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Gio trnh kha hc BSCI

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

CHNG 4:

INTEGRATED IS-IS

4.1.

Tng quan

IS-IS l mt giao thc nh tuyn nI (IGP) c pht trin nm 1980 bi Digital Equipment. Sau IS-IS c cng nhn bi t chc ISO nh l mt giao thc nh tuyn chun. IS-IS c to ra nhm cc mc ch sau: Xy dng mt giao thc nh tuyn chun. C c ch nh v a ch rng ln. C c ch nh v c cu trc. Hiu qu, cho php hi t nhanh v c ph tn thp.

Mc tiu ban u ca IS-IS l to ra mt giao thc m tt c cc h thng c th dng. Tuy nhin, c th m bo mt yu t thc s mang tnh m (open), ISO c gng tch hp mi c im mang tnh thuyt phc ca cc giao thc nh tuyn khc vo IS-IS. Kt qu l IS-IS l mt giao thc kh phc tp. Phn ln cc nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) dng IS-IS t nhng nm IS-IS c to ra. iu ny l do IS-IS l mt giao thc c lp, c kh nng m rng v c bit nht l c kh nng nh ngha kiu dch v trong qu trnh routing (ToS routing).
Bng 4.1 - Cc thut ng IS-IS

Thut ng Adjacency (quan h lin k)

nh ngha Thng tin nh tuyn ni b cho bit kh nng i n cc router ES hoc IS lng ging. Mt quan h c to ra cho mi lng ging (neighbor) trn mt mng v cho mi mc routing. IS-IS c hai mc routing, gi l mc 1 v mc 2 (L1 v L2) trn mt mng broadcast.

Administrative Domain (Khu vc qun l - AD) Area (Vng)

Mt nhm cc routers chy chung mt giao thc nh tuyn trong mt t chc, mt cng ty. Vng con bn trong mt AD. Cc router bn trong mt vng s duy tr nhng thng tin chi tit mt vng. Cc routers cng s duy tr cc thng tin routing cho php chng n c cc vng khc. a ch vng c lu trong a ch NET v a 60

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI ch NSAP. Circuit

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

Thng tin nh tuyn ni b cho mt im kt ni n. (Single subnet point of attachment SNPA).

Code/Length/Value (CLV)

y l cc field c chiu di thay i trong PDU. Vng code s ch ra thng tin trong vng content. Vng length s ch ra kch thc ca ca vng value. Vng value cha chnh thng tin .

Complete sequence number packet (CSNP)

CSNP m t tt c cc kt ni trong c s d liu link-state (link-state database). CSNP c gi trn cc kt ni pointto-point khi kt ni ng nht database. Cc router DR, hoc DIS s gi ra cc CSNP mi 10 giy.

Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP)

y l giao thc chun c dng mang d liu v cc thng tin li cp network. CLNP tng ng vi IP. Tuy nhin CLNP khng c cng c no pht hin li trong lc truyn d liu. CLNP s da trn lp transport m bo kh nng truyn d liu.

Connectionless Network Service (CLNS

CLNS dng cc gi truyn d liu v khng yu cu mt mch c thit lp trc khi d liu c truyn. trn, CLNP nh ngha giao thc tht th CLNS s nh ngha dch v cung cp ln lp transport bn trn. Do hot ng theo c ch phi kt ni (connectionless), CLNP khng m bo l d liu s khng b mt. Nu ta cn m bo vic phn phi d liu, cp transport s m nhn vai tr ny.

Designated intermediate system (DIS)

Router trn mt mng LAN c phn cng to ra cc PDU trn ton mng LAN bng cch xem mng LAN nh mt node duy nht.

Dual IS-IS

IS-IS h tr cho c OSI v IP routing. Cc vng bn trong mt AS c th chy OSI hoc IP hoc c hai. Tuy nhin, cu hnh c la chn phi nht qun trong ton vng.

End system (ES)

L host c chy IP giao thc hoc ES. C th truyn v nhn d liu. 61

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI End System-toIntermediate System (ES-IS) Hello Host address

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS L giao thc c chy gia ES v IS thit lp nn cc quan h.

Cc gi hello c dng tm v duy tr cc quan h. y l a ch con ca a ch NET, bao gm c domain, area v system-id.

Integrated IS-IS

y l mt tn gi khc ca Dual IS-IS. Tn gi ny ch ra rng IS-IS c th c dng h tr cho hai L3 giao thc (IP v CLNP) trong cng mt h thng mng.

Intermediate system (IS) IS-IS domain Level 1 (L1)

L mt router. IS l mt thit b c kh nng chuyn mt traffic n mt host xa. Mt nhm cc router chy IS-IS nhm chia s thng tin. Cc router L1 ny ch thuc v bn trong mt vng. Cc routers ny ch nhn nhng thng tin lin quan n vng v khng quan tm n cc vng khc. n cc vng khc, level 1 router s duy tr mt n2g i n Level 2 router.

Level 1-2 (L1-2)

L router kt ni cc areas. Router ny s kt ni mt vng level-1 n mt level-2 backbone. Router loi ny s c mt bng routing level 1 route n ES v IS trong vng ca n. N cng s duy tr cc route L2 n cc vng khc.

Level 2 (L2)

Cc routers ny ch kt ni b backbone v hot ng nh trm trung chuyn gia cc vng.

Link Link-state packet (LSP)

Kt ni vt l n router lng ging. Packet m t kt ni ca router. LSP cho level 1 v level 2 l ring bit.

Neighbor

L router trn cng kt ni vi mt quan h c hnh thnh v thng tin routing c trao i.

Network entity title

L mt phn ca a ch OSI. NET s m t c vng v 62

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI (NET)

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS Systen-ID ca mt h thng trong mng IS-IS. NET khng m t NSEL.

Network selector (NSEL)

Thng thong c m t nh SEL. Field ny s m t dch v lp network . NSEL tng t nh field protocol trong IP.

Network service access point (NSAP) Partial sequence number packet (PSNP)

c m t nh mt dch v lp network NSAP l a ch NET c SEL c gn mt gi tr khc 0x00. PSNP c gi trn cc kt ni im-im cng nhn tng LSP m router nhn. Mt router trn mt h thng mng broadcast s gi PSNP yu cu LSP ng b ha d liu.

Protocol data unit (PDU)

Mt n v d liu c truyn t mt layer ca m hnh OSI n cng mt layer trong mt h thng khc.

4.2.
4.2.1.

So snh IS-IS v OSPF


S tng t gia IS-IS v OSPF

IS-IS v OSPF c nhiu im chung. C hai u l giao thc nhm linkstate v da trn gii thut Dijsktra ca SPF. Thm vo , c hai u h tr kiu thit k cu trc. OSPF c trin khai trong hu ht cc mng cp cng ty, trong khi IS-IS c dng trong cc mng ISP.
Bng 4.2 - So snh s ging nhau gia OSPF v IS-IS

Thut ng IS-IS Area Area ID Backbone area DIS (designated intermediate system) Domain ES (end system) ES-IS (the address resolution feature of ES-IS) IS (intermediate system)

Thut ng OSPF Stub area Area ID Backbone area Designated router Network Host ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Router 63

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI ISO Routeing Domain Level 1 Level 1-2 Level 2 LSP (link-state packet) CSNP v PSNP (complete v partial sequence number PDUs) PDU (protocol data unit) NET (Network Entity Title)

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS Autonomous system Internal nonbackbone stub area Area border router (ABR) Backbone router LSA (link-state advertisement) Link-state acknowledgement packet Packet IP destination address (subnet v host), used in a similar way to router ID IP destination address + IP protocol number Routing technology = link state - Giao thc nh tuyn classless . - a ch c summary khi i qua cc vng khc nhau. - S dng link state database. - Acknowledges LSAs. - ng i ngn nht c tnh da trn gii thut Dijsstra. - Cc gi hello c dng to v duy tr quan h. - Khong thi gian hello v hold time c th c cu hnh. Subnet = IP network Layer 2 address V d: MAC address (Media Access Control) hoc DLCI (data-link 64

NSAP (network service access point) Routing technology = link state - Giao thc nh tuyn classless. - a ch c summary khi i qua cc vng khc nhau. - S dng link state database. - Acknowledges LSPs. - ng i ngn nht c tnh da trn gii thut Dijksstra. - Cc gi hello c dng to v duy tr quan h. - Khong thi gian hello v hold time c th c cu hnh. Subnet = data link SNPA (subnetwork point of attachment)

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS connection identifier) trong Frame Relay a ch ca host bn trong mng, thnh thong c s dng nh router ID nh ra mc u tin

Virtual link Virtual link (c nh ngha nhng cha h tr) 4.2.2. S khc nhau gia IS-IS v OSPF

Trong IS-IS, a ch vng v a ch host c gn trong ton b router, trong khi i vi OSPF, a ch c gn cp interface. Mt IS-IS router nm trong mt area, trong khi mt OSPF router c th thuc v nhiu area. iu ny c ngha l tt c cc level-1 routers phi thuc v cng mt vng v thng qua level1-2 kt ni n cc areas khc. Tuy nhin, level-1-2 router cn phi nm trong cng mt vng vi level-1 router m n tng tc. Router level-1-2 c th thy ton b cc AS v s lm nhim v nh l default-route n level 1 area. Khi nim ny rt ging vi OSPF stub area. Level 2 router s gi level 2 thng tin cp nht n cc vng khc ging nh ABR trong OSPF. Vai tr ca DR th hi khc. DIS trong IS-IS s tn ti c level1 v level 2 trn nhng h thng mng a truy cp (multiaccess), nhng s khng c BDR. Thm na, trong OSPF DR s lun tn ti; ngc li trong IS-IS nu c mt router khc c u tin cao hn, DIS hin thi s b loi b vai tr. Rt t cc quan h adjacencies c hnh thnh trong OSPF bi v OSPF router ch lp cc quan h i vi DR v BDR; trong khi trong IS-IS, tt c cc router s thit lp quan h vi tt c cc router khc trn cng segment mng. Tuy nhin, cc LSP ch c gi bi DIS. Mt s khc nhau ln khc l qu trnh ng gi ca hai giao thcs. IS-IS l c lp v n chy trc tip t lp datalink. S phn mng (fragmentation) thuc v trch nhim ca IS-IS. Ngc li OSPF c ng gi trong IP v v vy b gii hn bi giao thc . Cc LSP cng c qun l hi khc. Trong IS-IS, cc LSP khng c cng nhn s b b qua v b flood. Trong khi i vi OSPF, cc LSA s b qua v drop.
Bng 4.3 - So snh s khc nhau gia OSPF v IS-IS

Thut ng Areas

Intergrated IS-IS - Gii hn nh ngha trn kt ni.

OSPF - Gii hn c nh ngha trn router. 65

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI - Mt router c th trong mt area.

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS - Cc cng giao tip ca router c th thuc v cc areas khc nhau. - Level-1 IS-IS routers th tng ng vi OSPF stub area.

- Nu mt router tr thnh active c u tin bng hoc cao hn DIS, router mi s tr thnh DIS. Cc quan h c thit lp vi tt c cc DR IS trn mng broadcast. - Mi IS s gi cc LSP n tt c cc routers theo c ch multicast. Cc LSP khng c ACK. - OSPF l mt ng dng IP. - IS-IS chy trn nn layer-2. Encapsulation - IS-IS l mt layer-3 giao thc vi cu trc packet ring. - C OSPF header v nm bn trong IP. - Fragmentation l trch nhim ca IP. - Tt c cc IS s thit lp quan h vi cc IS khc. - Multicast thng tin cp nht c Lan flooding - DIS gi CSNP ti tt c cc router khc. - Unicast ACK c gi t DR. - nh k CSNP s c gi database c ng b. - C hai kiu LSP. LSAs - LSP c m ha. - Cc LSP khng c nhn ra s b flood trn mng. - C 7 kiu LSA. - Cc unrecognized s b drop. - LSA thng tin cp nht c gi bi tt c cc routers. gi t DR. - Mt router c u tin bng hoc cao hn s khng tr thnh DR . - Cc quan h c thit lp gia cc router vi DR v BDR. - Tt c cc LSA u c ACK.

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Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

4.3.

nh du a ch cho IS-IS

Khi IS-IS c dng cho routing IP traffic, cc thng tin routing c mang trong cc ISIS thng tin cp nht, v vy cc router tham gia cn c mt a ch ton cc (ISO address). a ch ISO address bao gm 2 phn: phn NSAP v phn gm NET (ty thuc vo thit b ang c dng). a ch IS-IS c chiu di t 8 n 20. Chun ISO 10589 nh ngha ba phn ca mt a ch: Area, ID v SEL. - Area: Vng ny c dng router gia cc vng vi level-2 routing - ID: ID c dng route n mt host hoc mt router bn trong mt level-1 routing - SEL: c dng route mt i tng bn trong mt host hay mt ES 4.3.1. NETs v NSAP

NET v NSAP l cc a ch ISO. a ch NET l a ch ca host, trong khi gi tr trong NSEL c gn bng 0. V vy, khng c upper-layer giao thc no c dng bn trong host. Nu khng c ng dng c ch ra host cui cng, packet c th c route ti ch nhng n khng th chuyn cho mt process. Tuy nhin router khng c cc upper-layer giao thc bi v n l cc IS trung gian. V vy, NSAP ca router c gi l NET trong c vng NSEL c gn bng 0. 4.3.2. Cc nguyn tc cho vic dng a ch ISO:

- a ch ISO c gn cho ton b h thng, ch khng gn n cng giao tip ca router - Router thng c mt a ch NET. Qui c l ti a ba a ch NET. - Nu nhiu NET c cu hnh trn cng router, n phi c cng system-ID. - a ch ca vng phi l ging nhau cho ton b cc router trong cng mt area - Tt c cc level-2 phi c System-ID ring bit cho ton domain - Tt c cc level-1 router phi c System-ID ring bit v duy nht cho ton area - System-ID phi c cng chiu di cho cc IS v ES trong mt routing domain. 4.3.3. Cc v d ca mt a ch NET:

V d 1: 47.0005.aa00.0301.16cd.00 - Area ID: 47.0005 - SystemID: aa00.0301.16cd - SEL: 00 67

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

4.4.
4.4.1.

Cu trc ca IS-IS
Level-1 Router

Level-1 router ging stub router trong OSPF v database ca n ch gii hn n area. i ra ngoi mt vng khc, dng default-route n router level-2 gn nht. 4.4.2. Level-2 Router

route traffic gia cc vng, ta cn phi c level 2 router. Routing gia cc areas c gi l interarea routing. Loi router ny tng t nh router backbone trong OSPF. Level-2 router s giao tip vi nhau thng qua Hello. Database ca cc level-2 router phi ging nhau v cha cc network trong nhng areas khc. 4.4.3. The Level 1-2 Router

Loi router c y thng tin trong database l level 1-2. c im ca n l tng t vi ABR trong OSPF. Router ny s c cc router lng ging nm trong cc vng khc nhau bi v n gi c hello loi 1 v hello loi 2. Router level 1-2 ny s thng bo cho cc level-1 router khc v cc vng m n ni v, hn na n s thng bo cho cc level 2 router thng tin v vng ca n. Router loi ny s tiu tn nhiu b nh v CPU. Cu hnh ny l cu hnh mc nh trong cc Cisco routers.

4.5.

Cc nguyn l c bn ca nh tuyn theo vng (area routing)

- Khi mt router nhn mt traffic route n mt ch khc, router s thc hin vic tm kim trong bng routing-table. - Router s gi b system-id v sel tm ra a ch area. Nu a ch ca vng l tng t cho vng , n s route cc packet n host dng level-1 database. - Nu vng l khc nhau, router s thc hin mt trong nhng thao tc sau: 1. Gi packet n level router gn nht (nu router l level 1 router). 2. Tm kim ng i trong bng nh tuyn nu router l level 2 router. 3. Phn gii a ch tm route di nht. IS-IS cng c dng cc thu gn route lm gim kch thc ca bng routing. Cc areas trong IS-IS c nh ngha trn cc kt ni (link).

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Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

Hnh 4.1 - nh ngha cc vng ca IS-IS

Cc level-2 router c kh nng gi cc thng tin cp nht phi kt ni vi nhau lin tc:

Hnh 4.2 - IS-IS-Backbone

Integrated IS-IS v cc cng giao tip ca routers Cc routers thng thng trao i cc thng tin vi nhau cp nht cc kin thc ca n v network chung quanh. mc ti thiu, mt router phi truyn t cho nhng routers ln cn cc thng tin nh nh danh ca router, cc cng giao tip ca routers. Trong IS-IS, nu cc hello-packets c trao i v cc iu kin c tha mn, cc routers s thit lp quan h lng ging. Mc d qu trnh hnh thnh cc quan h lng ging ph thuc vo h tng mng c dng nhng nhng thng tin bn trong cc hello-packets 69

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

lun lun l ging nhau. Mi hello s ch ra ngun gc ca Hello v nhng c im ca cng ca router. Nu cc cng ca router c chung c im, cc quan h (adjacency) c to ra. Sau khi mt quan h c to ra, cc thng tin routing s c trao i nh vo cc LSPs.

Hnh 4.3 - Cc quan h IS-IS mc 1 v mc 2

mt quan h c hnh thnh v duy tr, c hai cng giao tip ca router phi tng ng vi nhau v cc c im sau: - Kch thc packet MTU phi bng nhau. - Mi routers phi cn phi c cu hnh cng mt mc routing ngha l hoc l level-1 hoc level-2. Nu cng mt mc th routers mi c kh nng gii m nhng hello do nhng routers khc gi n. - Nu c hai router l level-1, n phi trong cng area. - Nu level-1 router hnh thnh cc quan h vi cc level-1 router v level-2 hnh thnh cc quan h vi cc level-2 routers. mt level-1 router hnh thnh mt quan h vi mt level-2 router, router kia phi c cu hnh nh mt level-1-2 router. - Gi tr system-ID ca mi h thng phi l duy nht. - Nu qu trnh xc thc (authentication) c dng, n phi c cu hnh ging nhau trn c hai router. - Thi gian hello phi bng nhau

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Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

IS-IS nh ngha hai kiu network: broadcast v point-to-point (OSPF c 5 kiu). Mt mng kiu broadcast h tr cho cc c ch broadcast v multicast. Cc kt ni point-to-point c th khng h tr broadcast v c th l cc PVC hoc SVC.

4.6.
4.6.1.

Thit lp cc quan h lin k (adjacency) ca IS-IS


Trn cc kt ni Point-to-Point

Khi thit lp cc quan h, cc router s gi cc CSNP. Cc CSNP l mt danh sch cc kt ni c lu trong c s d liu. CSNP cng s kch hot qu trnh ng b ha (synchronization) trong tng router. Cc hello nh k s duy tr cc quan h lin k ny. Nu mt router khng nghe mt hello-packet trong mt khong thi gian hold-time, router kia s c xem nh l khng hot ng. Khong thi gian hold-time bng ba ln thi gian hello. 4.6.2. Trn cc kt ni broadcast

Trn cc kt ni broadcast, tt c cc router chy IS-IS s nhn packets c gi bi mt router duy nht DIS. DIS c trch nhim pht tn (flooding) tt c cc routers ang chy IS-IS. Mt cch din t khc l DIS s pht tn cc LSP cho pseudonode.Mt paseudenode s tng trng cho mt mng LAN, trong mi router ca LAN l mt cng giao tip o ca router o kia. Router o ny gi l pseudonode. Cng ging nh router tht, router o s pht tn cc LSP khi c mt thay i trong kt ni ca LSP (v d nh khi c mt router ln cn online). Cc quan h lin k vi cc routers khc s c duy tr bi DIS. DIS s gi cc Hello mi 3.3 giy. C ch ny nhm m bo tnh ton vn ca cc kt ni. Nu c mt vn vi DIS hin ti hoc c mt router khc c u tin cao hn, router DIS hin hnh s b cho v hu. Qu trnh bu chn da trn u tin .Nu tt c cc router c gi tr u tin mc nh l 64 th router no c gi tr SNPA cao nht s l DIS. 4.6.3. Trn cc kt ni NBMA

Cc cng ngh Frame Relay, ATM v X25 l cc v d ca mi trng NBMA. Bng cch dng cc PVCs, mi trng NBMA to ra nhiu kt ni truy cp ng thi tng t nh mt mng cc b LAN. IS-IS s xem mi trng NBMA ny nh l mt dng ca mng cc b LAN v cho rng mi trng ny c h tr IS-IS. trnh s phc tp v cc li c th, Cisco khuyn co cc kt ni nn c cu hnh nh mt lot cc kt ni point-to-point.

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Gio trnh kha hc BSCI

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

Hnh 4.4 - Cc cng ngh c h tr bi IS-IS

4.7.

Cc giao thc lp network ca IS-IS

Cc PDU c to ra lp network v c ng gi trc tip vo cc frame datalink. Tt c cc IS-IS packet chia s cng header 8 bytes. Sau phn header, c mt s field c kch thc thay i. Cc field ny c gi l Type/length/Value (TLV) hoc Code/Length/Value (CLV). Nm pha sau phn header chung ny l cc field c kch thc thay i. C ba dng packets trong Integrated IS-IS: hello, LSPs v SNPs. nh dng gi hello trong Point-to-point
Bng 4.4 - nh dng gi hello trong Point-to-Point

di Tham s (octets) Fixed Intergrated IS-IS header Circuit Type 8 Thng thng i vi cc gi PDU ca Intergrated IS-IS. Xc nh router ang truyn l level-1, level-2 hay level-1-2. System ID t NSAP ca router ang truyn. Thi gian m cc neighbor phi ch gi Holding Time 2 hello trc khi khai bo rng router ang truyn b cht. 72 M t

Source ID

ID length

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI Packet Length Local Circuit ID nh dng gi hello trong LAN
Bng 4.5 - nh dng gi hello trong LAN

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS 2 1 Chiu di ca gi hello. ID ca interface ang truyn. ID ny l duy nht i vi router ang truyn.

di Tham s (octets) Fixed Intergrated IS-IS header Circuit Type 8 Thng thng i vi cc gi PDU ca Intergrated IS-IS. Xc nh router ang truyn l level-1, level-2 hay level-1-2. System ID t NSAP ca router ang truyn. Thi gian m cc neighbor phi ch gi Holding Time 2 hello trc khi khai bo rng router ang truyn b cht. Packet Length Priority 2 2 Chiu di ca gi hello. c s dng trong vic bu chn DIS (priority cao nht). DIS s dng system ID ca n cng thm mt octet na t tn cho LAN. LAN ID ID length + 1 Octet cng thm c s dng xc nh mt LAN vi cc kt ni LAN khc trn DIS. M t

Source ID

ID length

4.8.

Hot ng ca Integrated IS-IS

1. Router gi Hello ra tt c cc cng giao tips tm cc router lng ging v hnh thnh nn cc quan h lin k. 2. Cc router c cng kt ni datalink s tr thnh quan h lng ging. 3. Cc router xy dng cc LSPs da trn cc IS-IS interfaces v cc prefix c hc t cc quan h lng ging. 73

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

4. Routers s pht tn (flood) cc LSP n tt c cc router ln cn ngoi tr router gi LSPs. 5. Khi mt LSPs mi c nhn, router s xy dng li databse kt hp cc LSP ny. 6. Router s thc hin gii thut SPF cho tng network, xy dng bng nh tuyn. Hot ng ca IS-IS c chia thnh 4 qu trnh: 4.8.1. Qu trnh cp nht (update process)

LSP c to ra khi c mt thay i trong mng, thng thng do cu hnh mt router no thay i. Tuy nhin, bt c mt s kin no di y cng kch hot to ra LSP: - Mt router lng ging up hoc down. - Mt cng giao tip trn router thay i trng thi hoc metric. - Mt ng i thay i. Trong qu trnh pht tn, mt router s truyn v nhn cc LSPs. Gi v nhn LSP Khi nhn c mt LSP, router s lu trong database v nh du s pht tn LSP ny. Nu LSP c trong database, router ch cn gi ack v sau b qua LSP ny. Nu y l LSP mi, router s ti ra mt LSP m t kt ni ca n vi router lng ging. Sau , router s gi LSP mi v LSP do chnh n to ra n cc quan h lng ging. Cc router lng ging kia, n lt n s pht tn n cc router lng ging k tip. Cc LSP level-1 c gi ra ton b area, trong khi cc level-2 LSP c gi ra tt c cc Level 2 routers. Qu trnh truyn cc LSP trn cc kt ni vt l khc nhau s khc nhau. Truyn cc LSP trn cc cng point-to-point - Khi mt quan h adjacency c thit lp, c hai u u gi cc CSNP packet trong c mt phin bn thu nh ca database. - Nu c bt k mt LSP no khng c trong CSNP, router s gi mt bn LSP cho router kia. - Tng t, nu trong c s d liu b mt mt LSP no , router nhn s yu cu gi li chnh xc LSP . - Cc LSP c yu cu gi, nhn v cng nhn (ack) nh vo cc PSNP. - Khi mt LSP c gi, router s thit lp mt ng h. Nu sau mt khong thi gian expire, LSP s c gi li. Khong thi gian ny gi l

minimumLSPTransmission-interval. 74

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI Truyn cc LSP trn cc kt ni broadcast

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

- Mc nh trong Cisco routers, khong thi gian ny l 10 giy.

Cc thng tin cp nht mc level 1 v level 2 dng cc a ch multicast. DIS c ba cng vic sau: - To v duy tr cc quan h. - To v cp nht cc LSP. - Pht tn cc LSP trn mng LAN Cc bc chnh trong qu trnh pht tn: - Khi nhn c CSNP, router s so snh LSP vi database. - Nu database c mt bn LSP mi hn hoc nu khng c phin bn no ca LSP trong CSNP, router s pht tn cc LSP vo mng LAN dng multicast. - Nu database khng c LSP c gi trong CSNP, n s gi PSNP yu cu mt LSP y .

Hnh 4.5 - Lan truyn cc CSNP v PSNP

Xc nh LSP trong database l c hp l hay khng? LSP c cha 3 field gip xc nh LSP ang c nhn c mi hn LSP c trong database hay khng. Cc field ny l: - Remaining Lifetime: c dng loi ra cc LSP c. Nu mt LSP tn ti trong database khong 20 pht, n gi s rng router ban u ngng hot ng. Thi gian lm mi (refresh time) c gi tr l 15 pht. Nu khong thi gian b ht hn (expire), LSP s loi b ni dung cha bn trong, ch li header. - Sequence Number: y l mt gi tr tuyn tnh 32 bit. LSP u tin c cp ch s l 1. Cc LSP k tip c tng ln 1. 75

Gio trnh kha hc BSCI

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

- Checksum: Nu mt router nhn mt LSP v checksum khng tnh ton chnh xc, LSP s flush v lifetime ca LSP c gn v 0. Tt c cc router cn li s b LSP. Router ban u s truyn li LSP mi. 4.8.2. Qu trnh quyt nh

Sau khi database c ng b, router cn phi quyt nh ng i no s dng n mt ch no . D nhin l c th s c nhiu ng i chn la. Mc tiu ca qu trnh quyt inh l to ra mt cy phn nh ng i ngn nht n tt c cc ch. Mi router s xy dng mt cy trong bn thn n l root. S c vi bng c to ra trong qu trnh ny. Bng PATH l bng cha ng i ngn nht trong qu trnh xy dng. Bng TENT l bng tm c dng trong qu trnh tnh ton. Nu c nhiu hn mt ng i n mt ch, cc tiu chun sau y c chn la: - Nu c nhiu hn mt ng i n mt ch, Cisco router s dng ti a 6 ng i. Gi tr mc nh l 4. - Cc metric ty chn c tham kho trc khi default-metric c chn. Tuy nhin Cisco routers ch h tr default-metric. - Cc ng i bn trong (internal) c chn trc cc ng i external. - Cc ng i level-1 bn trong mt vng th c u tin hn. - a ch vi subnetmask di nht s c dng. - Nu ToS c cu hnh, ng i c ToS s c chn trc cc ng i khc. - Nu ToS l bng nhau, s c ti a 6 ng i c t trong bng routing. Router s thc hin load-balancing trn cc ng i ny - Nu khng c ng i no, router s chuyn packet n level-2 router gn nht, l router mc nh. Metrics (Cost) Metric nh ngha ph tn ca ng i. IS-IS c 4 metric, trong ch c mt metric l c dng. Cc metric c nh ngha l: - Default: cn c gi l cost. Tt c cc IS-IS router phi h tr loi cost ny. Cisco gn gi tr mc nh l 10. - chm tr (delay). - Chi ph hin thi ca network (expense). - tin cy ca ng i (error).

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Gio trnh kha hc BSCI 4.8.3. Qu trnh forwarding

Chng 4 Intergrated IS-IS

Cc ng i c subnet mask di nht s c chn. 4.8.4. Qu trnh nhn

Khng c m t chi tit trong gio trnh CCNP.

4.9.

Cc tiu ch thit k IS-IS

Trong IS-IS, qu trnh thit k tp trung vo area v a ch. Thit k vng (area) trong IS-IS Khi thit k IS-IS, cn xem xt cc dng d liu v ti nguyn c yu cu bi IS-IS. iu chnh qu trnh cp nht c th l cn thit. Nu ta gim thi gian cp nht, database s hi t nhanh hn nhng network c th thiu ti nguyn h thng route d liu. Mt vi thit k tiu biu bao gm: - Mt mng dng flat ch dng level-1 routing. Thit k ny s khng mang tnh m rng v bt k mt thay i no trong mng cng to ra mt s pht tn cc LSPs n tt c cc routers. Tuy nhin, thit k n gin ny c u im l ch c mt c s d liu v khng c vn v suboptimal routing. - Mt mng flat dng level-2 routing: Khi h thng mng pht trin, cc level-1 c th thm vo. - Mt h thng mng c cu trc, trong phn core chy level-2 routing cn level-1 kt ni n core. Level 1-2 router c dng kt ni cc area.

4.10.

Route Summarization

Cc level-1-2 routers c th tm lc cc routes bn trong vng ca n. Route tng (summarize route) c lan truyn n level-2 router. Level-1 routes khng th c summarize bn trong areas bi v IS-IS khng cho php iu ny.

4.11.

Gii php cho m hnh Integrated IS-IS NBMA trong mng chuyn

mch WAN
i vi IS-IS, mi trng NBMA s c cu hnh nh multipoint v cho php vic bu ra mt DIS. Mt gii php khc l cu hnh cng giao tip vi cc subinterfaces nh cc kt ni point-to-point.

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