Está en la página 1de 154

KHOA CNG NGH THNG TIN

B MN IN T - VIN THNG
PHM VN NGC
THNG TIN DI NG
TP BI GING
(Lu hnh ni b)
THI NGUYN 10/2009
1
Chng 1:
Khi qut chung v thng tin di ng
1.1. Nhng c th ca thng tin di ng:
Ni n thng tin di ng l ni n vic lin lc thng qua sng in t bt
u t nm 1897 Gugliemo Marconi thc hin lin lc t t lin vi nhng
con tu trn bin bng sng in t. n nm 1980, thng tin di ng mi thc s
pht trin trn th gii.
hiu c ta lm php tnh: Mi cuc lin lc gia hai ngi cn mt
ng truyn c lp, mi knh gi s c di thng 3kHz (trn thc t ln hn) th
di tn v tuyn l t 0 3GHz ch cho php truyn 3.10
9
/3.10
3
= 10
6
cuc lin lc
cng mt lc. phc v hng chc triu ngi c th cng s dng my di ng
cng mt lc, y cha k di tn ny cn dnh cho rt nhiu cng vic khc.
Phng php duy nht gii quyt vn nhiu ngi dng c lp trn
mt di tn v tuyn hn ch l: Mt cuc lin lc di ng ny c th s dng
ng di tn ca mt cuc lin lc di ng khc vi iu kin hai cuc lin lc
phi xa nhau v khong cch vy l sng truyn n nhau nh hn sng
truyn gia hai ngi trong cuc. Do thch hp cho vic qun l ngi ta
chia thnh cc phn nh gi l t bo (cellular). Hai cuc lin lc hai t bo
xa nhau c th s dng cng mt di tn s sng in t thng qua vic qun l
ca mt trm trung tm t bo. V l thuyt kch thc t bo l rt nh khi c
th phc v v s cuc gi cng mt lc ch cn mt di tn sng v tuyn hn
ch. Phng php ny gi l phng php s dng li tn s.
Tm li, nhng c th ca thng tin di ng l: Phc v a truy cp gn
lin vi thit k Mng t bo, cc h qa ko theo lin quan n vn ny l:
Chuyn giao, chng nhiu, qun l di ng, qun l ti nguyn v tuyn, bo mt,
Nhng iu ny khc rt nhiu vi mng v tuyn c nh v lun i hi pht
trin nhng cng ngh mi.
1.2. Lch s pht trin ca thng tin di ng:
c bc tranh ton cnh v s pht trin ca thng tin di ng ta im li
mt s mc lch s khi pht trin thng tin di ng trn th gii.
Ta c th la chn lch s pht trin thng tin di ng ca nc M lm in
hnh:
Nm 1946: Dch v in thi di ng cng cng c gii thiu ln u
25 thnh ph. Mi h thng dng b pht cng sut ln t trn ng ten cao
824 849 MHz
S hiu knh ngc:

S hiu knh xui:

869 894 MHz
Tn s: 0.030N + 825.0 MHz
0.030(N - 1023) + 825.0 MHz
0.030N + 870.0 MHz
0.030(N 1023) + 870.0 MHz
2
ph sng bn knh 50km. k thut Push to talk (bn song cng), di rng
knh truyn l 120kHz (mc d bng tn ting ni ch l 3khz). y cha
phi l h thng t bo, tn s cha c s dng li tn s, s ngi c
phc v rt t.
Nm 1950: rng knh c thu hp li cn 60kHz, dn n s knh
s dng tng gp i
Nm 1960: rng knh ch cn 30kHz.
T nm 1950 1960: Xut hin trung k t ng, dch v IMTS, hiu
sut s dng ph km so vi h thng t bo ngy nay.
Trong khong 1950 1960: L thuyt mng t bo ra i tuy nhin cng
ngh lc cha p ng c.
Nm 1976: New York ch c 12 knh phc v 543 khch hng, dch v
cht lng km hay b bn
Nm 1981 h thng in thoi di ng Bc u NMT450 tr thnh h
thng dch v truyn thng di ng t bo Chu u u tin. H thng ny ra
i ch yu pht trin cc my iu thoi trn xe hi v xch tay. L h
thng k thut Analog, hot ng trn bng tn 450MHz (453 457.5MHz
t MS BTS v 463 467.5MHz t BTS MS) s dng a truy cp FDMA,
iu ch FSK, rng bng tn l 25kHz do cho php h tr 180 knh
Nm 1986 h thng NMT900 Ty u, h thng ny hot ng trn bng
tn 900MHz
Nm 1983: Ra i dch v thng tin di ng ci tin (AMPS) bi cng ty
AT&T. nh du s ra i in thoi di ng t bo th h 1. FCC phn
40MHz trn ph tn 800MHz, Nm 1989; FCC phn thm 10MHz ph cho
h thng AMPS (824 849MHz t MS BTS v 869 894MHz t BTS
MS) cho dch v ny mi knh c rng bng tn 30kHz, do h thng
c 832 knh p, (knh song cng mi knh rng 2*30 = 60kHz). Trong
832 knh c 40 knh ch mang thng tin v h thng. mi thnh ph phn
cho 2 nh cung cp dch v. H thng t bo ny hot ng trong mi trng
hn ch giao thoa, s dng li tn s, truy cp theo tn s FDMA, cc i
s ngi dng di tn v t chc knh ca h nh sau:
824 849 MHz
S hiu knh ngc:

S hiu knh xui:

869 894 MHz
Tn s: 0.030N + 825.0 MHz
0.030(N - 1023) + 825.0 MHz
0.030N + 870.0 MHz
0.030(N 1023) + 870.0 MHz
3
Nm 1991: Ra i h thng t bo s (USDC) theo chun IS 54, h tr
3 ngi s dng trn mt knh truyn 30kHz (
DQPSK 4 /
). Khi k thut
nn ting ni v x l tn hiu pht trin c th tng dung lng ln 6 ln.
(kt hp vi TDMA v tn ti song song vi AMPS trn cng c s h tng)
nh du s ra i ca thng tin di ng th h 2.
Cng nm 1991: h thng da trn k thut tri ph c pht trin bi
Quancom theo chun IS 95 h tr nhiu ngi s dng trn mt di tn
1.25MHz, phn bit m tri ph trc tip (CDMA). Vi AMPS yu cu SNR
>= 18 dB th CDMA yu cu thp hn v cho dung lng cao hn. Ngoi ra
b m ha ting ni tc thay i c th pht hin ting ni khi m thoi
s iu khin b pht ch pht sng khi ni s lm gim mi trng giao thoa
v tit kim pin.
Nm 1991 h thng Mng thng tin di ng th h 2 ra i Chu u
vi trn ph tn 900MHz (890 912MHz uplink v 935 960MHz
downlink) s dng k thut TDMA/FDMA
Vn tch hp cc mng trong mt c s h tn cng c t ra t u
nhng nm 1990.
Nm 1995: Chnh ph M cp giy php trn di tn 1800/2100MHz
ha hn s pht trin mi cho dch v thng tin c nhn (PCS)
Nm 2000: t chc vin thng quc t (ITU) thng nht mt s hng
v chun pht trin cho thng tin di ng a dch v th h 3.
1.3. Mt s h thng thng tin di ng trn th gii:
H thng thng tin di ng trn th gii phn thnh 3 loi chnh nh sau l:
H nhn tin - in thoi ko di - in thoi t bo trong :
99
0
99
1

102
3
1 2
79
9

99
0
99
0

102
3
1 2
79
9

Cc knh pht xui Cc knh pht ngc


824 849 MHz
S hiu knh ngc:

S hiu knh xui:

869 894 MHz
Tn s: 0.030N + 825.0 MHz
0.030(N - 1023) + 825.0 MHz
0.030N + 870.0 MHz
0.030(N 1023) + 870.0 MHz
4
H nhn tin: l loi hnh thng tin di ng bn song cng ngi dng ch
nhn c bn tin nhn mt chiu vi mt thit b thu n gin nh mt
chic radio va mt m s ring.
in thoi ko di: l thit b cm tay kt ni v tuyn vi mt my ch t
trong nh, my ch c kt ni vi mng in thoi cng cng (PSTN).
Tm v tuyn ko di hp (<100m) tin li cho ngi s dng di ng tc
thp.
in thoi t bo cho php ngi s dng di ng tc nhanh, ton b
vng dch v c chia thnh cc t bo k nhau, ngi dng nm trong t
bo no s do trm c s ca t bo qun l..
Ngoi vic phn loi trn th trn th gii tn ti 3 h thng in thoi vi
cc chun khng tng thch nhau l Nht bn, bc M v Chu u c cc
nc cn li. y l nhng tn ti lch s m trong xu hng pht trin tng lai
th gii mong mun mt h thng thng nht ton cu a dch v, phc v ngi
dng di chuyn khp ni ch vi mt thit b cm tay.
Cc chun thng tin di ng chnh Bc M
Chun Loi Bt u Truy cp Bng tn iu ch Knh
AMPS T bo 1983 FDMA 824 894MHz FM 300KHz
NAMPS T bo 1992 FDMA 824 894MHz FM 10KHz
USDC T bo 1991 TDMA 824 894MHz DQPSK 4 / 30KHz
CDPD T bo 1993 FH / gi 824 894MHz GMSK 30KHz
IS 95 T bo
/PCS
1993 CDMA 824 894MHz
1.8 2.0 GHz
QMSK
/ BPSK
12.5MHz
GSC Nhn tin 1970 n cng Vi knh FSK 12.5KHz
POSAG Nhn tin 1970 n cng Vi knh FSK 12.5KHz
FLEX Nhn
tin
1993 n cng Vi knh 4 FSK 15KHz
DSC1900
(GSM)
PCS 1994 TDMA 1.85 1.99 GHz GMSK 200KHz
PACS Ko di
//PCS
1994 TDMA/
FDMA
1.85 1.99 GHz DQPSK 4 / 300KHz
MIRS SMR.PCS 1994 TDMA Vi knh 16QAM 25KHz
Cc chun thng tin di ng chnh Chu u
5
Chun Loi Bt u Truy cp Bng tn iu ch Knh
E-TACS T bo 1985 FDMA 900 MHz FM 25KHz
NMT-450 T bo 1981 FDMA 457 470 MHz FM 25KHz
NMT-900 T bo 1986 FDMA 890 - 960 MHz FM 12.5KHz
GSM T bo / PCS 1990 TDMA 890 - 960 MHz GMSK 200KHz
C-450 T bo 1985 FDMA 450 465 MHz FM 20/10KHz
ERMES Nhn tin 1993 FDMA Vi knh 4 - FSK 25KHz
CT2 Ko di 1989 FDMA 864 868 MHz GFSK 100KHz
DECT Ko di 1993 TDMA 1.88 1.9 GHz GFSK 1.728KHz
DCS-1800 Ko di / PCS 1993 TDMA 1.71 1.88 GHz GMSK 200KHz
Cc chun thng tin di ng chnh Nht Bn
Chun Loi
Bt
u
Truy
cp
Bng tn iu ch knh
JATC T bo 1988 FDMA 860 925 MHz FM 25KHz
PDC T bo 1993 TDMA 810 1501 MHz
DQPSK 4 /
25KHz
NTT T bo 1979 FDMA 400/800 MHz FM 25KHz
NTACS T bo 1993 FDMA 843 925 MHz FM 12.5KHz
NTT Nhn tin 1979 FDMA 280 MHz FSK 12.5KHz
NEC Nhn tin 1979 FDMA Vi knh FSK 10KHz
PHS Ko di 1993 TDMA 1895 1907 MHz
DQPSK 4 /
300KHz
1.4. Xu hng pht trin ca thng tin di ng:
Hin nay thng tin di ng ang trong giai on pht trin nh v bo, p
ng nhu cu khng ngng tng ca khch hng c v khi lng, cht lng v
loi hnh dch v chia lm cc giai on pht trin sau:
T nm 1989 c nhng nghin cu rng ln trn th gii nhm pht
trin h thng v tuyn c nhn: Kt hp s thng minh ca mng PSTN, x l tn
hiu s hin i v cng ngh RF.
Xu hng pht trin mng v tuyn trong nh (indoor) cho php ngi
dng kt ni my tnh vn phng trong cc ta nh ln (tn s 1.8GHz)
6
Xu hng chun ho IMT 2000, c quyt nh bi ITU xy dng
chun v quy hoch tn s trn ton th gii.
Xu hng pht trin h vin thng v tinh LEO, cng vi s pht trin cng
ngh v tr, h thng tin v tinh phi hp vi h di ng mt t to nn kt ni
ton cu thch hp vi mi loi a hnh v loi thng tin.
Hin nay cc quc gia pht trin sau li c c hi i nhanh vo cc ng
dng tin tin nht v la chn cc m hnh thch hp vi s pht trin ca tng
lai.
1.5. Mt s kt qu t c mng GSM
- Cc dch v mng mi v ci thin cc dch v lin quan n truyn s liu
nh nn s liu ca ngi s dng, s liu chuyn mch knh tc cao
(HSCDS: High Speed Circuit Swiched Data), dch v v tuyn gi chung
(GPRS: General Packet Radio Sevice) v s liu 14,4 kbit/s.
- Cc cng vic lin quan n dch v thoi nh: Codec ting ton tc ci tin
(EFC: Enhanced Full Rate Codec), Codec a tc thch ng v khai thc t
do u cui cc Codec ting.
- Cc dch v b sung nh:chuyn hng cuc gi, hin th tn ch gi, chuyn
giao cuc gi v cc dch v chn gi.
- Ci thin lin quan n dch v bn tin ngn (SMS :Short Message Service)
nh: mc ni cc SMS, m rng bng ch ci, m rng tng tc gia cc
SMS.
- Cc cng vic lin quan n tnh cc nh:cc dch v tr tin trc, tnh cc
nng v h tr cho u tin vng gia nh.
- Tng cng cng ngh SIM.
- Dch v mng thng minh:CAMEL.
- Cc ci thin chung nh:chuyn mng GSM-AMPS, cc dch v ng v, tng
tc vi cc h thng thng tin di ng v tinh v h tr nh tuyn ti u.
Thng tin di ng th h ba s phi l th h thng tin di ng cho cc dch
v di ng truyn thng c nhn a phng tin. Hp th thoi s c thay th
bng bu thip in t c lng ghp vi hnh nh v cc cuc thoi thng
thng trc y s c b sung cc hnh nh tr thnh thoi c hnh
Di y l mt s yu cu chung i vi h thng thng tin di ng th ba
ny:
7
- Mng phi l bng thng rng v c kh nng truyn thng a phng tin.
Ngha l mng phi m bo c tc bit ca ngi s dng n 2Mbit/s.
- Mng phi c kh nng cung cp rng bng tn (dung lng) theo yu cu.
iu ny xut pht t vic thay i tc bit ca cc dch v khc nhau. Ngoi
ra cn m bo ng truyn v tuyn khng i xng chng hn vi:tc
bit ng xung v tc thp ng ln hoc ngc li.
- Mng phi cung cp thi gian truyn dn theo yu cu. Ngha l m bo cc
kt ni chuyn mch cho thoi, cc dch v video v cc kh nng s liu gi
cho cc dch v s liu.
- Cht lng dch v phi khng thua km cht lng dch v mng c nh,
nht l i vi thoi.
- Mng phi c kh nng s dng ton cu,ngha l bao gm c thng tin v tinh.
WARC-92 (The World Administrative Radio Conference held in 1992)
dnh cc bng tn 1885-2005Mhz v 2110-2200Mhz cho IMT-2000. Hin nay
Chu u v cc quc gia s dng GMS cng vi Nht ang pht trin W-CDMA
(Wide Band Code Division Multiple Access: a truy nhp phn chia theo m bng
rng) trn c s UMTS, cn M th tp trung pht trin th h hai (IS-95) v m
rng tiu chun ny n IS-2000.
Cc tiu chun di ng bng rng mi c xy ng trn c s CDMA
hoc CDMA kt hp vi TDMA.
8
Chng 2:
T bo C s thit k h thng
Phng php s dng li tn s dn n vng dch v c chia thnh cc
min nh k nhau gi l cc t bo. Mi t bo c mt ng ten trung tm vi cng
sut ph hp qun l cc di ng trong t bo m khng gy nhiu sang cc t
bo khc. Vic phn chia ny phi tha mn 2 yu cu:
Din tch cc t bo phi ph kn vng dch v, vng chng ln
gia hai t bo k nhau phi cc tiu
Hai t bo s dng cng di tn phi cch nhau xa.
2.1. T bo v vic phn b tn s:
2.1.1. La chn t bo:
n gin ta coi a hnh l bng phng l tng, mi t bo nh mt a
gic u. Nu a gic ny lt kn mt phng th cng thc sau y c tha mn
(n 2).180
0
.
n
k
= 360
0
t y k = 2 +
2
4
n
(2 1)
y n l s cnh a gic, k l s a gic c chung mt nh lp kn 360
0
.
Do k, n u l cc s nguyn nn (n 2) phi l c ca 4 do n ch c th nhn
cc gi tr 3, 4, 6 tc a gic u phi l tam gic, t gic hoc lc gic u.
Khi s dng ng ten pht trn t ti tm cc a gic ny. Vi t bo lc
gic th cc hnh trn ngoi tip ca 2 a gic k nhau c din tch chng ln nhau
nh nht, Do vy m hnh t bo lc gic c la chn trn thc t.
2.1.2. Phn chia knh truyn
Gi s chng ta c S knh truyn v phn cho mt nh cung cp dch v.
Khi thit k h thng khng th phn tt c S knh ny cho mt t bo v khi lp
li iu ny t bo bn cnh cc knh cng di tn 2 t bo cnh nhau s gy
nhiu ln nhau. Do vy S knh ny phi phn cho mt nhm N t bo (N cn gi l
kch thc nhm) nh vy mi nhm c S/N = C knh, ri thit k lp li c nhm
t bo ny trn a bn dch v. iu ny lm cho 2 t bo cng knh xa nhau
hn, v hai t bo cnh nhau ch s dng cc knh truyn khc nhau iu dn
n kch thc nhm cng ln, 2 t bo cng knh cng xa nhau.
Nu vng dch v chia lm P t bo th dung lng h thng (s ngi ti
a c th s dng cng mt lc) c tnh l T:
T = M.k = M.S/N (2 2)
9
Hnh 2 1: Lp li nhm t bo trong vng dich v
T cng thc ny ta thy nu N tng th T gim, nu N gim th T tng.
Vy t c dung lng ln nht th N phi tin n 1 (tc l phn tt c knh
vo 1 t bo) song nh ni trn 2 t bo bn cnh nhau s gy nhiu ln nhau.
Ngc li m bo chng nhiu tt, N ln s lm cho dung lng h thng
gim. La chn kch thc nhm N thch hp l nhim v ca ngi thit k.
2.1.3. Kch thc nhm N:
Khi la chn t bo hnh lc gic, gi khong cch tm gia hai t bo c
knh truyn ging nhau (cng knh) nm gn nhau nht l D, khong cch ny
c tnh nh sau
D
2
= j
2
(R
3
)
2
+ i
2
(R
3
)
2
+ i.j(R
3
)
2
(2 3)
A
C
B
G
F
E
D
A
C
B
G
F
E
D
A
C
B
G
F
E
D
10
j, i l cc bc dch sang ngang (vung gc vi cnh lc gic) v dch
nghing 60
0
(so vi dch ngang 60
0
) t bo ny c th trng ln t bo kia, R l
bn knh t bo hnh 2 2.
Mt khc so tnh lp li ca lc gic v kch thc nhm cng c tnh:
j i j i
R
D
R
D
baolucgiac dientichte
nhD mgiacdeuca dientichta
N .
3
4 / 3 6
2 / 3 . 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
+ + (2 4)
Kch thc nhm l mt s nguyn N phi tha mn cng thc trn. Thng
thng n c la chn gi tr N = 4, 7, 12,
Hnh 2 2: Lin h kch thc nhm v t s D/R
V d: Ph tn 33MHz c phn cho h di ng song cng theo tn s c
rng knh n l 25kHz. Tnh s knh mi t bo cc trng hp.
a. N = 4, b. N = 7, c. N = 12 Nu vng dch v c 50 t bo.
Tnh dung lng h thng trong mi trng hp .
Gii: rng knh p l:
25kHz*2 = 50kHz
S knh p c php l:
33000kHz/50kHz = 660 knh p
N = 4 s knh trong mt t bo l:
660/4 = 165 knh p, dung lng knh l C = P*k = 50*165 = 8250
N = 7 s knh trong mt t bo l:
660/7 = 94 knh p C = 50*94 = 4700
N = 12 s knh trong mt t bo l:
660/12 = 55 knh p C = 50*55 = 2450
A
A
3 jR
3 iR
D
i j123014913713271219
11
2.2. Nhiu cng knh v dung lng h thng:
nh gi nh hng ca nhiu cng tn s do vic s dng li knh
truyn ta c cng thc suy gim sng in t l:

,
_

0
) (
0
d
d
n
p d p (2 5)
p
0
l cng sut sng in t ti khong cch d
0
, p(d) l cng sut sng
in t ti khong cch d so vi ngun pht, n l s m suy gim sng in t (ch
ph thuc vo mi trng truyn sng).
T s cng sut tn hiu trn cng sut nhiu cng knh gy bi 6 t bo
xung quanh thu ti my di ng c tnh l:

6
1 i
i
I
S
I
S
(2 6)
Hnh 2 3: Nhiu ng knh ln b thu ca my di ng
S l cng sut tn hiu c ch thu ti my di ng cch xa tm t bo
khong R (khi ra t bo). I l cng sut khng mong mun cng knh cau
trm pht cc t bo xung quanh gn nht cch my di ng xp x khong D. S
dng cng thc tnh D v cng thc suy gim sng in t (2 3) n ( 2 5) ta
thu c:
D
2
= j
2
(R 3 )
2
+ i
2
(R 3 )
2
+j.i(R 3 )
2
,
2
2
3R
D
N
( )
n
n
n
n
N
D
R
D
R
I
S
3
6
1
6
1
6
1

,
_

,
_

(2 7)
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
12
Q = D/R cn gi l t s lp li knh, t cng thc (2 2), ( 2 7) trn ta
c th suy ra:
Quy tc thit k trn a hnh l tng:
T S/I, n

N, D/R
Cc thng s S/I v n b quy nh trc bi mi trng v tnh nng b thu
bi nh ch to thit b, N v D/R c tnh ton thit k bi nh cung cp t bo.
xc nh tip R phi thng k mt a l ngi s dng (mt d lu lng)
v s knh tng ng trong mi th bo.
V d: My thu di ng hot ng tt i hi S/I > 15dB. Hy tnh h s
lp li knh, kch thc nhm t bo h c dung lng ln nht ng vi cc
trng hp suy gim sng in t so mi trng l:
a. n = 4, b. n = 3 (coi rng ch c 6 t bo xung quanh gy nhiu
vi c ly v cng sut nh nhau)
Gii:
a. Vi n = 4 ta chn N = 7, ta c t s lp li knh l
D/R = N 3 = 7 * 3 = 4,583
S/I = 1/6(D/R)
n
= (1/6)(4,583)
4
= 75,3 = 18,66 dB
y l m hnh chp nhn c
b. Vi n = 3 ta chn N = 7 ta c t s lp li knh l:
D/R = N 3 = 7 * 3 = 4,583
S/I = (1/6)(4,583)
3
= 16,4 = 12,05 dB khng tha mn yu cu my thu
Do ta cn tng N, N = 12 (j = 2; i = 2) ta c
D/R = N 3 = 12 * 3 = 6
Khi S/I = (1/6)(6)
3
= 36 = 15,56 dB m hnh chp nhn c
2.3. Nhiu knh ln cn v k hoch phn chia knh:
Mt c th ring ca thng tin di ng mng t bo l phi tnh n nhiu
knh ln cn dn n vic phi hoch nh tn s trong nhm t bo khi thit k:
Nhiu knh ln cn gy bi b lc my thu khng l tng v hiu
ng xa gn biu hin r b thu ca trm c s. V b lc khng l tng nn tn
hiu khng mong mun knh ln cn mc d b trit mnh song nu n l tn
hiu rt mnh (do mt my di ng gn trm c s) vn chui vo b thu gy
nhiu tn hiu khng mong mun ca mt my di ng khc khi my ny xa b
thu trm c s. c minh ha trn hnh 2 4:
13
Gi s my di ng MS1 gn trm c s hn my MS2 20 ln
(S
MS2
/I
MS1
) = (20)
-n
= -52dB (vi n = 4). Nu b lc trung tm ca my thu trm c
s c sn dc 20dB/octabi th mun chng nhiu knh ln cn di tn pht ca 2
my di ng phi cch xa nhau 6 ln rng knh truyn. Khi lp k hoch phn
chia knh truyn cho cc t bo phi ch n iu ny.

Hnh 2 4: Nhiu knh ln cn ln b thu trm c s
V d: H AMPS nm 1983 c 666 knh p, nm 1989 c thm 166 knh
p tng cng c 666 + 166 = 832 knh p.
Bng 2 4: Phn knh trong h AMPS cho 2 nh cung cp dch v A v B
Nh cung cp A
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 1B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 1C 2C 3C 4C 5C 6C 7C
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63
64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84
85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 111 112 113 114 115 116
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333
990 991 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023
334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354
355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375
376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795
796 797 798 799
Nh cung cp B
Chia cho 2 cng ty dch v mi cng ty 416 knh, tr cc knh ng vai tr
iu khin cn li 399 knh c chia thnh 21 tp con bng cch nh s lin
tip, mi tp con 19 knh. Cc knh trong mt tp cch nhau 21 knh. Trong m
hnh lp li 7 t bo (N = 7). Mi t bo c phn chia theo cng thc iA + iB +
iC m bo trong mt t bo cch nhau t nht 6 knh.
2.4. Chin lc phn knh v chuyn giao:
MS
1
MS
2
14
Vic chia vng dch v thnh cc t bo, tt yu phi gii quyt vn
chuyn giao khi ngi dng di chuyn trong khi lin lc. Cc h thng thng tin di
ng hin i lun phi lm tt hai vic l phn knh v chuyn giao.
Phn knh tnh kt hp phn knh ng: iu ny gn vi mt ngi
s dng thay i theo thi gian hoc khi c s t hp bt thng ca
nhng ngi dng my di ng, nn bn cnh mt s knh c phn
c nh cn c mt s knh d tr c phn linh hot theo tnh hung
c th ca mng.
Chuyn giao trnh hin tng ping pong v c nguyn tc u tin.
Hnh 2 5: Ngng chuyn giao
Khi my di ng chi chuyn theo tuyn ng nm chnh gia hai t bo c
th xy ra tnh hung chuyn i qua li quyn qun l ca hai trm c s. Hin
tng ny gi l hiu ng ping pong gy qu ti b phn iu khin chuyn
giao. kh hiu ng ny cn t mt mc ngng chuyn giao (thng thng l
6dB vi h thng tng t), tc l khi tn hiu thu c t bo mi phi ln hn
tn hiu thu c t t bo c 6dB th mi quyt nh chuyn giao. (hnh 2 5)
iu ny tch mt bin chuyn giao thnh 2 bin khc nhau. Nu t 2
mc ngng ny khc nhau (theo 2 chiu chuyn ng th c th thay i mm
c kch thc qun l ca 2 t bo.
A B
6dB 6dB
15
K thut MAHO (my di ng h tr chuyn giao): L k thut gim ti
tnh ton qun l ln tng i hoc cc b iu khin chuyn giao, phn
vic o mc v bo co mc tn hiu nhn c t cc trm c s xung
quanh cho chnh my di ng.
Chuyn giao trong h thng ngi dng c tc chuyn ng khc
nhau: iu ny lin quan n cu hnh cc t bo chng ph ln nhau c
kch thc khc nhau nhm qun l cc di ng c tc rt khc nhau.
Ngi dng di chuyn tc chm c phn sang h thng cc t bo
kch thc nh (p ng ni c mt ngi s dng cao). Ngi dng
di chuyn tc cao c phn sang h t bo kch thc ln (gim tn
sut chuyn giao).
Hnh 2 6: Phn vng t bo ln kt hp t bo nh (chng cell)
2.5. Trung k v cp dch v
2.5.1. Knh chung
Knh v tuyn trong thng tin di ng c s dng chung ln lt cho
nhiu ngi, ging trung k tng i hu tuyn. N ch c cp pht khi c yu
cu, do ch cn mt s t knh m vn phc v c kh nhiu ngi. n v
o lu lng l Erlan
Lu lng (A): L i lng o phn thi gian s dng c ch trong 1
gi.
V d: Trong 1 gi c 1 cuc gi ko di 30 pht. Ta ni lu lng cuc
gi l 0.5 Erlan.
Cng lu lng (A
u
): Din t lu lng trung bnh ca ngi s
dng.
V d: Trong 1 gi ngi gi gi

cuc gi, mi cuc gi ko di trung


bnh H pht. Cng lu lng s dng l A
u
=

H/60. Nu U ngi s dng


trong h thng ging nhau th khi lu lng tng cng ca c h thng l A =
U.A
u
.
Vi 1 knh truyn th lu lng ca 1 knh lun <= 1, tuy nhin vi h
thng c nhiu knh truyn th lu lng h thng c th ln hn 1.
1
4
3
5
2
16
2.5.2. Cp dch v
Bi ton ln lt dng chung knh ca nhiu ngi l bi ton xc sut da
trn lu lng trung bnh ca cuc gi v xc sut truy cp ca ngi s dng.
Vo thi im ng nht trong ngy, trong tun, nhiu ngi cng gi mt lc
dn n s knh truyn khng p ng c c th lm cuc gi b chn.
Cp dch v l ch s cho bit xc sut xy ra cuc gi b chn vo lc
cao im l bao nhiu.
V d: H thng c GOS = 2% tc l trong 100 ln ngi s dng tin hnh
lin lc c th xy ra 2 ln cuc gi b chn (tng i bo h thng b bn)
Erlan nu ra cng thc lin h 3 i lng: Cp dch v (GOS: xc sut
cuc gi b chn), s knh truyn C ca h thng (s knh cho 1 t bo) v lu
lng ngi s dng A (lu lng tng cng trong mt t bo) vi 2 loi tng i.
2.5.3. Tng i khng nh cuc gi b chn Cng thc Erlang B:
Cc gi thit b sung xy dng cng thc l:
Khng tnh thi gian thit lp cuc gi
Ngi c cuc gi b chn khi truy cp ln tip theo bnh ng nh
nhng ngi truy cp khc
S ngi truy cp tun theo phn b Poisson
Thi gian chim knh ca mt cuc gi phn b theo hm m (E.e
-t
)
C s hu hn knh c s dng
Ta c cng thc:

C
k
k
C
k
A
C
A
chan bi
0
!
!
) Pr(
(2 8)
C l s knh trung k
A l lu lng tng cng ca h
P
r
xc sut cuc gi b chn (GOS)
C th xy dng m hnh ngi s dng hu hn kt qu nh hn kt qu
tnh c theo cng thc ny. Ta c th tra theo kt qu theo hnh 2 7.
V d 1:
C bao nhiu ngi dng c th c phc v vi tng i khng nh cuc
gi b chn c cp GOS 5%0, nu s knh trong mt t bo ca h thng l:
a. C = 1, b. C = 5, c. C = 10, d. C = 20, e. C = 100
Bit lu lng mi ngi dng l 0.1 Erl
17
Gii:
T bng trn ta c th a ra c lu lng tng cng.
a. C = 1 A
u
= 0.1 GOS = 0.005
Ta c A = 0.005 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/A
u
= 0.005/0.1 = 0.05
ngi, ta chn U = 1
18
Hnh 2 7: Gin Erlang B
19
b. C = 5 A
u
= 0.1 GOS = 0.005
Ta c A = 1.13 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/A
u
= 1.13/0.1 = 11.3 ngi, ta
chn U = 11
c. C = 10 A
u
= 0.1 GOS = 0.005
Ta c A = 3.96 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/A
u
= 3.96/0.1 = 39.6 ngi, ta
chn U = 39
c. C = 10 A
u
= 0.1 GOS = 0.005
Ta c A = 3.96 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/A
u
= 3.96/0.1 = 39.6 ngi, ta
chn U = 39
d. C = 20 A
u
= 0.1 GOS = 0.005
Ta c A = 11.1 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/A
u
= 11.1/0.1 = 111 ngi, ta
chn U = 111
e. C = 100 A
u
= 0.1 GOS = 0.005
Ta c A = 80.9 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/A
u
= 80.9/0.1 = 809 ngi, ta
chn U = 809
V d 2:
Mt thnh ph rng 1300km
2
c ph sng bi h thng t bo 7 lp li (N = 7).
Vi mi t bo c bn knh l R = 4km. thnh ph c cp pht bng tn vi ng rng
bng tng cng l 40MHz ph v rng bng ca mt knh p l 60KHz. Gi s cp
dch v l GOS = 2% theo cng thc Erlang B vi tng i khng nh cuc gi b chn v
lu lng ca mi khch hng trung bnh l 0.03 Erl. Tnh
a. S t bo trong thnh ph
b. S knh trn mt t bo
c. Lu lng cuc gi trn mi t bo
d. Lu lng ca ton thnh ph
e. Tng s ngi c th dng theo GOS = 2%
f. S ngi dng trn mt knh ca ton thnh ph
g. S ngi dng cng mt lc nhiu nht.
Gii:
a. Din tch mt t bo l: (t bo lc gic) = (
2
4
3
6 R )
20
2.5981*R
2
= 2.5981*(4)
2
= 41.57 (km
2
)
S t bo trong thnh ph l 1300/41.57 = 31 t bo
b. S knh trn mt t bo l:
40000000/(60000*7) = 95 knh (C)
c. C = 95, GOS = 0.02 ta c A = 84 Erlan/ t bo
d. Lu lng ca ton thnh ph
31*84 = 2604 Erlan
e. Mi ngi dng 0.03Erlnn tng s ngi c th c phc v l:
U = A/A
u
= 2604/0.03 = 86600 ngi
f. S ngi dng trn mt knh l
86600/(7*95) = 130 ngi/ knh
g. S ngi dng nhiu nht cng mt lc l:
95*31 = 2945 ngi
2.5.4. Tng i nh cuc gi b chn Cng thc Erlang C:
h thng ny mt cuc gi b chn s c xp hng trong dy nhng cuc gi b
chn ch c truy cp.
GOS lc ny s l ch s cho bit kh nng mt cuc gi b chn v phi chi trong
mt thi gian xc nh.
tnh GOS trc ht ta phi tnh xc sut cuc gi b chn theo cng thc Erlan C

,
_

+
>
1
0
!
1 !
) 0 Pr(
C
k
k
C
C
k
A
C
A
C A
A
doi cho
(2 9)
C th tnh hoc l tra kt qu theo hnh 2 8.
Sau nhn vi xc sut chi t giy trong hng i. Cng thc cui cng l:
) 0 | Pr( * ) 0 Pr( ) Pr( > > > > doi cho t doi cho doi cho t doi cho
1
]
1


> >
H
t A C
doi cho t doi cho
) (
exp * ) 0 Pr( ) Pr(
(2 10)
Thi gian ch i trung bnh ca h thng s l:
A C
H
doi cho D

> ) 0 Pr(
21
Hnh 2 8: Bng kt qu cng thc Erlan C
22
V d:
H t bo lc gic trong c: N = 4 v bn knh t bo R = 1.387 km.
H c phn di tn ng vi 60 knh p. Nu lu lng ngi dng l 0.029Erl,
v c 1 cuc gi/gi. Vi GOS l 5%.
a. Bao nhiu ngi dng/km
2
c cung cp bi h ny.
b. Xc sut cuc gi (sau khi b chn) phi ch thm t = 10 giy.
c. Xc sut tng cng cuc gi phi ch t = 10 giy.
Gii:
Vi bn knh t bo l R = 1.387 km din tch t bo l 5km
2
N = 4 v tng s knh p l 60 knh nn s knh / t bo = 60/4 = 15
a. Tra bng Erlan C vi GOS = 5% v C =15 ta c A = 8.8 Erl
S ngi dng trong mt t bo l 8.8/0.029 = 303 ngi
S ngi dng /km2 l 303/5 = 60 ngi/km2
b.
1
cuc gi/gi
H = Au/

=0.029 gi = 104.4 giy


Xc sut cuc gi (sau khi b chn) phi ch thm t = 10 giy l
Pr(ch i > t / ch i > 0) = exp( -(C A).t/H)
= exp(-(15 8.8)*10/104.4 = 52.22 %
c. Vi GOS = 5% xc sut tng cng mt cuc gi phi ch 10 giy l:
Pr(ch i > 10s) = Pr(ch i > 0).Pr(ch i > 10s | ch i > 0)
= 0.05*0.5522 = 2.78 %
2.5.5. Hiu sut trung k
L lu lng s dng tnh trung bnh trn mt knh trung k. Gi tr ny ph thuc
vo cch t chc thit k v cp dch v xc nh.
V d:
10 knh trung k/t bo vi GOS = 1% (trng hp tng i khng nh cuc gi b
chn) khi tra bng Erlan B ta thy chng p ng lu lng cuc gi 4.46 Erlan (tng
ng lu lng mt knh l 0.446 Erl/knh)
23
Nu t chc knh ny trn 2 t bo th khi tra bng ta thy chng ch p ng c
2*1.36 Erl = 2.72 Erln (tng ng 0.272 Erl/knh). Cch t chc u c hiu sut trung k
cao hn cch t chc th 2 vi cng mt GOS song kh nng chng nhiu km hn.
2.6. Nng cao dung lng h thng t bo
S lng ngi s dng dch v thng tin di ng khng ngng tng, t ra mt yu
cu pht trin nng cao dung lng h thng mt cch c k hot v tnh k tha. C ba k
thut chnh nng cao dung lng h thng l: Chia nh t bo, s dng ng ten nh
hng v phn vng trong t bo.
2.6.1. Chia nh t bo
L thay 1 t bo ln b qu ti bng cc t bo nh hn vi cc trm c s t thp
hn v c cng sut pht nh hn.
Dung lng tng thm l do s dng li knh truyn. (kch thc nhm N khng i
nhng s lng t bo trong vng phc v c tng ln)
V d:
Nu dng t bo c R
mi
= .R
c
khi s c 4 t bo mi thay th t bo c. iu
ny lm s nhm lp li tng ln 4 ln v dung lng tng cng xp x 4 ln m vn gi
nguyn t s lp li knh (Q) khng lm thay i s phn b knh. Cng sut pht ca
cc t bo mi trong h thng cng phi iu chnh cho ph hp.
P
r (ti bin t bo c)
=P
t1
R
-n
= P
r (ti bin t bo mi)
= P
t2
(R/2)
-n
Vi n = 4 ta c P
t2
= P
t1
/16 hay trm pht ca t bo mi phi gim 12dB
A
E
F
F
E
B
D
F
G
E
C
F
D
B
E
C
G
G
B
D
C
D
Hnh 2 9: Phn chia t bo.
Trn thc t, ta duy tr c hai m hnh t bo ln v nh phc v cc i tng
chuyn ng vi tc khc nhau v cc knh truyn cng c phn thnh 2 nhm kch
c t bo ny trnh giao thoa cng knh, kt hp vi k thut h thp ng ten iu
khin vng ph sng
24
2.6.2. S dng ng ten nh hng
iu ny s dn n gim giao thoa cng knh cho php cc t bo cng knh gn
nhau hn (gim D/R hay gim N, tng s lp li tn s) dn n tng dung lng h thng
trong khi kch thc t bo khng thay i
V d 1:
S dng ng ten nh hng c gc 120
0
s trm gy nhiu cng knh xung quanh
khng phi l 6 nh s dng ng ten trn m ch l 2. S/I t 17 dB s tng ln 24.2 dB nn
c th gim N t 12 n 7. phng php ny khng thay i s trm c s m ch tng
thm s ng ten trn mt trm c s iu ny cng s lm gim phn no hiu sut trung
k v tng thm s ln chuyn giao.














































5
1
2
3
4
6
7
5
5
5
5
5
5
Hnh 2 10: S dng ng ten nh hng.
V d 2:
Xt h thng c thi gian trung bnh cuc gi l 2 pht. Xc sut cuc gi b chn l
1%, theo cng thc Erlan B mi t bo c mt cuc gi trong 1 gi v c 399 knh/7 t
bo. Khi dng ng ten trn kh nng phc v l 44.2 Erl hay 1326 cuc gi/gi. Nu dng
ng ten nh hng 120
0
s ch c 19 knh/1 ng ten vi cng xc sut b chn v trung
bnh cuc gi, mi ng ten phc v 11.2 Erl tc l 336 cuc gi/gi hay 1008 cuc gi/gi
trong 1 t bo (gim 24% so vi ng ten pht sng trn) trong khi li nng cao t s S/I.
25
V d vi ng ten 60
0
vi N = 7 s cho S/I = 29 dB cho php dng N = 4 lm tng
dung lng ln 7/4 ln (hiu sut trung k gim 44%)
2.6.3. Phn vng trong t bo
Phng php s dng ng ten nh hng lm tng s chuyn giao v qu ti cc
phn t chuyn mch. Lee a ra gii php l thay trm trung tm ln bng mt s trm
pht cng sut thp hn ph cc vng nh hn trong t bo v cc trm ny c kt ni
v iu khin chung mt trm c s ca t bo.


Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
Tx/Rx
Chon
vung
BS
Hnh 2 -11: Chn vng trong t bo.
Cch b tr ny tt hn nh trn, chuyn giao khng xy ra gia cc ng ten trong
cng mt t bo m ch thay i ng ten qun l khi MS di chuyn t vng ny sang vng
khc trong mt t bo. Cc knh c phn chia ng trong khng gian v thi gian cho
cc vng trong t bo, cn gia cc t bo th lp li nhm knh nh c.
K thut ny thng c dng dc theo cc ng cao tc hay cc hnh lang c lu
lng ln. (vi S/I = 18 dB l i hi thng thng vi h iu ch bng hp FM, vi N =
7 th D/R = 4.6, vn dng iu ny cho D
z
/R
z
= 4.6 chng nhiu cng knh gia cc
vng th i vi t bo t s ny cho D/R = 3, N = 3. Do vy khi gim N = 7 n N = 3 s
tng dung lng h thng ln 7/3 = 2.33 ln).
26
Chng 3:
M ha ting ni
Trong thng tin di ng rng di tn c gi tr nh hng ha, do b m ha
ting ni ng vai tr quan trng khng ch vi cht lng ting ni m cn phi m bo
chim dng t bng tn vi tc bit thp. B m ha tc bit thp lm tng dung lng
h thng l yu cu quan trng ca cc nh cung cp dch v. Cc b m ha ting ni c
bn c phn thnh 2 loi chnh l: M ha theo dng sng v m ha ngun (vocoder)
Hnh 3 1: Phn loi m ha ting ni
M ha dng sng: L k thut m ha v gii m lin tc bn theo dng sng ca tn
hiu m thanh, v nguyn tc chng c thit k c lp vi ngun m nn cht lng
khng ph thuc vo ngun tn hiu. Kiu m ny chng nhiu tt, khng phc tp, gi r
song h s nn tn hiu cha cao nh PCM, ADPCM
M ha ngun: Da trn s m phng ngun m c th (ting ni c nghin cu
trc cc c tnh khai thc kh nng nn m), k thut ny kh phc tp, c tr cao,
gi thnh t b li c h s nn ln v cho tc bit m ha thp.

M ho ting ni
M ho dng sng M ho ngun
Min tn s Min thi gian LPC Vocoders
Khng vi phn Vi phn ATC SPC
PCM DELTA ADPCM
APC CVSDM
27
3.1. Cc c trng ca ting ni
Ting ni c mt s tnh cht c th c th a vo thit k b m ha l:
Di tn gii hn (<4 KHz), ph tn khng bng phng, phn b bin khng ng
nht, c s tng quan khc 0 gia cc mu ting ni v tn ti cc khong lng phi thoi
trong khi ni chuyn. Tnh cht nh sau:
3.1.1. Hm mt xc sut (pdf)
Hm mt xc sut din t s phn b bin trong ting ni, n c dng nh sau
) / 2 exp(
2
1
) (
x
x
x x p


(3 1)
Hm c gi tr ln nht khi bin x = 0 (ng ting ni nh v khong im lng) v
bng khng vi bin v cng ln. khi thng k trong khong thi gian ngn hm c cc
i khc 0 v c xp x nh phn b Gauss. Dng phn b ca hm mt xc sut
c s dng lm c s cho k thut lng t ha phi tuyn.
3.1.2. Hm t tng quan (AFC)
Mt tnh cht ca ting ni l tn ti s tng quan khc 0 gia cc mu khi tin
hnh ly mu bin ting ni. C ngha mt mu trong ting ni chng ta c th d on
trc t mt s mu trc vi mt li ngu nhin nh, tnh cht ny c c lng
bi hm:

+
1
0
) ( ) (
1
) (
k N
n
k n x n x
N
k C (3 2)
Trong x(k) biu din mu ting ni th k, c ly chun vi ting ni trong
khong [-1, 1]. Thng thng C(0) = 1 v C(1) xp x 0.85 0.9.
3.1.3. Hm mt ph cng sut (psd)
Hm mt ph cng sut trung bnh theo thi gian cho thy cc thnh phn tn s
cao ch chim mt phn nng lng nh, cc thnh phn tn s thp chim nng lng cao
hn. c tnh khng bng phng ca hm mt ph cng sut ca ting ni to nn kh
nng nn tn hiu trong vng tn s, bng cch m ha vi cc h s khc nhau trong cc
khong tn s khc nhau. Bn cht khng bng phng ny l biu hin tnh cht t tng
quan trong vng tn s.
S khng bng phng ca ph c th nh gi qua hm SFM (nh l t s ca trung
bnh s hc/ trung bnh hnh hc ca cc mu khi ly mu psd).
28
N
N
k
k
N
k
k
S
S
N
SFM
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
]
1

( 3 3)
S
k
l mu tn s th k ca psd. Thng thng tn hiu ting ni trong thi gian
di c SFM = 8 v dao ng t 2 n 500 trong khong thi gian ngn.
3.2. K thut lng t
Lng t l php din t mt di lin tc cc gi tr ca bin tn hiu bng mt tp
hu hn cc gi tr bin ri rc. Lng t tn hiu s lm mo tn hiu trong phm vi m
ngi thit k c th nh trc. B lng t n bit c th c L = 2
n
mc bin ri rc.
3.2.1. Lng t tuyn tnh
Trong lng t tuyn tnh cc gi tr lng t phn b u trong ton b tn hiu,
khong cch gia hai gi tr gn nhau nht c gi l bc lng t. mo tn hiu
lng t t l vi bnh phng bc lng t, bc lng t t l nghch vi s gi tr ri
rc. Mo lng t c tnh l li trung bnh bnh phng nh sau:
[ ]


T
Q Q
dt t x x f
T
x f x E MSE
0
2 2
)] ( ) ( [
1
)) ( (
(3 4)
Trong x(t) l bin tn hiu c ly mu ti thi im t, f
Q
(x) biu din gi tr
lng t gn x(t) nht. Mo lng t (n lng t) v cht lng ca b lng t c
nh gi qua t s cng sut tn hiu / n lng t (SQNR). B iu ch xung m (PCM)
dng php lng t 8 bit / mu trong in thoi thng mi. Nu php lng t l tuyn
tnh th ta c cng thc lin h nh sau:
(SQNR)
dB
= 6.02n +

(3 5)
Trong

= 4.77 i vi gi tr nh ca SQNR v

= 0 i vi SQNR trung
bnh. T phng trnh trn ta thy l c thm mt bit lng t th SQNR c tng thm 6
dB.
3.2.2. Lng t phi tuyn
Mo lng t c th c gim thiu nu phn b cc gi tr lng t mt cch thch
hp (khng phi cch u nh lng t tuyn tnh). Phn b ny da trn hm pdf nh
sau:

dx x p x f x x f x E
Q Q
) ( )] ( [ ] )) ( [(
2 2
(3 6)
29
T phng trnh trn ta thy mo trung bnh c th c gim thiu bng cch gim
gi tr (x f
Q
(x))
2
ti nhng ni c gi tr p(x) ln. Tc cc ga tr lng t phi nhiu ti
nhng vng bin c xc sut cao (ting ni nh), cn t ti nhng vng bin c xc
sut thp (ting ni ln).
Mt phng php thng dng trong in thoi thng mi l b lng t Loga vi
hai k thut l lut

dng M v lut A dng chu u. Tn hiu trc ht c i


qua b khuch i nn (dng hm Loga) v sau i vo b lng t tuyn tnh.
Theo lut

cng thc ca b lng t loga c dng l:


) 1 ln(
) ( 1 ln(
| ) ( |
0

+
+

t w
t v (3 7)
Trong

l hng s dng c gi tr trong di 50 300, gi tr nh ca w(t) c


chun ha bng 1.
Theo lut A cng thc ca b lng t loga c dng l:

'


+
+

+

1 ) (
1
ln 1
) ) ( ln( 1
1
) ( 0
ln 1
) (
) (
0
t w
A A
t w A
A
t w
A
t w A
t v
(3 8)
Trong A thng c gi tr l 87
3.2.3. Lng t thch nghi
f
Q
(x) f
Q
(x)
a. b.
Hnh 3 2: Lng t thch nghi
Nh ni trn l c s khc nhau ca pdf trong thi gian di v thi gian ngn i
vi ting ni. S thay i theo thi gian ca ting ni to nn mt di ng ln (c 40 dB).
Do vy b lng t cn c iu chnh thch hp bng cch tng bc lng t khi cng
sut tn hiu li vo tng, v gim khi cng sut tn hiu li vo gim (khi s mc lng
t khng thay i) ta gi l lng t thch nghi.
30
3.2.4. Lng t vct
Trong php lng t thng thng mi mu bin tng ng vi mt gi tr lng
t hay mt t hp bit biu din. php lng t vc t th mt nhm mu bin ng
vi mt nhm mu lng t mi c tng ng vi mt t hp bit c gi l mt vc
t lng t trong khng gian vc t lng t (vi lng t thng s mu = 1). S mu
trong nhm lng t c gi l mt vc t mu c lng t. Do tnh cht tng quan
gia cc mu trong ting ni m php lng t vc t to nn m c nn cao vi:
L
n
R
2
log

bit / mu (3 9)
Trong n l khng gian lng t.
L l di vc t lng t
R l s bit m ha trn mt mu
Khi n = 256, L = 1, R = 8 bit / mu (ng vi PCM). Khi L = 10 12 c th cho R =
0.5 bit / mu. li lng t vc t c coi l khong cch clit gia vc t lng t v
vc t li vo. c s dng cho b m ha ngun m c tc bit thp.
3.3. Cc b m ha theo dng sng
3.3.1. B iu ch xung m vi phn thch nghi (ADPCM)
B iu ch PCM khng loi b s d tha thng tin trong tn hiu ting ni (do tnh
tng quan khc 0). B ADPCM khai thc iu ny gim tc bit. Do c tnh t
tng quan cao m cc mu bin cnh nhau t khi thay i ln nn di ng trong tn
hiu vi phn nh hn nhiu di ng ca bn thn tn hiu. M ha tn hiu vi phn s cho
tc bit ch l 32Kbps (=1/2 chun PCM) vi cng cht lng tn hiu (khi gii m dng
b tch phn).
Trn thc t ADPCM c kt hp vi thut ton tin on tn hiu, thay cho vic
m ha s sai khc gia hai mu cnh nhau l vic m ha s sai khc gia mu tht v
mu d on n (da trn mt nhm cc mu tht trc , sai khc ny cn gi l li d
on).
31
Hnh 3 3: B m ha ADPCM
V d:
Mt b m ha PCM thch nghi c tc ly mu l 8kHz, mi mu c biu din
bng nhm 8 bit. Bc lng t c iu chnh li c sau 10ms v ln ca bc
lng t c m ha bng 5 bit. Tnh tc bit truyn, gi tr SQNR nh v trung bnh
ca b m ha
Gii:
fz = 8kHz = 8000 Hz
n = 8, s bit thng tin trn mt giy l 8*8000 = 64000 bit/s
Do hiu chnh bc lng t c sau 10ms nn tc bit hiu chnh l:
5*1/(10*10
-3
) = 500 bit/s
Tc bit truyn ca b m ha l 64000 + 500 = 64500 bit/s = 64.5 kbps
T s SQRN ch ph thuc vo s bit dng m ho mt mu lng t:
SQNR
nh
= 6.02n + 4.77 = 6.02*8 + 4.77 = 52.93 dB
SQNR
TB
= 6.02n = 6.02*8 = 48.16 dB
3.3.2. B m ha sng m theo tn s
M ha c tin hnh theo cc vng tn s. Ph ca tn hiu ting ni c chia
thnh cc di hp hoc bin i thnh cc tn s ri rc v c m ha c lp vi nhau.
Ty theo mc quan trng ca cc di tn con hay tn s ri rc m s bit s dng m
ha nhiu hay t

Lng t 4 bit
thch nghi
To bc
thch nghi
Lng t thch
nghi ngc
D on
thch nghi

S
r
(k)
S(k)
y(k)
S
e
(k
)
I(k)
Dq(k)
32
3.3.2.1 M ha theo bng con (SBC)
Ph ca tn hiu c chia thnh 4 n 8 di con bng cc b lc. Cc bng con c
di chuyn bin tri v 0 c th dng tc ly mu Nyquist trong min thi gian v
c ly mu vi s bt khc nhau ph thuc bin ph v tiu chun thnh gic ca con
ngi.
V d:
Bng con Tn s (Hz) S bit m ha
1 225 450 4
2 450 900 3
3 1000 1500 2
4 1800 2700 1
Tc ly mu c tnh l mu / giy:
Bng 1 2 x (450 225) = 450
Bng 2 2 x (900 450) = 900
Bng 3 2 x (1500 1000) = 1000
Bng 4 2 x ( 2700 1800) = 1800
T dn n tc m ha cha k cc thng tin tiu l:
450x4 + 900x3 + 1000x2 + 1800x1 = 8300 bit/s = 8.3 kbps
3.3.2.2 M ha bin i thch nghi
M ha bin i thch nghi l k thut m ha trong min tn s dng phng php
bin i. C tc m ha trong khong 9.6 20 kbps. Cc mu tn hiu trong mt ca s
c bin i thnh mt tp cc tn s ri rc, bin ca cc tn s ny c lng t v
m ha ring bit truyn i. Ti b thu cc h s lng t c bin i ngc to
li tn hiu ban u. Phng php ny dng bin i cosin ri rc (DCT) theo cng thc:

1
]
1

1
0
2
) 1 2 (
cos ) ( ) ( ) (
N
n
x
N
k n
k g n x k X

k = 0, 1, 2, , N 1 (3 10)
Trong g(0) = 1 v g(k) = 2 , k = 1, 2, IDCT c thc hin theo cng thc:

1
]
1

1
0
2
) 1 _ 2 (
cos ) ( ) (
1
) (
N
k
c
N
k n
k g k X
N
n x

n = 0, 1, 2, , N 1 (3 11)
33
Trn thc t DCT hay IDCT c tnh theo thut ton nhanh p ng thi gian
thc t v vic thit k bc lng t khc nhau cc tn s khc nhau cng c thc
hin theo thi gian c truyn nh thng tin tiu (c 2 kbps) s bit lng t tn s
ri rc t l vi nng lng ca n.
3.4. Cc b m ha theo ngun m (Vocoder)
K thut ny dng tch cc thng s ca ngun m v m ha cc thng s ny
truyn n ni thu. Ti ni thu cc thng s ny c gii m iu khin mt ngun m
tng t nh ni pht ti to li tn hiu. Cc vocoder c tc bit rt thp nhng phc
tp v ph thuc vo ngun m.
C ch chung ca mt ngun m bao gm c ngun kch thch v b lc thng minh
v loa.
Ting ni ca chng ta c phn thnh 2 loi:
Voiced l kt qu dao ng gn tun hon ca c quan pht m.
Unvoice c to nn bi s thi kh qua khe hp ca mi v li
Cc thng s ca m hnh ny l cc tn s chnh (tn s pitch <300Hz), cc gi tr
nh ca b lc thng minh c gi tr l 500Hz, 1500Hz, 2500Hz, 3500Hz v thng s bin
tng ng.
Hnh 3 4: M hnh ngun pht m
Vocoder knh

Ngun
n
Ngun
xung
Ngun th cp
B lc
c quan
pht m
Li ra
ting ni
B phn
tch
Li vo
ting ni
34
Voceder knh l h phn tch v tng hp m u tin trong vng tn s. N xc nh
cc thng s ca tn hiu trong cc di tn con, sau m ha v hp knh cc di li. vic
ly mu c ng b sau 10 30ms. Cng vi thng tin v nng lng, voice hay
unvoice, tn s pitch c truyn i.
Vocoder hi
Tng t vi Voceder knh song c th lm tc bit thp hn v dng t tn hiu
iu khin hn. Thay v vic gi cc mu ng bao ph cng sut th Vocoder hi ch gi
cc cc i (peak, t nht l 3 nh) ca ng bao ny c th c tc < 1200 bps song c
kh khn trong vic xc nh chnh xc cc cc i nn khng tht s hiu qu.
Vocoder Cepstrum
B Vocoder ny tch ph kch thch v ph c quan pht m bng Fourier ngc ca
loga ph bin to nn Cepstrum ca tn hiu. Cc h s tn thp th hin trong
Cepstrum l ng bao ca ph c quan pht m. Cc h s tn s cao to nn on xung
tun hon l bi s ca chu k ly mu. B lc tuyn tnh dng tch cc h s Cepstrum
ca c quan pht m khi h s kch thch. Trong b thu cc h s Cepstrum ca c quan
pht m c bin i fourier to nn p ng tn s ca c quan pht m hoc gi
nguyn c coi l p ng xung ca c quan pht m. Bng cch nhn chp p ng
xung ny vi mt tn hiu kch thch tng hp, ting ni ban u c ti to li.
Vocoder kch thch bng Voice
Vocoder kch thch bng Voice khng cn tch pitch v cc thao tc tch voice khi
ting ni. N thc hin vic t hp v truyn dn PCM bng tn thp vi Vocoder knh
bng tn cao hn. Tn hiu pitch c to nn ti b tng hp bng cch tch sng, lc
bng v ct tn hiu bng c s to nn tn hiu ph bng phng vi nng lng ti ti ca
pitch. Hot ng ti tc 7200 9600 bps. Cht lng ca chng tt hn vocoder kch
ng bng pitch.
Cc b m d on tuyn tnh
Vocoder LPC
y l lp cc vocoder trong min thi gian, chng tch cc c im quan trng t
dng sng thi gian. Mc d kh phc tp song chng rt ph bin trong cc vocoder tc
thp v c th cho cht lng ting ni tt tc 4.8kbps
H LPC m hnh c quan pht m nh b lc ton im cc vi hm truyn c m
t:
35

M
k
k
k
z b
G
z H
1
1
) (
(3 12)
y G l h s khuch i, z
-1
biu din ton t tr n v. Kch thch b lc hoc
l xung ti tn s pitch l n trng ngu nhin ty thuc on ting ni l voice hay
unvoice. Cc h s ca b lc c xc nh dng k thut d on tuyn tnh ging nh
trong b ADPCM. Song thay cho vic truyn cc gi tr lng t ca tn hiu li gia mu
tin on v my thc (ADPCM), h thng LPC truyn ch nhng c tnh chn lc ca tn
hiu li l cc thng s nh: h s khuch i, tn s pitch, quyt nh voice hay
unvoice, cho php xp x tn hiu li chnh xc. Ti b thu cc thng tin trn c dng t
i to li tn hiu li kch thch b lc tng hp. Cn b lc tng hp ti b thu c
iu khin bi cc h s on nhn c. Trn thc t nhiu b LPC pht cc h s b
lc trong biu din tn hiu li v c th tng hp trc tip ti b thu. Xc nh h
s d on: tn hiu d on l mt tng c trng s ca p mu trc (p di t 10 15).
Hnh 3 5: S chung ca b m ha v gii m
n
p
k
k n k n
e s a s +

1
(3 13)
e
n
l li d on. Cc h s d on c xc nh qua vic lm ti thiu nng
lng trung bnh E ca tn hiu li:

,
_


N
n
p
k
k n k
N
n
n
s a e E
1
2
0 1
2
(3 14)
B m
Lc LPC
Phn tch
Pitch
Quyt nh
Voice/unvoice
M ha
Gii m
M ha
M ha
Gii m
Gii m
K

n
h
T

n
g
H

p
Kch thch
Li
vo
Li
th
cm
36
Vi a
0
= -1. Thng li c tnh trong ca s 10ms tng ng vi N = 80. Cho vi
phn ca E theo a
m
bng 0 ta c:

p
k
k n k
N
n
m n
m
s a s
a
E
0 1
0 2

p
k
N
n
k k n m n
a s s
0 1
0
0

p
k
k mk
a C
(3 15)
Vi C
m
l h s tng quan gia cc mu r, m. Sau khi xc nh C
m
gii phng trnh
trn c th xc nh c cc h s d on. Cc h s d on thng khng c m
ha truyn i trc tip (v cn n 8 -10 bit/h s) m truyn cc h s phn nh (chng c
di ng nh hn ch cn 6 bit / h s). Nh vy mt b d on bc 10 tng s bit dng
cho cc thng s m hnh trn 1 frame l 72 (bao gm 5 cho khuch i v 6 cho chu k
pitch). Nu cc thng s c c lng li c sau 15 30ms th tc bit s l 2400
4800 bps. Vic m ha cc h s phn nh c th c ci tin khi dng thm cc b bin
i phi tuyn (t trc b m ha) s lm gim nhy ca cc h s phn nh i vi
li lng t. Chng thng dng l bin i t s loga (LAR).
1
]
1


) ( 1
) ( 1
log )) ( ( tanh ) (
10
1
k R
k R
k R k LAR
n
n
n n
(3 16)
Cc LPC khc nhau trong cch to ra tn hiu li ti b thu. C 3 cch c bn: cch
th nht rt ph bin dng 2 ngun kch thch ti b thu, mt ngun l n trng v ngun
kia l on xung c tc pitch, vic chn ngun ny hay ngun kia kch thch ph thuc
vo quyt nh voice/unvoice ca b pht. K thut ny gp kh khn trong vic tch
thng tin v pitch b pht (ngoi ra s ng pha gia cc thnh phn hi ca xung kch
thch to nn ting trong ting ni tng hp). Vn ny c loi b trong 2 cch sau l
kch thch bng a xung v kch thch bng sch m
LPC kch thch bng a xung
Vic kch thch bng xung n/chu k pitch lun lm mo tn hiu. Atal ngh
dng nhiu xung (8 xung/chu k) v iu chnh v tr v bin cc xung ny ti thiu
li trung bnh bnh phng c trng s. K thut ny c gi l MPE LPC lm cht
lng ting ni tt hn khng ch do li d on c xp x tt hn m cn do n khng
i hi tch pitch. S xung c th gim vi voive c pitch cao bng cch kt hp mt b
lc tuyn tnh vi vng pitch trong b tng hp.
Li
th
cm
37
LPC kch thch bng m (CELP)
phng php ny b m ha v gii m c chung mt sch m nhng tn hiu kch
thch ngu nhin (n trng Gauss). Vi mi tn hiu ting ni b pht s tm trong sch m
tn hiu kch thch ln b lc LPC cho tn hiu gn ging nht, sau ch vic truyn ch s
ca tn hiu kch thch ny n b thu. Da vo ch s ny b thu s tm ra tn hiu kch
thch thch hp. B m ha theo k thut ny i hi hn 500 triu php tnh nhn v
cng / giy. Chng c th cho cht lng ting ni cao vi vic kch thch c m ha
0.25 bit / mu v c tc 4.8 kbps
Hnh 3 6: B m ha CELP
V d:
Xt vic m ha cm 5 ms ca ting ni. Ti tn s ly mu 8 KHz mi cm c 40
mu, vi vic m h bit / mu s cho chng ta 10 bit / cm. V vy s c 2
10
= 1024 cc
dy di 40 mu c th. Mi dy 40 mu ca tn hiu kch thch c ly chun li v cho i
qua b lc quy to ra chu k voice v hiu chnh ng bao ph.
Nhng mu ting ni c pht li ti li ra b lc th 2 c so snh vi tn hiu
ting ni nguyn bn to nn tn hiu vi phn (li). Li ny c x l qua b lc tuyn
tnh vi h s khuch i cao tn s th cm mnh, v khuch i nh tn s th cm
thp. Mc d i hi tnh ton nhanh song tin b ca DSP v cng ngh VLSI to ra
ng dng thi gian thc ca CELP. (h CDMA theo chun IS 95 s dng CELP ti
tc 1.2 14.4 kbps. Nm 1995 Qual.com ra QCELP13 l b m ha CELP 13.4 kbps
hot ng trn knh 14.4 kbps.)
LPC kch thch bng li (RELP)
C s ca RELP lin quan n k thut DPCM trong m ha dng sng. Trong loi
PLC ny, sau khi c lng cc thng s m hnh (h s LP hay cc thng s lin h), cc
thng s kch thch (quyt nh voice/unvoice, pitch, h s khuch i) t mt khung ting
ni. Ting ni c tng hp li ti b pht v tr i tn hiu gc c tn hiu li. Tn
+ + +
B d on
B d on
Lc th
cm
Mch
bnh phng
Mch
trung bng
Li
th
cm
Ngun
kch thch
Li
Ting ni
nguyn bn
38
hiu li c lng t, m ha v pht n b thu cng vi cc thng s LPC. Ti b thu
tn hiu li c cng vi tn hiu tng hp. Cht lng ting ni c nng cao nh vic
cng thm tn hiu li.
Hnh 3 7: B m ha RELP
3.5. Chn b m ha ting ni trong thng tin di ng
Cc thng s cn c xem xt l:
- Cht lng cm th ting ni khi dng m nn
- Gi thnh v dung lng h thng
- Ngoi ra cn phi tnh n tr ca b m ho, phc tp ca thut ton
- Yu cu cng sut ngun, s cnh tranh ca cc tiu chun khc.
- Kh nng chng ni trn ng truyn.
Ni chung khi ting ni c m ho thnh t bt, lng thng tin trn mi bit s tng
ln dn n cp bo v n trn ng truyn li phi tng ln. Vic bo v cng cn
c phn bit tu theo vai tr quan trng ca tng bit trong khung ting ni.
La chn b m ho cng ph thuc vo kch c t bo. Khi kch thc t bo nh c
th s dng cc b m ho tc cao (v hiu sut s dng ph cao v khng cn nhiu bit
bo v trn ng truyn). CT2 v DECT dng cho t bo rt nh (Microcell) c th s
dng b m ho ADPCM 32kbps m khng cn m knh v b cn bng. Cc t bo ln
th iu kin knh truyn km nn cn dng thm cc m sa li khi cn dng cc b
m ho c tc thp.
K thut a truy cp trong h thng cng l nhn t nh hng n hiu sut s dng
ph v do vy cng c tnh n khi la chn b m ho ting ni. H t bo s US
TDMA lm tng dung lng ca h tng t cng tn ti (AMPS) ln 3 ln dng b m
ho VSELP 8kbps. H CDMA do kh nng giao thoa tt v bng truyn rng cho php
B
m/
ca s
+
M
ha
Phn tch
ST - LP
Tng hp LPC
Tham s LP
Li
Li ra
m
ha
Quyt nh
voice/unvoice,
khuch i
pitch
-
+
39
dng b m ho tc thp m vn khng b nh hng li ng truyn khi dng thm
m hiu chnh li.
K thut iu ch cng c xem xt khi la chn b m ho ting. Khi dng iu
ch c hiu sut bng cao c th gim yu cu tc thp i vi b m ho ting.
V d 1:
H di ng c di knh pht thun t 810 - 826 MHz v di knh pht ngc l 940
956 MHz, gi s rng c 90% rng bng dnh cho knh lu lng, h yu cu h tr
1150 cuc gi cng mt lc dng k thut FDMA, s iu ch c hiu sut ph l
1.68bps/Hz. Knh truyn i hi dng m sa li FEC . Tm gii hn trn v tc ca
b m ting.
Gii:
rng bng thng dnh cho lu lng l: 0.9*(826 810) = 14.4 MHz
S ngi dng ng thi cc i l 1150 ngi nn rng cc i l 14.4/1150 =
12.5 kHz.
Hiu sut ph l 1.68b/Hz nn tc knh cc i l:
16.8*12500 = 21kbps
FEC nn tc d liu thc s l 21 * 1/2 = 10.5 kbps
Vy tc m ha ting phi chn thp hn tc ny
V d 2:
B m ha c s lng bit phn b theo vai tr quan trng ng gp vo cht lng
tn hiu. M ha tin hnh trn on 20 ms (260 bit li ra b m ha). 50 bit u (loi 1) l
quan trng nht c bo v CRC 10 bit v FEC 1/2. 132 bit tip theo (loi 2) bo v CRC
5 bit v 78 bit cui khng c bo v li. Tnh tc d liu knh tng cng t c.
Gii:
S bit knh cho loi 1 l (50 + 10)*2 = 120 bit
S bit knh cho loi 2 l: 132 + 5 = 137 bit
S bit knh cho loi 3 l: 78 bit
Tng s bit c truyn trong 20 ms l: 120 + 137 + 78 = 335 bit
3.6. nh gi hot ng ca b m ha ting ni
C 2 cch nh gi mt b m ho ting ni trong vic cung cp cht lng ting ni.
40
- Cc php o khch quan cung cp mt gi tr nh lng v mc ti to ting
ni v xp x tn hiu gc. MSE theo bin cho mo bin , MSE theo tn s
c trng s. SNR tng on cc ch s r rng.
- Cm nhn ch quan ca ngi nghe. Trong khi cc ch s khch quan rt c ch
cho thit k ban u v m phng th s nh gi tng hp cui cng li cn n
s cm nhn ch quan ca ngi nghe.
B m ho ph thuc nhiu vo ngi ni, cc php th ch quan c tin hnh
trong cc mi trng khc nhau m phng ging cuc sng thc nh ting n, nhiu ngi
ni Php th DRT l php o d hiu ca nhiu ngi dng c s rng rng ri.
Trong php th nhng t cng vn c s dng nh l those dose c s dng
th xem kh nng phn bit ca ngi nghe. chnh xc trong php th ny l 75 90%.
Mt php o khc cng c chp nhn l DAM. Cc php th ni chung l kh xp
hng v i hi phi c h tham chiu. H thng xp hng ph bin hin nay l MOS.
Mt vn kh khn nht cho b m ho khi truyn t MS n trm c s BTS sau
gii iu ch thnh tn hiu tng t. Li ra c m ho truyn i nh tn hiu s qua
ng dy dn hay v tuyn. Tnh hung ny gi l tn hiu Tandem, c c xu hng thi
phng li bit nhn c ti trm c s. Tn hiu Tandem gy kh khn cho bo v song l
mt tiu chun nh gi quan trng cht lng m h. Khi mng di ng tng trng, s
c nhiu yu cu gi t di ng ti di ng, kiu lin lc ny s c 2 ngun nh hng c
lp n cht lng ting ni, n v Tandem. l
(t)
41
Chng 4:
Cn bng Phn tp M knh
Lin lc bng sng in t ngoi u im thch hp cho ngi dng di ng, khng
phi chi ph nhiu cho vic xy dng c s h tng th li c kh khn l tn hiu c tc
li bit cao i vi bt k k thut iu ch no. Bn cnh tnh suy gim sng theo ng
truyn, tp nhiu AWGN, cn c mo tn hiu, cn cha k n ngun gy nhiu bt
thng khc. Do xut hin nhiu k thut s l tn hiu m bo vic truyn dn
thng tin c chnh xc, c cc k thut di y.
4.1. Gii thiu chung
Cn bng, phn tp, m knh l 3 k thut c th dng c lp hay phi hp ci
thin cht lng tn hiu nhn c khi truyn tn hiu qua knh v tuyn.
Cn bng s kh giao thoa gia cc tn hiu (ISI) gy ra do hiu ng a ng v
rng ph ca knh truyn hp hn di rng tn hiu b tri di ra v chng so le ln nhau,
l tr ngi chnh hn ch tc knh truyn. B cn bng trong my thu c nhim v
sa li dng tn hiu thu c cho ging tn hiu trc khi truyn ci thin tc
ng truyn, l yu cu rt cao trong cc b thng tin hin i. Do knh truyn thay
i theo thi gian mt cch ngu nhin nn tnh cht quan trng ca b cn bng l phi
thch nghi c theo knh truyn.
Phn tp l k thut nhm khai thc tnh a ng c lp ca knh truyn nng
cao t s tn / tp m khng i hi tng cng sut ca my pht. Nu k thut cn bng
coi hiu ng a ng l i th th phn tp li coi n l ng minh. Phn tp c th theo
khng gian, tn s v cc tnh ca tn hiu. Khi phn tp theo khng gian k thut ny
thng i hi dng nhiu anten thch hp cho b thu trm c s, khi anten ny thu tn
hiu yu th anten kia c th thu c tn hiu mnh ci thin c tn hiu thu tng hp.
M knh l k thut chuyn i trc dng d liu ti b pht (khc vi cc k thut
khc l tin hnh b thu) nhm to nn mt quy lut no . Ti b thu quy lut ny
c kim tra pht hin li gy nn bi ng truyn v ty theo cp m n c th
hiu chnh c li ny. Gi phi tr cho k thut ny l gim tc thng tin v phi tng
thm nhiu bit truyn, m knh c bc cng cao th tc thng tin cng gim. C hai k
thut m knh chnh l M khi v M xon:
M khi tin hnh trn tng khi xc nh ca d liu M
(t)
42
M xon tin hnh lin tc theo dng d liu
Ty theo yu cu ca h thng tin c th m 3 k thut trn c s dng vi mc
khc nhau.
4.2. C s ca k thut cn bng thch nghi
B cn bng thch nghi s dng mt dy th nghim chiu di c nh c bit
trc (thng thng l mt dy gi ngu nhin) ti b thu da vo hiu chnh li tn
hiu sau ng truyn. Dy th nghim c pht xen k vi d liu ni pht.
Ti ni thu dy th nghim c bit trc ban u. Mt thut ton c s dng
hiu chnh li dy thu c nhm lm cho s khc bit vi dy bit trc l ti thiu. Khi
hiu chnh xong mo knh coi nh c b tr v ngay sau c th truyn mt on
d liu qua vi s gi nguyn hiu chnh ny. Do knh lin tc bin i nn ngay sau on
d liu li n dy th nghim lin tc hiu chnh mo knh.
Hnh 4 1:M hnh cn bng knh.
Thng thng b cn bng l mt b lc ngang ri rc hu hn, tn hiu li vo ti
thi im k k hiu l y
k
, cc tn hiu trc lu gi trong cc thanh ghi l y
k-1
, y
k-2
,
y
k-N
. Tn hiu li ra ph thuc trng thi tn hiu ny v ph thuc vo cc h s hiu chnh
(trng s) tng ng ti thi im k.
iu ch B pht Knh Radio
B thu RF Tng IF B tch
Quyt nh
B cn
bng
Tn hiu
c to li
d(t)
Tn hiu
bng c
s x(t)

+
n
b
(t)
y(t) y
(t)
e(t)

+
n tng
ng
43
Hnh 4 2: B cn bng thch nghi
K hiu vc t li vo (dy tp dt nhn c ti b thu sau khi qua ng truyn)
ti thi im k l: Y
k
= [y
k
, y
k-1
, y
k-2
, , y
k-N
]
T

Vc t trng s hiu chnh l: W
k
= [w
0k
, w
1k
, w
2k
, , w
Nk
]
Li ra ca b cn bng ti thi im k khi c biu din:

N
n
n k nk k
y w d
0
(4 1a)
Dng k hiu i s vc t c th vit:

k
d
= Y
k
T
.W
k
= W
k
T
.Y
k
(4 1b)
So snh vi tn hiu tp dt bit trc vi tn hiu nhn c c hiu
chnh li, c mt sai s (li) l:
y
k
y
k-1
y
k-2
y
k-N
Z
-1
Z
-1
Z
-1
W
0
k
W
1
k
W
2
k
W
Nk
-
+
x
k
bit
Li ra ca
b cn
bng
Li e
k
Thut ton thch nghi cp nht trng s
44
e
k
= x
k
-

k
d
= x
k
- Y
k
T
.W
k
= x
k
- W
k
T
.Y
k
(4 2)
Bnh phng li l:
e
k
2
= x
k
2
+ W
k
T
.Y
k
.Y
k
T
.W
k
- 2x
k
.Y
k
T
.W
k
(4 3)
Ly trung bnh bnh phng li theo thi gian ta c:
E[e
k
2
] = E[x
k
2
] + W
k
T
.E[Y
k
.Y
k
T
].W
k
2E[x
k
.Y
k
T
].W
k
Ch rng cc trng s W
k
c th rt ra ngoi trung bnh theo thi gian (v khng
thay i trong lc ny).
K hiu:P = E[x
k
.Y
k
T
] = E[x
k
y
k
, x
k
y
k-1
, x
k
y
k-2
, , x
k
y
k-N
]
T
(4 4)
L vc t tng quan cho gia tn hiu mong mun (dy tp dt nguyn bn) v tn
hiu nhn c khi cha hiu chnh.
K hiu:R = E[Y
k
.Y
k
*
] =
2
2 1
1 2 1
2
1 1
2 1
2
...
.......... ......
...
...
N k k N k k N k k N k
N k k k k k k k
N k k k k k k k
y y y y y y y
y y y y y y y
y y y y y y y



(4 5)
L ma trn tng quan li vo, phng trnh trung bnh bnh phng li c vit l:
E[e
k
2
] = E[x
k
2
] +W
T
.R.W 2P
T
.W (4 6)
Ly o hm trung bnh bnh phng li theo vc t trng s v cho bng 0 (zero), ta
c phng trnh.
0 2 . 2 ,..., ,
1 0

1
]
1

P W R
W
E
W
E
W
E
W
E
N

Hay vc t trng s ti u l P R W .

1
gi l phng trnh Wiener
y chnh l c s cho thut ton tnh trng s ca b lc nhm hiu chnh tn hiu
nhn c gn st vi tn hiu th knh bit trc
Li ti thiu ca b cn bng c vit li l:
E
min
= MMSE = E[x
k
2
] P
T
.R
-1
.P = E[x
k
2
] P
T
.W

(4 7)
Trn thc t vic ti thiu ha trung bnh bnh phng li (MMSE) c thc hin
quy bng thut ton o hm ngu nhin. Thut ton cn c gi l ti thiu trung
45
bnh bnh phng (LMS), y l thut ton cn bng n gin nht, n ch cn 2N + 1
php ton trong mt bc tnh quy. Cc h s ca b lc c cp nht theo cc
phng trnh di y vi bin n l k hiu bc tnh quy:
) ( ). ( . ) ( ) 1 (
) (

) ( ) (
) ( ). ( ) (

*
n y n e n w n w
n d n x n e
n y n W n d
N k N N
k k k
N
T
N k
+

Vi N l s tng lm tr trong b cn bng v

l c bc iu khin tc hi t
v s n nh ca thut ton.
B cn bng LMS lm cc i t s tn hiu trn mo vi mt di b lc hn ch.
Nu tn hiu thu c c c tnh phn tn thi gian ln hn thi gian tr trong b lc th
b lc cn bng khng th lm gim mo. Tc hi t trong LMS l lu v ch c mt
tham s iu khin tc thch nghi

. m bo s thch nghi khng tr thnh s mt


n nh, gi t

phi chn sao cho

< <
N
i
i
1
2
0

l tr ring th i ca ma trn hip bin R


NN
. V
) ( ) (
1
n y n y
N
T
N
N
i
i

C bc

c th c iu khin bi tng cng sut li vo trnh s mt n


nh trong b cn bng.
Cc tiu chun cn ch trong b cn bng l: di b lc, kh nng hi t v tc
hi t.
4.3. C s ca k thut phn tp (t hp t s cc i)
Gi s c cc tn hiu r
i
(i = 1, 2, , M) thu c t M ng truyn c lp c
x l c trng s to nn tn hiu t hp
r
M
=

M
i
i i
r G
1
(4 8)
V gi s mi ng truyn c cng sut n trung bnh ging nhau l N th cng sut
n ca tn hiu t hp s l:
N
T
= N

M
i
i
G
1
2
(4 9)
46
T s cng sut tn hiu trn n ca tn hiu t hp l:
T
M
M
N
r
2
2

(4 10a)
Dng bt ng thc Chebysep,
M

cc i khi G
i
= r
i
/N dn n:


M
i
i
M
i
i
i
i i
M
N
r
G
r G

1
2
2
2
2
1
) (
2
1
(4 10b)
Ni cch khc trng s t hp phi t l vi ln tn hiu li vo ca knh t s
tn hiu / n ca knh tng ng ta thu c tn hiu t hp cc i.
4.3.1. Phn tp thu:
Cc k thut phn tp thu c s dng gim nh hng ca pha inh v ci thin
tin cy ca thng tin m khng cn tng cng sut pht hoc rng bng tn.
nim cn bn ca thu phn tp l nu thu hai mu tn hiu c lp, th cc mu ny
s b pha inh khng tng quan. iu ny c ngha l xc sut tt c cc mu ny ng
thi thp hn mt mc nht nh thp hn nhiu so vi xc sut ca mt mu ring l.
Nh vy nu ta kt hp cc mu ny mt cch thch hp th ta s c tn hiu tng hp t
b nh ca pha inh hn nhiu so vi mt tn hiu n l. Hin c nhiu kiu phn tp khc
nhau: thi gian, tn s, khng gian, gc, nhiu tia v phn cc.
Trong thc t cc k thut phn tp thu c th c p dng hoc BS hoc MS
mc d mi kiu ng dng u c cc c trng ring. Thng thng my thu phn tp ch
c s dng trm gc. V gi thnh ca b kt hp phn tp cao, nht l khi s dng
nhiu my thu. Ngoi ra cng sut my pht ca MS b gii hn bi tui th ca acqui. BS
c th tng cng sut pht hoc cao anten ci thin din ph sng cho MS. Thng
thng cc h thng phn tp c thc hin my thu ch khng my pht v khng
cn thm nng lng cho h thng phn tp thu. Do tnh o ln gia ng truyn ln v
xung, nn cc h thng phn tp thc hin MS cng ging nh cc h thng phn tp
BS.
4.3.2. Cc dng phn tp:
C th thc hin phn tp theo nhiu cch: thi gian, tn s, khng gian, a ng v
phn cc. tn dng c ton b li ch ca phn tp, cn phi thc hin kt hp pha
thu. Cc b kt hp phi c thit k sao cho sau khi hiu chnh tr v pha cho cc
ng truyn khc nhau, cc mc tn hiu vo phi c cng theo vect cn tp m cng
47
ngu nhin. Nh vy khi ly trung bnh t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR u ra s ln hn
u vo mt my thu.
1) Phn tp v m
2) Phn tp vi m
Phn tp khng gian
Phn tp tn s
Phn tp phn cc
Phn tp thi gian
4.3.3. Phn tp pht
Cng ging nh phn tp thu, phn tp pht da trn nim l pha pht s pht i cc
mu tn hiu khng tng quan cc mu ny s b pha inh khng tng quan pha
thu. Phn tp pht cho php gim t s E
b
/I
t
yu cu hay cng sut pht yu cu trn knh
v nh vy tng dung lng h thng. C th thc hin phn tp pht theo cc cch sau.
1) Phn tp pht a sng mang (Multicarrier Transmit Diversity)
2) Phn tp pht trc giao
3) Phn tp pht khng gian - thi gian (STTD)
S khi ca h thng phn tp pht khng gian v thi gian dc cho hnh 4 3
Hnh 4 - 3. S khi h thng phn tp pht khng gian v thi gian (STTD)
4) Phn tp pht chuyn mch thi gian (TSTD)
B m
STTD
M
U
X
an
xen
M
ho
knh
phi
hp
tc

M
U
X
M nh knh v m ngu nhin di
Hoa tiu phn tp
Tx anten 1
Hoa tiu
TPC
Tx anten 2
48
Phn tp pht phn chia thi gian
S khi ca phn tp pht chuyn mch phn chia thi gian c th hin trong
hnh 4 4. Trong s phn tp ny,chuyn mch thc hin chn anten pht c mt
trong hai ng truyn.Tn hiu c chuyn mch hoc theo mt mu c quyt nh
BS hoc theo cht lng tn hiu thu c t MS.
Hnh 4 - 4. S h thng phn tp pht chuyn mch phn chia thi gian
S phn tp pht chn la ging nh s hnh 2.22,tuy nhin y chuyn
mch c iu khin bi tn hiu la chn anten pht nhanh (AS) c pht i t MS
trong thi gian chuyn giao.Gi tr ca bit AS c xc nh trn c s o knh vt l
iu khin chung(CCPCH) pht i t anten c xt.
4.3.4. B thu RAKE
Trong my thu RAKE nhn c cc phin bn dch thi ca chui ngu nhin, tn
hiu thu phi i qua ng tr trc khi c ly tng quan cho v c kt hp.
Trong h thng tri ph CDMA tn hiu c tri ph bng dy gi ngu nhin. Dy
gi ngu nhin ny c tng quan thp khi lch nhau hn 1 chp. Do vy nu cc thnh
phn a ng c thi gian tr lch nhau ln hn 1 chp th khi b tng quan ti ni thu
bt ng b vi 1 ng truyn, tn hiu ng truyn kia do tng quan thp s biu
hin nh l n m khng cng vo lm mo tn hiu nh k thut bng hp thng thng,
do c th khng cn dng n b cn bng. Do tnh cht ny m b thu RAKE dng 3
b tng quan bt ng b vi 3 ng truyn tr khc nhau ri sau khai thc tnh phn
M
U
X
M
U
X
an
xen
M
ho
knh
phi
hp
tc
M nh knh v m ngu nhin di
Hoa tiu
TPC
Chuyn
mch
Tx Anten1
Tx Anten2
m hng
49
tp v mt thi gian ca 3 tn hiu thu c bng cch hiu chnh pha v t hp li. Li ra
ca mi b tng quan c trng s theo mnh ca tn hiu cc i tn hiu tng
hp.
Hnh 4 5: B thu RAKE
4.3.5. Ghp xen (interleaving)
Ghp xen l mt cch ch ng to ra s phn tp v thi gian ngay b pht m
khng mt thm tng ph no. K thut ny pht trin mnh in thoi di ng th h 2
khi b m ha ting ni c s ha. Li ra ca b m ha ting c mt dy cc bit quan
trng cn phi phn tn chng hoc xp xp li v mt thi gian nu c can nhiu hoc
suy gim mnh chng khng b nh hng cng mt lc. C 2 cch ghp xen l ghp xen
khi v ghp xen xon.
Ghp xen khi l vic a d liu (tng khi n x m bit) vo mt bng ch nht (m
hng v n ct) theo cch in y tng ct sau li c ra ln lt theo hng (hnh v),
cc bit quan trng khi s c tch bit nhau bng m bit. Ti b thu gii ghp xen s
lm tc ng ngc li v in vo theo hng v c ra theo ct.
r(t) hay
tn hiu
CDMA a
ng
B tng quan 1
B tng quan 2
B tng quan M
Z
1
Z
2
Z
M
Z

Z
m(t) >
<

T
dt
0
(*)

m hng
50
Hnh 4 6: Bng ghp xen
Ghp xen xon c thc hin theo mt thut ton lin tc v thch hp khi s dng
m xon. ghp xen lun i km hin tng tr v phi i n.m bit th mi ghp hay gii
ghp xen. Do ting ni ch cho php tr ti a 40ms nn tr ca cc bit ghp xen khng
c vt qu gi tr ny.
4.4. M knh
4.4.1. Cc vn c bn ca m knh
Tc ng ca knh truyn ln tn hiu c th c coi l xc nh nh: suy gim, mo
tuyn tnh hoc phi tuyn, hoc khng xc nh nh: n cng tnh, suy gim a ng.
V tc ng xc nh c th coi l trng hp ring ca thay i ngu nhin, nn do m
hnh ton ca truyn thng l s ph thuc ngu nhin ga li vo v ra ca knh.
Trong iu kin knh truyn c gy li vi mt xc sut no , c th lm gim xc
sut li ny bng cch bin i trc bn tin c truyn. Cch bin i bn tin nhm ci
thin tin cy ca vic truyn tin qua knh gi l m knh.
n gin ta xt knh truyn i xng nh phn. l knh m xc sut lm sai
lch 1 thnh 0 bng sai lch 0 bng 1 tc l:
p(y = 0 | x = 1) = p(y = 1 | x = 0) =

Hnh 4 7: M hnh knh i xng nh phn


c
vo
theo
ct
c ra theo hng
n ct
m hng
m + 1 1 ----------------
m + 2 2 ----------------
----------------
2m m ---------------- n*m
0 0
1 1
1-
1-

51
Qua knh ny thay cho vic truyn bt 0 v 1 ta truyn mt nhm n bit ton 0 v mt
nhm n bit ton 1 (n l s l). B gii m y l theo a s: Nu nhm nhn c c
nhiu s 0 hn s quyt nh l 0 hoc nhm nhn c c nhiu s 1 hn s quyt nh l
1. Khi quyt nh c th sai khi t nht c (n + 1)/2 bit li truyn trong k hiu 1 nhm.
Vi knh l i xng nh phn c xc sut truyn sai l

nh ni trn th xc sut quyt


nh sai ca cch truyn trn c th tnh l:
k n
n
n k
k
e
k
n
p

+

,
_


) 1 (
2 / ) 1 (

(4 11)
Vi n = 5,

= 0.01 ta c


9 5
10 ) 999 . 0 ( 001 . 0
k k
e
p
iu ny c ngha l vi vic s dng m 5 ln lp li c th gim xc sut li bt bn
tin t 10
-3
xung 10
-9
trong cng mt iu kin knh. M knh nh trn lun lm tng
d tha bit so vi s bit ti thiu biu din bn tin ngun. Gi phi tr cho s tin cy tng
ln ny l tc thng tin gim km theo s phc tp ca h thng (b gii m theo a s)
Dung lng knh:
Theo nh trn mun gim li bt bn tin xung n 0 th phi tng n ln v cng v
nh vy tc l gim tc truyn tin n 0. Tuy nhin trong l thuyt thng tin Shannon
ch ra rng c th t c s truyn tin hon ton tin cy (tc l

0) m vn gi
tc truyn ln hn 0 ch cn m bo tc ny thp hn dung lng knh C. Cn nu
truyn vi tc ln hn dung lng knh th khng th m bo truyn tin cy.
Trong dung lng knh c tnh l:
C = 1 H
b
(

) = 1 H
b
(0.001) = 1 0.0114 = 0.9884 bit/truyn
H
b
(.) l k hiu entropi nh phn ca thng tin:
H
b
(x) = -x.log(x) (1 x).log(1 x)
i ra dung lng bit / giy phi nhn thm tc truyn k hiu. Dung lng
knh c hiu nh gii hn trn ca vic truyn thng tin khng c li, n c quy nh
bi iu kin ca knh truyn.
Nu m hnh knh c xc nh theo bng tn gii hn [-W, W], c n Gauss trng
cng tnh 2 pha (gy nn li ng truyn) vi mt cng sut l N
0
/2 v vi s hn ch
cng sut u vo P, dung lng knh c tnh ngay theo cng thc bit / giy.

,
_

+
W N
P
W C
0
1 log
bit / giy (4 12)
52
Cn tnh theo bit trn knh truyn dn theo cng sut li vo hn ch P v variance n
2
, dung lng knh s l:

,
_

+
2
1 log
2
1

P
C
(4 13)
Cng sut thu c ti b thu c tnh l: P = E
b
.R
b
, E
b
l nng lng bit trung bnh
v R
b
tc bit truyn. Phng trnh trn tun theo rng bng truyn s l:
C/W = log
2
(1 + E
b
.R
b
/N
0
W) (4 14)
Trong C/W c coi l hiu sut ph.
gim li v t c s tin cy trong truyn dn cn pht i cc dy cng khc
nhau cng tt n knh khng d dng bin dy ny thnh dy khc (gy nn li). iu
ny c ngha l cn b xung mt s bit d vo dng thng tin to nn s khc nhau ny.
Song iu cng lm gim tc thng tin.
C 2 loi m knh chnh l m khi v m chp:
- M khi tin hnh theo tng khi bn tin k bit, cho thm n-k bit d to nn t m n
bit, c tc bit R
0
= (n/k)R
S
trong R
S
l tc ca ngun thng tin. R
0
gi l tc d
liu ca knh. R = k/N gi l tc m (khng c th nguyn, trong khi tc ngun d
liu v tc knh c th nguyn l bit/giy) trong m khi th m khi tuyn tnh l quan
trng nht
- M chp l nhn chp ca dy li vo v p ng xung ca b m, trong di
p ng xung bng b nh ca b m. B m dng ca s trt trn dy bn tin n,
rng ca s trt bng di b nh. Do khc vi m khi, m chp nhn dng d liu
bn tin lin tc v cho dng bit m li ra lin tc vi tc cao hn
4.4.2. M khi
M khi l m hiu chnh li tin, cho php pht hin v hiu chnh mt s gii hn
li m khng phi pht li. Mi khi gm k bit thng tin li vo c tng ng vi t
m n bit thng tin li ra (c n - k bit d thm vo) khi b m khi s c tc m ha l
R = k/n. M ny gi l m (n, k) c 2
k
t m di n.
4.4.2.1. M khi tuyn tnh
M khi tuyn tnh nu t hp tuyn tnh (modul 2) ca hai t m l mt t m.
M khi trong cc bit bn tin c gi nguyn, ch b xung thm cc bit d gi l
m h thng. M h thng cng c tnh cht tuyn tnh v c u im thc hin n gin.
53
Cu trc ca m khi h thng l:
b
0,
b
1
., b
n-k-1
,m
0
,m
1
, , m
k-1
Trong k bit bn phi (m
0
,m
1
, , m
k-1
) l cc bit bn tin
n-k bit bn tri (b
0,
b
1
., b
n-k-1
) l cc bit kim tra. Bit kim tra l t hp tuyn tnh
ca k bit bn tin
b
i
= p
0i
m
0
+ p
1i
m
1
+ + p
(k-1)i
m
k-1
i = 0, 1, , n-k-1 (4 15)
vi

'

i i
i i
i
m thuoc phu khong b neu
m thuoc phu b neu
p
_ _ _ _ _ 0
_ _ _ _ 1
Phng trnh trn xc nh mt cu trc ton hc ca m khi tuyn tnh (n, k) ta c
th vit li di dang vector ma trn nh sau:
b = mP (vi P l ma trn c kch thc kx(n-k))
Cc t m c = [b, m] to nn mt khng gian con k chiu ca khng gian n chiu:
Do ta c th vit li l:
C = m[P, I
k
] trong I
k
l ma trn n v hay c = mG
Ma trn G l ma trn nh phn c kch thc k x n c dng
G = [P, I
k
]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 .. 0 0 ..
........ .. ....... ...... 0 ... .. ..
0 .. 1 0 ..
0 .. 0 1 ..
, 2 , 1 ,
, 2 2 , 2 1 , 2
, 1 2 , 1 1 , 1
k n k k k
k n
k n
p p p
p p p
p p p
G
Ma trn G c gi l ma trn sinh, c k hng phi l c lp tuyn tnh tc biu din
mt hng phi l t hp tuyn tnh ca cc hm cn li) t ta c
c
i
+ c
j
= m
i
G + m
j
G

= Gm
i
+ m
j
G
Tnh cht tuyn tnh c suy ra t h thng
Cch biu din khc mi lin h gia bit kim tra v bit bn tin l:
H = [I
n-k
,P
T
] khi
HG
T
= [I
n-k
,P
T
]
1
]
1

k
T
I
P
= P
T
+ P
T
S dng tnh cht cng modul 2 ta c HG
T
= 0 tc v phi l ma trn zero hay ta c
54
cH
T
= mGH
T

= 0 (4 - 16)
Khi ma trn H c gi l ma trn kim tra chn l. Khi tn hiu truyn khng
li th phng trnh (4 - 16) c tho mn
V d: Xt m lp li n = 5, k = 1 ta c:
G = [1 1 1 1, 1] v H =
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
, 1 0 0 0
, 0 1 0 0
, 0 0 1 0
, 0 0 0 1
Gii m c trng:
T m c c gi trn ng truyn mc li e, vc t thu c ti b thu l r: ta c
r = c + e
Trong e
i
= 0 nu c
i
ging r
i
(i = 0, 1, 2, n 1)
Ta nh ngha s = rH
T
L c trng ca gii m, c cc tnh cht sau:
- s ch ph thuc mu li m khng ph thuc t m: do
s = (c + e)H
T
= cH
T
+ eH
T

=

eH
T
(4 17)

Cc mu li khc nhau ca 1 t m s c cng c trng s
- Do bn tin k bit ch c 2
k
t m khc nhau nn vi mi c trng s c 2
k
vc t li
khc nhau: e
i
= e + c
i
, I = 0, 1, , 2
k
1
Tp cc vc t li ng vi mt c trng to nn mt tp con trong tp m v m
khi tuyn tnh c 2
n-k
tp con nh vy khng chng ln nhau v ph ht khng gian t m.
(4 17) l mt h n-k phng trnh tuyn tnh c th cho thng tin pht hin li. Song n
khng xc nh vc t li (n phn t) hay chnh xc hn xc nh duy nht vc tor li:
s c 2
k
mu li tho mn h phng trnh ny. Tuy nhin thng tin c trng s gip cho
php d tm li e t 2
n
kh nng xung cn 2
k
kh nng.
Khong cch ti thiu
d
min
l tp m c nh ngha l khong cch Hamming (s cc bit khc nhau trong 2
t m) nh nht gia cc t m. T tnh cht ng ca t m d
min
bng trng lng (s
phn t 1) nh nht ca mt t m
d
min
= min d
H
(c
i
, c
j
) ( 4 18)
M khi tuyn tnh (n, k) c th tch v hiu chnh c ti a t li nu v ch nu
55
t [1/2(d
min
-1)] ly phn nguyn
V vc t r nhn c vn lun gn t m pht ban u hn bt k t m khc.
i vi m tuyn tnh khong cch ti thiu bng trng lng ti thiu ca m c
nh ngha:
W
min
= min w(c
i
) (4 -19)
Ci 0
Tc l s ti thiu phn t 1 trong bt k t m khc 0
M khi tuyn tnh c dng h thng khi ma trn sinh c dng sau:
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 .. 0 0 ..
........ .. ....... ...... 0 ... .. ..
0 .. 1 0 ..
0 .. 0 1 ..
, 2 , 1 ,
, 2 2 , 2 1 , 2
, 1 2 , 1 1 , 1
k n k k k
k n
k n
p p p
p p p
p p p
G
4.4.2.2. M Hamming
M Hamming l loi m khi tuyn tnh dng (2
m
1, 2
m
-1 m) c khong cch ti
thiu bng 3 v ma trn kim tra chn l n gin c kch thc m x (2m 1) trong tt
c cc dy nh phn di m tr dy ton 0 nhn theo ct.
Vi m = 3, ta c m (7 , 3) ma trn sinh l
[ ]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1


1 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 1
,
4
I P G
Tng ng ta ta c ma trn kim tra chn l l :
1
1
1
]
1

1
0
1
1 1 0
1 1 1
1 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
H
T m to ra t ma trn sinh ny c d
min
= 3, nn c kh nng pht hin v hiu chnh
1 bit li. Cc mu li 1 bit v cc c trng gii m nh sau:
Mu li c trng s
56
0000000 000
1000000 100
0100000 010
0010000 001
0001000 110
0000100 011
0000010 111
0000001 101
T m nhn c sau ng truyn c nhn vi ma trn kim tra chn l H
tnh c trng s, t gi tr s nhn c so vi bng trn ta nhn c v tr bit li.
M vng (CRC)
M vng l mt trng hp ring ca m khi tuyn tnh:
u im ca m vng l c th biu din nh biu thc ton v c s thc hin
n gin. M vng yu cu dch vng ca n cng l mt t m.
biu din ta c t m c = c
0
c
1
c
n-1
l mt a thc m
c(X) = c
0
X
0
+ c
1
X
1
+ +c
n-1
X
n-1
(4 20)
Trong X l mt bin thc, cc h s ca a thc sinh l bin nh phn ca t m
Lu tha ca c(X) biu din dch bit theo thi gian
Khi Xc(X) = c
0
X + c
1
X
2
+ c
n-1
X
n
(4 20a)
Thm c
n-1
+ c
n-1
vo a thc trn do c
n-1
+ c
n-1
= 0 (tnh cht cng modul 2) do a
thc trn tr thnh
Xc(X) = c
n-1
(X
n
+ 1) + c
n-1
+ c
0
X + c
n-2
X
n-1
= c
n-1
(X
n
+ 1) + c
(1)
(X) (4 20b)
Vi c
(1)
(X) l c(X) dch vng i 1 bit
Tng t ta c:
X
i
c(X) = q(X)(X
n
+ 1) + c
(i)
(X) (4 20c)
x
3
+ x
2

x
3
+ x
2

+
1
57
Vi c
(i)
(X) l c(X) dch vng i i bit ng thi q(X) l phn d ca php chia X
i
c(X)
cho X
n
+ 1
Hay c
(i)
(X) = X
i
c(X) mod (X
n
+ 1) (4 21)
a thc X
n

+ 1 v cc nhn t ca n ng vi tr chnh trong vic to m vng.
chn g(X) l a thc bc ti gin n-k v l tha s ca X
n
+ 1 c dng
k n
k n
i
i
i
X X g X g

+ +

1
1
1 ) (
(4 22)
g
i
= 0 hoc 1, g(X) gi l a thc sinh m vng theo cch sau:
c(X) = a(X)g(X) trong a(X) l a thc c bc k-1 v c(X) c to theo cch ny
s tho mn phng trnh (4 22) v g(X) l nhn t ca X
n
+ 1.
Gi s cho a thc sinh g(X) v cn m ho cho bn tin m (k bit) thnh m vng
h thng (n, k) theo cu trc b (n k) bit d thm vo v m (k bit) bn tin, khi t m
phi c dng:
c(X) = b(X) + X
n-k
m(X) ( 4 23)
Hay a(X)g(X) = b(X) + X
n-k
m(X)
Chia c 2 v cho g(X) ta c:
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
X g
X b
X a
X g
X m X
k n
+

(4 24)
Phng trnh trn cho thy phn d ca php chia X
n-k
m(X) cho g(X) do qu trnh
m ho nh sau:
Bc 1: Nhn a thc bn tin m(X) vi X
n-k
Bc 2: Chia X
n-k
m(X) cho a thc sinh g(X) tm phn d
Bc 3: Cng phn d vi X
n-k
m(X) nhn c t m c(X)
V d: Tm t m ca vc t d liu 0101 theo loi m d tha vng (7, 4) ta c n =
7, n k = 3 v:
x
7
+1 = (x + 1)(x
3
+ x + 1)(x
3
+ x
2
+ 1).
Chn g(x) = x
3
+ x
2
+ 1
d(x) = x
3
+ x
x
3
+ x
2

x
3
+ x
2

+
1
58
T ta c: x
n k
d(x) = x
6
+ x
4
V
Ta c th vit: c(x) = x
3
d(x) + r(x) = q(x)g(x)
= x
3
(x
3
+ x) + 1
=x
6
+ x
4
+ 1
V t m tm c s l: c = 1010001
3 bit cui c thm vo 4 bit d liu tho mn tnh chia ht, s pht m tun
hon nh sau:
Hnh 4 8: S to khi Reed - Solomon
4.4.2.3. Hot ng ca m khi tuyn tnh
M khi tuyn tnh c th thc hin gii m quyt nh cng hoc mn. Trong s
quyt nh cng, trc ht l quyt nh bit bit trong cc thnh phn ca t m, sau
x
6
+ x
4
x
6
+ x
5
+
x
3
x
5
+ x
4
+ x
3
x
5
+ x
4
x
2
x
3
+ x
2

x
3
+ x
2
+
1
1
x
3
+ x
2

+
1
x
3
+ x
2
+ 1 =
q(x)
g
0
g
1
g
16
g
14
g
15
Bit chn l
D liu
vo
Li ra
b
0
b
1
b
14
b
15
+ + + +
Cng
59
tiu chun khong cch Hamminh ti thiu. Hot ng ca s gii m ph thuc vo
cu trc, khong cch ca m, song lun c mt gii hn trn, t bit gi tr cao ca SNR
c th nhn c theo khong cch ti thiu ca m.
Xc sut li bn tin ca m khi tuyn tnh vi khong cch ti thiu d
min
trong quyt
nh cng b chn trn bi:
[ ]
2 /
min
) 1 ( 4 ) 1 (
d
p p M p
p l xc sut li ca knh nh phn v M l s t m (M = 2
k
). gii m quyt
nh mm tn hiu nhn c c tng ng vi t m m tn hiu tng ng ca n c
khong cch le ti thiu n tn hiu nhn c. Xc sut li bn tin trong trng hp
ny b gii hn trn l.

,
_


0
2
) 1 (
N
d
Q M p
E
e
M = 2
k
l s t m, N
0
l mt cng sut ph n mt pha d
E
l khong cch
le ti thiu cho bi:

'

giao doi hieu tin voi


giao truc hieu tin voi
E d
E d
d
E
_ _ _ _
_ _ _ _
4
2
min
min
Kt qu l:
cuc doi hieu tin voi
giao truc hieu tin voi
N
E d
Q M
N
E d
Q M
p
e
_ _ _ _
_ _ _ _
2
) 1 (
) 1 (
0
min
0
min

'

,
_

,
_

Trong cc bt ng thc ny d
min
khong cch Hamming ti thiu ca m. E l k
hiu nng lng ca mi thnh phn ca t m. Do mi t c n thnh phn, nng lng
mt t l n.E v v mi t mang k bit thng tin nn nng lng ca mt bit thng tin l:
c
b
R
E
k
nE
E
R
c
= k/n k hiu tc ca m, t mi lin h trn ta c.
60

'

,
_

,
_

cuc doi hieu tin voi


N
E R d
Q M
giao truc hieu tin voi
N
E R d
Q M
p
b c
b c
e
_ _ _ _
2
) 1 (
_ _ _ _ ) 1 (
0
min
0
min
Gii hn nhn c thng c ch ch i vi gi tr ln ca
0
N E
b b

. i vi gi
tr
b

nh gii hn tr nn khng chnh xc v c th ln hn 1.


4.4.2.4. V d v m khi
M Hamming nh phn: (n, k) = (2
m
1, 2
m
1 m)
M Hadamard: T m c chn l hng ca ma trn Hadamard. l ma trn
NxN gm 1 v 0 sao cho mi hng khc tt c cc hng khc chnh xc N/2 v tr (khong
cch ti thiu ca m l N/2). Mt hng cha ton s 0, cc hng cn li cha N/2 s 0 v
N/2 s 1
Vi N = 2 ma trn s l:
1
]
1

1 0
0 0
A
Vi N = 4 ma trn s l:
1
1
1
1
]
1

0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
A
Tm li
1
]
1

N N
N N
N
A A
A A
A
2
M Golay: L m nh phn tuyn tnh (23, 12) vi khong cch ti thiu l 7 v
kh nng hiu chnh 3 li.
4.4.3. M xon
D liu vo c lu gi trong b m c di xc nh. Li ra l mt t hp ca
d liu vo v cc d liu trong b m. Vic m ha c tin hnh lin tc theo theo cc
bc dch vo ca dng d liu m khng theo tng cm nh m khi.
61
Mi ln li vo dch k bit s cho n bit li ra. Tc m ha l R = k/n.
Hnh 4 - 9: S to m xon
Ti mi thi im li ra khng ch ph thuc k bit li vo m cn ph thuc vo
k(N - 1) bit trc trong b m. S trng thi trong b m l 2
k(N-1)
. N c gi l
di rng buc ca m xon.
B to m xon hu hn trng thi gm N tng thanh ghi c cc ng c nh
trc vi n b cng modul 2 v b hp knh cc li ra ca b cng modul 2 ny
Khi bn tin L bit to nn n(L/k +N) bit li ra: tc ca b m ho l
r = L/(n(L/k + N))

k/n khi L >> N


di rng buc l s dch m qua mt bit n (mt nhm bit) c th nh
hng ln li ra.
Trng hp dch 1 bit, thanh ghi dch c M tng nn N = M +1 l di rng buc
V d: n = 2, K = 4, k = 1 nn r = dy bn tin vo 1 bit 1 ln cho ra 2 b it li ra:
Hnh 4 - 10: B to m xon
Vi s hnh 4 10: vi k = 1, n = 2 khi ca mt dy d liu li vo 1 bit s
cho ta 2 bit d liu li ra, tc m s l r = 1/2.
Mt b m xon thng c nh ngha theo v tr ca dy to m (a thc sinh)
g
1
(i)
, g
2
(i)
, g
M
(i)
thnh phn ca nhnh th i ca dy g
j
(1 j kN, 1 i n) s l 1
1
---------
--
k 1
---------
--------
k 1
---------
----
k
+ + +
N
tng
1
2 n
Bit
d liu
k
Z
-1
Z
-1
Z
-1 Li ra
Li vo
62
nu thnh phn ca thanh ghi c ni n b t hp li ra li ra i, s l 0 nu khng
c ni.
g
(i)
(D) = g
0
(i)
+ g
1
(i)
D + g
2
(i)
D
2
+ + g
N
(i)
D
N
Trong D l phn t tr
B m ho y th hin a thc sinh G nh sau
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

) (
...
) (
) (
2
1
D g
D g
D g
G
n
V d hnh 2 10: c 2 nhnh: nhnh 1 c a thc sinh l (1, 0, 1, 1) v nhnh 2 l
(1, 1, 0 , 1)
Tng ng ta c a thc sinh l
1
]
1

1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
G
Tng ng ta c g
(1)

= 1 + D
2
+ D
3

V g
(2)

= 1 + D + D
3
Vi bn tin li vo l (1 0 0 1 1) biu din a thc bn tin li vo l
M(D) = 1 + D
3

+ D
4
Tng t nh bin i fourier, php nhn chp trong min thi gian tng t nh
php nhn trong min D do li ra ca a thc nhnh 1 l:
c
(1)
(D) = g
(1)
(D)m(D) = (1 + D
2
+ D
3
)(1 + D
3

+ D
4
) = 1 + D
2
+ D
4
+ D
5
+ D
7
Do li ra 1 l (10101101).
Tng t ta c li ra 2 s l
c
(2)
(D) = g
(2)
(D)m(D) = (1 + D

+ D
3
)(1 + D
3

+ D
4
) = 1 + D + D
5
+ D
6
+ D
7
Hay li ra 2 l (11000111)
Cui cng hp knh 2 li ra ny ta c dy m li ra l
c = (11,01,10,00,10,11,01,11)
Vi bn tin L = 5 to dy m di n(L+K-1) = 16 bit.
thanh ghi tr v trng thi zero ban u th phi c K 1 = 3 zero ti cui bn
tin. Dy K 1 zero ny gi l ui bn tin
Vy vi
63
g
1
= [0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1] .
g
2
= [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1] g
n
= [1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1]
Khi g
1
, g
2
, g
n
. c xc nh, m xon c xc nh duy nht. i khi vit gn
thnh ma trn n x kN to m xon nh sau:
4.4.3.1. Biu din m xon
Ngoi cch biu din theo s cu trc hay ma trn to m nh mc trc ta
cn c th biu din theo 2
k(N 1)
trng thi ca thanh ghi v s chuyn trng thi gia
chng

khi c k bit mi i vo.
Biu din thanh ghi dch
B m xon s dng thanh ghi dch da vo trng thi ca thanh ghi dch, v a
thc to m li ra ca thanh ghi dch c d liu li ra khi li vo l 1 bit hay 1 nhm
bit li vo ph thuc b to m
Biu din theo s li.
B m xon s dng s li s ph thuc vo mt li trc v ng i ca
mt li tip theo cho ta bit li ra. Ph thuc vo s bt li ra khc nhau m s mt li
tng ng ct li c th c l 2
k
mt li
S li vi 1 bit li vo v 2 bit li ra.

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00
10 10 10 10 10 10
11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11
11 11 11 11 11 11
01 01 01 01 01 01 01
01 01 01 01 01 01
10 10 10 10 10 10
10
Z
-1
Z
-1
Z
-1 Li ra
Li vo
64
B m li li vo bit 0 tng ng vi ng nt lin v li vo bit 1 tng ng
vi ng nt t.
Xt b m xon vi s li vi k = 1, n = 2 v N = 3
S trng thi ca thanh ghi l 2
k(N 1)
= 2
2
= 4 tc l tng ng vi 00, 01, 10, 11.
Trong s li cc trc ngang biu din s bin i ca trng thi c th ca k(N 1) bit
trn thanh ghi. Cc bit nh phn vit cnh mi tn ni 2 trng thi ni tip theo thi gian
biu th li ra ca b m ha trc thi im chuyn ny. Mi mt ln m ha mt cm d
liu ta lun sut pht t trng thi ton 0 ban u i theo mt ng qua s li ri li
kt thc trng thi ton 0.
Biu din theo s cy:
V d: B m ho v
1
= r
1
, v
2
= r
1
+ r
2
+ r
3
, v
3
= r
1
+ r
3
Tn hiu vo c biu th theo cy m
Chui 4 bit vo 1011 c m ho thnh 111 010 100 101( tc m l 1/3). Quan
st s ta thy s lp li cu trc khi s tng ln hn di rng buc va n v tt c
cc nhnh xut pht t 2 nt cng trng thi s cho m cc dy ging nhau. iu ny c
ngha l 2 nt cng tn c th nhp lm mt.
Bng cch ny ta c th rt gn s cy thnh s li biu din m xon gn hn.
4.4.3.2. Hm truyn ca m xon
0
1
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
010
101
010
101
011
100
001
110
011
100
000
111
010
101
001
110
011
100
001
110
65
Hm truyn cho thng tin v cc ng khc nhay trong s li t trng thi
ton 0 bn u tr v trng thi ton 0 ln th nht. Hm truyn ng vai tr quan trng
trong vic nh gi gii hn xc sut li ca m. Tng ng vi mi nhnh ni 2 trng thi
l hm dng

J N D c nh ngha,

l s bit 1 trong dy bit ra v

l s bit 1
trong dy bit vo tng ng ca nhnh v

l s nhnh trong ng i. Hm truyn ca


m cn gi l hm truyn ca ng i t trng thi ton 0 n trng thi ton 0 k tip k
hiu l T(D, N, J), mi s hng ca T(D, N, J) l mt ng trong s li i t bt u
ton 0 n kt thc ton 0.
Trong v d trn hm truyn l T(D, N, J) =
2
3 5
1 DNJ DNJ
NJ D

Khi khai trin ta c T(D, N, J) = D
5
NJ
3
+ D
6
N
2
J
4
+ D
6
N
2
J
5
+ D
6
N
3
J
5
+
T biu thc trn ta c th thy tn ti mt t m c trng lng Hamminh 5, 2 t
m trng lng Hamminh 6. t m c trng lng Hamming 5 tng ng vi dy vo
trng lng Hamming 1 di 3. S m nh nht ca D trong khai trin T(D, N, J) gi l
khong cch t do ca m xon k hiu l d
free
trong v d trn d
free
= 5.
4.4.3.3. Gii m xon
Trong s nhiu phng php gii m xon, phng php Viterbi c quan tm c
bit v n l phng php tnh kh nng ti a. Da theo dy nhn c ti li ra knh,
phng php ny d tm trong s li ng i c m ging nh dy nhn c. Nu
gii m l quyt nh cng thut ton s tm ng c khong cch Hamming nh nht n
dy nhn c. Nu gii m l quyt nh mm th ng tm c phi c khong cch
le nh nht n dy nhn c. gi c l t m theo ng i trong s li y l dy
nhn c qua knh nh phn khng nh. Gi s ng i c m bc chuyn trng thi,
mi bc c n bit li ra nn c v y v n.m bit ng thic
i
v y
i
tng ng vi bc chuyn
th i ( m i 1 ). Khong cch Hamming gia c v y c tnh l:
d(c.y) =

m
i
i i
y c d
1
) , (
Trong cch tnh khong cch le ca quyt nh mm, ch vic thay dy y bng li
ra vect r ca b gii iu ch s. Thay cho dy nh phn 0, 1 ca c l dy c vi
66
c
ij
=

'

0
1
ij
ij
c neu
c neu
E
E
Vi m i 1 v
n j 1
. Khong cch le l biu thc

i i E E
r c d r c d , ( ) , ' (
' 2 2
By gi gi s k = 1. iu ny c ngha l ch c 2 nhnh i vo mt im trng
thi trong s li. Nu ng i ti u phi i qua mt trng thi S th ta gi nhnh i
vo n l S
1
v S
2

bit c nhnh vo trong 2 nhnh ny cho khong chc ton th nh
nht chng ta phi cng khong cch ton th nh nht ti S
1
v S
2
vi khong cch ca
nhnh ni 2 trng thi vi S. R rng l tng no nh hn s c chn xt tip i vi
tng tip sau S. Nhnh ny l nhnh sng st ti S, khong cch ca n s c lu li ti
S, cn cc nhnh khc khng thch hp b xa. i vi trng hp k > 1 ch khc l ti
mi tng chng ta phi chn nhnh sng st t 2
k
nhnh dn n trng thi S. Quy trnh ni
trn c tm tt trong thut ton Viterbi nh sau:
1. Chia dy nhn c thnh m dy con c di n.
2. Vi s li c m tng. i vi N 1 tn cui ch v cc ng ng vi li
vo ton 0 (ch tr v trng thi ton 0 kt thc t m th sau k bit li vo
cui s phi thm k(N 1) bit 0 li vo, khi m >> N th tc m ha vn coi l
k/n)
3. t l = 1 v t khong cch ti trng thi ton 0 ban u bng 0
4. Tm khong cch ca dy con th l ca dy nhn c n tt c cc nhnh ni
cc trng thi tng 1 n cc trng thi l + 1 trong s li.
5. Cng cc khong cch ny vo cc khong cch ca cc trng thi tng 1
nhn c cc ng ca khong cch cho cc trng thi tng l + 1. i vi mi
trng thi ca tng l + 1, c 2
k
khong cch ng c, mi khong cch ng vi
mt nhnh kt thc ti trng thi ny.
6. i vi mi trng thi tng l + 1 chn khong cch ng c nh nht v coi
nhnh tng ng l nhnh sng st v phn gi tr khong cch nh nht l
khong cch ca cc trng thi tng l + 1.
67
7. Nu l = m chuyn sang bc tip theo. Nu khng tng l thm 1 v tr li bc
th 4
8. Bt u t trng thi ton 0 ti tng m + 1 i ngc li trong s li dc theo
nhnh sng st tr li trng thi ton 0 ban u. ng ny l ng ti u
v dy li vo tng ng l dy thng tin c gii m kh d nht. nhn
c dy li vo ch vic b i k(N 1) s 0 t dy ny
C th nhn thy l m xon c tr v b nhi cn cho gii m ln. Mt phng
php trnh c iu ny l ct ngn ng nh l: B gii m ti mi tng ch d
tm tng trc trong s li m khng n tn lc bt u li ti tng 1 + b
gii m to quyt nh ln bit li vo tng ng vi tng u tin ca li (k bit u tin),
v nhng bit nhn c tip theo khng thay i quyt nh ny. iu ny c ngha l
tr ca b gii m ch l k. v n ch yu cu gi cc nhnh sng st ng vi tng
cui. M phng my tnh cho ta thy rng nu 5N th s gim cp do ct ngn ng
nh c th b qua.
4.4.3.4. Gii hn li bit ca m xon
xc nh gii hn li bit, ta gi s phi pht i dy ton 0 v n tng th l cu
b gii m l khng c li. By gi c k bit thng tin thm vo b m ha lm chuyn sang
tng tip theo c th mt nhnh khc trong li c metric nh hn nhnh ton 0 v bt u
gy nn li. y l s kin li u tin v c xc sut li tng ng l xc sut li u tin.
Trc ht ta gii hn xc sut li u tin. Gi P
2
(d) l xc sut xy ra ng
cong li c khong cch d vi ng ton 0 l sng st ti tng l + 1 v d ln hn d
t do
ta
c th gii hn xc sut li u tin theo.
P
e
=

free
d d
d
d P a ) (
2
bn pha phi chng ta c tt c cc nhnh trong s li chung vi tt c
cc nhnh 0 ti tng l + 1. P
2
(d) k hiu xc sut i vi nhnh c khong Hamming d n
thnh ton 0. a
d
k hiu s nhnh c khong cch hamming d n nhnh ton 0. Gi tr
P
2
(d) ph thuc vo m quyt nh mm hay cng.
i vi m quyt nh mm, nu tn hiu i cc c dng (nh phn PSK), chng
ta c:
68

,
_

,
_

,
_

0 0
0
2
2
2
) (
N
E
d R Q
N
Ed
Q
N
d
Q d P
b
c
E
V vy:

,
_

free
d d
b
c d e
N
E
d R Q a P
0
2
T cng thc trn ta bit c v Q:
2 /
2
2
1
) (
x
e x Q

Chng ta nhn c
0
/
0
2
1
2
N dE R b
c
b c
e
N
E
d R Q

,
_

Ch rng
0
/
0
/
N
b
dE
c
R
b c
e D
d N dE R
D e


Cui cng ta tm c:
0
/
0
/
) (
2
1
2
1
1
N
b
dE
c
R N
b
dE
c
R
free
e D e D
d
d d
d e
D T D a P



T
1
(D) = T(D, N, J)|
D=
0
/ N
b
dE
c
R
e

y

l gii hn bit li th nht. tm gii hn li bit trung bnh i vi k bit li
vo, chng ta ch rng mi nhnh do mt s nht nh bit li vo c mt s li khi gii
m. Trng hp tng at c D
d
N
f(d)
J
g(d)
trong khai trin ca T(D, N, J). C tng cng f(d)
bit li vo khc 0. iu ny c ngha l trung bnh bit li vo b li c th nhn c bng
cch nhn xc sut chn mi ng vi tng s li i vo. V vy trung bnh li bit trong
quyt nh mm b gii hn.

,
_


free
b c
free free
d d
N dE R
d
d d
b
c d
d d
d b
e d f a
N
E
d R Q d f a d P d f a k P
0
/
0
2
) (
2
1
2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
Nu chng ta nh ngha
T
2
(D, N) = T(D, N, J)|
j=1
=

free
d d
d f d
d
N D a
) (
69
Chng ta c

free
d d
d
d N
D d f a
N
N D T
) ( |
) , (
1
2
Kt hp cc phng trnh trn ta c
0
/
, 1
2
|
) , (
2
1
) (
N
b
dE
c
R
e D
N b
N
N D T
k P

nhn c li bit trung bnh trn mi bit li vo ta phi chia cho k bit li vo
0
/
, 1
2
|
) , (
2
1
) (
N
b
dE
c
R
e D
N b
N
N D T
k
k P

i vi gii m quyt nh cng, quy trnh ton c bn trn ch khc l gii hn ca


P
2
(d).
2 /
2
) 1 ( 4 ) (
d
p p d P
Kt qu xc sut li trung bnh b chn trn l:
) 1 ( 4
, 1
2
|
) , ( 1
) (
p p D
N b
N
N D T
k
k P

So snh quyt nh cng v mm i vi m xon, cng ging nh m khi tuyn


tnh, gii m quyt nh mm mnh hn 2 dB trong knh n Gauss trng cng tnh
70
Chng 5:
H thng thng tin di ng t ong GSM
5.1. c im chung ca h thng GSM
c im v dch v ca h thng GSM l:
Dch v ca h thng GSM:
Dch v thoi: ngoi cc cuc gi thng thng ca my di ng cn c cc cuc
gi khn cp, cc bn tin c sn.
Dch v d liu: truyn thng gia cc my tnh v cc lu lng chuyn mch gi.
(gii hn mc 1, 2 v 3 ca m hnh kt ni m OSI) D liu truyn c th mode trong
sut (tc l thng tin hu nh khng b mt mt khi GSM cung cp m knh tiu chu cho
d liu ngi dng) hoc mode khng trong sut (khi GSM dng m c bit da trn giao
din d liu c th).
Ngoi 2 dch v c bn trn GSM cn c cc dch v b xung nh: chuyn hng
cuc gi, nhn bit ngi gi, bn tin ngn SMS (SMS c trang tin gii hn 60 k t 7 bit
ASCII
c im ca h thng GSM c ngi s dng a thch l:
S dng SIM l mt chp nh cha cc thng tin ngi s dng, cc dch v
ng k, C th d dng tho lp SIM s dng trn my khc cng tiu
chun khi ngi dng mun i my.
Thng tin cc cuc lin lc c bo mt trn ng truyn.
5.2. Kin trc h thng GSM
H thng GSM c cu trc tng qut nh hnh di y
H thng GSM c th chia thnh cc h thng con nh sau
- H thng con chuyn mch SS.
- H thng con trm gc BSS.
- H thng con khai thc v h tr OSS.
- Trm di ng MS.
71
ISDN
PSPDN
CSPDN
PSTN
PLMN
SS
AUC
HLR
MSC
EIR VLR
OSS
BSS
BSC
BTS BTS BTS
Abis
A
Um
MS
Hnh 6 1: Tng quan h thng GSM
Trong :
SS: H thng con chuyn mch
AUC: Trung tm nhn thc
HLR: B ghi nh v thng tr
VLR: B ghi nh v tm tr
MSC: Tng i di ng
EIR: Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b
BSS: H thng con thu pht gc (phn h trm gc)
BSC: B iu khin trm gc
BTS: Trm thu pht gc
OSS: H thng con khai thc v h tr
MS: Trm di ng
ISDN: Mng s a dch v
72
PSPDN: Mng chuyn mch s cng cng theo gi
CSPDN: Mng chuyn mch s cng cng theo mch
PLMN: Mng di ng mt t cng cng
5.2.1. H thng con chuyn mch SS.
H thng con chuyn mch bao gm chc nng chuyn mch chnh ca mng GSM
cng nh vic lu tr cc c s d liu cn thit v s liu v qun l di ng ca thu
bao. Chc nng chnh ca SS l qun l thng tin gia nhng ngi s dng mng GSM
vi nhau v vi mng khc. H thng con chuyn mch gm c cc b phn sau:
Trung tm chuyn mch di ng MSC
MSC thc hin nhim v iu khin, thit lp cuc gi n nhng
ngi s dng mng GSM vi nhau v vi mng khc.
Thc hin giao din vi h thng con BSS v giao din vi cc mng
ngoi. MSC thc hin giao din vi mng ngoi gi l MSC cng (GMSC).
kt ni MSC vi mt s mng khc cn phi tng thch cc c im
truyn dn ca GSM vi cc mng khc c gi l chc nng tng tc
IWF (InterWorking Functions). IWF cho php GSM kt ni vi cc mng
ISDN, PSTN, PSPDN, CSPDN, PLMN.
B ghi nh v thng tr HLR
HLR lu tr mi thng tin lin quan n vic cung cp cc dch v
vin thng, k c v tr hin thi ca MS. HLR thng l mt my tnh ng
ring c kh nng qun l hng trm nghn thu bao nhng khng c kh
nng chuyn mch. Mt chc nng na ca HLR l nhn dng thng tin do
AUC cung cp.
B ghi nh v tm tr VLR
VLR l c s d liu th hai trong mng GSM. N c ni vi mt
hay nhiu MSC v c nhim v lu gi tm thi s liu ca cc thu bao
hin ang nm trong min phc v ca MSC v ng thi lu tr s liu v
73
v tr ca cc thu bao trn mc chnh xc hn HLR. Cc chc nng
VLR thng c lin kt vi MSC.
Trung tm nhn thc AUC
Trung tm nhn thc lu gi v nhn thc thu bao, thng qua kha
nhn thc (Ki), kim tra cho tt c cc thu bao trong mng. N chu trch
nhim x l nhn thc v to bin php bo mt trong cc cuc gi. AUC l
b nhn phn cng trong HLR, cho php bm v ghi li cc cuc gi, chng
nghe trm, n c thay i ring cho tng thu bao. Theo yu cu ca
HLR, AUC to ra cc nhm chc nng nh sau:
S ngu nhin RAND (Random Number).
p ng tn hiu SRES (Signal Response).
Cha kho mt m Kc.
Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b EIR
EIR c ni vi mt MSC thng qua mt ng bo hiu ring, n
cho php MSC kim tra s hp l ca thit b di ng, hay EIR lu tr thng
tin v IMEI v t chc danh sch IMEI nh sau.
Danh sch trng: gm cc IMEI hp l.
Danh sch xm: gm cc IMEI b mt cp.
Danh sch en: gm cc IMEI ca cc di ng b li hoc khng kt
ni c vi mng GSM hin ti.
5.2.2. H thng con trm gc BSS.
H thng con trm gc BSS c hiu nh h thng vo tuyn: cung cp v qun l
ng truyn v tuyng gia my di ng v tng i MSC. Mi BSS bao gm:
B iu khin trm gc BSC
BSC c nhim v qun l tt c cc giao din v tuyn thng qua cc
lnh iu khin t xa gia BTS v MS. Cc lnh ny ch yu l cc lnh
c n nh, gii phng knh v tuyn v qun l chuyn giao. Mt phn
74
ca BSC ni vi cc BTS cn phn kia c ni vi MSC. Trong thc t
BSC l mt tng i nh c kh nng thc hin tnh ton ng k. Vai tr
ch yu ca n l qun l cc knh giao din v tuyn v chuyn giao. Mt
BSC trung bnh c th qun l c vi chc BTS ph thuc vo lu lng
ca cc BTS ny. Giao din gia BSC vi MSC c gi l giao din A, cn
giao din gia BTS v BSC l giao din A bis.
Trm thu pht gc BTS
BTS l thit b trung gian gia mng GSM v thu bao di ng (hay
trm di ng - MS), trao i thng tin vi MS thng qua giao din v tuyn
Um. BTS bao gm cc thit b nh: Anten thu pht, thit b x l tn hiu
c th cho giao din v tuyn. Mt BTS c th gm mt hay vi my thu
pht v tuyn TRx. BTS di s iu khin ca mt BSC c th kt ni theo
nhiu ng khc nhau. C bn l cc cu hnh hnh sao, vng hoc chui
nh, nhng cng c th kt hp cc cu hnh li vi nhau. Cu hnh BSS
th hin nh hnh 6 2 v 6 3 di y.
EMBED Visio.Drawing.6
BTS 1 BTS4
BTS 5
BTS 3
BTS 2 BSC MSC
Hnh 5 - 2: Cu hnh hnh sao
BTS1
BTS4
BTS5
BTS3
BTS2
BSC MSC
BTS6
Hnh 5 - 3: Cu hnh vng hoc chui nh
75
B chuyn i m thch ng tc TRAU
TRAU l thit b m qu trnh m ho v gii m c th ring cho
mng GSM c tin hnh, y cng thc hin vic tng thch tc
trong trng hp truyn s liu. N kt hp cc ng d liu 13kbps thnh
ng PCM 64kbps v ngc li. TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS, nhng
cng c th t n cch xa BTS v thm ch trong nhiu trng hp n c
t gia BSC v MSC.
5.2.3. H thng con vn hnh v bo dng OSS
OSS gm mt hay mt s OMC dng theo di v bo tr hot ng ca MSC,
BTS, BSC. N c chc nng chnh nh sau:
Chc nng khai thc v bo dng
Khai thc: Gim st ton b cht lng dch v (ti lu lng, mc
nghn, s lng chuyn giao) kp thi x l cc s c. Khai thc
bao gm c vic thay i cu hnh gii quyt cc vn hin ti, tng
lu lng, tng din tch ph sng.
Bo dng c nhim v pht hin, nh v, sa cha cc s c v
hng hc. N lin quan cht ch vi khai thc.
Qun l thu bao
Bao gm c cc hot ng nh: ng k thu bao, nhp thu bao vo
mng hay loi b thu bao ra khi mng. ng k cc dch v v cc tnh
nng b sung. Mt nhim v quan trng khc ca qun l thu bao l tnh
cc cuc gi. Qun l thu bao do HLR v mt s thit b OSS chuyn
dng m nhim. SIM Card ng vai tr quan trng cng vi OSS trong vic
qun l cc thu bao.
Qun l thit b t ng c thc hin bi EIR. EIR lu tr tt c
cc d liu lin quan n trm di ng MS. EIR c ni vi MSC thng
qua ng bo hiu kim tra s hp l ca cc thu bao.
76
5.3. Kin trc v tuyn ca GSM
Di tn pht ngc (t MS ti BTS) 25 MHz: t 890 915 MHz
Di tn pht xui (t BTS ti MS) 25 MHz: t 935 960 MHz
Do khng b l thuc vo khung k thut no ca mt h thng trc nn GSM
c thit k c lp cha ng nhiu u im k thut. GSM s dng k thut FDD kt
hp TDMA v FDMA nhm phc v a truy cp
Di tn pht ngc v pht xui c chia thnh cc knh v tuyn rng 200 kHz,
cc knh ny ghp cp ngc sui sao cho chng cch bit nhau 45 MHz v cng c
dng chung bi 8 ngi theo k thut TDMA.
Mi ngi c phn 1 khe thi gian, tc truyn dn knh l 270.833 kbps dng
iu ch nh phn BT = 0.3 GMSK. Nh vy di bit l 3.692
s
. Tc truyn ca
mt ngi dng l 33.854 kbps (270.833/8). Mi khe thi gian ng vi 156.25 bit (567.92
s
) trong 8.25 bit dng cho bo v, 6 bit cho bo hiu bt u v kt thc mi khung c
di 4.615 ms.
Tng s knh v tuyn trong di 25 MHz l 125, mi knh 8 khe thi gian s cho
tng s 1000 knh lu lng
T hp t s v knh v tuyn ARFCN to nn mt knh vt l i vi tt c chiu
pht xui v ngc. Mi knh vt l ca GSM c th c gn cho cc knh logic ti cc
thi im khc nhau, tc mi khe thi gian c th c phn cho d liu lu lng hoc
d liu bo hiu hoc d liu iu khin.
Cc thng s Ch s k thut
Tn s cc knh ngc 890 915 MHz
Tn s cc knh thun (xui) 935 960 MHz
S hiu knh ARFCN T 0 n 124 v 975 n 1023
Khong cch tn s Tx/Rx
Khong cch khe thi gian Tx/Rx
45 MHz
3 khe thi gian
Tc d liu iu ch 270.833333 kbps
Chu k khung 4.615 ms
S ngi dng / khung (ton tc) 8
Chu k khe thi gian 576.9
s
77
Chu k bit 3.962
s
K thut iu ch 0.3 GMSK
Khong cch knh ARFCN 200 KHz
Ghp xen (tr cc i) 40 ms
Tc m ho ting ni 13 kbps
5.4. Cc loi knh trong GSM
C hai loi knh logic chnh trong GSM l knh lu lng (TCH Traffic CHannel)
v knh iu khin (CCH Control Channel).
Knh lu lng mang ting ni v d liu ngi dng c s ho c chc nng v
hnh thc ging nhau c chiu pht ngc v pht xui.
Knh iu khin mang lnh, bo hiu ng b gia BTS v MS, c loi ch dng
cho pht xui hay pht ngc. C nhiu loi knh lu lng c thit k trong GSM.
5.4.1. Knh lu lng
L knh mang thng tin thoi v d liu c m ho ca ngi s dng, y l
knh c hai ng ln v xung, truyn t im ti im.
C hai loi knh lu lng TCH l knh ton tc FR v knh bn tc HR c tc
bng mt na knh ton tc.
ch ton tc ngi dng chim hon ton mt khe thi gian cc khung lin
tip trong khi knh bn tc khe thi gian c phan cch khung. TCH khng c dng
TS0 (dnh cho knh iu khin) v 26 khung lin tip to nn a khung (khung th 13 lun
cha d liu iu khin lin kt chm, khung th 26 l khung ri ch ton tc v n
cng iu khin lin kt chm bn tc)
Ting ni ton tc FS: Ting ni c s ho ti tc 13 kbps, cng thm m
knh s c tc 22.8 kbps
D liu ton tc (F9.6 F4.8 F2.4): Mang d liu ngi dng 9.6 4.8 2.4
kbps cng thm m sa li c gi i vi tc 22.8 kbps.
78
Ting ni bn tc HS: GSM thit k trc cho b m ho ting ni tc 6.5
kbps khi b sung m knh tc ch l 11.4 kbps
D liu bn tc (H4.8 H2.4): Mang d liu ngi dng l 4.8 2.4 kbps
cng thm m iu khin li cho tc 11.4 kbps
5.4.2. Cc knh iu khin
Cc knh iu khin bo hiu c chia lm ba loi l: Cc knh qung b BCCH,
cc knh iu khin chung CCCH v cc knh iu khin ring DCCH.
5.4.2.1. Cc knh iu khin qung b - BCCH
L knh ng xung kt ni im im gm c cc knh l:
Knh hiu chnh tn s FCCH mang thng tin ca h thng iu chnh tn
s cho MS.
Knh ng b SCH mang thng tin ng b khung cho MS v m nhn dng
trm BTS.
Knh iu khin qung b BCCH mang cc thng tin ca h thng nh s
LAI, cc thng tin ca .
5.4.2.2. Knh iu khin chung CCCH gm c cc knh l:
Knh tm gi PCH: dng pht thng bo tm gi MS (paging). PCH l
knh dng cho ng xung.
Knh truy cp ngu nhin RACH: l knh m MS s dng yu cu cung
cp mt knh DCCH, tr li thng bo tm gi, ng thi thc hin cc th
tc khi u khi thc hin cuc gi (nhn thc, chuyn s gi) RACH l knh
ng ln kt ni im - a im.
Knh tr gip truy cp (AGCH): l knh theo chiu xui, d liu c mang
ch th cho MS chuyn sang mt knh vt l xc nh vi mt knh iu khin
ring. AGCH l bn tin CCCH cui cng gi t trm BTS trc khi MS ngt
khi knh iu khin
79
5.4.2.3. Cc knh iu khin ring DCCH
Knh iu khin ring ng n l SDCCH dng bo hiu h thng khi
thit lp cuc gi (ng k, nhn thc, quay s) trc khi n nh mt knh
TCH. SDCCH dng cho c ng ln v xung, kt im - im.
Knh iu khin lin kt chm. SACCH: knh ny khng i mt mnh m
lin kt vi mt knh SDCCH hoc mt knh TCH. y l knh s kiu lin tc
mang thng tin o c t MS v cng tn hiu nhn, cht lng thu ca
hin thi v cc ln cn. Cc thng bo ny c chuyn v BSC quyt
nh chuyn giao HO (Handover), ng xung n mang thng tin iu
khin cng sut pht ca MS v thng s nh thi trc TA ng b thi
gian.
Knh iu khin lin kt nhanh FACCH lin kt vi mt knh TCH theo ch
ly ln. Khi tc thng tin cn trao i ln hn nhiu kh nng ca
SACCH, h thng s ly ln mt cm 20ms ca TCH. y l trng hp khi
chuyn giao. C rt nhiu thng tin cn c trao i gia mng vi MS. 20ms
ting hay s liu c ly ln s c thay th bng mt chui ni suy b gii
m.
5.5. Cuc gi trong GSM
C hai trng hp cuc gi xy ra trong mng GSM l:
5.5.1. Cuc gi n MS
Gi s MS ang hot ng trng thi ri, ngi s dng quay tt c cc ch s
thu bao b gi v bt u th tc cho cuc gi bng cch n phm gi (Ok hoc Yes). Lc
, MS s gi thng bo trn knh RACH yu cu thm nhp. MSC nhn thng bo ny
thng qua BTS v yu cu BSC cp cho MS mt knh SDCCH cho cc th tc nhn
thc v nh du trng thi bn cho thu bao ny trong vic pht thng bo tm gi lc
ny. BSC gi thng bo chp nhn thm nhp trn knh AGCH cho MS trong c thng
bo v knh SDCCH cho cc th tc nhn thc. Nu thu bao ch gi l hp l th
MSC/VLR s chp nhn yu cu thm nhp. Sau , MS mi thit lp cuc gi v cc ch
s ca thu bao b gi. MSC s nh tuyn cuc gi n GMSC, tu theo thu bao b gi l
di ng hay c nh m s ca n s c phn tch trc tip GMSC hay tip tc c
nh tuyn n tng i qu giang ca mng PLMN. Khi knh ni sn sng th thng
80
bo thit lp cuc gi t MS c MSC cng nhn v cp cho MS mt knh TCH ring.
Sau i tn hiu tr li t thu bao b gi.
5.5.2. Cuc gi t MS
Gi s mun thit lp mt cuc gi t thu bao c nh n thu bao di ng (v d
thu bao A) th phi qua nhng bc sau nh hnh sau.
MS BTS
8
BTS
MSC
VLR
5
6
7
7
PSTN
GMSC
HLR/AUC
4
1
2 3
Hnh 5 4: Qa trnh thc hin cuc gi t mang ngoi n MS
1 Mt cuc gi t mng c nh c nh tuyn n GMSC yu cu ni mch vi
thu bao A no .
2 GMSC yu cu HLR cho bit v tr hin hnh ca thu bao A.
3 HLR cung cp thng tin lin quan n v tr hin thi ca thu bao A cho
GMSC.
4 Da vo GMSC s nh tuyn v gi thng tin cn thit n MSC m
thu bao A ang c mt.
5 MSC yu cu VLR cung cp s liu v lin quan n thu bao A.
6 VLR cung cp cc thng tin v thu bao A cho MSC.
7 MSC tin hnh gi thu bao A trn tt c cc trm BTS thuc n kim sot
v MSC khng bit thu bao A ang u.
8 Sau khi thu bao A nhc my bt u qu trnh trao i thng tin gia thu
bao A v mng kim tra SIM v cch thc m ho trn ng truyn v tuyn.
Sau VLR to ra TMSI v mng tin hnh ni mch.
81
9 Khi cuc gi kt thc, cc knh truyn dn logic v cc s liu lin quan
cha trong cc phn t ca mng c gii phng v MSC ghi cc s liu v cc
vo bng t hoc a cng.
5.6. Cu trc khung
C 5 loi cm d liu dng cho khung lu lng v iu khin l:
Cm thng thng:
3 bit
Bt u
58 bit d liu
c bo mt
26 bit tp dt
58 bit d liu
c bo mt
3 bit
kt thc
8.25 bit
bo v
Cm FCCH
3 bit
Bt u
142 bit zero c nh
3 bit
kt thc
8.25 bit
bo v
Cm SCH
3 bit
Bt u
39 bit d liu
bo mt
64 bit tp dt
39 bit d liu
bo mt
3 bit
kt thc
8.25 bit
bo v
Cumk RACH
8 bit
Bt u
41 bit ng b 36 bit d liu
bo mt
3 bit
kt thc
68.25 bit bo v m
rng
Cm gi
3 bit
bt u
58 bit pha trn 26 bit tp
dt
58 bit pha trn 3 bit
kt thc
8.25 bit
bo v
Hnh: Cu trc cc cm
82
Cc cm bnh thng c dng cho TCH v DCCH trn c chiu xui v ngc.
Cc cm FCCH v SCH c dng trong TS0 ca nhng khung xc nh pht qung b
bn tin ng b tn s v thi gian. Cc cm RACH c dng khi thng tin nhi y
cc khe khng s dng trn chiu xui.
Hnh sau minh ha cu trc d liu trong cm thng thng.
Mi khe thi gian gm 156.25 bit trong ch c 114 bit mang thng tin d liu
chia thnh 2 nhm 57 bit. chnh gia l 26 bit kh knh dng cho cn bng knh, 2 bit
ring hai bn l 2 bit c (c ly nn) dng phn bit TS cha voide (TCH) hay d liu
iu khin (FACCH). Mi thu bao ca GSM dng 1 TS cho knh ngc v 1 TS cho
knh xui v c th dng 6 TS cn li o mnh tnh hiu ca 5 trm c s xung
quanh v trm c s qun l.
H
nh 5 - 5: Cu trc khung ca GSM
Cu trc khung thng thng trong 8 TS hp thnh 1 khung, 26 khung hp
thnh 1 a khung, cc khung th 13 v 26 khng c dng cho lu lng m cho mc
nh iu khin. 52 a khung hp thnh mt siu khung, 2048 siu kung hp thnh mt
siu siu khung ng vi di l 3 gii 28 pht 54 giy. y thut ton bo mt d trn
Siu khung
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25
a khung
Khung
Khe thi gian 156.25 bit
8 khe thi gian
26 khung
51 a khung
6.12 s
6.12 s
120 ms
4.615 ms
576.92 s
83
s hiu khung c th trong siu siu khung nn mc bo mt cao (v s khung trong
siu siu khung l rt ln).
a khung iu khin c 51 khung m bo rng bt k thu bao no GSM (
trong t bo ang phc v hay vng ln cn) c th nhn c SCH v FCCH t BCH m
khng ph thuc n ang dng khung no v khe thi gian no
5.7. X l tn hiu trong GSM
S cc bc m ha tn hiu trong GSM c minh ha nh hnh sau:
Hnh 5 - 6: X l tn hiu trong GSM
M ha ting ni: B m ha ting ni trong GSM l RELP (Residually Exited
Linear Predictive Coder). Chng c lm ni bt bng b d on di (LTP), cung cp
cm 260 bt / 20ms (tc 13 kbps) v c la chn sau nhng th nghim quy mo cui
nhng nm 1980.
Kt hp vi b m ha ting ni (VAD - Voice Activity Detector, v trong mt cuc
ni chuyn mi ngi ch ni khong 40% thi gian) trong b m ha ting. H lm vic
theo mode pht gin on (DTX Discontinuous transmision mode), chng lm Pin c
dng lu hn v gim giao thoa cho mi trng xung quanh. Mt b to n thch hp ti
b thu to nn n b tr s kh chu do DTX to ra.
Ting ni
Gii m ngun
Gii m knh
Gii ghp xen
Gii bo mt
Gii to cm
Gii iu ch
S ha v m ngun
M knh
Ghp xen
Bo mt
To cm
iu ch
Ting ni
Knh v tuyn
84
M knh cho lu lng ting: Li ra ca b m ha ting c xp thnh nhm
chng li da vo mc quan trng ca bit. 50 bit quan trng nht c thm 3 bit kim
tra (CRC). iu ny lm d dng cho vic pht hin li do thu khng chnh xc. 132 bit
tip theo cng 53 bit trc c xp xp li v ni thm 4 bit zero vo cui thnh 189
bit c chng li theo m xn tc di rng buc k = 5 to nn dy 378 bit. 78 bit
khng quan trng tip theo khng c chng li m ch ghp ni vo to nn khi 456 bit
/ 20 ms lm tng tc ln 22.8kbps.
Hnh 5 - 7: M knh cho lu lng ting
M knh cho d liu (TCH/9.6): x l cm 60 bit / 5ms theo chun modem CCITT
V.110. 240 bit c ni thm 4 bit code cp cho b m xon c l tc di rng
buc k = 5. 488 bit code c rt li thnh 456 bit (c l 32 bit) ri chia thnh 4 nhm
114 bit v c cp theo kiu ghp xen trn cc khe thi gian lin tip.
M knh cho knh iu khin: Bn tin iu khin di 184 bit c m la dng a
thc sinh: G
5
(x) = (x
23
+ 1)(x
17
+ x
3
+ 1) s cho 184 bit bn tin v 40 bit kim tra tip theo
cng thm 4 bit ui ( ph hp vi m xon tip theo). Tng cng 228 bit c cp cho
b m xon v c di rng buc k = 5 (CC(2, 1, 5)). Kt qu l 456 bit c ghp xen
ln 8 khung lin tip ging nh d liu ting ni.
Ghp xen: gim nhiu m trn d liu nhn c 456 bit / 20 ms (ting ni hay
bn tin iu khin) c chia thnh 8 nhm 57 bit c tri trn 8 khe thi gian lin tip
(tc l trn 8 khung lin tip i vi mt TS xc nh). Mi TS cha 2 nhm 57 t 2 khc
20 ms (456 bit) khc nhau.
Ch : TS0 cha 57 bit t nhm 0 ca khc ting ni th n v 57 bit t nhm 4 ca
khc ting ni th n 1.
50 bit loi1a 78 bit loi2 132 bit loi1b
50 bit loi1a 3 132 bit loi1b 4
78 378
M xon tc , k = 5
A
Leased
line
External
Data
Network
IP, X.25...
85
Hnh 5 - 8: Trnh t ghp xen.
Bo mt: B bo mt bin i 8 nhm c ghp xen theo qui tc ch c MS v
BTS c bit. vic bo mt c tng cng theo thut ton thay i theo tng cuc gi.
C 2 loi bo mt theo thut ton l A3 v A5. Thut ton A3 c dng nhn thc MS
bng cch kim tra passcode trong SIM v cha kha m ti MSC. Thut ton A5 cung cp
s xo trn 114 bit m ha v gi vo trong TS.
To dng cm: B ny cng thm d liu nh phn vo cm c bo mt gip
cho ng b v cn bng tn hiu nhn c (to nn mt khe TS y )
iu ch: iu ch theo s GMSK 0.3 (0.3 m t rng bng 3dB ca b lc
dng xung gauss lin h vi tc bit BT = 0.3). GMSK l loi iu ch FM s c bit.
Bit 1 v bit zero c biu din bng dch tn sng mang RF mt lng +67.708KHz. Tc
knh ca GSM l 270.833kbps bng ng 4 ln s dch tn sng mang, iu ny lm
gim rng bng ca ph iu ch v ci tin c dung lng knh. Tn hiu sau iu
ch GMSK i qua b lc Gauss lm trn s dch chuyn tn t ngt (trnh tri ph sang
cc knh ln cn).
Nhy tn: Khi c vn v a ng lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu, c th s
dng k thut nhy tn chm (do nh cung cp dch v quyt nh gii hn ln nht l
217.6 ln nhy / giy). Nhy tn da trn c s khung - khung v c 64 knh khc nhau c
th chn trc khi tr li knh tn c.
Cn bng: B cn bng thc hin ti b thu vi s gip ca dy th knh
chnh mi khe (TS). Cch thc cn bng trong GSM khng c qui nh c th m dnh
cho nh sn xut.
Gii iu ch: Tn hiu n ngi dng c th c xc nh bi TS v ARFCN.
D liu trn mt khe tng ng c gii iu ch khi b sung d liu ng b c cung
cp theo to dng cm. Sau khi gii iu ch, cc thng tin nh phn c gii bo mt,
gii ghp xen, gii m knh v gii m ha ting ni.
5.8. Cu trc mng GPRS da trn nn mng GSM
0a 4b 1a 5b 2a 6b 3a 7b 4a 0b 5a 1b 6a 2b 7a 3b
i+0 i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6 i+7
114 bit
A
Leased
line
External
Data
Network
IP, X.25...
86
PCU: Packet Control Unit - Khi kim tra d liu gi
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node - Nt h tr GPRS cng
SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node - Nt h tr GPRS phc v
Cc Node h tr GPRS cc giao din
5.8.1. Gateway GSN (GGSN).
GGSN to giao din gia BSS vi cc mng chuyn mch gi khc nhau nh Internet
hay X.25, gn tng t nh vic MSC to giao din gia BSS vi PSTN, v cng ng vai
tr nh mt router i vi cc mng d liu gi khc tng t nh vai tr ca Gateway
MSC vi cc chc nng ca khi tng tc lin mng IWF.
BSC
BSC
PCU
PCU
TRA
U
TRA
U
IWF
IWF
VLR
VLR
MSC
MSC
Abis A
G
s
G
b
GGSN
GGSN
BTS
BTS
ce
ll
ce
ll
AUC
AUC
HLR
HLR
EIR
EIR
G
n
Gf
G
c
G
n
SGS
N
SGS
N
Gi
Gr
G
n
G
p
Borde
r
GGSN
Borde
r
GGSN
GPRS
Networ
k
GPRS
Backbo
ne
Networ
k
SGSN
SGSN
Inter
PLMN
network
Gn
Bord
er
GGS
N
Bord
er
GGS
N
PSPD
N
PSPD
N
ISDN
ISDN
PSTN
PSTN
Leased
line
Corporat
e
Intranet
External
Data
Network
IP, X.25...
87
Da trn a ch ca cc gi nhn c t cc mng chuyn mch gi bn ngoi,
GGSN chuyn gi qua ng hm (tunnelling) ti cho cc Serving GSN thch hp t
gi ti MS nhn, v ngc li cc gi d liu t MS gi i qua SGSN v c GGSN
nh tuyn ti a ch nhn thch hp mng bn ngoi. Thut ng tunnelling dng ch
qu trnh truyn mt khi d liu t mt im gn cc thng tin a ch v iu khin vo
khi d liu ti mt im nhn c nhim v g b cc thng tin a ch v iu khin y
ra. Mt ng hm l mt ng truyn hai chiu v ngi ta ch yu ch quan tm n
hai im u v cui ca ng hm. GGSN c kh nng nh tuyn thng tin n phi
lu tr cc thng tin qun l di ng i vi MS, v ngoi ra GGSN cn lu tr cc thng
tin phc v cho vic tnh cc.
GGSN kt ni vi cc mng d liu gi bn ngoi qua giao din Gi, vi cc mng
GPRS mng di ng mt t PLMN khc qua giao din Gp (khi n c coi l mt
Border GGSN), ngha l GGSN lun l im u tin ca cc kt ni lin mng (GGSN h
tr im tham chiu Gi). GGSN c th kt ni ti b ng k nh v thng tr HLR qua
giao din Gc ly cc thng tin nh tuyn nh tuyn cc n v d liu gi PDU mt
cch chnh xc ti MS.
GGSN ni ti cc Serving GSN qua mng ng trc bng giao din Gn, cc PDU
c chuyn trn giao din ny bng vic c ng gi vo cc IP datagram. iu ny
cho php cc PDU ca c X.25 v IP u c th c truyn trong mng GPRS vi cng
mt dng nh nhau.GGSN tp hp cc CDR( Call Data Recorder) nh du thi gian truy
nhp, cung cp thi gian truy nhp ca MS cho SGSN.
Tm tt chc nng chnh ca GGSN:
- ng vai tr nh mt tng i cng gia PLMN v cc mng d liu gi bn ngoi.
- Thit lp vic truyn thng vi cc mng d liu gi bn ngoi .
- nh tuyn v tunnel packets n v ra khi SGSN
- Tnh ton s lng gi/d liu
- nh a ch, lp bng nh tuyn
- H tr tnh cc .
88
5.8.2. Serving GSN (SGSN)
SGSN c chc nng tng ng vi mt MSC trong h thng GSM, chu trch
nhim nh tuyn d liu gi ti t vng phc v a l m n m nhn, c chc nng
qun l di ng MM, nhn thc v bo mt truy cp v tuyn, qun l kt ni vt l ti cc
MS. SGSN c nhim v to ra mt PDP context cn thit c th cho php cc PDU
c truyn gia MS v GGSN m MS ang lin lc trao i d liu gi vi mng
ngoi. Lung lu thng c nh tuyn t SGSN qua mt b kim tra d liu gi PCU
ti BSC, qua BTS v ti MS. K thut nn d liu cng c s dng gia MS v SGSN
nng cao hiu qu ca kt ni, gim nh kch thc ca cc gi d liu c truyn.
SGSN ni vi MSC/VLR ca mng GSM qua giao din Gs gii quyt cc vn
v tng tc gia GSM v GPRS phc v cho thu bao chung khi c hai cng ngh
dng chung ti nguyn. Kt ni ti trung tm dch v bn tin ngn SMSC dng giao din
Gd, giao din ny hot ng nh mt dch v mang ca GPRS h tr dch v cc bn tin
ngn t im ti im. SGSN ni vi HLR/AUC qua giao din Gr, c ba giao din trn
u l cc giao din s dng h thng bo hiu s 7.
Nu trong mng c s dng thanh ghi nhn dng thit b EIR th s c kt ni vi
SGSN bng giao din Gf.
Tu theo yu cu nh tuyn, cc PDU s t SGSN ti PCU nm BSS qua giao din
Gb.
Kt ni gia SGSN v BSC dng giao din Gb l giao din hot ng da trn giao
thc chuyn tip khung frame relay. Mt SGSN c th u ni ti nhiu BSC nhng
ngc li th mt BSC ch c th u ni ti mt SGSN v ng truyn t BSC ti SGSN
c th dng nhiu kt ni vt l nh E1 hay T1.
Tm tt cc chc nng chnh ca SGSN:
- Qun l di ng
- Mt m ho
- Nn d liu
- Tng tc vi cng ngh chuyn mch knh ca GSM(giao din Gs).
89
- Tnh ton s lng gi d liu
- Tnh cc.
5.8.3. n v kim tra d liu gi PCU ( Packet Control Unit )
PCU chu trch nhim vic qun l ti nguyn v tuyn d liu gi trong BSS. c
bit PCU chu trch nhim x l lp MAC v RLC ca giao din v tuyn v giao din
Gb(BSSGP v lp NS). Trong PCU c b x l vng RPP c th lm vic vi c hai giao
din Gb v Abis hoc ch vi Abis. Chc nng RPP l phn b khung PCU gia Gb v
Abis.
5.8.4. HLR, VLR, AUC v EIR
HLR hin c ca h thng GSM vn c gi nguyn trong h thng GPRS, n cha
d liu v thu bao bao gm cc loi dch v m ngi s dng yu cu c cung cp
qua ng k vi nh khai thc mng, ti khon, s cc cn li ca thu bao nhm xc nh
tnh hp l khi nhp mng ca thu bao c hai h thng GSM v GPRS..., ngoi ra n
cn cha cc thng tin gip nh tuyn d liu n thu bao, cung cp v cp nht cc
thng tin v truyn dn d liu gi, s lin h gia s nhn dng my di ng IMSI vi a
ch IP ca thu bao ti SGSN khi c yu cu.
MSC/VLR tuy khng tham gia nh tuyn d liu GPRS nhng c dng tin
hnh cc th tc ng k v kt ni cc MS ca GPRS. MSC/VLR c tc ng qua li
vi SGSN khi giao din Gs c ci t, giao din Gs c s dng gii quyt cc vn
v cc thit b u cui c kt ni vi c hai h thng chuyn mch gi GPRS v
chuyn mch knh GSM. Khi mt MS c kt ni ti GPRS (GPRS attached) v GSM
(IMSI attached) th vic cp nht vng nh v LA v vng nh tuyn RA c phi hp
tin hnh tit kim ti nguyn v tuyn. Khi MS di chuyn vo mt RA mi th n s
gi yu cu cp nht vng nh tuyn RA ti SGSN. Vic cp nht RA bao gm c vic
cp nht LA v SGSN s chuyn thng tin cp nht LA ti MSC/VLR bng cch chuyn
s nhn dng vng nh tuyn RAI sang mt VLR number v MSC/VLR c th tu chn
gi VLR TMSI ti SGSN chuyn ti MS. SGSN v MSC/VLR s c lp nhau thng
bo cho HLR bit v tr ca MS.
90
Cng vi HLR, VLR cha cc thng tin v tnh trng thu bao ca ngi s dng bao
gm cc thng tin v cc hay ti khon ca ngi s dng, t phi hp qun l thu
bao vi h thng GSM trong vic tnh ton ti khon v cc.
Trong mng GPRS, AUC vn ng vai tr nhn thc v bo mt, to ra cc thng s nhn
thc v mt m ho bo v mng khi s khai thc tri php v trnh vic thng tin ngi
dng b xm phm.
EIR gip xc nhn tnh hp l ca cc thit b di ng v ngn nga cc thit b u
cui b mt hay b li hot ng.
5.8.5. BSS (Base Station System).
BSS bao gm cc khi BTS, BSC v PCU. PCU c gii thiu trn chng ta
ch nhc n BTS v BSC y.
BSC cung cp tt c cc chc nng lin quan n v tuyn. BSC c th thit lp, gim
st v b kt ni chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi. s dng dch v GPRS thi
BSC cn phi nng cp thm phn mm v phn cng, phn cng ca n chnh l PCU.
BTS dng truyn v nhn thng tin qua giao din v tuyn gia MS v BSC. BTS
lm chc nng tch chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi chiu downlink v uplink.
5.9. Cc loi knh trong mng GRPS
5.9.1. Cc knh logic gi.
H thng GPRS chia s knh iu khin logic cng vi h thng GSM mt cc tin
cy, bao gm nhng knh FCCH v SCH, thm ch h thng GPRS cng c mt s knh
c ch ra nh l knh s dng trong GSM nhng h tr cho lu lng ca GPRS.
Nhng knh logic ny c th c tch ra lm hai loi l: Lu lng v bo hiu/iu
khin. Ch rng n khng chc chn l n c quy c vi h thng GSM hay khng, mt
my cm tay ca GPRS c th truy nhp nhiu knh lu lng ng thi(PDTCH).
Cu trc ca knh logic GPRS.
91
Nh trong h thng GSM, GPRS cng c nh ngha l knh logic mi, thc
hin rt nhiu chc nng bao gm nh l bo hiu, qung b thng tin h thng, ng b,
n nh knh, tm gi v truyn ti.
- PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung
qung b thng tin d liu gi ca h thng. Ch rng nu m PBCCH khng
c cp pht th thng tin ny c th c qung b trn BCCH.
- PRACH (Packet Random Access Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng ln v
do MS bt u truyn d liu ng ln hoc thng tin bo hiu. Ch rng
ngi s dng cc burst gi truy nhp v burst truy nhp gi m rng. Burst truy
nhp c s dng tin hnh TA.
- PPCH(Packet Paging Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung, n dng d
tm gi MS trc khi truyn d liu gi. Ch rng n cho php timg gi nhm
DRX, c th c s dng cho CS v PS.
Common chanel
PCCCH PBCCH
PAGCH
PRACH
PPCH
PNCH
Dedicated chanel
PDCCH
PDTCH
PACCH
PTCCH
S KHI CA KNH LOGIC
92
- PAGCH(Packet Access Grant Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung, n
gi bn tin n nh ti nguyn v tuyn n MS trc khi truyn gi, lu rng bn
tin n nh ti nguyn c thm vo c th c gi trn mt knh PACCH nu
MS phc tp trong vic truyn gi.
- PNCH(Packet Notification Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung, n thc
hin gi thng bo im a im n mt nhm MS trc khi truyn gi n a
im, n nh ti nguyn truyn gi, ch rng im a im khng c nh r
trong phase 1 ca GPRS. Mode DRX c cung cp gim st PNCH.
- PDTCH(Packet Data Traffic Chanel) knh ny s dng cho c ng ln v ng
xung, knh ny thc hin cp pht khi truyn d liu c dnh ring n mt MS
hoc mt nhm cc MS., ch rng s hot ng trong khe thi gian th mt MS
c th s dng vi PDTCH ng thi truyn gi.
- PACCH (Packet Associated Control Chanel) knh ny cng c s dng c
ng ln v ng xung, n lm nhim v gi thng tin bo hiu cho MS, nhn
bit iu khin cng sut, n nh ti nguyn v n nh li bn tin, ch rng
PACCH chia s ti nguyn cng vi PDTCH, mt MS c th truyn d liu gi
hoc tm gi dch v ca CS trn knh PACCH.
- PTCCH(Packet Timing Advance Control Chanel) knh ny cng x dng cho c
ng ln v ng xung, ng ln n lm chc nng truyn cc Burst truy
nhp ngu nhin cho TA, ng xung truyn cp nht TA, ch rng ng
xung TA truyn n nhng MS ring l.
Khi cc knh iu khin gi c thc hin, tt c cc bo hiu iu khin chung
gi c ch nh n PDCH nh l master PDCH( knh ny c ni r hn trong h
thng ca Ericson).
5.9.2. Knh lu lng logic gi.
Nhng thut ng dng m t quan h ca cc knh d liu gi trong h thng
GPRS c ni n theo mi ti liu l khc nhau. ETSI a ra gii thiu v GPRS c
nh ngha theo hai trng hp.
93
- PDCH knh d liu gi lin quan n nh mt knh vt l n dch v GPRS.
PDCH c th bao gm mt s kt hp knh d liu gi logic khc nhau.
- PDTCH Knh lu lng d liu gi lin quan knh lu lng GPRS, n mang lu
lng v a khung GPRS v bao gm ngi s dng lu lng gi v knh iu
khin dnh ring gi.
Thm vo c mt s ti nguyn lin quan n mt Master PDCH(MPDCH). C
thut ng ca Ericsson ch ra thut ng lin quan n PDCH ca GPRS rng n c
mang trn PBCCH.
Mt PDCH c n nh n mt knh vt l ring l(time slot) trn giao din v
tuyn, mi PDCH c th mang mt hoc mt kt hp ca knh logic gi bao gm iu
khin v cc loi lu lng ngi s dng, timeslot l ci c nh n nh n GPRS,
mi khe thi gian ca GPRS bng vi mi mt PDCH, khe thi gian cng c th l khng
c nh n nh n GPRS, nhng PDCH l n nh ng n knh vt l, c th thay
i thi gian tn ti trong luc kt ni cng vi dch v chuyn mch knh, v vy khng
chc chn l knh lu lng chuyn mch knh trong GSM, nhng PDCH trong GPRS
khng c n nh trong khong thi gian ngi s dng giao tip trong mt phin.
5.9.3. Knh lu lng d liu gi.
Mt PDTCH l mt knh logic c thit lp tm thi bi mt ngi s dng
chuyn giao n ngi s dng lu lng. Mt ngi s dng c th thit lp nhiu
PDTCH ng thi nu cn thit, c th s dng ln n 8 PDTCH ng thi cho mt MS,
n cng c th cp pht mt PDTCH cho mt nhm MS trong mode PTM-M.
Tt c cc knh lu lng d liu gi l n hng, ng ln cho MS bt u
truyn gi v ng xung th truyn gi xung u cui.
Mt PDTCH khi s dng cho mt khe thi gian n l th c th c hot ng
Full-rate hoc Hafl-rate nhng cn phi ph thuc vo n trn PDCH/F hoc PDCH/H.
Mt PDTCH khi s dng cho multislot hot ng l Full-rate.
94
Chng 6:
H thng thng tin di ng CDMA
6.1. Gii thiu chung
Thng thng cc k thut iu ch v gii iu ch c thit k trong h thng
truyn thng tin s sao cho h hot ng s dng cng sut v rng bng ti thiu, c
xc sut li bit thp trong mi trng c Gauss trng dng. Tuy nhin cc k thut iu
ch ny phi kt hp thm mt s k thut khc mi c th chu c trong mi trng
fading a ng, chuyn ng hoc c ngun gy nhiu c hay khng c xen vo. Mt
k thut iu ch khc vn c tnh chu c mi trng truyn dn phc tp trn l k
thut iu ch tri ph.
K thut tri ph dng rng bng truyn vi bc ln hn rng tn hiu truyn,
n khng c hiu sut bng khi ch c mt ngi s dng, song li c hiu sut khi nhiu
ngi s dng cng mt lc m vn trnh c s giao thoa vi nhau. Ngoi vic chim
bng tn rng, tn hiu tri ph cn c tnh cht ging nh n khi so snh vi d liu thng
tin s. Dng sng tri ph c iu khin bi dy gi n (hay m gi n - PN), chng l
dy nh phn biu hin nh dy ngu nhin song c xc nh bi my thu ch nh. Tn
hiu tri ph c gii iu ch ti b thu khi tng quan cho vi dy PN ng s gii
tri tn hiu, nhn c bn tin bng hp trong khi tng quan cho vi tn hiu khng
mong mun s ch cho mt lng nh ca n bng rng ti li ra my thu.
iu ch tri ph c nhiu u im trong mi trng radio di ng. Ni bt l kh
nng chng giao thoa ssa truy cp vn c ca n. V rng mi ngi dng c phn mt
m duy nht gn nh trc giao vi m ca ngi khc nn b thu tch ngi dng da trn
m mi ngi mc d h dng chung ph trong cng mt thi gian. Khng ch tch c
t nhiu ngi dng khc m n cn c th khi phc c khi b ph bi tn hiu giao
thoa bng hp. Do nh hng ca tn hiu bng hp ch tc ng ln mt phn nh tn hiu
tri ph nn n d dng ly i bng b lc kha ch V m khng lm mt nhiu thng tin.
Ngoi ra do dng chung tn s nn khng cn k hoch tn s, tt c cc t bo u dng
chung knh rng.
Chu c a ng l u im cn bn khc s dng k thut ny trong thng
tin v tuyn. Do tn hiu tri ph c nng lng phn u trn bng rt rng nn ti mi
thi im ch c mt phn nh ph chu fading. Th hin trong min thi gian th kh nng
95
chng nhiu a ng l do cc phin bn tr c tng quan nh vi dy PN gc, kt qu
biu hin nh ngi dng khng tng quan khc v b loi. H thng tri ph khng ch
chu c a ng m cn s dng cc thnh phn a ng ci thin cht lng tn
hiu
Mt h thng thng tin c coi l SS nu:
* Tn hiu c pht chim rng bng tn ln hn rng bng tn ti thiu
cn thit pht thng tin.
* Tri ph c thc hin bng 1 m c lp vi s liu.
Cc u im ca h thng tri ph
u im trit nhiu.
i vi tp m trng Gauss, vic tri ph tn hiu khng cho php ci thin c tnh
ca h thng. Tuy nhin, vic gy nhiu c vi cng sut c nh l vic rt kh khn v
khng c hiu qu i vi h thng tri ph. Mt khc nhiu giao thoa gia cc h thng
khc s dng chung bng tn ca tn hiu CDMA cng b gim rt nh do cc tn hiu
bng hp b tri ph dn n cng sut giao thoa rt nh.
Ngoi kh nng chng nhiu h thng tri ph cn t c s chng phadinh nhiu
tia. Cc tn hiu do phadinh gy ra n my thu theo nhiu ng vi nhiu khong cch
khc nhau. Cc tn hiu phn x b tr so vi tn hiu hu ch (tn hiu i thng) mt
khong thi gian t
n
. Nu khong tr ny ln hn khong thi gian ca mt chip T
c
th s
khng cn s tng quan gia m thu c v m ca my thu. Khi , cc tn hiu phn
x (tn hiu nhiu) tip tc b tri rng ph, nh m t c s chng phadinh nhiu
tia.
u im gim mt nng lng.
Trong h thng tri ph, ph ca tn hiu c tri rng do cng sut tn hiu c
tri u v mng trn ton b min tri ph. V vy, vic pht hin s tn ti ca tn hiu
rt kh v cng kh c th tch sng c tn hiu i vi cc my thu khng c php
(my thu ngoi phm vi cuc lin lc). V vy kh nng bo mt thng tin cao.
96
u im truy nhp a ng.
Mi ngi s dng c mt m duy nht phn bit vi ngi s dng khc. Thng
tin ca ngi s dng c pht i ng thi trn cng mt bng tn. Ngi s dng
khng hp l (khng ng m tri ph) khng d dng can thip vo thng tin ca ngi
s dng khc. chnh l nguyn tc ca a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA.
Kh nng phn gii theo thi gian.
Cc tn hiu tri ph c th ng dng cho vic xc nh v tr v c ly i hi s chnh
xc cao. Nguyn l ca php xc nh c ly l o thi gian xung thm d truyn t ni
pht qua knh truyn v quay tr v. Do tn hiu sau tri ph c b rng xung rt ln nn
gim c sai s v php o c ly cng chnh xc. Bng vic s dng mt dy xung thm
d nm cng mt lc ta thc hin c nhiu php o lin tip va gim c thi gian o
va gim c s ln o nn php o chnh xc hn.
6.2. Kin trc h thng CDMA
Cu trc h thng UMTS hin ti ang c nghin cu, v c bn c th chia ra
nhng phn sau:
Thit b ca ngi s dng UE.
Mng truy cp UTRAN.
Mng li CN.
V cc phn trn c kt ni vi nhau qua cc giao din m.
97
Cu trc h thng UMTS
K hiu:
- USIM (User Sim Card): Th Sim Card ca ngi s dng.
- MS (Mobile Station): My in thoi di ng.
- RNC (Radio Node Controller): B iu khin trm gc.
- MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center): Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di ng.
- VLR (Visitor Location Register): B ghi nh v tm tr.
- SGSN (Servicing GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Support Node): im hi tr
GPRS (Dch v v tuyn gi chung) ang phc v.
- GMSC (Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center): Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch
v di ng cng.
- GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node): Nt h tr GPRS cng.
- HLR (Home Location Register): B ghi nh v thng tr.
- UTRAN (UMTS Terestrial Radio Access Network): Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t
UMTS.
- CN (Core Network): Mng li.
6.2.1 Thit b ngi s dng UE (USER EQUIPMENT)
UE bao gm hai phn:
98
- Thit b di ng (ME Mobile Equipment) l u cui v tuyn c s dng cho
thng tin v tuyn trn giao din Uu.
- Module nhn dng thu bao UMTS (USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Module) l mt
th thng minh cha thng tin nhn dng thu bao, thc hin cc thut ton nhn thc
v lu gi cc kho nhn thc v mt s thng tin thu bao cn thit cho u cui.
6.2.2 Cu trc mng truy cp
H thng UTRAN bao gm mt tp cc phn h mng v tuyn RNS (Radio Network
Subsystem) kt ni ti mng li trn giao din Iu v kt ni vi nhau trn giao din Iur.
Mt phn h mng v tuyn RNS bao gm mt n v iu khin mng v tuyn RNC
(Radio Network Controller) v mt hoc nhiu thc th c gi l nt B (Node B). Node
B c ni vi RNC trn giao din Iub. Mi RNS chu trch nhim qun l cc v tuyn
ca n.
Vi mi kt ni gia thit b ngi s dng UE vi mng UTRAN, s c mt RNS
gi l RNS phc v (Serving RNS). Khi cn thit, cc RNS k cn (Drift RNS) h tr RNS
phc v bng cch cung cp cc knh v tuyn. Vai tr ca mt RNS (phc v hay k cn)
l trn c s tng kt ni gia thit b ngi s dng v mng UTRAN.
RNS bao gm chc nng tch / ghp knh nhm h tr s phn tp gia cc Node B
khc nhau.
99
Cu trc RNC
L phn t mng chu trch nhim iu khin cc ti nguyn v tuyn ca UTRAN.
N giao din vi CN v kt cui giao thc iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn RRC (Radio
Resource Control), giao thc ny nh ngha cc bn tin v cc th tc gia MS v
UTRAN. N ng vai tr nh BSC.
- RNC iu khin nt B thng qua giao din Iub c biu th nh l RNC iu khin
CRNC (Control RNC) ca nt B. CRNC chu trch nhim iu khin ti v trnh
nghn cho cc ca mnh. Khi mt kt ni MS - UTRAN s dng nhiu ti nguyn
t nhiu RNC, cc RNC ny s c hai vai tr logic ring bit:
- RNC phc v SRNC (Service RNC) i vi mt MS l RNC kt cui c ng Iu
truyn s liu ngi s dng v c bo hiu RANAP (Radio Access Network
Application Part) tng ng t / ti mng li. SRNC cng kt cui bo hiu iu
khin ti nguyn v tuyn: giao thc bo hiu gia UE v UTRAN. N x l s
liu lp 2 t / ti giao din v tuyn. SRNC cng l CRNC ca mt nt B no
c MS s dng kt ni vi UTRAN.
- RNC k cn DRNC (Drift RNC) l mt RNC bt k khc vi SRNC iu khin
cc c MS s dng. Khi cn n thc hin kt hp, phn chia phn tp v m.
DRNC khng thc hin x l lp 2 i vi s liu ti / t giao din v tuyn m
ch nh tuyn s liu trong sut gia cc giao din Iub v Iur. Mt UE c th c
nhiu DRNC.
Nt B (trm gc)
Thc hin x l lp 1 ca giao din v tuyn (m ho knh, an xen, thch ng tc
tri ph). N cng thc hin iu khin cng sut vng trong. V chc nng n ging nh
trm gc BTS GSM.
6.2.3. Mng li CN
- HLR l mt c s d liu c t ti h thng nh cung cp s dng lu gi
thng tin chnh v l lch dch v ca ngi s dng bao gm: thng tin v dch v
c php, cc vng khng c chuyn mng v thng tin v cc dch v b xung
nh trng thi v s ln chuyn hng cuc gi.
- MSC/VLR l tng i MSC v c s d liu VLR cung cp dch v chuyn
mch knh cho UE ti v tr hin thi ca n. Chc nng ca MSC l s dng cc
100
giao dch chuyn mch knh CS (Channel Switch). Chc nng ca VLR l lu gi
bn sao v l lch ca ngi s dng khch cng nh v tr chnh xc ca UE trong
h thng ang phc v. Phn mng c truy nhp qua MSC/VLR gi l vng CS.
- GMSC l chuyn mch ti im kt ni UMTS, PLMN vi mng CS bn ngoi.
- SGSN c chc nng ging MSC/VLR nhng s dng cho cc dch v chuyn mch
gi PS (Packet Switch). Phn mng truy nhp qua SGSN gi l vng PS.
- GGSN c chc nng ging GMSC nhng lin quan n dch v PS.
6.3. Dy gi ngu nhin (PN)
6.3.1. To dy m
Cc tnh cht cn bn ca k thut tri ph l do tnh cht ca dy gi ngu nhin
(PN) to nn. Khng th to dy gi ngu nhin bng cch ly mu mt qu trnh ngu
nhin v nh th khng th to li c n b thu tng quan. Song c th ch ng to
mt dy gi ngu nhin bng mt b ghi dch c phn hi:
Hnh 6 -1: B to dy ghi dch tuyn tnh
Vi mi xung nhp, b ghi dch li chuyn tt c ni dung sang bn phi, dy {a
n
}
c truyn i vi mi s dng c to ra mt cch tuyn tnh t r s hng trc :


+ + +
r
i
i n i r n r n n n
a c a c a c a c a
1
2 2 1 1
...
(6 1)
y tt c cc s hng u l s nh phn (0 hoc 1), c
1
n c
r
l cc bin lin kt
(1 cho lin kt v 0 khng cho lin kt). Cc qui tc nhn thng thng c duy tr song
php cng l module 2 (sau cc k hiu nh phn 0, 1 s l 1 v -1 ng thi thay th
+
+ +
C C
a
a
n-1
a
n-2
a
n-r
101
cc b cng hi tip bng php nhn thng thng, cc kt qu s ging nh vy song
khng cn tuyn tnh theo ngha c in na). Hm s tng ng vi dy c to ra l:

+ + + + +
0
2
2 1 0
... ... ) (
n
n
n
n
n
D a D a D a D a a D G
(6 2)
Trong D l ton t tr, s m ca n ng vi s n v tr.
Kt hp 2 cng thc trn ta c:

1
]
1


r
i n
i n
i n
i
i
n
r
i
n
i n i
n
n
n
D a D c D a c D a D G
1 0 0 1 0
) (

+ + +
r
i
i
i
i
i
D G D a D a D c
1
1
1
)] ( ... [
Hay:

+ +
r
i
i
i
i
i
r
i
i
i
D a D a D c D c D G
1
1
1
1
] ... [ ) 1 )( ( (6 3)
) (
) (
1
] ... [
) (
0
1
1
1
1
D f
D g
D c
D a D a D c
D G
r
i
i
i
r
i
i
i
i
i

+ +

(6 4)


r
i
i
i
D c D f
1
1 ) (
gi l a thc sinh ch ph thuc vc t lin kt phn hi c
1
, c
2
,
, c
r
. Cn

+ +
r
i
i
i
i
i
D a D a D c D g
1
1
1 0
] ... [ ) (
) ... ( ... ) ( ) (
1
1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0

+
+ + + + + +
r
r r r
D a D a a c D a a c a c D g
(6 5)
Ph thuc vc t trng thi ban u ca a
-r
, a
-r+1
, , a
-1
. Lu l phi c c
r
= 1 v
nu khng th khng cn n r tng ghi dch.
Nu vc t ban u c:
a
-r
= 1, a
-r+1
= . = a
-2
= a
-1
= 0 th g
0
(D) = 1 v
) (
1
) (
D f
D G
(6 6)
Trong cc dy c to ra nh trn ta ch n dy c chu k lp li ln nht. S
dng cc cng thc nhn c c th rt ra c 3 tnh cht nh sau:
102
1. Mi chui ghi dch tuyn tnh (LSR) u tun hon vi chu k 1 2
r
P
Tht vy b ghi c th c 2
r
1 vc t trng thi khc nhau (tr trng thi tt c u
bng 0). Khi mt vc t trng thi no c lp li sau P < 2
r
1 th n s vn tip tc
lp li nh vy v tt c lun ph thuc vc t trng thi u. Chui c di cc li l
chui l chui c chu k p = 2
r
1 (l chu k vc t)
2. Ngoi tr cc trng hp suy bin, chu k P ca G(D) l s nguyn dng
P nh nht sao cho 1 D
p
chia ht cho f(D)
Tht vy trc ht ta c:
.... 1
1
1
2
+ + +

P P
P
D D
D
(6 7)
Sau xt trng hp vc t trng thi ban u ch c a
-r
= 1 nn g
0
(D) = 1, gi s
G(D) tun hon vi chu k P, ta c:
... ) ... ( ) ... ( ) (
) (
1
1
1 1 0
1
1 1 0
+ + + + + + + +

P
P
P P
P
D a D a a D D a D a a D G
D f
P
P
P
D
D a D a a

+ + +

1
) ...
1
1 1 0
Do vy:
1
1 1 0
...
) (
1

+ + +

P
P
P
D a D a a
D f
D
(6 8)
3. iu cn thit G(D) to ra chui c P = 2
r
1 (gi l chui MLSR hy
dy m) l f(D) cp r phi l ti gin (khng th khai trin thnh tha s).
Tht vy, nu f(D) trin khai thnh tha s th f(D) = s(D)*t(D)
Khi phn tch thnh cc nhn t ti gin ta c:
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
) (
D t
D
D s
D
D f
D G

+
(6 9)
Do chu k G(D) chu k [
) ( / ) ( D s D
]*chu k[
) ( / ) ( D s D
]
3 2 1 2 2 2 ) 1 2 )( 1 2 ( +
r r r r r r
t s t s
l iu mu thun, tc l nu dy c chu k P = 2
r
1 th f(D) khng th trin
khai thnh tha s. Song ch l iu kin trn khng phi l iu kin .
103
V d 1:
Vi r = 4, P = 2
4
1 = 15. Ly f(D) = 1 + D + D
2
+ D
3
+ D
4
l hm ti gin, song 1
D
5
li chia ht cho n nn chu k n ch l 5. t c chu k 15 ta p hi dng a thc
f(D) = 1 + D + D
4
cng chia ht bi 1 D
15
v khng chia ht bi 1 D
k
(vi k<15).
Nhng a thc bc r c th to ra chui MLSR c chu k 2
r
1 c gi l a thc
nguyn thy. Tt c cc a thc nguyn thy tn ti cho tt c cc bc r > 1. cc kt qu
nghin cu cho thy s cc a thc nguyn thy bc r c th tnh nh sau:

J
i i
i
r
P
P
P
r
r N
1
1 1 2
) (
(6 10)
2
r
1 =

J
i
e
i
i
P
1
l vic phn tch mt s ra tha s nguyn t.
V d 2:
Vi r = 2 2
r
1 = 3 N
P
(2) =
1
3
2
.
2
3

r = 3 2
r
1 = 7 N
P
(3) =
2
7
6
.
3
7

r = 4 2
r
1 = 15 =5.3 N
P
(4) =
2
3
2
.
5
4
.
4
15

r = 5 2
r
1 = 31 N
P
(5) =
6
31
30
.
5
31

r = 6 2
r
1 = 63 = 7.3
2
N
P
(6) =
6
3
2
.
7
6
.
6
63

Tm cc a thc nguyn thy ngy cng kh khi r cng ln, song hin nay c cc
bng tnh sn. Cc gi tr tiu biu c quan tm ca r l gia 10 v 50.
6.3.2. Tnh cht ca chui MLSR
1. Tnh cn bng
Trong s 2
r
vc t trng thi c ng mt na l chn v mt na l l v b vc t
0 nn c 2
r
l l v 2
r
1 l chn. Xc sut u ra b ghi dch l:
104
)
1
1 (
2
1
1 2
1 2
) 0 (
1
P
P
r
r
r

(6 11)
)
1
1 (
2
1
1 2
2
) 1 (
1
P
P
r
r
r
+

(6 12)
khng cn bng khi so snh 2 biu thc trn l 1/P, vi r = 10, 30, 50 1/P tng
ng xp x 10
-3
, 10
-9
, 10
-15
.
2. Tnh cht ca khong chy
Tn sut tng i ca cc khong chy n (gm n s 0 v n s 1 lin tip) l 1/2
n


vi mi 1 r n v bng 1/2
r-1
vi n = r v khng c khong chy no c n > r.
3. Tnh tr v cng sinh
Tng module 2 ca mt dy MLSR vi chnh n tr i mt s nhip cng cho dy
ng vi s nhp tr khc. S dng tnh cht ny cng vi tnh cht 1 s rt ra l hai dy tr
ca nhau s c 2
r-1
1 ng ng v 2
r-1
bt ng ng (theo vc t trng thi)
Nhn xt:
- Vi mt cn bng nh 1/p (nh hn mt phn triu vi r > 20) chui MLS R
khng th phn bit c vi chui nh phn Bernoulli (l chui nhn c khi
tung ng xu) theo 3 tnh cht ni trn
- Cc tnh cht trn cn th hin bng cc i lng trung bnh v tng quan
theo thi gian, da trn vic nh x s 0 thnh mt gi tr thc 1 v s 1 thnh
mt gi tr thc -1 ri thc hin php nhn thng thng.
- Tnh cht 1 s l:
P P
P
n
n
1 1
1

(6 13)
- Tnh cht 3 s l:
P P
P
n
n n
1 1
1

+

vi
0
(6 14)
= 1 vi 0
6.3.3. Hm tng quan ca tn hiu m gi ngu nhin
Mi k hiu trong tn hiu m gi nhu nhin c gi l chip, c di T
c
. Tn
hiu m gi ngu nhin l tn hiu cc NRZ c th biu din nh sau:
105

+

) ( ) (
c n
nT t p c t c
(6 15)
Vi p(t) l xung ch nht c bin 1V trong khong [0, T
c
].
n
a
n
c ) 1 ( c a
n
l dy m nh phn gi ngu nhin.
Xt hm t tng quan ca 2 tn hiu gi ngu nhin c(t) v c(t) trong khong thi
gian T = L ( di ca dy).

+
T
cc
dt t c t c
T
R
0
'
) ( ' ) (
1
) (
(6 16)
Gi s
+
c
T k.
,
c
T < < 0
. Khi c th biu din hm t tng quan nh sau:


+
+ +
c
LT
m
c c k m c m
c
cc
dt mT kT t p c mT t p c
LT
R
0
'
) ( ' ). (
1
) (

+ +

+
+ + +
c
c
c
T
T
c
L
m c
k m m
T
L
m c
k m m cc
d T p p
T
c c
L
d p p
T
c c
L
k R

] ) ( ) (
1
'
1
[ ] ) ( ) (
1
'
1
[ ) , (
1
0
1
0
1
0
'
Hnh 6 2: tr ca bn tin tn hiu
t

+

1
0
'
1
0
'
) 1 ( ' ) (
L
m
a a
k m
L
m
m cc
k m m
c c k
(6 17)
Phng trnh c vit li
)] 1 ( ) ( ) 1 [(
1
) , (
' ' '
+ + k
T
k
T L
k R
cc
c
cc
c
cc

(6 18)
i vi trng hp t tng quan:
m + k m + k +1
m m m

T
c
106
)] 1 ( ) ( ) 1 [(
1
) , ( ) (
' '
+ + k
T
k
T L
k R R
cc
c
cc
c
c c


(6 19)
Tc l hm tng quan c tnh thng qua
) (k
c

Tnh cht hm t tng quan:


Xt tn hiu gi ngu nhin c(t) biu din dy m di dng tn hiu cc NRZ

+
+

1
0
1
0
) 1 ( ) (
L
n
a a
L
n
k n n c
k n n
c c k (6 20)
k = i.L: a
n
+ a
n+L
= a
n
+ a
n
= 0
k

i.L: Theo tnh cng dch a


n
+ a
n+k
= a
n+k
p dng tnh cht cn bng ca dy m:
1 ) ( k
c

Thay vo kt qu phng trnh t tng quan, ta thy n tun hon vi chu k T =


L. T
c
c dng nh hnh v.
Hnh 6 3: Hm t tng quan ca dy m
Nhn xt:
Hm t tng quan c gi tr cc i khi hai dy gi ngu nhin xp hng tng
ng vi nhau. Khi lch nhau n 1 chip s cho tng quan cc tiu.
6.3.4. Dy Gold
Dy m c c im l s dy c lp to ra khng nhiu nn sau ny s khng c
nhiu m gn cho nhng ngi dng khc nhau. Dy Gold kt hp 2 dy m {a
n
} v {a
n
}
c cng bc N c dng {a
n
+ a
n
} c th cho s dy c lp kh ln p ng a truy cp
theo m (CDMA). Hm tng quan cho gia 2 dy l kh nh v nhn mt trong cc gi
tr sau:
1/L
T
c
-T
c
T
R
c
(T)
1
LT
c
107

'

1 ) (
1
1
) (
1
) (
'
N
L
L
N
L
k
cc

(6 21)
Trong
... , 2 , 1
. 2 2 1
1 . 2 2 1
) (
2
2
2
1

+
+ +

+
+
i
i N vi
i N vi
N
N
N

(6 22)
V d: S to dy Gold bc 9
Hnh 6 4: S to dy Gold t 2 dy m
6.4. M trc giao
Hai tn hiu thc g(t) v x(t) gi l trc giao trong khong [t
1
, t
2
] khi


2
1
0 ) ( ) (
t
t
dt t x t g
(6 23)
Theo nh ngha ny mt s kiu m khc c s dng v ng vai tr quan trng
trong iu ch tn hiu:
- M trc giao : Cc dy m trc giao l cc dy nh phn c biu din di
dng dy xung NRZ ( 1 t ). Cc dy ny hon ton trc giao (trong thi gian ca
dy) khi khng c tr gia chng. Tuy nhin khi tr gia cc dy khc 0 th
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
+
+
+
108
tng quan cho gia chng l ng k. cc m trc giao c dng phn
tch cc knh v m ha d liu. c cc loi ph bin nh m Walsh, m cu
trc cy
- M Walsh : M trc giao Walsh to ra bng ma trn Hadamard theo cch sau:
H
1
= [0]
1
]
1

1 0
0 0
2
H
.. (6 24)
1
]
1

n n
n n
n
H H
H H
H
2
Trong
n
H l o ca ma trn H
n
(o cc k hiu nh phn). Mt m trc giao
c di n l hng ca ma trn H
n
. C tt c n ma trn trc giao c di n. Trong h IS-
95 (theo tiu chun mng t bo CDMA ca Qualcomm) th cc m Walsh c di 64
chip m trong mt chu k, c tt c 64 m trc giao c th s dng
6.5. Tri ph dy (chui) trc tip (DS SS)
Tri ph dy trc tip l cch tri ph c c bng cch nhn cc xung liu
bng c s vi dy gi ngu nhin t b pht m gi ngu nhin. K hiu dng sng ca
xung PN gi chip. K hiu d liu c ng b l cc bit thng tin hay cc k hiu m
nh phn c cng theo module 2 vi chip trc khi iu ch pha. B gii iu ch dch
pha kt hp hay vi phn kt hp (ng b) c dng trong b thu. Tn hiu tri ph cho
ngi dng n c th biu din:
) 2 cos( ) ( ) (
2
) ( + t f t p t m
T
E
t S
c
s
s
ss
(6 25)
m(t) l dy d liu, p(t) l dy tri PN, f
c
l tn s sng mang, l gc pha
sng mang ti t = 0. Dng sng d liu l dy theo thi fian cc xung ch nht khng
ln nhau, mi xung ch nht c bin l +1 hoc -1. Mi k hiu m(t) biu din k hiu
d liu c chu k T
s
. Mi xung p(t) biu din mt chip cng c dng ch nht bin l
+1 hoc -1 c chu k T
c
. Vic chuyn trng thi ca k hiu liu v chip trng khp
109
nhau khi t s T
s
chia T
c
l mt s nguyn. Nu W
ss
l rng ca S
ss
(t) v B l rng
ca m(t)cos(2

f
c
). S tri do p(t) to ra s cho W
ss
>> B. Minh ha b pht nh hnh sau:
Hnh 6 - 5: S tri ph dy trc tip
Gi s ng b m t c ti b thu, tn hiu nhn c i qua b lc bng rng
v nhn vi dy lp li p(t) ti ch. Nu p(t) = 1 t th php nhn ny cung cp tn hiu gii
tri s(t) ti li vo ca b gii iu ch. V s
1
(t) c dng tn hiu BPSK gii iu ch tng
ng s tch ra m(t) cho ph nhn c ca tn hiu mang mun v giao thoa ti li ra b
lc bng rng.
Khi nhn vi dng sng tri s cho ph hnh 8 6. rng tn hiu rt cn B
trong khi nng lng giao thoa tri trn rng vt qu W
ss
. B lc ca gii iu ch s
ly i hu ht ph giao thoa khng trng vi tn hiu. Php o kh nng loi tr giao thoa
cho bi t s W
ss
/B bng h s s l nh ngha l:
s
ss
s
c
c
s
R
W
R
R
T
T
PG
2

(6 27)
H c h s s l ln hn s nn giao thoa trong bng ln hn.
+ X Lc BPF
ng h chip Pht PN
Sng mang f
c
Bn tin
S
ss
(t)
a) S pht
X Lc bng
Gii iu ch
kha dch pha
(hoc vi phn)
H thng
ng b
Pht m
PN
D liu nhn c
Tn hiu tri
ph ti IF
b) S thu
110
Hnh 6 6: Tri ph tn hiu v nn ph tn hiu
i vi knh a ng: Php nhn p(t).p(t -

) trong qu trnh nn ph gi nguyn


rng di nh i vi tn hiu khng c ng b m gi ngu nhin. Tn hiu ny gp
phn rt nh khi i qua b tch phn (c tc dng nh b lc thng thp).
Trong h a truy cp: Tng t nh trn p
i
(t).p
j
(t -

) vi i

j cng gi nguyn
rng di

khng c tc dng nn ph i vi tn hiu khng mong mun. Do vy h


thng tri ph trc tip c th chng c giao thoa a truy cp (MAI: multiple Access
Interference).
6.6. Tri ph nhy tn (FH SS).
Nhy tn (FH) l s thay i tun hon tn s sng mang. Tn hiu tri ph nhy tn
l mt dy cc cm d liu c iu ch vi tn s sng mang ngu nhin thay i theo
thi gian. Tp cc tn s sng mang c th c nhy gi l tp knh. rng ca knh
dng trong mi ln nhy l rng bng tc thi. rng ph m tn hiu nhu tn c th
qut cc knh gi l rng nhy tng cng. Qui lut nhy ca bn pht ch c bn thu
c bit. Trn mi knh cc cm nh d liu c gi dng iu ch bng hp thng
thng trc khi nhy ln na. Qu trnh iu ch s cp d liu to ra tn hiu bng
hp s
n
(t) l FSK (hoc l FSK c s M). D liu m ha di dng tn hiu cc NRZ, d(t)
= 1 t
) ( cos( ) ) ( cos( ) (
0
t t t d t s
n n
+
(6 28)
Giao thoa
Giao thoa
Tn hiu
Tn hiu
H s
x l
Tn s Tn s
M


p
h


p
h

111
Mt b tng hp tn s c s dng to ra tn hiu
) (t s

c tn s thay i sau
mi khong thi gian T
h
) cos( ) ) , ( cos( ) (
1
t t T t M t s
h
+ (6 29)
Vi M(t, T
h
) l mt s ngu nhin trong tp M s 1, 2, , M. M(t, T
h
) c to ra
nh tng hp t m gi ngu nhin.
Tn hiu tri ph nhy tn S
ss
(t) c to ra khi nhn ) (t s

vi tn hiu bng hp
s
n
(t) (qu trnh trng tn).S
ss
(t) c tn s l:


+ + + + )] , ( ) ( [
1 0 h n t
T t M t d
(6 30)
t

c thnh phn c nh l
1 0
+
c
v thnh phn bin i l [d(t)+M(t,T
h
)]

V d(t) = 1 t cn M(t, T
h
) nhn gi tr t 1 n M nn S
ss
(t) chim di tn l:
+ M M B
t
) 2 (
vi M ln (6 31)
Nu ch c mt sng mang c dng trong mi ln nhy iu ch c gi l iu
ch knh n. (hnh 6 7)
Hnh 6 7: S thi pht h tri ph nhy tn
iu ch
Dao ng Clock Pht PN
ng b
tn s
Tn hiu
nhy tn
D liu
X
a) B pht
Lc bng
thng
Gii iu
ch
H ng
b
ng b
tn s
Pht m PN
Lc di
rng
D liu
Tn hiu
nhy tn
b) B thu
112
Chu k nhy l T
h
. rng bng tng cng v rng bng tc thi k hiu l W
ss
v B. H s s l cho h FH l = W
ss
/B
Nu cc mu nhy to ra b thu ng b vi cc mu tn nhn c, li ra ca b
trn l tn hiu gii nhy tn c tn s c nh khc, trc khi gii iu ch tn hiu gii
nhy c cp n b thu thng thng. Trong FH mi khi c tn hiu khng mong mun
chim cng knh nhy, n v giao thoa trong cng knh c chuyn thnh tn s i vo
b gii iu ch c th gy nn s tranh chp.
Nhy tn c phn thnh 2 loi nhanh v chm. Nhy tn nhanh xy ra khi c
nhiu hn mt ln nhy trong mt k hiu truyn hay l tc nhy ln hn hay bng tc
k hiu thng tin. Nhy tn chm khi mt hay nhiu k hiu c truyn trong mt ln
nhy. Tc nhy tn ca h FH SS c xc nh bi s nhanh nhn ca b tng hp
thu, loi thng tin truyn, lng d tha c dng trong m knh v c ly n ni giao
thoa gn nht.
6.7. Hot ng ca tri ph dy trc tip
Gi s mi ngi dng c dy PN vi N chip trong 1 chu k k hiu bn tin T tc
l NT
c
= T. Tn hiu c truyn bi ngi dng th k (vi k ngi dng chung ph) c
th biu din:
X X
1
X X
k
m
1
(t)
m
k
(t)
PN
1
(t)
PN
k
(t)
cos(2f
c
t+
k
)
cos(2f
c
t+
1
)
S
1
(t)
S
k
(t)
a) M hnh k ngi dng
X X

T
dt
0
(*)
PN
1
(t)
2cos(2f
c
t+
1
)
>
<
z
i
(1)
m(t)
r(t)
b) B thu ngi dng 1
s(t)
113
Hnh 6 8: Hot ng ca tri ph dy trc tip
) 2 cos( ) ( ) (
2
) (
k c k k
s
s
k
f t p t m
T
E
t S +
(6 32)
p
k
(t) l dy PN ca ngi dng th k, m
k
(t) l dy d liu ca ngi dng th
k (hnh 8 8). Tn hiu nhn c s l tng ca K tn hiu c pht (mt mong mun v
K 1 khng mong mun). Tng quan tn hiu thu c vi dy nhn bit ring s to nn
bin quyt nh. Bin quyt nh i vi bit c truyn th i i vi ngi dng th 1 l:

+
+
+
1
1
) 1 (
1 1 1 1
) 1 (
] ) ( 2 cos[ ) ( ) (


iT
T i
c i
dt t f t p t r Z
(6 33)
Nu m
1, i
= -1, th bit nhn c s li khi Z
i
(1)
> 0. Xc sut li c tnh l: Pr[Z
i
(1)


> 0 | m
1, i
= -1]. Do tn hiu nhn c r(t) l t hp tuyn tnh cc tn hiu.
Phng trnh trn ta c th vit li l:

+ +
K
k
k i
I I Z
2
1
) 1 (

(6 34)
:


T
s
c
T E
dt t f t p t S I
0
1 1 1
2
) 2 cos( ) ( ) (
(6 35)
L p ng ca b thu i vi tn hiu mong mun t ngi dng s 1

T
c
dt t f t p t n
0
1
) 2 cos( ) ( ) (
(6 36)
L bin ngu nhin Gauss biu din n trung bnh 0 v variance:
4
] [
0 2
T N
E (6 37)
V


T
c k k k
dt t f t p t S I
0
1
) 2 cos( ) ( ) (
(6 38)
Biu din giao thoa a truy cp t ngi dng th k. Gi s I
k
l nh hng tch ly
ca N chip nhu nhin t giao thoa th k trong chu k tch phn T ca 1 bit. L thuyt gii
hn trung tm chng t rng tng cc nh hng ny c xu hng nh phn b Gauss. V
c K 1 ngi dng nh cc ngun giao thoa phn b u. Giao thoa a truy cp tng
cng s l:
114

K
k
k
I I
2
(6 39)
C th xp x nh bin Gauss ngu nhin (coi mi I
k
l c lp, trn thc t th
khng chnh xc nh vy). Gi thit xp x ny s cho mt biu din thun li khi tnh xc
sut trung bnh li bit:

,
_

b
e
E
N
N
K
Q P
2 3
1
1
0
(6 40)
i vi ngi dng n K = 1, biu thc ny rt thnh biu thc BER cho iu ch
BPSK. Trong trng hp gii hn bi giao thoa n nhit c th b qua E
b
/N
0
rt l ln,
biu thc BER c gi tr bng:

,
_

1
3
K
N
Q P
e
(6 41)
y l sn nhiu khng th lm nh hn do nhiu a truy cp vi gi thit l tt c
cc ngun nhiu c cng sut nh nhau ging nh ngi mong mun ti b thu DS SS.
Trn thc t hiu ng xa gn lm kh khn cho h thng ny. Nu khng c s iukhin
cng sut cn thn ngi dng gn s c nng lng thu c ni tri ti trm c s lm
cho gi thit phn b Gauss khng chnh xc. Khi c mt s ln ngi dng tc li bit
chu nh hng ca giao thoa a truy cp
6.8. Hot ng ca tri ph nhy tn
Trong h FH SS, mt s ngi dng nhy tn sng mang c lp khi dng iu
ch BFSK. Nu 2 ngi dng khng ng thi chim mt knh, xc sut li ca BFSK l:

,
_


0
2
exp
2
1
N
E
P
b
e
(6 42)
Tuy nhin nu 2 ngi dng cng pht ng thi trn mt knh, tranh chp xy ra,
trng hp ny c th cho xc sut li l 0.5 v xc sut li ton th c th tnh nh:
115
h h
b
e
p p
N
E
P
2
1
) 1 (
2
exp
2
1
0
+

,
_


(6 43)
p
h
l xc sut tranh chp, chng phi c xc nh. Nu c M knh nhy c
th th c 1/M kh nng ngun giao thoa cho c mt trong knh ngi dng mong
mun. Nu c K 1 ngun giao tho, xc sut t nht 1 ngun c mt trong knh mong
mun l:
M
K
M
p
K
h
1 1
1 1
1


,
_

khi gi s M l ln (6 44)
Thay vo phng trnh xc sut li ta c:
1
]
1


+
,
_

,
_


M
K
M
K
N
E
P
b
e
1
2
1 1
1
2
exp
2
1
0
(6 45)
Xt trng hp c bit, E
b
/N
0
tin n v cng:
1
]
1


M
K
P
N
E
e
b
1
2
1
) lim(
0
(6 46)
N minh ha tc li khng th gim c do giao thoa a truy cp.
Phn tch trn gi s rng tt c ngi dng nhy tn ng b, gi l nhy tn
khe. Iu ny khng thc t trong nhiu h FH SS. Thm ch khi ng b c th t
c gia cc ng h ngi dng ring r, tn hiu radio cng khng ti mi ngi ng
b do tr lan truyn sng khc nhau, xc sut tranh chp ca h khng ng b l:
1
1
1
1
1 1

'

,
_

+
K
b
h
N M
p (6 47)
N
b
l s bit trn ln nhy, so snh cc phng trnh ta thy trong trng hp
khng ng b, xc sut tranh chp tng, do xc sut li cho FH SS khng ng b l:
]
1
1
1
1 1 [
2
1 1
1
1
1 exp
2
1
1 1
0

'

,
_

+ +

'

,
_

,
_


K
b
K
b
b
e
N M N M N
E
P (6 48)
FH SS c u im hn DS SS l khng nhy cm vi vn gn xa, v cc tn
hiu pht khng cng tn s. Mc cng sut tng i ca tn hiu khng tiu chun nh
trong DS SS. Vn xa gn khng trnh c tt c v mt s giao thoa va tn hiu
116
mnh chui vo t knh bn cnh do b lc khng l tng. loi tr s tranh chp i
khi xy ra cn phi c m iu khin li, ng dng m Read-Solomon mnh hoc nhng
m hiu chnh li cm khc s lm h hot ng tt hn nhiu ngay c khi xy ra tranh
chp.
6.9. H thng MC DS CDMA
c th cung cp cc dch v bng rng trong mi trng c nhiu ngi s dng
(cc h a dch v trong tng lai) th cn phi cung cp mt di tn rng cho mi ngi
dng. p ng yu cu ny cng c th ng dng trc tip k thut DS CDMA vi di tn
rng, tuy nhin s c mt s vn tr ngi.
V d trong h DS CDMA theo tiu chun IS 95 bng tng 1.25 MHz hot ng
trong mi trng fading Rayleigh chn lc tn s v bin i chm. Khi thi gian ko di
do fading a ng trong trng hp xu nht l 3 5
s
b thu RAKE phi bm t 3 n
6 thnh phn tn hiu a ng (s nhnh a ng ti a c th xp x theo cng thc
B.T
m
+ 1 trong B l rng ca tn hiu DS - SS cong T
m
l ko di thi gian tr a
ng ca tn hiu ti my thu, trong trng hp y l 3 - 5
s
). By gi gi s tng
rng bng ca tn hiu DS CDMA ln 12.5MHz th phi cn t 30 n 60 nhnh thi phn
tp (finger). Thm na h thng DS CDMA bng rng yu cu phi c mt bng tn lin
tc m trong mt s trng hp kh c th p ng c. By gi nu bn thay h thng
ch c mt sng mang bng cch s dng mt h thng CDMA bng rng m trong bao
gm nhiu h thng DS CDMA bng hp ging nhau ( y ta hiu h thng CDMA bng
rng c rng bng ln hn rng bng ca 95 nhiu ln). Tng cng rng bng
ca cc h bng hp ny bng rng bng ca h thng DS CDMA khi c mt sng
mang. iu ny cho php khng cn phi c mt di tn lin tc. Cch truyn nh th gi
l DS CDMA a sng mang (MC DS CDMA).
Gi B
sc
l rng ca nhng di tn s con ny. C th chn sao cho khong chip T
> T
m
vi T
m
l ko di thi gian tr m bo knh truyn ci sng mang ny l
fading phng khng b nh hng ca fading chn lc tn s. Do vy i vi 1 sng mang
ch cn mt b tng quan m khng cn phi s dng b thu phn tp a ng. Trong v
d trn nu thay bng h thng ny th cng phi cn 30 60 b tng quan ng vi 30
60 nhnh ca b thu phn tp a ng trong trng hp ch c mt sng mang nhng h
thng a sng mang c cht lng thu tt hn. K thut ny s dng phng php phn
117
tp tn s thay cho phn tp theo min thi gian nh trong DS CDMA thng thng.
Phng php thu phn tp theo tn s ci thin cht lng tn hiu bng cch truyn song
song cng mt thng tin trn nhiu sng mang c lp.
6.9.1. M hnh h thng MC DS CDMA
tin so snh vi h thng DS CDMA bng rng ch s dng mt sng mang ta
coi h thng MC DS-CDMA cng chim rng bng tng ng. rng bng tng
cng s l.
c
sc
T
B
1
) 1 ( +
(6 49)
Trong

l h s ct ln ca b lc to dng sng chip


) 1 0 (
T
c
l khong chip ca h thng DS CDMA mt sng mang
Hnh 6 9: Ph tn ca n v a sng mang
Trong h thng a sng mang chia B
sc
thnh MR di tn nh bng nhau khng
chng ln. Cc di tn ny khng cn bt buc phi lin tc m c th phn b ri rc
(hnh 6 9). y cng l u im ca MS DS-CDMA so vi h DS CDMA ch c mt
sng mang v h thng ny bt buc phi c cp mt di tn rng lin tc. rng bng
ca mi di tn con l
c
SC
MC
MRT MR
B
B
1
) 1 ( +
(6 50)
MR: s sng mang yu cu. Sau y l m hnh ca my pht, knh truyn v my
thu.
6.9.2. My pht
B
SC
f
1
f
2
f
2
f
MR
B
SC
118
S khi ca my pht MC DS CDMA ca ngi s dng th k nh hnh 6
10. Trong gm mt b m xon tc 1/M. B bin i ni tip thnh song song M
hng, b lp vi t l 1/2R (tc 1 k hiu c lp thnh 2R k hiu) c nhim v sp xp
2MR k hiu ra vo tng ng vi tng b iu ch QPSK DS/SS vi MR sng mang. B
lp cng c nhim v ca b ghp xen nhm phn phi cc k hiu m xon ging nhau
trn nhng sng mang khc nhau vi khong cch trng s ln lm gim xc xut li
(hnh 6 10)
Ch thch: m = [n/M] (cch ghp ly phn nguyn)
N l s chp m ha / mt k hiu m
C
n
(k)
dy tri ph ng vi ngi s dng th k
a
x,m
(k)
v a
v,m
(k)
tn hiu iu ch ng pha v vung pha
v: ch s sng mang MR v 1
My pht ngi s dng th k
B iu ch tri ph trc tip knh I v Q sng mang f
v
Hnh 6 10: M hnh tri ph a sng mang
f
v
tn s sng mang th v
M k hiu 2MR k hiu
d
m
(k)
b
i, j
(k)
M xon
tc
1/M
S/P
B lp
k hiu
t l
1/2R v
ghp
xen
B iu
ch tri
ph dy
trc tip
QPSK
Tn hiu pht
X X
iu ch
xung
H(f) to
dng sng
Re[]
Nng lng E
c
Chu k = MRT
c
e
v k
v
t
f

,
2
2
+
Phn thc
a
v, m
(k)
-ja
v,m
(k)
C
n
(k)
119
Re[] ly phn thc
Hnh 8 11: Ph tn ca tn hiu ng pha v vung pha sau khi ghp xen v lp li
Vic sp xp cc k hiu ging nhau nh trn m bo cc sng mang ca cng
mt k hiu (pht song song) c khong cch tn s l ln nht trnh tng quan ln
nhau nh tng hiu qu ca vic thu phn tp tn s.
Vi mi sng mang f
v
s dng mt b iu ch tri ph dy trc tip (QPSK). Dy
k hiu li vo ca b iu ch c sng mang f
v
(dng phc) nh sau:
) (
,
) (
,
'
k
m v
k
m v
ja a
Dy k hiu ny c nhn vi m tri ph gi ngu nhin cn(k) phn bit ngi s
dng:
) ( ) (
,
) (
,
). ' (
k
n
k
m v
k
m v
c ja a
(6 51)
M = [n/N]. N: s chip m / 1 k hiu
Dy ny c a qua b iu ch xung to ra mt chip c nng lng E
c
, khong
thi gian gia cc xung l MRT
c
. Sau khi qua b lc to dng sng chip H(f) (hm truyn
c dng cosin tng tha mn tiu chun Nyquist v dng xung). Dy tri ph c chuyn
ln tn s sng mang f
v
.
Cui cng sng ca MR b iu ch DS/SS c kt hp vi nhau to thnh tn
hiu tng hp MC DS CDMA. Tn hiu ca ngi s dng th k c dng:

'

+ + +
MR
v n
v k v
k
N n v v k v
k
N n v c
k
n c
t f a t f a nMRT t h c E t x
1
,
) (
] / [ , ,
) (
] / [ ,
) (
) 2 sin( ' ) 2 cos( )[ ( 2 ) (
(6 52)
Trong h(t) l p ng xung ca b lc to dng chip
Tn hiu ng pha
(M = 6, R = 2)
Tn hiu vung pha
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
120
MRT
c
: khong chip ca dy tri ph gi ngu nhin trong h thng MC DS
CDMA.
6.9.3. Knh truyn
Coi knh truyn v tuyn l fading Rayleigh, chn lc tn s, bin i chm c tp
m Gauss. Xt h DS CDMA mt sng mang, gi s knh truyn c ko di tr l T
m
.
S nhnh phn tp a ng l:
L = [T
m
/T
c
] (6 53)
p ng xung ca knh i vi tn hiu a ng l:


1
0
) ( ) (
L
l
c l
lT t t c
Trong
l

l bin phc ngu nhin Gauss c E[


l

]=0 (654)
Mt khc knh cng c th xem xt qua rng bng kt hp ca knh
m c
T f / 1 ) (
M v R cng phi tha m nhng yu cu sau:
Mi bng tn khng b tc ng ca knh chn lc tn s, ngha lT
m
/MRT
c
1
Tt c cc sng mang ca h MC DS CDMA chu tc ng ca fading c lp vi
nhau:
MC c
B f ) (
T cc iu kin trn ta c:
c
m
c
m
T
T
MR
T
T
) 1 ( +
(6 55)
So snh cc bt ng thc c th chn MR = L, tc l s nhnh ca b thu phn tp
a ng trong h thng DS CDMS mt sng mang bng s nhnh thu phn tp theo tn
s ca MC DS CDMA.
Theo cch ghp xen nh s , khong cch ti thiu gia hai sng mang c cng
k hiu m l:
MC v v
B M f f M f ]. 2 / [ ) ]( 2 / [ ) (
1 min

+
Suy ra:
c
f M f ) ]( 2 / [ ) (
min

(6 56)
121
iu ny c ngha M 2 th lun m bo cc sng mang c iu ch cng mt
k hiu m b fading c lp vi nhau do b pghn tp tn s c chnh xc cao hn.
Nh kt qu trn c th xt p ng xung ca knh i vi sng mang th v l:
) ( ' ) ( t t c
v v

Trong {
v
'
}, v = 1, 2, MR l bin phc ngu nhin Gauss E[
v
'
] = 0. Hm
truyn i vi tn s th v ca ngi s dng th k l:
v k
e
v k v k
,
, ,


1 . 0 } {
,

v k

v { v k,

} = [0.2

] l cc bin ngu nhin c lp Gauss


Tn hiu thu c s l:



u
K
k n
k c
k
n c
nMRT t h c E t r
1
) (
) ( 2 { ) (
x

+ + + +
MR
v
w v k v
k
N n v v k v
k
N n v v k
t n t f a t f a
1
,
) (
] / [ , ,
) (
] / [ , ,
) ( ]} ' 2 sin( ' ) ' 2 cos( [
(6 57)
Vi
} { '
, , , k v k v k v k
+
tr ngu nhin

[0, MRT
c
], n
w
(t) l tp m trng
cng tnh ca mi trng c mt ph cng sut 2 pha l N
0
/2
K
u
l s ngi dng trong h thng a truy cp
6.9.4. My thu
S my thu i vi tn hiu tng ng ca my pht th k:
Nguyn tc my thu l:
y l qu trnh ngc li vi qu trnh my pht. u tin tn hiu thu c r(t)
s c a qua MR b gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS song song vi tng sng mang f
v
(v =
1, 2, MR). My thu ny s dng M b kt hp t s cc i (theo phn tp tn s). Mt
b cho kt qu da trn 2R k hiu li vo. Li ra ca M b kt hp ny l M k hiu m
xon song song. Sau khi chuyn song song thnh ni tip v gii m xon d liu thu c
l
) (

k
m
d
122
My thu tn hiu th k
B gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS ca sng mang f
v
Hnh 6 12: B thu a sng mang
My pht
2MR k hiu 2MR k hiu MR k hiu
r(t)
) (

k
m
d
Gii ghp
xen
MR b
gii iu
ch
QPSK
DS/SS
P/S
M b kt
hp t s
cc i
Gii m
xon
r(t)

1
0 '
N
n
) 2 sin(
,v k v
t f +
) 2 cos(
,v k v
t f +
z
v
(1)
C
n
(k)
C
n
(k)
z
v
(Q)
Chu k ly mu = nMRT
c
LPF
LPF

1
0 '
N
n
H(f-f
v
)
H(f+f
v
)
X X
X X
d
m
b
1, m
b
1, m
b
1, m
b
1, m
b
1, m
b
1, m
b
1, m
b
1, m
b
1, m
x(t)
M xon
tc 1/3
1/3
S/P
B
lp t
l
v
ghp
xen
f
1
f
1
f
1
123
M y thu
Hnh 6 13: H thng thu pht a sng mang vi M = 3, R = 1
B gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS: Trong s b gii iu ch c sng mang f
v
(v =
1, 2, MR) gm mt b lc di thch ng dng sng, mt b thu tng quan ng vi mi
tn hiu ng pha I v vung pha Q.
Ch l H(f) tha m tiu chun Nyquist. Gi rng bng ca H(f) l B
t
, B
t


M
MC
/2. y l iu kin cc bng con khng b chng ln, c th b qua hin tng
nhiu gia cc chip.
6.9.5. nh gi c tnh h thng MC DS CDMA
nh gi c nhng u im ca h MC DS CDMA c th thc hin so snh
vi h DS CDMA mt sng mang trong nhng iu kin ban u l ging nhau (nh di
tn c cp, s lng ngi truy cp, phc tp ca my thu, my pht).
Ch rng h DS CDMA mt sng mang y c bng rng hn CDMA IS 95
nhiu ln.
Cht lng h thng khi thay i cc thng s
Gi s tc d liu v di tn c cp l khng i, ngha l tch MRN khng
i (vi 1/M l tc ca m xon, N l tng ch s l ca mt sng mang trong h
thng MC DS CDMA, MR l s nhnh phn tp tn s ng vi mi k hiu m). Vn
l cht lng ca h thng thay i th no khi thay i cc thng s trn.
f
1
f
1
f
1
Gii
ghp
xen
P/S
B kt
hp MRC
B kt
hp MRC
B kt
hp MRC
Gii
m
xon
d
m
x(t)
Gii iu ch
QPSK DS/SS MRC: B t hp t s cc i
124
Nu tng M, khi tc m xon gim i (tc m s mnh hn), cho php h
chng li c giao thoa a truy cp (MAI) v fading tt hn.
Nu tng R, th s nhnh phn tp tng nn tng kh nng chng fading a ng.
Nu tng N th tng ch tng s gim c MAI.
Hnh 6 14: S ph thuc BER vo E
b
/N
0
tng ng vi tng R
Xt tng ch ca h thng DS CDMA mt sng mang N
0
, vi cng mt di tn
th N
0
= MRN, b lc to dng sng c dng cosin tng. Gi s h s ct ln
5 . 0
, N =
512. B m ha t l (M = 4) di rng buc K = 7. S ngi s dng K
u
= 100. Hnh
trn biu din xc sut li bit (BER) theo t s E
b
/N
0
(vi E
b
l nng lng ca 1 tn hiu,
N
0
l mt ph cng sut mt pha ca tp m Gauss). Cc ng cong ng vi R = 1
n 4. T th ta c th thy rng ng vi R > 2 th hiu qu phn tp tn s tng ln
khng r rt. Do vy ngi ta thng ch chn R = 2.
125
Hnh 6 15: S ph thc BER vo K
u
v N
By gi ta c nh R = 2, thay i tc m xon vi M = 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 vi di
rng buc l K = 7. Xt trong 2 trng hp s ngi s dng l 100 v 200. Hnh trn m
t s thay i ca BER vo E
b
/N
0
(dB) ng vi cc gi tr ca M trong 2 trng hp s
ngi s dng l K
u
= 100 v K
u
= 200. Vi K
u
= 100 th vic tng M ci thin c cht
lng tn hiu. Tuy nhin khi K
u
= 2th M = 12 li cho BER thp hn. Trong thc t khi
K
u
= 100 th chn M = 6 hoc 8 l tt nht. Vic tng M s vi phm iu kin m bo mi
sng mang khng b fading chn lc tn s. Thc t ch cn chn MR va ln m
bo cc sng mang khng b fading chn lc tn s v khng lm tng phc tp ca
thit b.
Biu din cht lng thu ph thuc vo di m xon K. Vi K tng xc sut li
gim song cng s tng phc tp ca b m xon theo thut ton.
126
Hnh 6 16: S ph thuc ca BER vo di m xon K
So snh vi h thng mt sng mang s dng b thu RAKE
Vic so snh 2 h thng trn c s gi thit sau:
rng bng c cp l nh nhau, tc thng tin l nh nhau.
H thng n sng mang iu ch QPSK cc chip c tc , di m xon
ging nh trong h a sng mang
Nng lng trung bnh trn MR tn s ca h bng vi nawng lng trung bnh
thu theo L ng ca h n sng mang.
iu khin cng sut ca 2 h l ti u
Mch lc to dng chip c hm truyn dng cosin tng
127

'

+
+
1
1
]
1

,
_




] 2 / ) 1 ( , 0 [ 0
2 / ) 1 ( 2 / ) 1 ( }
2
2
1
sin 1 {
2
1
2 / ) 1 (
1
) ( ) (
2

W f
W f W
W
f
W
W f
W
f H f X
(6 58)
Trong : W =1/MRT
c
,

l h s ct ln
) 1 0 (
i vi h a sng mang v
W = 1/T
c
trong h n sng mang. H s ct ln l nh nhau trong 2 h
+ Trong mi trng tp m Gauss v giao thoa a truy cp (khng c cc can nhiu
bng hp)
Hnh 6 17: S ph thuc BER vo K
u
vi a v n sng mang
Biu din s ph thuc BER theo E
b
/N
0
trong 2 trng hp s ngi s dng l K
u
= 100 v K
u
= 200. C 2 h dng m xong tc 1/6 (M = 6) di rng buc K= 9. H
a sng mang: S sng mang l MR = 12, h s s l trn mi sng mang l N = 42. H
n sng mang: B thu RAKE c s nhnh L = 12, h s x l N
b
= 85 (coi tng ch s
128
l y l s chip trn mt k hiu m xon tin so snh vi tng ch trn mt sng
mang ca h a sng mang, khc vi s chip trn mt k hiu d liu N
0
= 512) Kt qu
cho thy trong mi trng AWGN v MAI th BER ca hai h thng l xp x nhau khi 2
my thu c cng phc tp.
+ Trong mi trng c tc ng ca giao thoa bng hp:
Can nhiu bng hp l cc tn hiu c cng sut ln v d rng bng nh hn
rng bng ca tn hiu truyn. Cc tn hiu gy giao thoa bng hp c tn s trung tm nm
trong di tn ca tn hiu truyn. nh gi kh nng chng giao thoa bng hp ngi ta
nh gi BER ph thuc vo te s cng sut giao thoa / cng sut tn hiu:
b b
j j
T E
B N
ISR
/

(6 59)
Trong B
j
l rng bng ca tn hiu giao thoa, N
j
l mt ph cng sut ca
giao thoa, E
b
l nng lng ca mt bit tn hiu, T
b
l khong thi gian gia 2 k hiu.
Hnh 6 18: S ph thuc BER vo ISR vi n v a sng mang
129
H thng a sng mang: Tc b m xon 1/8, di rng buc K = 7, tng
ch trn mi sng mang N = 32. H n song mang: S dng b thu RAKE, s nhnh l L
= 16, tng ch N
b
= 64. Tn hiu nhiu c rng bng B
j
= 2B
MC
. Gi s E
b
/N
0
= 7dB,
s ngi dng K
u
= 100.
Biu din s ph thuc BER vo t s E
b
/N
0
tng ng vi cc gi tr ISR.
Nhn xt:
Mi trng truyn c ISR nh th 2 h thng c cht lng xp x nh nhau. Nhng
nu tn hiu truyn b tc ng ca tn hiu giao thao bng hp v c cng sut ln (ISR
ln), th h MC DS CDMA c tnh khng nhiu cao hn nhiu so vi h DS CDMA ch
c mt sng mang. y l u im ng quan tm khi xy dng CDMA bng rng trong
mi trng truyn s dng chung vi cc h thng tin bng hpp khc nh AMPS hay
GSM.
Hnh 6 19: S ph thuc BER vo E
b
/N
0
vi n v a sng mang
Kt lun:
130
MC DS CDMA l mt phng php mi p dng cho h CDMA bng rng. H
thng ny cng c kh nng hn ch fading a ng, giao thoa a truy cp v giao thoa
bng hp. H thng ny c th m bo tnh nng m ha ging nh h DS CDMA
thng thng vi phc tp nh nhau. H MC DS CDMA s dng phng php phn
tp theo tn s thay cho phn tp theo thi gian nh trong DS CDMA mt sng mang,
ng thi s dng m tri ph ngu nhin c tc chip thp hn. H thng ny kt hp
nhiu tn hiu DS CDMA bng hp m mi tn hiu bng hp ny c th c nh tn s
sng mang mt cch linh hot. Ngoi ra my thu MC DS CDMA cho cht lng thu tt
hn nhiu so vi DS CDMA trong nhng trng hp knh b tc ng ca tn hiu giao
thoa bng hp cng sut ln, ng thi MC DS CDMA li khng i hi phi cp mt
bng tn rng lin tc. y l u im ca MC DS CDMA so vi DS CDMA thng
thng. Cc thng s chnh ca MC DS CDMA l h s phn tp tn s 2R (c th chn
R = 2), tc m ha xon 1/M, tng ch s l trn mi sng mang N
6.10. iu ch OFDM
Bn cht ca k thut a sng mang l k thut ghp knh theo tn s (FDM
frequency division multiplexing), trong di tn ca tn hiu ban u c chia thnh
ccc di con, mi sng mang trong di tn c gi l cc sng mang con hay th cp
mang mt phn thng tin. Trong cc h thng FDM c in ton b di tn ca tn hiu
c chia thnh N knh con m chng khng chng ln nhau. Mi knh con c iu ch
vi mt tn s ring sau N knh con c ghp knh theo tn s. Ngoi ra h thng ny
cn i hi phi c khong bo v gia cc knh con chng nhiu gia cc knh ln
cn, iu ny dn ti hiu sut s dng ph khng cao v thiu ht di tn c sn. khc
phc nhc im ny mt tng c sut t nhng nm 60 l s dng OFDM vi
cc sng mang trc giao chng ln ln nhau nh hnh 6 20.
131
Hnh 6 20: So snh k thut a sng mang trong OFDM v trong FDM
Bng cch s dng k thut iu ch sng mang chng ln nh hnh v trn c th
tit kim c khong 50% rng bng tn. Tuy nhin c c hiu qu nh vy phi
m bo khng c s xuyn m gia cc sng mang, ngha l m bo c s trc giao gia
cc sng mang. Khi nim trc giao i hi mi lin h ton hc chnh xc gia cc tn s
ca cc sng mang
Gi l tp tn hiu xc nh trn v l tn hiu th i trong tp, cc tn hiu l trc
giao nu:



b
a
k i
k i vi
k i vi K
dt t t
0
) ( ) (
(6 60)
Trong k thut OFDM s dng php bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT Discrete
Fourier Transform) c s dng iu ch v gii iu ch tn hiu nhm m bo s
trc giao ni trn. Ti ni pht qu trnh pht cc sng mang thc hin bi php bin i
-R R
W = 2R W = 2R
N = 1
-R R
-R/4 3R/4 -3R/4 R/4
W = 2R W = 2R
W = 2R
W = 2R
N = 2
N = 3
f f
OFDM FDM
f
-R/4 3R/4 -3R/4 R/4
f
-R/3 2R/3 -2R/3 R/3
-R/3 2R/3 -2R/3 R/3

132
IDFT (InverseDiscrete Fourier Transform). Ti ni thu s dng php bin i DFT v tnh
ton cc gi tr tng quan vi tn s trung tm ca mi sng mang mi mt sng mang
c gii iu ch chnh xc. Khi phc li d liu truyn m khng c s xuyn m.
Hnh 6 21: Ph ca mt sng mang (a) v ph ca tn hiu OFDM (b)
K thut OFDM c nhng u im ni bt sau:
- Nng cao hiu sut s dng ph nh s chng ln ph
- OFDM chng li c fading la chn tn s tt hn so vi h n sng mang
- Loi tr c ISI v ICI nh s dng tin t lp (cyclic prefix)
6.10.1. Cu trc khung
Mt vn cn gii quyt i vi h a sng mang ni chung v OFDM ni ring
l nhiu gia cc k hiu (ISI - Interymbol interference). OFDM loi tr gn nh hon
ton ISI nh vic to ra khong bo v (guard time) trong cc k hiu OFDM.
Mt tn hiu OFDM l tng ca cc sng mang thng c iu ch bng cch s
dng dch kha pha (PSK Phase Shift Key) hay iu ch bin vung gc (QAM
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). Mi k hiu OFDM c th biu din nh sau:
T t t v t t vi
T t t t vi t t
T
i
f j d R
t s
s s
s s s c
N
N
i
N
i
e
s
s
s
+ > <
+

'

,
_

,
_


+
0
) (
5 . 0
2 exp
) (
1
2
2
2

(6
61)
Trong :
N
s
l s lng cc sng mang
d
i
l k hiu QAM hay PSK phc th i
T l rng ca k hiu
f
c
l tn s sng mang
biu din bng gc phc tng ng nh sau

133
T t t v t t vi
T t t t vi t t
T
i
j d
t s
s s
s s s
N
N
i
N
i
s
s
s
+ > <
+

'

,
_


+
0
) ( 2 exp
) (
1
2
2
2

(6 62)
Trong trng hp ny phn thc v phn o tng ng vi thnh phn ng pha
(in-phase) v thnh phn vung pha (quadrature) trong tn hiu OFDM.
Hnh di y ch ra s khi ca iu ch OFDM.
Hnh 6 22: S iu ch OFDM.
Tn hiu OFDM phc trong phng trnh trn l bin i fourier ngc ca k hiu
QAM (hay PSK) li vo. Trong h ri rc th l php bin di Fourier ri rc. Thc t
php bin i ny c th c thc hin rt hiu qu nh php bin i ngc Fourier
nhanh (IFFT).
6.10.2. K thut iu ch
V mt ton hc mi sng mang c miu t l 1 sng mang phc
)) ( (
) ( ) (
t t j
c c
c c
e t A t S
+

(6 62)
Tn hiu thc l phn thc ca S
c
(t), trong A
c
(t) v
) (t
c

l bin v pha ca
sng mang c th thay i theo mi k hiu. Gi tr A
c
(t) v
) (t
c

l khng i trn mi
thi khong T
s
ca k hiu.
Tn hiu OFDM gm nhiu sng mang do cc tn hiu phc c biu din l:
Data in
S/P
Tn hiu OFDM
) / ) ( exp( T t t N j
s s


134

1
0
)) ( (
) (
1
) (
N
n
t t j
n s
n n
e t A
N
t s

(6 63)
Vi
+ n
n 0
Nu ta quan tm ti dng sng ca mi thnh phn tn hiu trn 1 khong k hiu
th bin A
c
(t) v
) (t
c

c gi tr khng i, ch ph thuc vo tn s ca sng mang xc


nh. V vy ta c:
A
n
(t) => A
n
n n
t ) (
Nu tn hiu c ly mu bng cch s dng tn s ly mu th tn hiu thu c
l:

+ +

1
0
) ) ((
0
1
) (
N
n
kT j
n s
n
N
e A
N
kT S


(6 64)
Phng trnh trn c th n gin ha, khng mt tnh tng qut. Gi s ta c

1
0
) (
0
1
) (
N
n
kT n j
n s
e
j
e A
N
kT S

(6 65)
Phng trnh trn so vi dng chung ca bin i Fourier tn s ri rc c dng

1
0
2
) (
1
) (
N
n
nk
N
j
e
NT
n
G
N
kT g

(6 66)
Trong phng trnh trn th
j
e A
n
0
chnh l tn hiu trong min tn s c ly
mu v S
s
(kT) l biu din trong min thi gian ca n, do vy 2 phng trnh trn l
tng ng nu:
s
T NT f / 1 / 1 2 /
(6 67)
iu kin trn ging nh iu kin m bo cho s trc giao gia cc sng mang
nn php bin i Fourier ri rc c s dng iu ch v gii iu ch tn hiu
OFDM
135
Hnh 6 23: S h thng OFDM da trn FFT
OFDM c to ra nh php bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT) tuy nhin thc hin
tnh ton cc php bin i Fourier mt cch hiu qu, thut ton bin i Fourier nhanh
(IFFT v FFT) c p dng. Nu s php tnh thc hin do IDFT l N
2
th trong IFFT ch
l N/2lgN cho N im li vo, do rt ngn nhiu thi gian tnh ton. S h thng
OFDM da trn php bin i Fourierr c th c m t nh sau
Ti ni pht: chui d liu nh phn c m ha (thng m chp), sau khi c
ghp xen (interleaving) chui d liu nh phn c iu ch nh b iu ch QAM. Tn
hiu c a vo b bin i IFFT, sau khi c chuyn thnh dng ni tin tn hiu
c thm tin t lp chng nhiu do hiu ng a ng gy ra. To ca s
(windowing) c s dng sau ph ca tn hiu hp hn.
Ti ni thu: my thu thc hin ngc li qu trnh ca my pht, sau khi loi b tin
t lp tn hiu c a vo b bin i FFT. Tn hiu QAM sau c chuyn v dng
nh phn, sau cng b gii m tin hnh gii m thu c tn hiu ban u.
6.10.3. Khong bo v v tin t lp
Mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht ca truyn thng v tuyn l tri tr a
ng. OFDM gii quyt vn ny rt hiu qu. Truyn thng song song ngha l chui
d liu vo c chia thnh N
s
sng mang v rng ca k hiu (symbol duration) nh
Data in
Data out
Ti
ni
pht
Tn
hiu
thu
M ha Interleaving QAM
Gii m De-Interleaving De-QAM
IFFT
FFT
D/A Chn CP P/S
A/D Loi CP S/P
136
hn N
s
ln so vi tn hiu ban u. OFDM cng gim nhiu tc ng ca tri tr a
ng vi thi khong ca k hiu (Symbol)
Nhiu gia cc k hiu hu nh c loi b nh vic to mt khong bo v
(guard time) cho mi k hiu OFDM. Khong bo v ny c chn ln hn tri tr a
ng sao cho cc thnh phn a ng ca mt k hiu khng th gy nhiu ti cc k
hiu k tip. Trong thi khong ca khong bo v khng c tn hiu no c truyn i,
tuy nhin nhiu gia cc sng mang ICI vn tn ti.
ICI l s xuyn m gia cc sng mang vi nhau, ngha l khng c s trc giao
gia chng. Hin tng ny c minh ha nh trn hnh v trn. Khi my thu thc hin
gii iu ch sng mang 1, n gp nhiu t sng mang th 2 do trong khong FFT khng
c sai khc mt s nguyn ln chu k gia cc sng mang 1 v 2. chng li ICI cc k
hiu OFDM c m rng mt cch u n vo thi gian bo v gi l tin t lp (hnh 6
25). Vic chn tin t lp c thc hin bng cch sao chp phn u ca mi k hiu
OFDM vo phn cui ca k hiu .
Hnh 6 24: S tr ca sng mang 2 gy ra ICI trn sng mang 1
iu ny m bo cho cc phin bn tr a ng ca k hiu lun c mt s
nguyn ln chu k trong thi khong FFT (hnh 6 26), do vy cc tn hiu tr a ng
c tr nh hn khong bo v s khng gy ra ICI.
Sng mang 1
Sng mang 2
Khong bo v
Khong tnh FFT = 1 / khong cch sng mang
Thi khong OFDM
Phn ca sng
mang 2 gy ra ICI
trn sng mang 1
137
Nu tr a ng vt qu khong bo v mt phn nh ca thi khong tnh FFT
(khong 3%) cc sng mang khng cn trc giao na nhng nhiu vn vn nh gin
chm sao chp nhn c. Nu tr a ng vt qu khong bo v 10% ca thi
khong FFT th gin chm sao b nh hng nghim trng, do vy t l li l khng
chp nhn c.
Hnh 6 25: Minh ha vic chn CP
Hnh 6 26: K hiu OFDM vi tin t lp
6.10.4. To ca s
V c bn tn hiu OFDM c cc sng mang QAM khng c lc, do vy ph
ngoi di tn s gim rt chm theo hm sinc. ph ngoi di gim nhanh hn to ca s
c p dng cho mi k hiu OFDM. Mi k hiu OFDM c p dng ca s s c
Cyclic prefix x(0), x(1) x(N-2-M), x(N-1-M) x(N-2), x(N-1)
Time
N-1 N-1-M 0 -M
138
bin ph gim ti 0 mt cch trn tru ti bin ca k hiu. C rt nhiu loi ca s
c dng tuy nhin loi thng dng nht l hm cosin tng, c nh ngha l:

'

+ +

+ +

s s s s
s s
s s
T t T T T t
T t T
T t T t
t w
) 1 ( )) /( ) cos(( 5 . 0 5 . 0
1
0 )) /( cos( 5 . 0 5 . 0
) (


(6 68)
Trong T
s
l khong ca k hiu OFDM,

l h s nghing (roll off) ca hm


cosin tng. T
s
nh hn tng thi khong ca k hiu v cc k hiu ln cn nhau c php
chng ln mt phn ln nhau, do vy cy trc ca tn hiu OFDM theo thi gian c dng
nh sau:
Hnh 6 26: S m rng ca chu k ca OFDM
6.10.5. Ghp xen
Do fading la chn tn s trong knh v tuyn, cc sng mang OFDM thng c
bin khc nhau. S thng ging su trong ph tn s l nguyn nhn mt nhm cc sng
mang l km tin cy so vi cc sng mang khc, do vy li bit xy ra mt cch t ngt
ch khng phn tn mt cch ngu nhin. Ghp xen c s dng ngu nhin s ny
sinh li bit trc khi c gii m. Ti ni pht cc bit m ha c hon v theo mt cch
nht nh m bo rng cc bit lin k c cch nhau mt vi bit sau khi ghp xen. Ti
ni thu, s hon v ngc li c thc hin trc khi gii m. Kiu ghp xen thng
c s dng l xen khi (block interleaver), trong chui d liu vo c a vo mt
ma trn theo ct v c c ra theo hng. Bng 1 sau y trnh by nguyn l ghp xen.
0 8 16 24 32 40
T
prefix
T
t
= T+ T
c
T
T
postfix
T
s
139
1 9 17 25 33 41
2 10 18 26 34 42
3 11 19 27 35 43
4 12 20 28 36 44
5 13 21 29 37 45
6 14 22 30 38 46
7 15 23 31 39 47
Thng thng b ghp xen khi c kch thc ca khi l M
b
bit v d ct, bit th i
lin h vi bit m ha th k li vo l:

,
_


B
B
N
id
floor N id k ) 1 (
(6 69)
6.10.6. Tc dng ca chn CP
Bn pht
Gi s mt h thng OFDM gm N sng mang th cp, rng bng l W Hz,
rng k hiu l T (s), s dng chn CP
Cc sng mang th cp c dng:
] , 0 [
1
) (
) ( 2
t t vi e
T T
t
cp
T t k
N
W
j
cp
k

(6 70)
] , 0 [ 0 ) ( T t vi t
k

Trong T l thi khong ca mt k hiu OFDM sau khi chn CP,
CP
T
W
N
T +
,
T
CP
l thi khong ca k hiu chn CP (c chn ln hn tri tr ca knh)
Ch rng
) / ( ) ( N W t t
k K
+
khi t nm trong thi khong ca tin t lp
] , 0 [
CP
T t
.
140
Khi
) (t
k

l xung ch nht c iu ch vi sng mang tn s kW/N th hiu theo


mt cch thng thng l h thng s dng N sng mang th cp c tc thp. Do vy
k hiu OFDM th l ca sng mang th k ca tn hiu thng thp tng ng l:


1
0
,
) ( ) (
N
k
k l k l
lT t x t s (6 71)
Trong x
k,l
l tp cc k t trong gin chm sao. Khi v s cc k hiu OFDM
c truyn i, li ra ca b pht l:


l l
N
k
k l k l
lT t x t s t s
1
0
,
) ( ) ( ) (
(6 72)
Knh truyn
Gi s knh c p ng xung l
) , ( t g
bin i theo thi gian vi tri tr
] , 0 [
CP
T
th tn hiu n ni thu sau khi qua knh l:

+
CP
T
t n d t s t g t s g t r
0
) (
~
) ( ) , ( ) )( * ( ) (
(6 73)
Trong
) (
~
t n
l nhiu Gauss trng cng vo knh truyn
Bn thu
khi phc li tn hiu truyn, bn thu s s dng cc hm sng mang c s
) (t
k

vi k = 0, 1, , N 1 tha mn iu kin sau:


lai cn t vi t
T T t vi t T t
K
CP K K
0 ) (
] , 0 [ ) ( ) (
*


(6 74)
Khong thi gian bn thu c dng l T - T
CP
ng bng thi gian ca tn hiu ban
u khi cha chn CP. y chnh l qu trnh tch CP v loi b nhiu ISI. Tht vy khi
tri tr ca knh nm trong khong thi gian ca CP nn vic tnh ton c thc hin trn
khong thi gian ca mi k hiu truyn i. T ta c th b qua ch s th l khi tnh
ton li ra ca sng mang th k. Tn hiu thu c c dng:
141

,
_

1
]
1

T
T
T
T
k k
N
l
l l
K
T t
K k
CP CP
dt t t T n dt t d t x t g
dt t T t r t r y
) ( * ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) , (
) ( ) ( ) )( * (
1


(6 75)
Gi s knh truyn l khng i trong thi khong mt k hiu OFDM khi c
th b qua bin t trong khi cng thc trn tr thnh:


+
1
1
]
1

,
_

T
T
k
N
l
k
T
T
T
l l k
CP CP
CP
dt t t T n dt t d t g x y ) ( * ) ( ) ( * ) ( ) (
1
0
0

(6 76)
Khong ly tch phn trong cng thc trn dn n ta c:


d e g
T T
d t g
CP
CP
CP
T
N
W
T t l j
CP
T
l


0
) ( 2
0
) (
1
) ( ) (
(6 77)

d e g
T T
e
CP
CP
T
N
W
l j
CP
N
W
T t l j

0
2
) ( 2
) (
(6 78)
Thc hin ly mu p ng xung ca knh ti cc tn s
N
W
l
ta c:


d e g
N
W
l G h
CP
T
N
W
l j
l



0
2
) ( ) ( (6 79)
S dng bin i fourier ta c th bi din li l:

T
T
k
N
l
k
T
T
l
CP
N
W
T t l j
l k
CP CP
CP
dt t t T n dt t h
T T
e
x y ) ( * ) ( ) ( *
1
0
) ( 2

(6 80)

+
1
0
) ( * ) (
N
l
k
T
T
k l l l
n dt t t h x
CP

(6 81)
Vi


T
T
k k
CP
dt t t T n n ) ( * ) (
: Do cc sng mang l trc giao ta c:
142
) ( ) ( * ) (
) ( 2 ) ( 2
l k dt
T T
e
T T
e
dt t t
T
T CP
N
W
T t k j
CP
N
W
T t l j
T
T
k l
CP
CP CP
CP






(6 82)
Trong
) (k
l xung Dirac, T ta c phng trnh:
y
k
= x
k
h
k
+ n
k
(6 83)
T kt trn ta thy y
k
khng ph thuc vo x
l
vi l

k, nh vy gi tr thu c sau
khi gii iu ch tn hiu OFDM c s dng CP loi b c nh hng ca ISI v ICI
do gi c tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang con.
6.10.7. La chn cc thng s
Vic la chn cc thng s cho h OFDM l kh kh khn do mu thun gia cc
yu cu nn cn c s dung ha gia cc thng s ca h thng.
Thng c ba thng s chnh t ra trc tin l: rng bng, tc bit, v
tri tr. tri tr nh hng trc tip ti khong bo v. Khong bo v thng chn
bng 2 ti 4 ln cn qun phng tri tr. Gi tr chnh xc ph thuc vo loi m ha v
phng php iu ch.
ti thiu s tn hao trong t s SNR gy ra bi khong bo v, rng ca k
hiu phi ln hn khong bo v. N khng th chn ty v khi rng ca k hiu tng
ln th s sng mang th cp cng tng theo, dn n s phc tp trong thc hin v h
nhy hn vi nhiu pha v offset tn s. Thng thng rng k hiu OFDM chn bng
t nht 5 ln khong bo v ng vi mt mt trong SNR khong 1dB.
Sng mang con Ns c xc nh trc tip theo khong cch sng mang hay
Ns=1/T. S sng mang con c th tnh c bng cch ly tc bit yu cu chia cho s
bit trn mi sng mang. S bit trn mi sng mang c nh ngha bi loi iu ch s
dng (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM,), t l m ha (coding rate), v tc d liu (symbol
rate).
V d:
Thit k mt h OFDM tha mn cc yu cu:
Tc bit: 20Mbps
Dung sai tri tr cho php: 200ns
143
rng bng: <15MHz
Gii:
T gi thit trn ta xc nh c khong thi gian bo v Tg = 800 ns (4 ln dung
sai tri tr). Chn khong OFDM bng 6 ln thi gian bo v Ts = 6*800ns = 4.8
s
tn
hao trong SNR nh hn 1dB.
Khong cch gia cc sng mang con l 1/(4.8 - 0.8) = 250KHz.
S sng mang con c xc nh da theo t s gia tc bit yu cu v tc
k hiu OFDM. t c 20Mbps, mi k hiu OFDM phi mang 96 bit thng tin
(96/4.8
s
= 20 Mbps) do c 2 s la chn.
- S dng 16QAM, t s m ha c 2 bit / mi sng mang, trng hp ny
cn 96/2 = 48 sng mang con.
- S dng QPSK, t s m ha c 1.5 bit trn mi sng mang. Trng hp
ny cn 96/1.5 = 64 sng mang con.
Nhng vi 64 sng mang con th rng bng W l 64*250 = 16MHz, nn khng
tha mn. Vy c W < 16 MHz th s sng mag phi c nh hn 64, do chn 48
sng mang v iu ch 16QAM l p ng c yu cu. Mt thun li khc ca s la
chn ny l c th thc hin IFFT / FFT c s 4 ca 64 im rt hiu qu khi xen thm 16
sng mang bng 0 vo 48 sng mang trn tng tc ly mu cn thit, trnh s
chng ln ph c th xy ra.
Ngoi ra mt yu cu na c th nh hng vic la chn cc thng s l s m
bo tn ti mt s nguyn ln mu trong thi khong tnh FFT. Vi v d trn, cn phi c
chnh xc 64 mu trong thi khong FFT m bo s trc giao gia cc sng mang con.
iu ny t c bng cch thc hin ly mu tc 64/4 = 16 MHz. Tuy nhin, tc
ly mu thc t s khng c c mt s nguyn mu trong khong 4.8
s
ca k hiu,
nn gii php l thay i mt trong cc thng s. Chng hn s mu mi k hiu c th t
l 78, tc ly mu l 78/4.8 = 16.25 MHz. Thi khong FFT l 64/16.25 = 3.9385
s
.
Do vy khong bo v v khong cch sng mang con by gi ln hn so vi trng hp
khi khong FFT l 4
s
.
6.10.8. ng dng ca OFDM
144
Vi nhng u im ca mnh PCM ni chung v OFDM ni ring ngy cng c
a vo p ng trong thc t. Gn y nh: Pht thanh s (DAB), truyn hnh s (DVB).
Kt qu th nghim trong lnh vc ny cho thy cht lng m thanh v hnh nh c
nng ln rt nhiu, nn cng khng nh c u im ca k thut OFDM so vi k thut
tng t.
DAB c chun ha nm 1995 bi ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard
Institute) l tiu chun u tin s dng OFDM.
H thng truyn hnh s mt t (DVB T) c chun ha nm 1997. DVB T
p dng k thut OFDM s dng 2 mod l 1705 v 6817 sng mang th cp. Cc mod ny
c xem nh l cc mod 2K v 8K tng ng bi cc mod chnh l kch thc IFFT /
FFT s dng pht v gii iu ch cho cc sng mang th cp. nguyn nhn quan trng
s dng OFDM trong DAB v DVB T l kh nng thc hin mng tn s chung.
Ngoi ra OFDM cn s dng trong ADSL, HDSL, HIPERLAN.
145
Chng 7:
H thng thng tin di ng th h th 3
7.1. Yu cu chung i vi h thng thng tin di ngt h h th 3
B phn tiu chun ca ITU-R (International Telecomemunication Union Radio
Sector: Lin minh vin thng quc t - B phn v tuyn) xy dng tiu chun cho
IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunication-2000:vin thng di ng quc t-
2000).IMT-2000 m rng ng k kh nng cung cp dch v v bao ph mt vng
rng ln cc mi trng thng tin.Mc ch ca IMT-2000 l a ra nhiu kh nng mi
nhng cng ng thi m bo pht trin lin tc ca thng tin di ng th h 2(2G) vo
nhng nm 2000.Thng tin tin ng th h 3 (3G)xy dng trn c s IMT-2000 s c
a vo phc v t nm 2001.Cc h thng 3G s cung cp rt nhiu dch v vin thng
bao gm:thoi,s liu tc bit thp v bit cao, a phng tin,video cho ngi s dng
lm vic c mi trng cng cng ln t nhn (vng cng s,vng dn c,phng tin
vn ti)
Cc tiu ch chung xy dng IMT-2000 nh sau:
S dng di tn qui nh quc t 2Ghz nh sau:
- ng ln :1885-2025 Mhz.
- ng xung:2110-2200 Mhz.
L h thng thng tin di ng ton cu cho cc loi hnh thng tin v tuyn :
- Tch hp cc mng thng tin h tuyn v v tuyn.
- Tng tc vi cc loi hnh dch v vin thng.
S dng cc mi trng khai thc khc nhau:
- Trong cng s.
- Ngoi ng.
- Trn xe.
- V tinh.
C th h tr cc dch v nh:
146
- Mi trng thng tin nh o (VHE:Virtual Home Environment)trn c s mng
thng minh,di ng c nhn v chuyn mng ton cu.
- m bo chuyn mng quc t.
- m bo cc dch v a phng tin ng thi cho thoi,s liu chuyn mch theo
knh v s liu chuyn mch theo gi.
D dng h tr cc dch v mi xut hin.
Mi trng hot ng ca IMT-2000 c chia thnh 4 vng vi cc tc bit R
b
phc v nh sau:
- Vng 1:trong nh, pico, R
b
2Mbit/s.
- Vng 2:thnh ph, micro, R
b
384kbit/s.
- Vng 3:ngai , marco, R
b
144kbit/s.
-Vng 4:ton cu R
b=
9,6kbit/s.
7.2. H thng CDMA
7.2.1. Vng ph sng ca cdma 2000
Vi h thng t ong CDMA, vng din tch dch v c chia thnh cc lc
gic. Mi gm mt trm c s, trm ny c ni vi tng i chuyn mch in
thoi di ng (MTSO) trong sut qu trnh m ho v gii m ting ni. Trong mi
c hai kt ni bao gm cc knh CDMA thun v ngc gia trm c s v mi my
di ng trong . Knh CDMA thun dch ni dung lin kt thun t trm c s ti
my di ng. Knh CDMA ngc biu din s lin kt ngc t my di ng ti trm
c s.
CDMA ti s dng tn s t l trong tng t ong v iu khin dung lng
h thng mt cch c hiu qu bi v CDMA l kiu chng nhiu tuyt vi.
Knh CDMA thun gm mt hoc nhiu knh m, c truyn theo vic gn
tn s CDMA, s dng dch hoa tiu PN c th. Mi trm c s dng mt dch
thi gian ca chui PN hoa tiu (pilot) (gi l chui gi nhiu tri) nhn dng knh
CDMA thun. dch thi gian c th ti s dng trong h thng t ong CDMA.
Mi knh m truyn trong knh CDMA thun c tri mt cch trc giao bi
hm Walsh ph hp to ra s phn knh trc giao trong tt c cc knh m v sau
c tri ra bi mt cp ghp cu phng (cng pha v vung pha) ca chui PN hoa
147
tiu, mc ch ca vic ny l truyn tn hiu tri dng sng dch pha vung gc
(QPSK).
Knh CDMA ngc gm cc knh truy cp v knh lu thng ngc. Knh
truy cp (knh li vo) c s dng cho vic trao i tin bo hiu ngn cho cc cuc
gi gc, tr li cc bn tin, cc lnh v s ng k. Tt c d liu truyn trn knh
CDMA ngc c m ho chp dng sa li, xen khi (block interleaved)
trnh li cm v ci thin cht lng h thng bi d tha truy cp (access
redundancy). Cc d liu c iu ch bi hm Walsh 64 mc nhm to ra s phn
ng trc giao v tri ph trc tip bi m di (long code) t c s bo mt
gii hn trong mt qu trnh truyn.
7.2.2. Cu trc ca knh cdma 2000
Cc kt ni ca CDMA thun gm knh hoa tiu, knh ng b, nhn tin v
mt s knh lu lng thun. Mt v d tiu biu ca knh CDMA thun gm 64
knh m. Trong s 64 knh m, CDMA thun gm knh hoa tiu, mt knh ng b,
7 knh nhn tin, 55 knh lu thng thun.
Knh hoa tiu l tn hiu khng iu ch, tri ph trc tip v truyn lin tc
bi mi trm c s CDMA. My di ng gim st knh hoa tiu thu nhn tn hiu
nh thi ca knh CDMA thun v cung cp pha chun cho gii iu ch kt hp.
Knh m s khng (Wo) lun lun c gn cho knh hoa tiu.
Knh ng b c gn cho knh m s 32 (W
32
) knh ny vn chuyn bn tin
ng b ti my di ng. Quan trng hn, knh ng b l tn hiu tri ph m
ho, xen k, tri, v iu ch m tn hiu ny c s dng bi cc my di ng
thu tn hiu nh thi gc.
Knh nhn tin cng l tn hiu tri ph m ho, xen k, tri v iu ch
c s dng cho s truyn thng tin iu khin v bn tin t trm c s ti my di
ng. Knh nhn tin c gn cho knh m t s 1 n s 7 (W
1
W
7
).
Knh lu lng thun c s dng cho pht thng tin ca ng i dng v bo
hiu t trm c s ti mt my di ng trong sut thi gian cuc gi. S knh lu
lng thun ti a bng 63 tr i s knh ng b v knh nhn tin hot ng trong
cng knh CDMA thun.
Tc d liu ti li vo knh l nh sau:
1. Knh hoa tiu truyn tt c bit 0 tc 19,2 kbps
148
2. Knh ng b hot ng tc c nh 1200bps
3. Knh nhn tin h tr tc d liu c nh hot ng ti 9600, 4800, hoc
2400 bit/s.
4. Knh lu lng thun h tr d liu thay i tc 9600, 4800, 2400 hoc
1200 bit/s.
Nhng k hiu m ho thng thng c xc nh l li ra ca b m ho
sa li. Cc bit thng tin l li vo ca b m ho v cc k hiu m l li ra ca b
m ho. Tt c cc knh m tr knh hoa tiu, mi k hiu m ho c lp li
trc khi xen khi bt c khi no tc thng tin thp hn 9600 bit/s.
Vi knh lu thng v knh nhn tin, s lp li ph thuc vo tc d liu
ca mi knh. Mi k hiu m tc d liu 4,8 kp/s c lp li mt ln (mi k
hiu 2 ln). Mi k hiu m tc 2,4 kb/s lp li 3 ln (mi k hiu 4 ln). Mi k
hiu m tc d kiu 1,2 kb/s lp li 7 ln (mi k hiu 8 ln). V vy, vi tt c
cc tc d liu (9.6, 4.8, 2.4, v 1.2 kb/s) s lp li k hiu s dn n tc k
hiu iu ch khng i 19.2 ksps. Vi knh ng b, mi k hiu m ho c lp
li 1 ln (mi k hiu 2 ln) v tc k hiu iu ch l 4800 sps.
Tt c cc k hiu sau khi lp trong knh ng b, nhn tin, lu thng thun
c xen khi. Mc ch ca vic s dng xen khi l bo v d liu khi li cm
trong khi truyn chng qua mi trng fading a ng. Sau khi xen k, mi knh m
trong knh CDMA thun c tri trc giao bi mt trong 64 hm Walsh v sau
c tri bi mt cp trc giao ca chui hoa tiu PN tc chip c nh 1.2288
Mcps. D liu nh phn (0 hoc 1) tri trc giao c cung cp cho cc mch lc bng
gc. Tip sau mch lc bng gc, knh CDMA thun gm kho dch pha nh phn, d
liu c iu ch vi sng mang to ra kho dch pha vung gc QPSK trc khi
truyn.
Xo trn d liu thch hp cung cp cho knh nhn tin v knh lu thng
thun. Xo trn d liu c thc hin trong b xen khi (block interleaver). Ti li
ra, tc k hiu iu ch 19,2 ksps. Xo trn d liu c thc hin nh vic cng
modunlo-2 ca tn hiu li ra b xen k vi gi tr nh phn ca m di. M di l mt
chui PN 2
42


-1. Chui ny s dng cho s xo trn trong knh CDMA thun (c th l
knh nhn tin v lu thng thun) v tri ph trong knh CDMA ngc (c th l
knh truy cp v knh lu thng ngc)
149
Mt n m di l s nh phn 42-bit. Mi chip PN ca m di c to ra bi
php nhn modulo-2 ca 42 bit mt n v 42 bit trng thi LFSR trong my pht m
di. M di hot ng tc ng h 1.2288MHz l tng ng vi chui chip
PN li ra ca my pht m di. Ch l chip PN c nh ngha l mt bit trong
chui PN. Khi m di c chia thnh 64bit (hoc chip), bit u tin trong 64 bit
c s dng cho vic xo trn d liu tc 19,2 bit/s.
Trm c s khng a vo knh con iu khin cng sut trong knh nhn tin.
Nhng knh con iu khin cng sut trong knh lu thng thun truyn cc bit iu
khin cng sut mt cch lin tc tc 800 bit/s c th l mt bit (0 hoc 1) truyn
vi tc 1,25ms (=1/800). Bit iu khin cng sut 0 th hin my di ng cn
tng mc iu khin cng sut ra trung bnh v bit iu khin cng sut 1 ch ra
rng my di ng cn gim mc cng sut ra trung bnh. V vy my di ng s iu
chnh mc cng sut ra trung bnh ca n p ng s nhn bit iu khin cng sut
ng trong knh lu thng thun.
Knh CDMA ngc bao gm knh truy cp, knh lu thng ngc. D liu
truyn trong knh CDMA ngc c nhm thnh cc khung 20ms. Tt c d liu
truyn trong knh CDMA ngc c m ho cho vic sa li ngu nhin bo v
b xen khi khi li cm (burst). Cc d liu ny c iu ch bi cc m 64-
Walsh. Chng gm 64 chip v c tri ph chui trc tip bi m di chu k 2
42


-1
chip trc khi truyn.
B ngu nhin cm d liu khng c s dng khi my di ng truyn trong
knh truy cp. Nhng trong knh ngc, b ngu nhin cm d liu to ra phn mt
n gm cc s 0 v 1. Cc s ny che i nhng d liu tha to ra bi s pht lp m.
Knh lu thng ngc v knh truy cp c tri chui trc tip bi m di. S tri
chui ny lin quan n cng modulo-2 ca tn hiu li ra t b ngu nhin.
Mt khung c nh ngha l khong nh thi c bn trong h thng. Vi
knh truy cp, knh nhn tin, v knh lu lng thun nghch th 1 khung ko di 20
ms. Vi knh ng b, 1 khung l 26.666 ms.
B ch th gi tr khung l kim tra CRC cho khung knh lu thng l 9600
bit/s v 4800bit/s. M d tha tun hon (CRC) l 1 lp m d li tuyn tnh to ra
cc bit kim tra chn l bng cch tm ra phn d ca php chia a thc. B ch th gi
tr khung h tr 2 chc nng ti my thu. Chc nng u tin l xc nh tc
truyn khung. Chc nng th hai l xc nh c hay khng c li khung.
150
Cc bit phn m ho cui biu din chui bit c nh c thm vo phn
cui khung d liu khi phc li m nhn chp thnh trng thi bit. D liu
truyn hoc knh CDMA ngc hoc l knh CDMA thun c nhm trong
khung 20ms.
Cu trc khung c knh lu lng thun v knh lu lng thng ngc
c m t nh sau:
(I) Mi khung knh lu lng ngc truyn ti:
1. Tc d liu 9600bit/s gm 192bit vi 172 bit thng tin, 12 khung b ch th
gi tr v 8 bit ui m ho
2. Tc d liu 4800 bit/s gm 80 bit thng tin, 8 bit CRC, 8 bit ui m ho
3. Tc 2400 bit/s gm 48 bit vi 40 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui m, 8 bit CRC
khng c s dng khung knh lu thng ngc ti tc ny.
4. Tc d liu 1200 bit/s gm 24 bit. Trong c 16 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui
m, 8 bit CRC khng c s dng khung knh lu thng ngc ti tc
ny.
5. Mi khung knh truy cp gm 96 bit (20 ms khung tc 4800 bit/s) Trong
c 88 bit thng tin v 8 bit ui m, 8 bit CRC khng c s dng trong
knh ny.
(II) Mi khung knh lu lng thun truyn ti:
1. Tc d liu 9600 bit/s gm 192 bit trong 172 bit thng tin, 12 bit ui
m.
2. Tc d liu 4800 bit/s gm 96 bit trong c 8 bit thng tin, l 8 bit CRC, 8
bit CRC, 8 bit ui m.
3. Tc d liu 2400 bit/s gm 48 bit trong gm 40 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui
m. 8 bit CRC khng c s dng trong knh lu thng thun tc ny.
4. Tc d liu 120 bit/s gm 24 bit trong c 16 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui m,
8 bit CRC khng c s dng cho knh ny ti tc d liu 1200 bit/s.
7.3. W CDMA
Mt s c tnh ca h thng W-CDMA
Cng ngh W-CDMA c cc tnh nng c s sau:
- Hot ng CDMA bng rng vi bng tn 5Mhz.
151
- Lp vt l mm do tch hp c tt c cc tc trn 1 sng mang
- H s ti s dng tn s bng 1.
Ngoi ra cng ngh ny cn c tng cng cc tnh nng sau:
- Phn tp pht.
- Anten thch ng.
- H tr cc cu trc thu tin tin.
W-CDMA nhn c s ng h ln nht trc ht nh tnh linh hot ca lp vt l
trong vic h tr cc kiu dch v khc nhau c bit l cc dch v tc bit thp v trung
bnh. Nhc im ca WCDMA l h thng khng cp php trong bng TDD vi pht
thu lin tc, cng ngh WCDMA khng to iu kin cho cc k thut chng nhiu cc
mi trng lm vic nh thoi khng dy.
7.4. H thng lai ghp TDMA v CDMA (h thng UTRA TDD)
TDMA/CDMA bng rng
Cc tnh nng c s ca cng ngh ny bao gm:
- Phn cch tn s 1,6 Mhz.
- Cu trc cm cha an gia nh gi knh.
- Khi nim CDMA c p dng trn nn cu trc TDMA tng tnh linh hot.
- Gim nhiu giao thoa bn trong bng cch s dng tch tn hiu a ngi s dng
trong 1 khe trn cng sng mang.
- Gim kch c ti s dng xung 3.
- Nhy tn.
- Trit nhiu giao thoa gia cc .
- H tr anten thch ng
- Hot ng ch TDD.
- Phn b knh ng (DCA:Dynamic Chanel Allocation)
Nhc im ca cng ngh ny l my thu phc tp.
UTRA TDD cho php hot ng ph mt tn s

152
Tn s [MHz]
1900 1920 1980 2010 2025 2110 2170
TDD
Rx/Tx
FDD Tx MS TDD
Bx/Tx
FDD Rx
MS
Hnh 7 - 1. Tn s dnh cho UTRA TDD
rng bng tn 5MHz

Khong bo v
Hnh 7 - 2. Nguyn l hot ng ca FDD v TDD
Phng php TDD s dng chung 1 bng tn s nhng thay i lun phin phng
truyn dn theo thi gian.
C 2 c tnh ring cho h thng TDD:
- S dng bng tn n:
- Pht khng lin tc: Chuyn mch gia cc phng pht i hi thi gian v cn
phi iu khin c qu khi chuyn mch. trnh truyn dn gia 2 phng chng
ln ln nhau, pht ln v pht xung i hi 1 phng tin thng nht phng pht v
thi gian c php pht. Ngoi ra cng cn c 1 khong thi gian bo v. Pht khng lin
tc c th gy nhiu cho thit b m thanh nu thit b ny khng tun theo cc yu cu
nhy cm in t.
- Nhiu gia ng ln v ng xung : V ng truyn ln v ng xung
chung tn s , tn hiu trn 2 phng truyn c th gy nhiu cho nhau. Trong UTRA TDD
cc BS c ng b mc khung trnh nhiu ny.
- Phn b dung lng ng ln v xung khng i xng: Trong TDD ng ln
v xung c phn chia trong min thi gian.C th thay i im chuyn mch song
cng v dch chuyn dung lng t ng ln sang ng xung hay ngc li ph thuc
vo yu cu gia ng ln v ng xung.
ng
xuong
ng
len
ng
xung
ng ln
153
- Knh tng h: Pha inh nhanh ph thuc tn s v TDD c ng ln v
ng xung u chung 1 tn s, pha inh nhanh nh nhau c 2 ng. Trn c s tn
hiu thu, my thu pht TDD c th nh gi pha inh nhanh s tc ng ln qu trnh pht
ca n. Hiu bit v pha inh nhanh c th c s dng iu khin cng sut v cc k
thut anten thch ng TDD.
154