material. The maximum depth of the excavation should be no more than the thickness of the component minus 1/4 in.

Figure 14-4 Typical Non-Through-Wall. (6. Full-Circumferential Weld Repair Detail 14-7 .4 mm) beyond the toes of the weld to ensure complete removal of the original HAZ. The edges of the excavation should be located approximately 1/4 in. If the excavation is performed by thermal processes or by grinding.Repair and Replacement Circumferential Repairs For repairs in which the full circumference of the weld is removed. the excavation should be made with a clam-shell cutter using a formed tool bit cut to produce an excavated bevel equivalent to the original weld bevel (see Figure 14-4). care should be taken to follow the original weld bevel contour while minimizing the width of the excavation.

Figure 14-5 Typical Non-Through-Wall. Local Weld Repair Detail 14-8 .Repair and Replacement Localized Repairs Localized excavations prepared by thermal processes or by grinding should remove the HAZ and should approximate the original weld bevel. The local weld excavation should be as shown in Figure 14-5.

The weld repair is then made. 14-9 . Through-wall repairs should result in a full penetration weld repair. The defect should be excavated to within 1/4 in. When through-wall repairs are made. appropriate NDE must be implemented to ensure the complete removal of the flaw. but in no case should it be less than 1/8 in. A permanent repair should be implemented within the repair design life specified by the engineering analysis. In addition. a non-through-wall repair can be implemented for a through-wall defect. In addition. (3. state or local jurisdictional requirements might apply. (6. Base Metal Repairs Base metal repairs might or might not penetrate through the full thickness of the material. Caution: This repair requires an engineering evaluation to ensure the adequacy of the repair. Base metal repairs can be longitudinal or circumferential.4 mm) of the ID for heavy wall applications.2 mm) of the ID (see Figures 14-4 and 14-5). leaving a small area of damaged material near the ID surface of the repair. during the excavation of through-wall repairs. care must be taken to minimize contamination by foreign material. The base metal excavation should be as shown in Figure 14-6. but typically would not be used for a full-circumferential repair.Repair and Replacement Through-Wall Defects In some instances. Such a repair is considered a temporary repair.

Repair and Replacement Figure 14-6 Typical Base Metal Excavation Details 14-10 .

the remaining hole can be repaired by installing a radiographic plug or a capped Weldolet or Sockolet style boss.Repair and Replacement Plug Sample Repairs When plug samples are removed. The plug material should be fabricated from a material similar to the base metal and must be listed in the applicable code of construction (see Figure 14-7). such as structural weld overlays. A plugged or capped Weldolet or Sockolet style boss must be designed and fabricated to the applicable code requirements. other types of repairs. the use of nonthreaded gamma plugs should be considered. might be suitable for temporary or permanent repairs. Figure 14-7 Plug Sample Repair Methods Radiographic Plugs Radiographic plugs must be designed and installed according to the requirements of PFI ES-16. as shown in Figure 14-7. These repair designs require an engineering analysis to ensure the structural integrity of the repair and establish a design life for the repair. Access Holes. The materials used should be similar to the base metal and must be listed in the applicable code of construction (see Figure 14-7). Other Repair Designs In addition to the repair designs highlighted in this section. 14-11 . Bosses. and Plugs for Radiographic Inspection of Pipe Welds [14-2]. To minimize the risk associated with oxidation of the thread profile and the resulting loss of strength.

care should be taken not to overheat the base metal. Typically. the work area should be protected from direct exposure to wind such that any wind at the joint should not exceed 15 mph (24 kph). Thermal stresses from the arc gouging process can propagate the crack. and Temporary Attachments Fit-Up Before and during welding. an appropriate shelter should be erected to protect the weld area from inclement weather. and any coating or contaminant. preheat should be established and maintained during the gouging process. surfaces to be welded should be cleaned to bright metal. (12. The preheat temperature should be as specified by the applicable welding procedure to be used in the repair. or restrained in position. and the temperature of the process can adversely affect the surrounding material. In addition. dirt. If the ID of the component will not be accessible after flaw excavation. On vertical sections of line. When the excavation has been completed. Tack Welding. (51 mm) above the joint. rust. it can be more difficult to follow the defect and ensure complete removal during arc gouging than is possible when grinding. If welding processes incorporating shielding gasses are used for repair. If grinding is used for flaw excavation and weld bevel preparation. moisture. The cleaned areas should be free of oil. Fit-up. The use of carbon arc gouging is generally discouraged. aligned. Tolerances for fit-up should meet the requirements of the fabrication code and qualified welding procedure. grinding or air carbon arc gouging.Repair and Replacement Repair Considerations Flaw Excavation Flaw excavation can be by machining.8 mm) back from the surface to be welded. surfaces above the weld should be cleaned of loose contaminants (such as scale or dirt) for 2 in. parts to be joined might require being fit. If welding will be done outdoors. Adjacent internal and external surfaces should be cleaned to bright metal for a minimum of 1/2 in. Cleaning Before fit-up. 14-12 . care must be taken to ensure that foreign material does not enter the system during cavity excavation. scale. Machining is the preferred method because it does not affect the material properties. preheat will remove any residual moisture. machining allows flaw excavation and weld bevel preparation to be carried out in one operation. Gouged surfaces should be cleaned back to bright metal. If air carbon arc gouging is used for flaw excavation. Areas to be welded must be free of moisture. In addition. complete removal of the flaw or the reduction of an acceptable size should be verified by appropriate NDE or metallographic methods.

The temporary attachments can then be welded to the component with an approved welding procedure. should be faired to at least a 3:1 taper over the width of the weld. strong backs. Items such as insulation pins used to hold resistant heating pads in place are also considered temporary attachments. be visually inspected and should be of a quality equivalent to the root pass. temporary attachments should be made only in areas that will be included in the PWHT of the repair.Repair and Replacement Alignment Weld joint alignment should be as specified in the applicable fabrication code. Temporary attachments can be made of mild steel if all areas that will contact the base material or will be welded to the base metal are first buttered with a filler material matching the base metal composition. If PWHT is required for the base metal. 14-13 . and the remaining material should be removed by grinding until flush with the surrounding base metal. (12. Any cracked or otherwise defective weld should be repaired before root pass welding. counterboring should be used to provide an adequate alignment. bars. Any misalignment. When tolerances for diameter. Temporary attachments can be removed by grinding. and similar items that are welded to the component to assist in fit-up and alignment of the weld joint. (3. clamps. Temporary Attachments Temporary attachments are plates.2 mm) from the surface of the component. A sufficient number of tack welds should be made to maintain alignment. unless otherwise specified. The location from which temporary attachments were removed should be inspected by MT or PT before and after PWHT. Temporary attachments should be removed. Tack Welding Tack welds should be made by qualified welders using a qualified weld procedure. wall thickness. or out-of-roundness exceed fabrication code allowables. machining. Any tack weld that is not incorporated into the final weld should be removed by grinding. Tack welds should. lifting lugs. in no case should tack welds be less than 1/2 in. or thermal cutting. Additional weld metal can be added to improve the transition. Temporary attachments should be made from material with a similar chemical composition to the base metal and should be welded to the component with an approved welding procedure by a qualified welder. If the temporary attachments are removed by thermal cutting. within the allowable tolerance. Removal of temporary attachments by hammering or otherwise breaking the attachment away from the base metal is not allowed. the temporary attachment should be cut no closer than 1/8 in.8 mm) in length The ends of the tack welds should be feathered to allow proper tie-in. Tack welds that will be incorporated into the weld. as a minimum. or other mechanical means are preferred over temporary attachments.

temperature-indicating crayons. preheat should be maintained until all welding is complete. Preheat Preheat should be uniformly applied to the joint including a minimum of 2 in. If preheat is interrupted for any reason. To avoid contaminating the weld. electric resistance. contact or infrared pyrometers. Caution: The use of oxy-fuel torches is not recommended for preheat or postbake operations except for very thin sections or under tightly controlled conditions. and PWHT operations is necessary to avoid cracking and to ensure that the desired toughness and creep resistance are developed and maintained. interpass. 14-14 . there is a tendency for the surface of the work area to reach the required temperature while the temperature below the surface remains significantly below the required preheat temperature. (50. or directreading thermocouples can be used. before any welding begins. Accurate temperature monitoring of preheat is critical for successful repairs. a crayon for the minimum preheat temperature and a crayon for the maximum interpass temperature must be in possession of the welder at all times. or electric induction heaters. One to two minutes should be allowed to elapse after removal of the flame and before the preheat temperature is measured. This will determine whether the material is uniformly heated through the entire thickness. Direct-reading thermocouples attached to a strip chart recorder are the preferred method for temperature monitoring. On heavy sections. the preheat and interpass temperatures should be checked regularly on the base metal adjacent to the weld groove to ensure uniform heating.Repair and Replacement Preheating and Post-Weld Heat Treatment General Proper application and control of heating operations is critical when making welded repairs. extra care must be taken to prevent localized overheating of the material. temperature readings should not be taken in the weld groove. When oxy-fuel torches are used for preheating. The preheat and interpass temperatures should be checked regularly on the base metal adjacent to the weld groove to ensure uniform heating.8 mm) on either side of the weld. only electric resistance or induction heating is recommended. the weld should be inspected by MT before the resumption of welding. Rigorous control of preheat. Thermocouples should be attached on both sides of the weld in sufficient locations to ensure uniform heating. For preheat during welding operations. For PWHT. If temperature-indicating crayons are used. Localized oxy-fuel heating is not acceptable for PWHT. Preheat and post-bake operations can be performed using oxy-fuel torches. If contact or infrared pyrometers are used. An exception would be PWHT of components in a temperature-controlled oxy-fuel furnace. After it is initiated.

and connectors should be checked before use.Repair and Replacement The preheat and interpass temperatures should be as specified on the Welding Procedure Specification. but in no case should the preheat exceed the maximum interpass temperature. PWHT with oxyfuel gas is typically not allowed unless the PWHT is being performed in a temperaturecontrolled oven. The area to be treated by PWHT should be clean and free of all foreign materials and the component should be free of fluids and drafts on the ID. extension wires. nonmagnetic). Post-Weld Heat Treatment For many repair or replacements activities. extension wires. red is negative (alumel. and corresponding strip chart recorders. An increase in preheat temperature of 100°F–200°F (38°C–93°C) above that specified might be required for highly restrained repairs. Thermocouples. including the following: • • • • Verify that screws are tightened at the terminal connections. PWHT should follow the requirements of the governing code with additional consideration given to the recommendations in the remainder of this subsection. The recommended wire size is AWG20. Prerequisites • PWHT should be performed using electric resistance or induction heaters. All weld repairs and required inspections should be completed before PWHT. • • • Temperature Measurement It is recommended that PWHT temperatures be monitored and controlled using chromel-alumel (ISA type K) thermocouples. Verify the function of thermocouple extension wire and strip chart recorder. PWHT should be limited to one weld at a time in any straight run of pipe unless the pipe is free to expand lengthwise. Thermocouple wire can be high-temperature glass insulated or sheathed types. PWHT will be required by the governing code or can be used to enhance the material properties. Verify that the thermocouple extension wire polarity is correct. slightly magnetic). Heavier wire is not recommended because it is less responsive to temperature change. and yellow is positive (chromel. Verify that the insulation is not damaged and the connectors are tight. 14-15 .

Support and restraint. For pipes or components greater than 10 in. A spare thermocouple wire should be attached at each location in the event the primary thermocouple fails. except at the hot junction. thermocouples should be located at the 6 o’clock and 12 o’clock positions. thermocouples should be attached on the ID if it is accessible. For this reason. should address all of the following items: • Maximum PWHT temperature. The PWHT temperature should be as specified by the governing code and as specified in the applicable welding procedure specification. For thick components.4 mm) apart. The hot junction end of each thermocouple wire should be protected from radiant heat by ceramic putty or a small piece of insulation. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Procedure Careful control of the PWHT operations is necessary to avoid cracking and to ensure that the desired toughness and creep-resistance is developed and maintained. thermocouples should be placed at the 12 o’clock. (254 mm) diameter or less. The support and restraint of the repair weld should be evaluated to ensure adequate support and minimum loading on the weld to be PWHT. (254 mm) diameter. as a minimum. (50. Thermocouple wires should be run along the component in a uniformly heated area for at least 2 in. Thermocouples should be attached near the centerline of the weld and on each side of the required heating band and at least in the following locations: – – – – – – In each separate heating zone. PWHT temperature should not exceed the lower critical temperature of the material. All thermocouples and extension wires should be clearly labeled as to their location on the component. The temperature should be monitored when the temperature exceeds 200°F (93°C) on heating and is above 600°F (316°C) on cooling. For pipes or components of 10 in. • • 14-16 . and 9 o’clock positions. a detailed PWHT procedure should be prepared and reviewed by a qualified individual before the start of the repair.8 mm) before being routed out of the insulation. the PWHT temperature is typically maintained 50°F (10°C) below the original tempering temperature. The heat treatment cycle should be monitored and recorded on a strip chart recorder. Thermocouple wires should be insulated from each other and from any metal surface. 3 o’clock. Thermocouple placement is critical to performing an acceptable PWHT. The thermocouple junction ends must be less than 1/4 in. This is of particular importance when significant thickness transitions occur in the heating band zone. The procedure. (6. In the anticipated hottest and coldest locations. 6 o’clock. Thermocouple placement. Other methods of thermocouple attachment are not recommended. for normalized and tempered materials.Repair and Replacement Thermocouples should be attached directly to the component using a low energy (125 W/s maximum) capacitive discharge welder.

it is recommended the heating pads be placed to allow the top and bottom of the component to be heated separately.5 mm). separately controlled heating pads should be placed on each side of the weld.Repair and Replacement Resistance Heating Pad Installation Heating pads should extend completely around the circumference of the component. To minimize thermal stresses. thermocouples. it is recommended that all thermocouple removal areas and temporary attachment removal areas be inspected by MT or PT. strip chart recorder. at no time during the heat up. (254 mm) diameter. whichever is greater. the component should be cooled to 200°F (93°C). and the PWHT setup should be reevaluated. Post-Weld Heat Treatment Schedule The PWHT cycle should begin by heating to 400°F (204°C) and holding for 15 minutes. During the hold time. would include replication and hardness testing to assess the metallurgical condition of the weld. Nondestructive Evaluation Following Completion of Post-Weld Heat Treatment When the pipe or component has cooled to room temperature. it might be necessary to offset the heating pads toward the lower half to compensate for convection heat loss. 14-17 . hold. When the axis of the component is within ±15° of vertical. In addition. and control equipment. Failure to maintain a tight contact could prevent areas of the repair from reaching minimum PWHT temperature. (9. the setup should be checked for uniform heating and proper operation of the heaters. Particular attention should be given to thickness transition areas. along with the following guidelines: • When the axis of the component is within ±15° of horizontal and over 10 in. This evaluation. Alternatively. When component wall thickness varies by more than 25% or 3/8 in. the rate of heating or cooling should be slowed. If any temperature difference cannot be corrected. • • Heating pads should be brought into tight contact with the pipe or component. the repair weld will require further evaluation to determine suitability for service after completion of the PWHT. If this temperature differential is approached. the weld should be inspected according to code requirements. as a minimum. if the maximum hold temperature is exceeded. During the PWHT. The width of the area heated should be as specified by the applicable fabrication code. or cold down cycle should any two thermocouples within the heat band have a temperature difference of more than 100°F (38°C). separately controlled heating pads can be placed above and below the weld.

National Board Inspection Code: NBIC NB-23. Access Holes. consideration should be given to the cause of the failure and whether changes in material or design are required to provide a satisfactory repair or to extend the life of the component. PFI ES-16. Examples of design improvements include changes to the support systems or changes in the operating temperature or pressure of the system. 2004. As with material changes. Material changes can include changing to a higher alloy or different heat treat condition. 2004. In such cases. Application of these alternative methods must meet the requirements of the applicable code (including qualification of welding procedures) and should include an engineering evaluation to determine whether they are appropriate for the intended service. no additional engineering work is required.Repair and Replacement Alternatives to Post-Weld Heat Treatment In some situations. Likefor-like replacements can also be used as a stopgap method to provide the necessary time to procure upgrade material or complete an improved design. In addition. be approved by a National Boardauthorized inspector. it might not be advisable or even possible to perform PWHT to the requirements of the original fabrication code. National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. if required. Columbus. Pipe Fabrication Institute. 14-18 . alternatives to PWHT—such as temper bead welding and the alternative heat treatment rules given in the National Board Inspection Code—can be considered and can provide an acceptable repair [14-1]. Component Replacement When components are replaced. such alternative methods must be acceptable to the applicable jurisdictions and. Bosses. 14-2. OH. References 14-1. Such improvement must meet all the applicable code requirements and be evaluated for the service condition. and Plugs for Radiographic Inspection of Pipe Welds. Like-for-Like Like-for-like replacements are made when the anticipated service life of the repair meets or exceeds that of the piping system. In such cases. any such change must meet the applicable code requirements and be suitable for the intended service. New York. Upgrading by Design or Material Improvement If a material has proven unsatisfactory for the intended service or if the anticipated life of a repair is deemed unacceptable. a change in material or design can be considered.

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