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Title

Power circle diagram of interconnected electric power transmission system

Author(s)

Ogushi, Koji

Citation

Memoirs of the Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University = , 8(3-1): 104-115

Issue Date

1950-12-20

Doc URL

http://hdl.handle.net/2115/37758

Right

Type

bulletin (article)

Additional Information

Instructions for use

Hokkaido University Collection of Scholarly and Academic Papers : HUSCAP

Peewetf Cfircfie Dfiagifftrvgg

efi
gwafreifcoeewaeckedi EEectyfic Pifwer TifansgERfissiowa Syseewa

''` KojiO(}(]s}]t''
'
Outline

.t (ReceivedDec.26,1949.) 1 ,'t -

Expressing power distribution in interconnected electric transmission system with many power stations and substations of different voltages by using matrix, it is shown that circle diagram of this system is given

the main'diagonal tegms of matrix as centers and the other terms as tadii., A humerical example is taken from the data of the main high
' tension transmission ,lipe of Hol<kaido distriet.

. 1. General Eq"atipn Or Matrix ef Power Bistrihtitioft ln

I', lnterconneGtedTransAiissiollSystem''/':. i
Generally speaking, any l<ip,d of.electric power transmission,nftwork ca,n be
transfomed into an equivalent cir'

b,..,,," ." ,e cuit as shown by ,'g .r ,i,,.W,h .C .'

ig //'/Y'iiigi'i7it,Xx,,

has many

mutually ,connected, generating stations or transfomihg

acting'asreal )K4`I'AI'Lff. ypt' /t7 >N'Z'vlitYIt,t.2.... 2Y2 ',

stations. In order to solve such

au

YR"i', n;

lt

NN ' ''

a network,,the,value of impedance Qf everybranch line, which,


connects stations with each other, and,the value of every transformer shoued be converted into the value
of standard voltage,'and the value:

'i7"lekhlz,.;lilyrl

N 't,
Nt

2! 1
lit3 1,

' .e

fv,,
,2 z- ly
,

-i 1,

I 'i
'Y,
d'

lt ptN<r-
.11.l.pt"l N

1> "'
3 33
pmw '
r"t
kllrlLti..f:s'!t.//

/,

lj' '

tt V"""'N 'Ns di ,Y ;:' -taN. N


X<,i,

of equivalent T circuits between

NS s.- rcr+1 uarrn

';-',,, '5ss

NN N

/.
of lnterconne-

every two terminals should be


obtained separately.

:. The Fig. equivalentcircuit


1) -n {r- recrevmg
transmlssom cted networl<. 1-r Terminal mean sending ends.
ends, terminal

The equivalent n circuit bet-

ween terminals can be described

as follows when general electric transmlsslon constants are used : Admittance on both legs of the circuit,

KojiOGusia , i05

-D1 A1 .t ,i,,,,. CIYi=-zsinB, Y2==LIM,iww-B


Series impedance of the circuit, Z=:B. -The forming of these equivalent n circuits is for convenience sake of inducing

.t

admittance between temiinals and short-eircuited abmittance at each terminal will


be related later.' However, it is not the only way.

Out from these equivalent n circuits, we can get yi,,, the driving abmittance
between i anb j terminals, as it is equivalent to the reciprocal of value of series
impedance of'the rr circuit, and yii also, the admittance at terminal i, will be got

by adding up all supplement values belonged to the terminal only: That is-.

'"'yij=i2} "vi,="2v(ilil--.yis'-),Gi-4----]i}).
Besides, there are loads or generating powers to be tal<en into consideration.

ThereforeitwillbecomeasshownbyFigure1. '
'' Getting vei, .re2, -fl, stand for' voltage of each tenninal, terminal suffix 1t`

r for sending elements and their currents for +Ii, I2, -+' fr; terrninal suffix(r+i) ri for receiving elements and their currents --Ir.i -.Z..2, --I,,respectivelY,

. we get the following equation according to the Kirchhoff's law.


' + L = Yii rei + Yi2(rci " eqi)l"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''+ Yin (-sci pt -rch)
+ Jli = Y2i(pt2 - sci) + Y22-E2 +'''''i'''''''''''''-'''''''-'+ Y2,i(-lf2 --'rcn)

+ I,, = y,,1(ve,, - Isc1) -l-- -i--iL-iiii-l- Y,,,}(rc,, - rc7i)

h I,+i = Y(r+i)i (j(Z7r-T -'-,'ani) + Y(v+i) (r+o ZDr+i'''''' + Yo+i)" (-Zag-i - En)
ki Lt2 ::: Y<o.2)i(]ll,+2 - Wi) "F '''''''''''-'''''''''''''-'+?Y(?eo-)"(Z4i-i-2--eq,,)

tlt

tt

-Lz--Yni(Z4i-Yi)+'-''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''`''''''''""J''+Yoin,Iii, (l)

The nature of transmission network will be explained more clearly when we


describe the above equation by using matrix as follows:

" t..-,il" -be,Y,iE--.",r,.liiiilli.ili".TY.lfi.'tl'..111111ili:Zlll "[Il'l"i.')

i-------------------i---------S---------O-"---------J-------l / -l--][;" -!I,'i''''J''''-''''''''Yr,'i''''''`''''''''''''''nv3V),n rZl,,


lh

i"
.ZIJr+1
IEIr f L'

=Dv""n=e"ii-tn-ulldRqq"p-n""uDa===w=-g=["mn==]=-M""a=,:tdt-t"md"!ll-gnnueed=d=Nmvq"vhvt"ecnstitm"onEmnDsed- -i-(2)

I;,+1

--

" y(,+i)iny-"---i':Y(.+1)(..) i

"-' Y(r+i)n

- L,.f

-Y(r+L))1'''-''''''"'''''''':'''':r,'''i
r---T--4-i-----T--l------+-----------------

- L,

ke

l Y e?.1 '''''''''''''''''' '''I''''''''''''' --t----t--t ISil ?tOl, l

pt "

-4i------4-Tt-

:- :,

pa't I

But

Yii == yii + ey,i + zl,L,-J--

''`'''''''''' + ?lioi

I06' Po'werCircleDiagramofInterconnectedElectricPowerTransmissionSystem The elements in the above equation will be described also in the form of so--

'

temiinals as follows: ' 11 111


'
Y22= Brl';1, + 2,B + B24 + '''''''''''' + ii}I,,

called power circle diagram constants by using generl circuit constants between

Yi2 = -B-,,, 3Yis == hZ/7I:.,''''''Zlm == B,,= llil'E, Y3i=: IZ'},,'''"'

Pi2 .Z)13 b14 + -WnF= Bi2 + B!s + -Bi4 + ---- Pl,, Bin s Aip. D23 Lb24 -D2n

iy,,,,,, ,,,.,, -= "jll-i,, ii:,)- + i.`--;--ij:til -- ,ii-lii-g,li:)l- + l-ll--i:i'i E2-i-- + -

''`''''''''' + J7'l(T+1)n

D(rt])n

'

In the matrix (2), XIsi, the terms upon a main diagonal, mean the shortcirguited abmittance at the terminal, that is the admittance in'case of all other
terminals being short--circuited, excepting only theterm of i order, and of which the

value will never become zero. Other admittances excepting that upon the diagonal

mean the driving admittance between terminals, and of which the value between
only noncombinated terminals become zero. However, terms located at symetrical
positions of the diagonal are equal with each other, and terms in the upper side of

the diagonal mean the sending driving abmittance and that of the lower side ,mean
the receiving driving admittance.

Equation (2) is shown with the current upit, but if we want it with the power unit we must multiply each terminal current, sh6wn by a horizontal rank of the
matrix, by E,A,, the conjugated value of each terminal voltage; that is- .--

' +P,,+iQ,,i
+ P,, -F j Q.--

tt

+ Prr +j Q,'r'''''''''
]z--"plltiU=-enEn-t=#"-aDudp=d=="-PaP=e-q=e--d-

"'(Po+i)(o+i)j Qo+i)(,-+i))

---------------------t-t---

- (Pnn +j Q7i")''''''

l TIYn[eeii2,haYnM2.Ev"'''''''''I'''Y(r-i-i)-iee(r-ia)lscik,"'Yin-)UrozYi
--Y21Y,Xlk,'Sl221.if2i2,-.I...........,.......,...,............
--------i--------- . -----p------l-.:- - ----;-t------------- e----------

i : == -:I..e.1[.:l.ll.1..i.li.i.1:'kll.1.liul..li.II..IY..,,.liAn=:llZTLItli-lh[]IEIIildll-]-liulnlt:lalgl-1[ta1"liiltliti[-liulvl:i"lu '''(3)

i"

KojiOGusH; .. 107
- 11r-f-i)i ewilElr(,'-i-i)k, '''''''''"''l}f'(rI-i) (rH-i) lll'(rii)IE, ''''''''''''

------t--E-----t----tj-Jt---,--------:1:-i---l-----l---.-----.--t-----b-1-.-

-y,,ilfflriM.z,IY,,.isc.i2.-j-.

If the network is based on toe constant voltage transmission system, namely,


the absolute value of every terminal voltage is constant, then every term upon the

main diagonal of the above power matrix gets constant value and other terms are
to have different phase angles individually. Accordingly, the vector locus forms circle with changes of load value, and we will have nany circle diagrams corres-

ponding to each term. The number of the circles will be the twice of that of
ointing transmission Iines between terminals.

The sending power circle diagrams are madewith the upper terms of the rnain diagonal, and the receiving power circle diagrams are with the lower terms of the
diagonal.

It the terminal of i orber is tal<en for an example, the totai generating power
Pn +j Qn = Yii1Yij2-" Yi2 ]r2 -iecik " Yi:i Y:i -ifu:-'''''''''''- Yin ]rn IMIJin

which is shown on the first line of the equation (3). However, frorr) this terminai,

power is branched out to the temiinals connected, so the above equation can be

shown also as follows, havlng divided Yi,T to each coinponent. (Pi2 + j Qi2) + (Pi3 + j Qi:J +''''''`''''''-'''''''''''''''''''t+ '(Pin + j Qin)

={(Yii2 + yi2)i]ilii/2 - y,2 -Zl3 Zl,n,} '


' +{(Yi,,, + Yi3)1Mil?' - .sc,,, ]l,t, Zir,k}

+{ (.?/i!n -P ?)gin)lJEI]il2 im Yin rcn -Zt]}n}

If this equation is shown with circle diagram constants which are used in most
cases,

(Pi2 +j Qi2) +(Pi:i +j Qif:) +"'''';'''+ (Pint +j Qin) ' i


s - ('a"tir,1EiL?' - Ii'l{s. sc?, -E'iA) -- (tJ-],';,i-gDii2 -]Ll{,, B, rc,,) +.-i-F ([ft--?-1'/tl .sc,I? - tbe,. .!ll,,, .gi,in),

The right side and the left side o'f this equation contain many terms contrasted

with Gach other, and adinittances appeared on the rjght side are obtained by using equivalent T 'circuit constants as was related before. As for the first term, it is

explained as follows. ' ' '


(P,, + j Q,,) =: (y,,,,, + y,,) i, ]rc,I2 - y,, ve,) pa,,.

'

This shows power which is sent to terminal 2 from terminal l. As is based on

IOg PowereircleDiagramoflnterconnectedElectricPowerTransmissionSystem
the constant voltage transmission system, the factor changeable due to the load change

'

is only phase angle or "power angle" of voltage. And (yii2 +yi2)IIeii2,!yi2sc2Yi l,

show center and radius oi circle respectively, which means the well-known sending end circle. The same discourse can be made for many other terms 'in like manner,

andmanycirclediagramsaremade. '
However', we are discussing these theories always basing upon the transmission network, and it will mal<e us notice thefollowing fact.Namely, the circle diagrams
of the terms located on symetrical positions of the main diagonal of matrix (3) have

equal radius value and contrasted power angles. For an example, -yi2Y2veikand
--

yL)i Ei E2,: have equal radius value but contrasted with,each other as to their power

angles. The adove fact shows us that a half of the total number of circles
will be.enough to determine all diagrams we want. This can be utilized in case
we map out the diagrams altogether. While, power and voltage in the transmission
networl< are recorded usually on the power distribution diagrams in generating sta-

tions or transformimg stations. These recorded voltages and line constants which are obtained separately will supply enough values needed for equation (3) to draw

every power diagram. And points of action on the diagrams can be determined by effective sending power or otherwise by effective receiving power obtained from
power distribution diagrams. Instead of receving voltage, power factor or load adm-

ittance may be applied. .


of getting the total sending power and total receiving power. '2. Total Sefieling and Receiviiig Power a"rl Power Circie OiagrarR '
of lnterconwected Traftsmisson System

The above explanation related up to now is the same with that of the ordinary

power diagram theories, however, the use of matrix will explain mutual relations ' as an interconnected transmission system. 'In next chaPter, will be related method

Total sending power is the' sum of power from 1 order to r order of sending

'

end terminal shown by equation (3); and


Pi +j Qi == (Pn +j Qii) + (P22 +j Q2L,) +''''''''''''+ (P"- +j Qrr)
== (ynlZV"L' + Er22Ipt2i2 +---+ Y,,,,lsw,,l2)
+ (- Yi?. Zt]L, reu; - X3rc:i M7vc''''-'''''''-'' -"- Yir JZIr rctk)

+ (-Y2i ewi itL - Y:nMi sc:{k'''''''''''''''in ?)f,iIZIi.ZZ7rA)

+(hYi(r-n)JE,tpilllii,''''''''''''''t'''-YinliZlrnrcu: '
ny ?12 (r+i) -scr+1 ve2in'''''''''''''''''''''--' = ?1in, -pmn -rcrk) '''"'' ( 4 )

The first term of the right side of the equation means short circuited power at each sending end. The second and the third term means driving power
which is relayed and sent or received between each sending end, and every corres-

Koji OGvsul ]C9


' ' ponding terms have contrasted power angle and the terms will become zero by
being cancelled if sending loss being negligible. The fourth term means real driving

power actually sent from sending ends towards receiving ends. As was already related,we may be able to attain the object by drawing each circle individually
between terminals, but it is pracially imposs' ible to draw a lot of circles on the s

ame paper. So, author introduce here a different method that claims to draw deve

loped circlesas shown by Figure 3. based on the equation (4). The total powera
lso can be obtained easily if we have a gance at it. Basically speaking, howeve it
is just an application of the orbinary circle diagram char.
Now, constant value of vector sum (yiiIZIii2 + y2?[.!ljT2 i2+ blrrlverl2)

is drawn on a co-ordinate of total sending power (Pi +j Q,),


and from the end of the vector all other vector tem].s ()12 sc2 Y!A,......etc.) are sub-

tracted in the vectorical manner, and the end finally got will show the total sending

power as shown by the equation (4). However, as power angles of Vector yi2E2
Eik......etc. are unknown, they should be obtained by utilizing effective powers
given by the power distribution diagrams. For instance, in case of yiL,E2E!lt, the
equation of the circle between ] and 2 is (piL) l- j Qi2) == (yii2 + )-'i2)l.21il2 - yi2 Y2 -Zt]iA,

and the circle center andthe radius are, respectively, (yii2 + yiL,)l-rciiL', (yi2 rc2 sciA)

If we apply value P]!to the above equation, we can getjQiL, or power angle immediately by figure. Utilizing this reason, we subtract the value -y]2.pa2 .Zt]iin ;::: (-yiiL, +yit) 1,ZDil2 +.iPi! + j QiL,. from the end of the sum ofshort-circuited power (yiil/ Ei:2 ---+y,,l"gV,iL'). Nain.ely, wesubtract a constant value(YiiL, + Yit)l.21ii2 first, vec--

torically, and secondly, from the end of the vector toward a horizontal axis we
measure Pi2, the effective power given by distribution diagram; thirdly, passing this point draw a venical line then catch a point intersected by the line and the
circle centered on an end of (yiiliViLL' +-;+ yrrircri2) with radius yiL) -rc2Zilits In

the same way we subtract yi:} Y,, .Zliic starting from the intersecting point found by the
above method now. Drawing of circles with radius lyi2 ZZI2 uZIiLI, lyi3 -lf3 Uihl,.-etc

will show ordinary power circle diagrams between terminals. If we utilize calculation example, Figure 3a, in order to explain it in detail, the sum of short-circuited

power of sending end is shown No.12345678917 and point 17 is the end.


From this point, we subtract yg, i7sci7ue,:, namely, subtract vector r7r9; (yg, i7 ZC!7 +

IYb, i7)l.2E]"l2, and get a point 9 first, and mal<e a vertical line at a place where the

effective power is (Pg,i7) which is obtained from distribution diagrams, with the
point 9 as its starting, point. The vertical line then intersects with circie (9, 17) of radius (yg, i7 .Zl7g vei7) at the point 17, which shows the point of action. In the same

way we draw a circle (9, 7) by starting from the point 17. If effective power P
on distribution diagrams takes a negative sign, it means reiayed power reception

tlO PowerCircleDiagramofInterconnectedElectricPowerTransmissionSystem

from other ends, even though it is actually a sending end. The same method is
repeated with all terms of the equation until the final point showing the totai sen--

ding power is found. The final circle diagi'ams contain ordinary circle diagrams,
and this shows not only the total sum but also the nature of their mutua! relations. So, distributing or mutual relations of power, voltage, power factor, etc. in inter-

connected transfrtission system can be glanced at instantly by this. The second and the third teum of equation (4) have only a difference of the power angle being contrasted, and so one was determined the other wiil be found naturally. Likewise, the total receiving power is the sum of power from (r +1) order to n order ef terminals in euqatiou (3); and its value isP2 + j Q2 :] (P(ri) (r+i) + j Q(r+i) (r+i) )'''''' + (Pnn + j Qnn)
= (Y(r+i) (r+i)lswr+ii2''''''''''''''''''-'''''''''''-'''''tl- ]L,,tlswnb2)

+(h-Zf(r+1)(r+2)-gg-i)+2lf(?i+1)ic'''''''''''"'"'''''-Y(r+1)Yn(r+1)in L
+ (-Y(r+2) (r+i) -scr+i 21Y(r+L)) ts-'''''''''`'''''''''' ny Zfn (r+i) Yr+i -Zl7nk) -l- (- Y(r+1) 1 Jrc1 pt(1+1) IL'''''''''''''''''''-' mx Ynl -ZVI venic
ny Y(r+1) 2 'rc2 'rc(r+1) ts'-''''`'''''''''`'''' lo Yn?' ver -rcnii)''`'''( 5 )

The first tenn means the sum of receiving ends short-circuited power which
is constant value, the second and the third terms mean driving power which is sent

or received between receiving ends by relay and has contrasted power angle having nature to cancel each other, and the fourth term means driving power actually
sent from sending ends to receiving ends. The ,fourth term is determined of itself
if the fourth term of equation (4) is given.

According to an usual practice, a receiving end power circle diagram is drawn with its negative power value locating at positive side of coordinate. Accordingly,

total sending power and receiving power can be' drawn on a same coordinate as
shown by Figure 3a, b, and so it seems that an interconnected transmission system

with many terminals works in a similar way with the well-1<nown diagram of
simple transmission line. It immediately shows the total sending efficiency and the
total loss.

3. Example of Calc"Iation
The main part of power transmission system ot high tension in Hokkaido Dis-

trict is simplified as shown by Fig. 2. Terminal 1 --9 mean generating stations and 10-17 mean transforming stations. The power matrix of this system is shown

by Table I. when calculated using the equation (3).


Short-circuited admittance, driving admittance and line constants of equivalent

ic circuit between terminals of this system are shown by Table II together with
voltage and power of distribution diagram of Fig. 2.

Koji O usm
Fig. Z. Power Distribution Diagram.
It shows tertninal voetage of each sJtation and effective

Nl

power at each lipe, when the standard voltage is66kv.

63KV n of<w.' S7-.EiVoooKla,

65KV

gliO,Z08i,X,S3 ] Kw .i/f@6oKv
' S160KW
6st<v

61.2KV

43oo 12 14oooKw

e'"'>
W

",,i 'h"'kh >---4 6g.sKv

-2300K'

Xx. t8700KW , i' i3tl-OOKW


t" tin"' ""ss..:"--S"[ltli3s"oo'KEwo926iLoKoVKw

'

""

' 10 57SKV '

63KV 14
-40ool<w

62Kv 1 S
-2SOOKw x-

' 17 sgKv

63K

-16 '
66KV (SOKV

19060KW

e 15800KW '

v' lo5oOKW e 6tKV

'n.eans The number

generatirig station

and transformingstations locoted at the places shown below


Station Generating 1. Uryu. 2. Ebetsu

Transforrning Station.

3. Kariki,

4. Moiwa.
5. Jozankei

7. I<amikawa. 8. Antaruma. 9. Eoroshi.

6.Kombu. t

10. Sunagawa. Il. Coal mines. 12. Bibai. I3. Sapporo. ' 14. 0taru. 15. Nagahama. i 16. Yoichi. IZ. Asahigawa.

Using this table, each term of the power matrix of Table I can be calculated,

'

' tt t

and so sending power circle diagram by equation (4) and receiving power circie
diagram by equation (5) can be

drawn as Figure 3 a, b, by the method related before. The drawing of circle diagrams needs value of admittance of every rr circuit between terminals, absolute valne of voltages, and also effective powers

numbering

as much as branch lines which connect terminals. The effective power is unnecessary in case of drawing a simple transmission line system, but becomes necessary

when interconncted system is drawn bythe above manner. In this calculation exa-

mple, there are 17 branch lines, so 17 effective power will be necessary as


described on the power distribution diagram. The points of action of other effective

power and reactive power will be got spontaneously on their diagrams by this

l12 PowerCircleDiagramof
drawing as related before.
Without receiving voltage, vol-

Interconnected Electric Power Transmission System

tage can be determined also


by using loads or power factor.
However, this method, after all,

o
1

loexlO uoo vttmp-'MdiiT-pmMpmfop"-"utfTN.

I? K;4!s

is euqal with the ordinary cir-

cle diagram method, so it may


be neglected here. On the other
xio

10

hand, when the value of load

litol

10

lx

- lvarles, lts

vector moves on to

x
,Y
L'OC
2i
K.,

the circumference of the circle

muptP,J

as the system is based on a constant voltage system, and the situation of linking of
circles will vary introducing
changes of mutual relations of
electric power distribution. The
[llih
ge/111/

z
jQ, ,3
N

13
l

1-IO

Sh

ig
,

$g.
-

x
le

1if1 J

Z1

3
1.

method shown here give us a


great convenience to clazify the

g
<ll; 3oo

z.i
,

.2

x.

x
:;t?2

X5,
3

2X3 2?

Z3

distribution of power and voltage, but, it necesSitates rather

complicated troubles because it


is the same in principle with the

3X
lk3
IOO

IS

j')
"
31 .3
3

method of ordinary circle dia-

4
3
's

S"
43

gram. Hower, this method seems


to be an only method if we want to show the variation condition
of load together with other cha-

si s
4

racters.'- .',
e

s4 ' 7 16
1/.
soo, 49/,,'

4 4S
i6 s4

6,

Figure 3 a, b, are constru-

cted only by ordinary circlediagrams that'are developed by

2S!Jr t

p '17 z ..w 81 7
lolo

g6L16
tt

79

91O'
Fig, 3, a. Power Circle Diagram

7Z
Q7

at Sending end.
Fig 3 a, b, indicate pow6r matrixfon
Tab. 1. Ma'in diagonal terms of matrix are indicated by indented ljne on .the
left side, oth.er terms by raflii of circles
soo

t2 97 11
lt'tupv

iCJi
:L..

917

arid power angles with.'obliqud li'nes,

Tab. 1. Power Matrix


It shoyvs power distribution of network shown by Fig. 2. The main diagonal terms mean short-circuited powe

'

{) other terms driving power o{ sending or recieving.


lt

No.
({llili:il:+'

6'

12

'13
1rljIIt5E13EIK

14

15

16

l7
t

kil)IE"2
(:t3+:tlli9;)1E2I2
1"-D5TtE3E2K
.

i1DIIt5oEioEt-i

1'rbllTtE-oE:iK, ({l:ti322f:tii+ue5:l33)E3l2
'

l--li5T4E4E3K
'

1-i;igltll3E13E:K

't"'A

1-B43Eil3E4K

(rkt3+ftt5s).i4Ep

--

iilligEsE4K
.

--

B-1

s4E4BsK

As4-at.,IEsig

'

D616

EEITtiE612

-Pllltg6E16E6x
(

D7g-R-

iT,lE,12

1l-E,EgE7K
I

Ds17'
8
'

at,,[Es:g
Dg17DgieAg7(ii-g7+E51t5o+Bgl7.-...t...1"ettigEgEioKi

I
IEgi21'-BiioEioEgKI)---.---..--

'-- Pgltl7EwEsK

1-q7E7EgK
9110[1
''

-!
tttttttttttttt"ttttt
.t...t+..t.---t.....ttt...t.ttt-......
tttttttt

1--figlt17E17Eg

i'''

1--E!EloKBIol'

IH'H"H'
1
"rkti2E2E12K1
'

ttttt-tt

l,(l{:i'gl:lfSi':le,9,tlllg9ilil)jEl,eli2'

ioi2Ei2EieK

i-B-

Dni2i'
i]IItli12IEIIi2

'-t"n2Ei!Eiik

li
1
rt.

'

l'-B12ioEieEi2K/;

-B-11z.EilE'?K;
"1

litli,+B.-lii,:iA.li-li)liE,,i2

l3

l--EtE13KBIsln

A131+ttss+D.t214)IE13i2

1-'RIIIItl4E14E13K

B131B133B1314s

14

lil[il

1-i}-IItlilsE13E14K

({lllili`,i33t::,:i:`i,5stD-bu':l:NyEi4:2

1-

.t

i}IItlilsElsE14K

1'i]IItlE6E16E14K

1-glitill14E14ElsK

Als14'

15
s

ent,4IEIsl2

1-blgTtE6E16K

16

l.li-1
-glFtgEsE17K
1'

'

1-GEtfi1E14E16K

'

(Sill:,flll-X(/',)iEi6[2

A17sA17g (st,-st,7)IEitrj2

Tab. II.
Terminal Order

Figures for Drawing Circle Diagrams.

Admittancemho

'Voltage

kv

EffectivePower'

kw

Terminal Order

Admittancemho
1=O.O0203-jO.O176Blol1=O.OO127-jO.Oli04Blogl=O.O0336-iO.02T5Blo12`

Voltage

kv

EffectivePower

kw

Ei=:69.5
l

P;io=18700

Esol=57.s

Pn3=13400

'10

Plol==-tv
'PIOg=-th.

Pn=32100'
Alol=O.O023-jO.Oi752BlolAlog=O.OO127-jO.OI079

Plo12=-.v
PIOIO=--rv

B23
1

.=O.O042-jO.OO?3
eO.OO12--jO.O135B212D23=O.O042-1O.O0931B23L

E2=65
.

P23==-tv
P212--t'nv

Blog

DioR
BIo12

=O.O0336-:/O.02?44

P22=43))
11

1Bin2=O.OO05g-jo.oos4
Din2=o.oooss-jo.oojgs]3Bni2

DBilli,=o.oo]2-jo.o36s'

Ell=60

Pmz==-"v

Pim=-tv
E12=57
P122=--.v
P121e=:tN
P12n=14)OO
P1212==-5)OO

.3'

li:fii,[glggg?i:lglgo,6,lsiA32=O.O042-jO.O0931B32P34=O.OOOP5-jO.O063B34D313==O.OOO14-jO.O1241B313

-L1' B32B23

'

E?,=r63

P32-H---v

P34=--v
P313=hnv
P33--O
12

11= 11= Blo.loBio12 11= Bi2iiEm2


Bio..pB2i2

B43B34'
4

ll=

-----nm---

E4==64

P43=+AJ

v[...

P4s=-N
P44=9000

/'-tl'.'

ifv:"/''

11= B131Bl13 ll= B13BB313


13

E13=6I.2

P131==-.v

P133=+nv
P1314-----.v

1B13,4=OOO185-jo.ols4

A131

B,3,=OOC254-jo.ols3g
tl133=O.OOO14-.jO.O1239

P1313=L12000

ilt=Bs4B4sAs4=O.OO045-jO.O0652.Bs4

5
'

Er,=65lPs4==5160
Pss=Ps4
EG=66
P616=!9060 Pfi6=P616

B!33 D1314 B1314

=O.aO185--jO.O1844
'

1=O.OO135-jO.O048B616:i,i:-----O.OO135-jO.oot17s

==C).OO047-jO.O085 Bl"3E1314
=o.eol2-jo.oos2B1416A1413=O.OO185-jO.O1844B1413D141s'=O.OO047-jO.O0851B141sD1416=O.OO12-jO.O0521

E4==63

P1413="+t-v.'L

P1415=+.v
14'

P1416=-N
P14!4=-2300

'1=O.OO036-jO.O0884B7g

E7=60

P7g=]5800

Zll:=OOO036-jo.oos713
=O.OO0312-JO.O040BsnDs17=O.OO0312--jO.O0397

P77=P7g
Bl"6

Est=61

Ps17=I0500

.Pss=Psl7

]5

.BlslsBl"s
Als14.=

il=

EIi,=62..

Pls14=-400
Plsls=-Pls14

'
9

=Bg7B7g

Eg=59.6

LPS7=-A.
Pg}o=+.v
Pgl7=-3500
Pgg=20400
16

1v-O.OO)21-jO.Oll04Bgie1=O.OO041-jO.O0267Bg17Ag7=o.ooo36-j'o.oogsg6Bg7iBJ:l:Lo.oo127-.jo.oo:o7g

Bi6nBi4i6

B166B6161
Bi7s

11= 11=

E16=63

P166==-.v
P1614=+.v
P1616=-2500

Dg17
Bg17

= O.OO041 - j O.O0237

-1 Bsm
== O.OO03i2- j O.O0402

En = 59

P17s ==

rv

17

B17g
!a178

Bg17

P17g ==
P 1717 ==

N
.Nt

A17g == O.OO041 - j O.O0264 B17g Eoot-Note.

Bns

Pno stands for effective sending powe' r from terminal 1 fo terminal 10, Pn for total means sending, sign-gecieving, sign--that the figuFe is determined by circle diagram.

power on terminal 1,

and it is the same with the following correspondingly.

Sign-

'

t 't. tttvtt tT .t t tt '

Koji , OGUSHI

lJ3

power matrix, but some 6xplanations will benecessary to be given as author fear they
t7,'9
17J8 ,9e,
t7t' 1

16o

are not well-l<nown yet: (1) Circle Group:


Sign (1, 10), (1, 13),

61614
61514
,,t"

S6 A

i64

etc. in Figure 3 a. means a


sending end power circle from

,,,

l:l,l 614,1s

7eL

14
IS.

1
i-si

sending end 1 to receiving i end 10. Power angle with oblique lines means shortcircuited power betwen termeny
inals, of which the one situated

rs t4

i3

600
1314

on the left side of the circle

4
g

means electric receiving by

seor

E;, 13 l
lj]ii/`i

XX,.Tj

relay from other terminals


t

x
:3-.
t
1?J

though is originaliy a sending

ss 133
tc

end and that situated on the


right side of the circle means

tw
E'

3'

electric sending As for the


circle (1, 13), for instance,

k2
s3

%>x
x
1211

ss

l2

it should be situated on the


origin of coordinate (Pi,jQi),

kst
iz
31',

x2
1'.

)
IZ IO

t2 10

but the same consequence will


be got if the origin is tran--

sformed to point 1, of which


the coordinate is named (Pi.
,,,j Q,, ,,).

il,l'

lilZ
sz
tl

12
k32o,El

1Ql .'
,/('XXL

Horizontal axis takes effective power and vertical axis


i

'

of9
io :z

'

iXOi

twtwlk ,,

Fig. 3, b. Power Circle Diagram at R.ecieving end.


Circles {IO, 1), (I2, 10j, etc. ireans

SJtl
iO l"
io

//

1'
10,)' siOl '

a circle recieved from terminal 1


to terminal 10, etc, Total reci.eving

xs-tgtw/ 71
e 1<ltt

power is shown by effective compnent of veetor O.1,ai;d total recie'

thrp-"'- T-r.

foo

)o

s 10Cli llO

r--

ZUL.

ving powey by et'l'ective component

ofyector 1,10 on Fig.3 a.

t14 PowerCircleDiagramoflnterconnectedElectricPowerTransmissionSystem
reactive power. Centerpoint of the circle is obtained by transitting in parallel the
vector l, 1' 3, a term in the main diagona! of power matrix. Radius of the circle is

' '

'

obtained from the Table II.. '

'

The point of action 13 is determined by radius of circle and effective power


which is obtained from powerdistribution diagrams or mutual relation ofthis c'ir--

cle group. Circle (2, 3) and circle (3, 2) show that they have'a contrast power

angle each other, and that a sending end terminal 3 is the one receiving power

from other terminais by the more increases the relay. . ' The more transmission system becomes complicated,
number of circles, therefore proper dividing becomes necessary in this case. In the
Figure 3 a, b, there exist circle (i, j) and circle (j, i) which have an equal radius value with different center distances, but, these circles respectively correspond to term (i, j) of the upper side of main diagonal and teim (j, i) of the lower side.

(2) Sum of short-circuited power:


It is shown on left side of the Figure 3 bs an indented line, of which compoiients are vectors to indicate circle centers, and the component's slant meansthe
vector angle of short-circuited admittance (yitf + yid). With an increase of line res-

istance, the angle of slant becomes wider, which means an increase of line loss. In case of a System which has an ideal, line loss should be consrant in every part

of the system and the indented line becomes straight. In Figure 3 a, most part
of line is straight except parts 2L

(3) Total transmission efficiency: The effective components of vector O, ld and blrml' in the Figure 3 a, b, are the total generating power and the total receiving power, hereupon: -Total transmission efficiency: = ntt';bb-oKw 100 =-- 85%

, 3; 3, 2J 6, l6. ,
99,OOOKW

(4-) Phase improving condenser: '


The total receiving power is 99,OOO KW and its reactive power is 45,OOO KW as shown by vector ' O;1. Even if a condenser fitted for this figure was prepared,
it is unsufficient because of iregularity of current phases at each terminal,namely,because

of Iagging or Ieading which differs in reality. we take an example on circle (10,


1) of Figure 3, b. Cood efficiency can be got for electricity sending between ter--

ininals when the power factor is improved, that is approximately l. Therefore, if


we place a condenser onto a receiving end, terminal IO, and the voltage on terminal 10 is left as it is, sending voltageon terminal 1 is to become low and transmission efficiency becomes higher, It can be seen also from the Figure 3a, namely, povLier factor becomes better owjng to sending voltage dropped. However, in case the rec--

f eiving voitage on terminal 10 got dropped and is desired to be raised, and voltage

Koji OGus}i] ,' 115


on terminal 1 is left as it is, receiving voltage on terminal 10 bccomcs high by the conclenser, and so, power factor, coi]sequently transmission efficiency will be impr-

'

oved. This is understood from circle (10, 1) and (l, IO). On the other hand,
however, the above treatment spoils terrr}inal 9 kecause ExcEssive leading currEnt is flowed out irom this terminal, which causcs rcduction of tran.cmission efficicncy as
it is julgcd from circle (10, 9). To raise this tcirmiiral x'oltase is :ot casy as thet-eirnjnal is a rE]ayc{] {lcraatii g Etatkn, Ac(ci'c:5r9y,ttuc rrv.ct o;iEt[uiic"tle"valucs

of condenser capacity lit for jrr]prov(rrcnt of tlie ro",Er factors. To Eolve thjs
diffic .ulty,

we must tal<e cfforts rraking ca}culaticfis in vaiicvs "ay Gn tigures or

equanons. (5) Transmission Capacity:

Thisisshownasaradiusofeachcircleiflinelossisneglected.Ifthe
capacity is proportional to the radius of circle, irregularity of dimention of each cir-

cle is quite negligible. However, circles (9, 10), (6, l6), etc. which are relative-

ly smail compared with their sending power 'are impossible to send enough
power. As the situation of circle com.bination on Figure 3 is irregular in ord er, electric power transmitted from a 'sending end to an aparted receiving end mu
st be followed or obtained in accordance with the order of that of the Figure 2, and

not the Figure 3. That is, sending power is not transmitted in order of the circle
order of Figure 3. If sending power is proportional to the radii of circlcs, all power

angles and line losses become equal,and an indented line showing short-circ"ited po

wer becomes straight. Then Figure 3a, b, will become like an ordinal transmission

circlediagramofasingletransmissionline. . . .

- tlT.Coitcl"sion .
Distribution of power and voltage of an interconn'ected power transmisson system can be converted into an equivalent junction points network, and if it is developed in matrix the main diagonal rneans short circuited power, terms of the upper side of the diagonal mean sending driving power, and the lower side mcan receiving driving power. Also, if we divide the systcm into sending ends and ' receivipg ends
and sum thEm up with variable factors of ca.ch of their voltage's phase angle, "power

'

angte," we can draw a power circle dragiam of the net-work, which is an asscm-

bly of ordinary power circle diagram between terminals. The diagram does show not merely the total scnding and rGceivjng Fower, but all other kinds of electric
nature of the system. Even though there are some presumptive values in the network taken up as an example and the real situation is different from that calculation, this shows that we can improve the line system furthermorei