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Welding duplex applications the ESAB way

XA00097320

Consumables designed to give a long life


The number of applications for duplex stainless steels has steadily increased. Demanding industries like the petrochemical, process and pulp and paper industry often act at the front line and explore new materials that can meet their requirements. Today, many duplex and superduplex applications can be found within this field. The positional flux-cored wires OK Tubrod 14.27 (E2209 T1-1, T1-4) and OK Tubrod 14.28 (E2553 T0-4) were originally designed for welding of duplex and superduplex pipes and to meet the rigorous weld metal requirements set by the offshore industry. OK Tubrod 14.27 has a fast-freezing slag system and can reach a deposition rate of up to 3 kg/h. It has been used successfully for assembly welds in many chemical tanker projects. Another example is the Cr-alloying flux OK Flux 10.94 which, in combination with solid wire OK Autrod 16.88, produces a weld metal with extra-high pitting corrosion resistance. Or electrode OK 67.53 designed for welding thin-walled (e.g. 2 mm) duplex pipes for the pulp and paper industry.

Approval
To meet and exceed customer expectations, ESAB has been involved in intensive quality-improvement programmes backed by certification from internationally recognised independent quality assurance organisations. They include ISO certification for manufacturing and product certification from TV, Lloyds Register, DNV and many others. Most of ESAB stainless consumables are certified by at least one of these bodies.

Product data
Product name Description Classication Typical all weld metal chemical composition Mechanical properties
Rp0.2 660 MPa Rm 820 MPa A5 25% Charpy-V +20C 50 J Rp0.2 660 MPa Rm 840 MPa A5 25% Charpy-V +20C 50 J Rp0.2 650 MPa Rm 800 MPa A5 28% Charpy-V +20C 100 J -20C 85 J -40C 75 J -60C 65 J Rp0.2 700 MPa Rm 850 MPa A5 30% Charpy-V +20C 50 J Rp0.2 700 MPa Rm 900 MPa A5 28% Charpy-V +20C 90 J -40C 55 J -60C 45 J Rp0.2 600 Rm 760 MPa A5 30% Charpy-V +20 C >100 J Rp0.2 670 MPa Rm 850 MPa A5 28% Charpy-V +20C 80 J (MIG) +20C 150 J (TIG) Rp0.2 600 MPa Rm 760 MPa A5 33% Charpy-V -20C 50 J Rp0.2 600 MPa Rm 760 MPa A5 33% Charpy-V +20C 50 J -40C 35 J Rp0.2 710 MPa Rm 890 MPa A5 25% Charpy-V +20C 40 J -40C 27 J Rp0.2 630 MPa Rm 780 MPa A5 28% Charpy-V +20C 140 J -60C 80 J Rp0.2 626 MPa Rm 830 MPa A5 28% Charpy-V +20C 90 J Rp0.2 630 MPa Rm 830 MPa A5 28% Charpy-V +20C 140 J -60C 50 J

MMA

OK 67.50

Duplex acidrutile MMA stick electrode Duplex rutile MMA stick electrode Duplex basic MMA stick electrode

AWS A/SFA 5.4 E2209-17 EN1600 E 22 9 3 L R 32 AWS A/SFA 5.4 (E2209-16) EN1600 E 22 9 3 L R 12 AWS A/SFA 5.4 E2209-15 EN1600 E 22 9 3 LB 22

C 0.03 Si 0.7 Mn 0.6 Cr 22 Ni 9.5 Mo 3.3 N 0.16

Ferrite Approvals content/ CPT*/PRE** FN 30-45/ TV 27.5-30C/ CO DNV, GL 35.5 CWB

OK 67.53

C 0.03 Si 1.1 Mn 0.7 Cr 22 Ni 9.5 Mo 3.3 N 0.17

FN 30-45/ 27.5-30C/ 36 FN 35/ 27.5-30C/ 35.5

TV DNV CO DNV TV CWB

OK 67.55

C 0.03 Si 0.6 Mn 0.9 Cr 22 Ni 9.5 Mo 3.3 N 0.16

OK 68.53

Superduplex basic-rutile MMA stick electrode Superduplex basic MMA stick electrode

EN1600 E 25 10 4 L R 32

C 0.03 Si 0.6 Mn 0.6 Cr 25.5 Ni 10 Mo 4 N 0.25

FN 30-45/ 60C/ 43 FN 30-45/ 60C/ 43

OK 68.55

EN 1600 E 25 9 4 L B 42

C 0.035 Si 0.5 Mn 0.9 Cr 25.5 Ni 9.5 Mo 4 N 0.25

MIG/TIG

OK Autrod 16.86/ Duplex solidwire electrode OKTigrod 16.86

AWS A/SFA 5.9 ER2209 EN 12072 G/W 22 9 3 N L EN 12072-99 G/W 25 9 4 N L

C 0.02 Si 0.5 Mn 1.6 Cr 22.5 Ni 9 Mo 3 N 0.15

FN 30-45/ 25-30C/ 35 FN 30-50/ 50-60C/ 42

TV (opitional) DNV GL

OK Autrod 16.88/ Superduplex OK Tigrod 16.88 solid-wire


electrode

C 0.02 Si 0.4Mn 0.4 Cr 25 Ni 10 Mo 4 N 0.25

FCAW

OKTubrod 14.27

Duplex rutile, allpositional, uxcored wire

AWS A/SFA A5.22 E2209 T1-1 and T1-4 EN 12073 T 22 9 3 N L P M 2 T 22 9 3 N L P C 2 AWS A/SFA A5.22 E2209 T0-1 and T0-4 EN 12073 T 22 9 3 N L R M 3 T 22 9 3 N L R C 3 AWS A/SFA A5.22 E2553 T1-4

C 0.03 Si 0.9 Mn 0.9 Cr 22 Ni 9 Mo 3 N 0.15

FN 30-45/ 30C/ 35

TV, GL, DNV, LR, Rina, CO, UDT, ABS TV, GL, DNV, LR,

OKTubrod 14.37

Duplex rutile, down-hand, uxcored wire

C 0.03 Si 0.9 Mn 0.9 Cr 22 Ni 9 Mo 3 N 0.15

FN 30-45/ 27.5-30C/ 36

OKTubrod 14.28

Superduplex rutile all positional ux-cored wire Basic ux/duplex solid wire for SAW welding

C 0.03 Si 0.7 Mn 1.0 Cr 25 Ni 9.5 Mo 4 N 0.25

FN 30-45/ 60C/ 43

SAW

OK Flux 10.93/ OK Autrod16.86

EN 760 SA AF 2 DC EN 12072 S 22 9 3 N L EN 760 SA AF 2 Cr DC EN 12072 S 25 9 4 N L EN 760 SA AF 2 DC SA AF 2 DC EN 12072 S 22 9 3 N L

C 0.03 Si 0.5 Mn 1.4 Cr 22 Ni 9 Mo 3 N 0.15

FN 30-50/ 27.5-30C/ 34

TV, DNV, CO

OK Flux 10.94/ OKAutrod16.88

Basic Cr-alloying ux/super duplex solid wire for SAW welding Basic backing ux for one-sided welding of duplex stainless steel

C 0.02 Si 0.5 Mn 0.5 Cr 25 Ni 9.5 Mo 4 N 0.25

FN 30-50/ 60C/ 43 FN 30-50/ 27.5-30C/ 34

OK Flux 10.93 Backing/ OK Flux 10.93/ OK Autrod 16.86

OSW

C 0.03 Si 0.5 Mn 1.4 Cr 22 Ni 9 Mo 3 N 0.15

*CPT= Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) in ferric chloride, according to ASTM G48 Composition and property data are subject to change without notice.

**PRE=% Cr+ 3.3%Mo+16%N

Applications
Duplex chemical tankers
Todays, modern chemical tankers are highly sophisticated ships with the latest technology for safe cargo handling. The cargo range from crude chemicals to edible oils, fruit juices and even wine. Nowadays, most chemical cargo tanks are constructed of duplex stainless steel due to its good corrosion resistance and high strength. Several thousand tonnes of duplex stainless steel are used to build a mid-sized chemical tanker. It need to be joined using different welding processes, offering the shipyard the most productive and cost-effective solution. ESABs experience of this application dates back to the late 1980s when the first chemical tankers built of duplex were welded with our consumables. Today, ESAB is able to supply and support a wide product range that covers all the processes and materials for the production of chemical tankers.

Fabrication of a block section consisting of a tank cover with vertical corrugated walls in duplex stainless steel. The positional welding is performed with flux-cored wire OK Tubrod 14.27.

One-Sided Welding - a way to high productive panel fabrication


ESAB has developed a highly-productive alternative to the standard two-sided joining of the panels in chemical tankers using one-sided SAW (OSW) welding procedures with a special backing flux and with the support of a copper backing. Using this technique, the panels do not need to be moved from the welding station, turned and replaced before completing the weld. Instead, the joint can be completed from one side. Needless to say, this is a cost-effective alternative that can easily be implemented with a low investment cost. Please contact your nearest ESAB dealer or sales office if you are interested in this solution. You can also contact us at consumables@esab.se for more information.

ONE-SIDED SAW-SINGLE WIRE One-sided SAW of 22 mm duplex steel with multi-pass single wire. All distances are given in mm.

ONE-SIDED SAW-TANDEM WIRE One-sided SAW of 22 mm duplex steel with multi-pass tandem wire.

Joint figuration suitable for the one-sided SAW of panels in duplex chemical tankers.

Duplex stainless steels - a summary


Strong points
High strength and good toughness Good general corrosion resistance High resistance to pitting corrosion Not sensitive to stress corrosion cracking 22% Cr duplex: Timax=200C Super duplex. Timax=150C (Super duplex steels are particularly sensitive to high heat input and interpass temperatures.) *The heat input should not exceed 1 kJ/mm when welding thin plates.

Weak points
Should not be used at working temperatures of more than approximately 250C. Above this temperature embrittlement can occur.

Shielding and backing gases


Suitable shielding gases for welding duplex stainless steels are: TIG Ar or Ar-He mixtures MIG Ar-O 2 (1-3%), Ar-CO 2 (1-3%) or Ar-He-O 2 (1-3%) mixtures FCAW Ar-CO 2 (25%) mixtures or pure CO 2 Shielding and backing gases with nitrogen additions can be used in critical applications to improve corrosion resistance. When using pulsed MIG, pure Ar is recommended for the best results.

Heat input and interpass temperature recommendations


The general heat input and interpass temperature recommendations for welding duplex and superduplex stainless steels are: 0.5-2.5 kJ/mm for duplex grades, e.g. EN 1.4462, UNS S31803 0.2-1.5* kJ/mm for superduplex grades e.g. UNS S32750

Ferrite content prediction


The phase balance of the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) is vital when it comes to obtaining good properties in welds in duplex stainless steel. An excessively high ferrite content will cause brittleness, whereas a lack of ferrite will cause a loss of resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The weld metal ferrite content should normally be in the range of FN 30-100 (approximately 22-70%). The WCR-92 diagram is a useful tool for calculating the ferrite content of weld metals. The location of some ESAB consumables and the use of the diagram is illustrated below.

The WRC 1992 constitution diagram


The Cr eq and Ni eq of the steel and the all-weld metal are calculated from their chemical compositions, plotted on the diagram and joined by a line. This line represents all the possible compositions of the weld metal for different degrees of dilution. In the present example, a 30% dilution has been used and the predicted ferrite content of the weld is approximately FN 45. Location of:
1 Base material, SAF 2205 (EN 1.4462), remelted. 2 Duplex MMA weld metal, deposited with OK 67.50. 3 Duplex MIG weld metal, deposited with OK Autrod 16.86. 4 Superduplex MMA weld metal, deposited with OK 68.53. X Location of weld in SAF 2205 (EN 1.4462) welded with OK 67.50 MMA electrode assuming 30% dilution.

18

18

20

22
2 4

24
10 12

26
14

28

30 18

Nieq = Ni + 35 C + 20 N + 0.25 Cu

16

35

A AF

16 1 2 8 22 0 2 24 28 6

4 50 5

16

14

FA

3 2

12

55 60 65 70 14 75 80 85 90 5 9 100

12

F
10
1

10

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

Creq = Cr + Mo + 0.7 Nb

(Published in Welding Journal by D.J. Kotecki and T.A. Siewert)

Rules of thumb
Before welding
A slightly wider root gap and joint angle than those used for standard stainless steel should be used to obtain good penetration. Use ceramic backing to facilitate root pass welding. The joint and the adjacent base metal should be thoroughly cleaned. Only stainless brushes should be used for cleaning. Preheating is normally not recommended. Dry electrodes should always be used. ESAB can supply the duplex electrodes in ESAB VacPac which is an effective system for handling welding electrodes. Three package sizes are adapted to match consumption during a normal working shift. This eliminates costly re-drying procedures. strikes can act as initiation points for pitting corrosion and cracks. Maintain proper arc length and stick-out to avoid nitrogen pick-up. A correct root gas shield is important. Suitable backing gases are high-purity Ar and mixtures containing N 2 and H 2 . Excessive weaving should be avoided. It can result in an overly high heat input.

After welding
Thorough cleaning after welding is essential to obtain good corrosion resistance. All slag and oxide on and around the weld must be removed. Brushing should be done manually and only with stainless brushes. Rotating brushes can result in micro-crevices in the weld metal. Subsequent heat treatment is normally not needed. Duplex steels and weld metals can, however, be solution heat treated (see steel producers recommendations). Stress relieving should be avoided as this can cause embrittlement of the steel and the weld metal. The flame straightening of deformed plates can be used, if the recommended procedure from the steel supplier is followed.

During welding
The heat input should be related to the plate thickness and welding method. A heat input which is too low or too high should be avoided (see heat input recommendations). Avoid striking the arc outside the joint. Arc

Recommended ESAB consumables


Contact your nearest ESAB dealer or our website, www.esab.com, for more product information.

Steel types
Lean and 22%Cr duplex grades

MMA
OK 67.50 OK 67.53 OK 67.55

MIG
OK Autrod 16.86

TIG
OK Tigrod 16.86

FCAW
OK Tubrod 14.27 OK Tubrod 14.37

SAW
OK Flux 10.93/ OK Autrod 16.86

25%Cr and superduplex grades Mild steel to duplex grades

OK 68.53 OK 68.55 OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

OK Autrod 16.88

OK Tigrod 16.88

OK Tubrod 14.28

OK Flux 10.94/ OK Autrod 16.88

67.50 OK Autrod 16.86 OK Tigrod 16.86 67.51 OK Autrod 16.53* OK Tigrod 16.53* 67.53 OK Autrod 16.54* OK Tigrod 16.54* 67.65 67.60* 67.62* 67.70* 67.75*

OK Tubrod 14.27 OK Flux 10.93/ OK Tubrod 14.37 OK Autrod 16.86 OK Tubrod 14.22* OK Autrod 16.53* OK Autrod 16.54*

* Austenitic stainless of the AWS 309L or 309LMo type.

ESAB subsidiaries and representative offices

Europe
AUSTRIA ESAB Ges.m.b.H Vienna-Liesing Tel: +43 1 888 25 11 Fax: +43 1 888 25 11 85 BELGIUM S.A. ESAB N.V. Brussels Tel: +32 2 745 11 00 Fax: +32 2 726 80 05

ITALY ESAB Saldatura S.p.A. Mesero (Mi) Tel:+39 02 97 96 81 Fax:+39 02 97 28 91 81 THE NETHERLANDS ESAB Nederland B.V. Utrecht Tel: +31 30 248 59 22 Fax: +31 30 248 52 60 NORWAY AS ESAB Larvik Tel:+47 33 12 10 00 Fax:+47 33 11 52 03 POLAND ESAB Sp.z.o.o Warszaw Tel: +48 22 813 99 63 Fax: +48 22 813 98 81 PORTUGAL ESAB Lda Lisbon Tel: +351 1 837 1527 Fax: +351 1 859 1277 SLOVAKIA ESAB Slovakia s.r.o. Bratislava Tel:+421 7 44 88 24 26 Fax:+421 7 44 88 87 41 SPAIN ESAB Ibrica S.A. Alcobendas (Madrid) Tel: +34 91 623 11 00 Fax: +34 91 661 51 83 SWEDEN ESAB Sverige AB Gothenburg Tel:+46 31 50 95 00 Fax:+46 31 50 92 22 ESAB International AB Gothenburg Tel:+46 31 50 90 00 Fax:+46 31 50 93 60 SWITZERLAND ESAB AG Dietikon Tel: +41 1 741 25 25 Fax: +41 1 740 30 55

South America
ARGENTINA CONARCO Buenos Aires Tel: +54 11 4 753 4039 Fax: +54 11 4 753 6313 BRAZIL ESAB S.A. Contagem-MG Tel: +55 31 333 43 33 Fax: +55 31 361 31 51 MEXICO ESAB Mexico S.A. Monterrey Tel: +52 8 350 5959 Fax: +52 8 350 7554

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Representative offices
BULGARIA ESAB Representative Office Sofia Tel/Fax: +359 2 974 42 88 EGYPT ESAB Egypt Dokki-Cairo Tel: +20 2 390 96 69 Fax: +20 2 393 32 13 ROMANIA ESAB Representative Office Bucharest Tel/Fax: +40 1 322 36 74 RUSSIA-CIS ESAB Representative Office Moscow Tel: +7 095 937 98 20 Fax: +7 095 937 95 80 ESAB Representative Office St Petersburg Tel: +7 812 325 43 62 Fax: +7 812 325 66 85

Asia/Pacific
AUSTRALIA ESAB Australia Pty Ltd Ermington Tel: +61 2 9647 1232 Fax: +61 2 9748 1685 CHINA Shanghai ESAB A/P Shanghai Tel: +86 21 6539 7124 Fax: +86 21 6543 6622 INDIA ESAB India Ltd Calcutta Tel: +91 33 478 45 17 Fax: +91 33 468 18 80 INDONESIA P.T. Esabindo Pratama Jakarta Tel: +62 21 460 01 88 Fax: +62 21 461 29 29 MALAYSIA ESAB (Malaysia) Snd Bhd Selangor Tel: +60 3 703 36 15 Fax: +60 3 703 35 52 SINGAPORE ESAB Singapore Pte Ltd Singapore Tel: +65 861 43 22 Fax: +65 861 31 95 ESAB Asia/Pacific Pte Ltd Singapore Tel: +65 861 74 42 Fax: +65 863 08 39

DENMARK Aktieselskabet ESAB Copenhagen--Valby Tel:+45 36 30 01 11 Fax:+45 36 30 40 03

FINLAND ESAB Oy Helsinki Tel: +358 9 547 761 Fax: +358 9 547 77 71

FRANCE ESAB France S.A. Cergy Pontoise Tel:+33 1 30 75 55 00 Fax:+33 1 30 75 55 24 GERMANY ESAB GmbH Solingen Tel: +49 212 298 0 Fax: +49 212 298 204

Distributors
For addresses and phone numbers to our distributors in other countries, please visit our home page www.esab.com

GREAT BRITAIN ESAB Group (UK) Ltd Waltham Cross Tel: +44 1992 76 85 15 Fax: +44 1992 71 58 03 HUNGARY ESAB Kft Budapest Tel:+36 1 20 44 182 Fax:+36 1 20 44 186

ESAB AB Herkulesgatan 72, Box 8004 SE-402 77 Gothenburg, Sweden Phone +46 31 509 000, Fax +46 31 509 170 E-mail consumables@esab.se Web www.esab.com

SG id & tryck ab, Gteborg 01 2002/17448