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I HC KHOA HC T NHIN Khoa Cng ngh thng tin

BO CO TI
ti: Tm hiu v cng ngh WiMAX
* Nhm thc hin: TinTin 1. Nguyn Quang Bnh 2. Dng Quc Anh I. Nhng nt c bn v cng ngh WiMAX:
1. L do ra i ca WiMAX Cng ngh WiFi IEEE 802.11 trong vi nm gn y gt hi c nhng thnh cng rc r vi minh chng l n c trin khai rng ri khp ni. Hu nh tt c cc my tnh c nhn, in thoi thng minh, PDA u c tch hp WiFi. Tc d liu ca WiFi c th t c 54Mpbs. Tuy nhin vng ph sng ca WiFi ch hn ch tm vi chc n vi trm mt. p ng nhu cu ph sng xa hn, WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) ra i. 2. Cng ngh WiMAX l g? - WiMAX l t vit tt ca Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access - Kh nng tng tc ton cu vi truy nhp vi ba. - WiMAX l mt cng ngh da trn cc chun, cho php truy cp bng rng v tuyn n u cui (last mile) nh mt phng thc thay th cho cp v DSL. Chun WiMAX u tin ra i vo thng 10 nm 2001. Khc vi WiFi ch s dng mt bng tng, WiMAX c th hot ng trong bng tng t 2-66 Ghz. - Cc ng dng khc nhau s dng nhng bng tng khc nhau trnh s giao thoa. C th, cc ng dng di ng (802.16e) dng bng tng t 2-11 GHz. nhiu nc chu u, bng tng 3.5 GHz c dnh ring cho WiMAX di ng. Cc ng dng c nh (802.16d) th dng bng tng t 10-66 GHz. - WiMAX cho php kt ni bng rng v tuyn c nh, nomadic (ngi s dng c th di chuyn nhng c nh trong lc kt ni), mang xch c (ngi s dng c th di chuyn vi tc i b) v cui cng l di ng m khng cn thit trong Tm nhn thng (Line-ofSight) trc tip ti mt trm gc. - Trong mt bn knh ca mt cell in hnh l t 3 n 10km, cc h thng c Din n WiMAX (WiMAX Forum) chng nhn s c cng sut ln ti 40Mbit/s mi knh cho cc ng dng truy cp c nh v mang xch c. iu ny c ngha l bng thng ng thi h tr hng trm doanh nghip vi kt ni tc T-1 v hng ngn h dn vi kt ni tc

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DSL. Cng sut cho mng di ng khi trin khai s l 15Mbit/s trong phm vi bn knh ca mt cell in hnh ln ti 3km. 3. Cc chun khc nhau ca WiMAX a) Chun c bn 802.16 basic - Chun 802.16 ban u c to ra vi mc ch l to ra nhng giao din (interface) khng dy da trn mt nghi thc MAC (Media Access Control) chung. Kin trc mng c bn ca 802.16 bao gm mt trm pht (BS - Base Station) v ngi s dng (SS - Subscriber Station). - Trong mt vng ph sng, trm BS s iu khin ton b s truyn d liu (traffic). iu c ngha l s khng c s trao i truyn thng gia hai SS vi nhau. Ni kt gia BS v SS s gm mt knh uplink v downlink. Knh uplink s chia s cho nhiu SS trong khi knh downlink c c im broadcast. Trong trng hp khng c vt cn gia SS v BS (line of sight), thng tin s c trao i trn bng tng cao. Ngc li, thng tin s c truyn trn bng tng thp chng nhiu. b) Cc chun b sung (amendments) ca WiMAX - 802.16a: Chun ny s dng bng tng c bn quyn t 2 11 Ghz. y l bng tng thu ht c nhiu quan tm nht v tn hiu truyn c th vt c cc chng ngi trn ng truyn. 802.16a cn thch ng cho vic trin khai mng Mesh m trong mt thit b cui (terminal) c th lin lc vi BS thng qua mt thit b cui khc. Vi c tnh ny, vng ph sng ca 802.16a BS s c ni rng. - 802.16b: Chun ny hot ng trn bng tng t 5 6 Ghz vi mc ch cung ng dnh v vi cht lng cao (QoS). C th chun u tin truyn thng tin ca nhng ng dng video, thoi, real-time thng qua nhng lp dch v khc nhau (class of service). Chun ny sau c kt hp vo chun 802.16a. - 802.16c: Chun ny nh ngha thm cc profile mi cho di bng tng t 10-66GHz vi mc ch ci tin interoperability. - 802.16d: C mt s ci tin nh so vi chun 802.16a. Chun ny c chun ha 2004. Cc thit b pre-WiMAX c trn th trng l da trn chun ny. - 802.16e: ang trong giai on hon thin v chun ha. c im ni bt ca chun ny l kh nng cung cp cc dch v di ng (vn tc di chuyn ln nht m vn c th dng tt dch v ny l 100km/h). - Ngoi ra cn c nhiu chun b sung khc ang c trin khai hoc ang trong giai on chun ha nh 802.16g, 802.16f, 802.16h... 4. Ti sao WiMAX li cn thit v quan trng cho v tuyn bng rng c nh v v tuyn bng rng di ng? - WiMAX cn thit v l mt cng ngh c lp cho php truy cp bng rng c nh v di ng. Chun WiMAX l cn thit t mc tiu chi ph thp hn. y l iu m cc gii php v tuyn c quyn khng th t c do nhng hn ch v s lng.

- Cc gii php WiMAX c kh nng tng thch cho php gim bt chi ph sn xut nh vic tch hp cc chip chun, lm cho cc sn phm c chi ph hp l cung cp cc dch v bng rng cng sut cao nhng khong cch bao ph ln trong cc mi trng Tm nhn thng (LOS) v khng theo tm nhn thng (NLOS). - WiMAX quan trng trong v tuyn bng rng c nh cung cp truy cp bng rng cn thit ti cc doanh nghip v ngi s dng l h gia nh nh l mt s thay th cho cc dch v cp v DSL c bit l khi truy cp ti cp ng l rt kh khn. - WiMAX quan trng trong v tuyn bng rng di ng, v n b sung trn vn cho 3G v hiu sut truyn d liu lung xung cao hn 1Mbit/s, cho php kt ni cc my laptop v PDA v b sung cho Wi-Fi nh bao ph rng hn.

II. Nhng c s quan trng ca cng ngh WiMAX


- C s quan trng ca cng ngh WiMAX l s tng thch ca thit b WiMAX, to s tin cy v lm tng s lng ln cho nh cung cp dch v khi mua thit b khng ch t 1 cng ty v tt c u tng thch vi nhau. - Cc c s quan trng khc l chi ph, bao ph, cng sut v chun cho c truy cp v tuyn c nh v di ng. + Chi ph thp hn CPE v tuyn c nh c th s dng cng loi chipset modem c s dng trong my tnh c nhn (PC) v PDA, v khong cch gn cc modem c th t lp t trong nh CPE s tng t nh cp, DSL v cc trm gc c th s dng cng loi chipset chung c thit k cho cc im truy cp WiMAX chi ph thp v cui cng l s lng tng cng tha mn cho vic u t vo vic tch hp mc cao hn cc chipset tn s v tuyn (RF), lm chi ph gim hn na. + bao ph rng hn Cng ngh sau WiMAX c ti u mang n bao ph NLOS tt nht. Cc u im ca NLOS l bao ph trn din rng, kh nng d bo bao ph tt hn v chi ph thp hn c ngha l s trm gc v backhaul t hn, nh c RF n gin, cc thi im lp t thp ngn hn v lp t CPE nhanh hn. Nh c cc k thut ci tin bao ph NLOS nh phn tp, m ha thi gian khng gian v yu cu truyn li t ng (Automatic Retransmission Request - ARQ), cc khong cch bao ph s c tng ln. + Cng sut cao hn - u im quan trng ca WiMAX l s dng k thut OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) qua cc c ch iu ch n sng mang vi kh nng cung cp hiu sut bng thng cao hn v do thng lng d liu cao hn vi lung xung hn 1Mbit/s v thm ch cc tc d liu cao hn nhiu d trong NLOS vi cc iu kin a ng. - iu ch thch ng (Adaptive Modulation) cng lm tng tin cy ng kt ni i vi hot ng phn loi sng mang v kh nng gi iu ch 64QAM khong cch rng hn, tng cng sut qua cc khong cch di hn.

+ Chun cho truy cp v tuyn c nh v di ng - WiMAX s tr thnh mt gii php chi ph hp l nht cho cc nh khai thc trin khai cc ng dng v tuyn c nh v di ng cho cc my xch tay v PDA. - Din n WiMAX s chng nhn cc sn phm tun th v tng thch da trn cc chun 802.16 ca IEEE v HiperMAN ca ETSI. - Cui cng mt h thng qun l mng kh nng qun l cc m t QoS cu trc cc gi dch v b sung cc thnh phn quan trng ny.

III. Mt s chi tit v cng ngh WiMAX


1. Din n WiMAX l g? - Din n WiMAX l mt t chc ca cc nh khai thc v cc cng ty thit b v cu kin truyn thng hng u. Mc tiu ca Din n WiMAX l thc y v chng nhn kh nng tng thch ca cc thit b truy cp v tuyn bng rng tun th chun 802.16 ca IEEE v cc chun HiperMAN ca ETSI. - Din n WiMAX c thnh lp d b cc ro cn tin ti vic chp nhn rng ri cng ngh truy cp v tuyn bng rng BWA (Broadband Wireless Access), v ring mt chun th khng khuyn khch vic chp nhn rng ri mt cng ngh. Theo mc tiu ny, Din n hp tc cht ch vi cc nh cung cp v cc c quan qun l m bo cc h thng c Din n ph chun p ng cc yu cu ca khch hng v ca cc chnh ph. 2. Thit b ti nh ca khch hng (CPE) s nh th no v gi s bao nhiu? - Th h CPE do Din n WiMAX chng nhn u tin s l cc trm thu bao c lp t ngoi tri ging vi cc cho v tinh nh c cui nm ngoi v u nm nay v gi khong 350USD mi b. - Th h CPE th 2 c th l nhng modem c th t lp trong nh tng t nh modem cp v DSL v c gi khong 250USD mi b v s c mt trn th trng trong nm nay. Th h CPE th 3 s c tch hp vo cc laptop v cc thit b xch tay khc, c tnh c gi 100USD v s xut hin trong nm 2006 2007. 3. IEEE 802.16 khc cng ngh WiMAX im no? - Mt trong nhng mc tiu chnh ca Din n WiMAX l to ra mt chun tng thch t chun 802.16 ca IEEE v cc chun HiperMAN ca ETSI. iu ny s thc hin c nh vic hnh thnh cc m t h thng. Da trn nhng g m Din n WiMAX xem xt v cc iu khon ca nh cung cp dch v v cc k hoch thit b ca cc nh cung cp, Din n WiMAX quyt nh tp trung trc tin vo cc m t cho phng thc PHY OFDM 256 ca chun 802.16 nm 2004, c IEEE thng qua vo thng 6/2004. Lp vt l (PHY) s c kt hp vi mt b iu khin truy nhp phng tin (MAC) c lp m bo mt nn tng thng nht cho tt c nhng trin khai WiMAX. - Tun th theo chun 802.16 khng c ngha l thit b c Din n WiMAX chng nhn hoc c th tng thch vi cc thit b ca cc nh cung cp khc. Tuy nhin nu mt thit b

tun th thit k c Din n WiMAX chng nhn th va tun th chun 802.16 v tng thch vi c thit b ca cc nh khai cp khc. 4. Cc phin bn 802.16 nh 802.16a, 802.16-2004 v 802.16e khc nhau nh th no? Chun 802.16a ca IEEE tp trung vo truy cp bng rng c nh. Chun m rng 802.162004 ca IEEE ci tin hn nh h tr cho CPE trong nh. Chun 802.16e l mt m rng ca chun 802.16-2004. Mc ch ca chun 802.16e l b sung kh nng di ng d liu cho chun hin thi, m ban u thit k ch yu dnh cho c nh. 5. Chun 802.16 ca IEEE c thng qua khi no? - IEEE thng qua chun 802.16 ban u cho mng MAN v tuyn trong di tn t 10 66GHz vo thng 12/2001. 802.16a m rng cho di tn s 11 GHz c thng qua thng 1/2003. Chun 802.16-2004 c IEEE thng qua thng 6/2004. Chun 802.16e c thng qua thng 12/2005. Din n WiMAX s bt u qu trnh chng nhn thit b ban u trong cc bng tn 3.3 n 3.8 GHz v 5.7 n 5.8 GHz. - Nhng m t ny bao gm c cc h thng song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD) v song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD). Din n WiMAX xy dng cc m t h thng tp trung vo bng tn c min cp php 5.8GHz, v cc bng tn c cp php l 2.5 v 3.5 GHz khi ng th trng. - Din n WiMAX kt hp vi cc nh cung cp dch v v cc nh sn xut thit b m rng s phn b tn s bao ph tt c cc di ph ch cht m tt c cc cng ty thnh vin xc nh l hp dn i vi cc nh cung cp dch v WiMAX tim nng. Cc thit b ban u c Din n WiMAX ph chun s trong bng tn 3.5GHz, sau l 5.8GHz. 6. WiMAX c cnh tranh vi Wi-Fi? - WiMAX v Wi-Fi s cng tn ti v tr thnh nhng cng ngh b sung ngy cng ln cho ccng dng ring. c trng ca WiMAX l khng thay th Wi-Fi. Hn th WiMAX b sung cho Wi-Fi bng cch m rng phm vi ca Wi-Fi v mang li nhng thc t ca ngi s dng "kiu Wi-Fi" trn mt quy m a l rng hn. Cng ngh Wi-Fi c thit k v ti u cho cc mng ni b (LAN), trong khi WiMAX c thit k v ti u cho cc mng thnh ph (MAN). - Trong khong thi gian t 2006 - 2008, hy vng c 802.16 v 802.11 s xut hin trong cc thit b ngi s dng t laptop ti cc PDA, c 2 chun ny cho php kt ni v tuyn trc tip ti ngi s dng - ti gia nh, trong vn phng v khi ang di chuyn. 7. WiMAX c cnh tranh vi HiperMAN ca ETSI? Cc chun 802.16-2004 (256 OFDM PHY) ca IEEE v HiperMAN ca ETSI s chia s chung cc c tnh k thut PHY v MAC. Din n WiMAX hot ng c hai t chc tiu chun ny m bo mt chun ton cu chung cho MAN v tuyn, s c chp nhn. 8. 802.16 khc vi 802.20 im no?

802.16 v 802.20 ca IEEE l hai mc tiu cng ngh khc nhau tp trung vo cc th trng ring bit. Tuy nhin, 802.20 vn ang trong nhng giai on u tin ca vic xy dng chun v cha th hon tt trong hai nm ti. V bi v 802.20 hin nay cha c s h tr rng ri ca ngnh Vin thng nh l Din n WiMAX vi hn 350 thnh vin, tng thch cng cn l vn v nh vy n vn cn kh xa vi. 9. OFDM l g? - OFDM l mt cng ngh iu ch v m ha s, c s dng thnh cng trong cc ng dng hu tuyn nh modem DSL v modem cp. Cc sn phm ca cc cng ty thnh vin Din n WiMAX ang s dng cc h thng 802.16 da trn OFDM vt qua nhng thch thc ca vic truyn sng NLOS. - OFDM t n tc v hiu qu d liu cao nh s dng nhn chng cc tn hiu sng mang thay cho ch mt tn hiu. u im quan trng ca OFDM ca cc c ch iu ch n sng mang n l kh nng mang li hiu sut bng thng cao hn v do thng lng d liu s cao hn thm ch phi i mt thch thc vi kch bn trin khai chng hn nh cc ng kt ni NLOS phi chu suy hao ng k do cc iu kin a ng. 10. Lp vt l WiMAX (802.16/HiperMAN OFDM PHY) l g? Lp vt l (PHY) c 802.16 nh ngha c ba bin th: Sng mang n, OFDM 256 v OFDMA 2048. Lp vt l OFDM 256 c Din n WiMAX la chn cho cc m t u tin da trn 802.16-2004 (trc y l 802.16REVd). 11. Lp kim sot truy cp (MAC) WiMAX l g? - Chun 802.16 ca IEEE a ra cng mt lp MAC cho tt c lp PHY (n sng mang, 256 OFDM, 2048 OFDMA). - Lp MAC ny l kt ni c nh hng v chun b cho kt ni TDM ng kt hp vi truy cp TDMA ng ln. - Chun ny nh ngha l h tr cho c TDD v FDD v cho php phng thc bn song cng FDD (HD-FDD). TDD l mt k thut m h thng pht v nhn cng knh gn cc khe thi gian cho phng thc pht v nhn. FDD yu cu hai ph tn ring r.

IV. ng dng ca cng ngh WiMAX


- Ni ti WiMax , ngi ta c th ngh ti rt nhiu gii php thay th m cng ngh ny c th mang li. chnh l kh nng thay th ng xDSL gip tip cn nhanh hn cc i tng ngi dng bng rng m khng cn phi u t ln. c bit WiMAX rt hu ch cung cp dch v bang thng rng nhng vng xa xi m gii php ADSL hoc cp quang l rt tn km. - nhng nc ang pht trin nh Vit Nam, ni m Internet bng thng rng cha ph bin, WiMAX l mt gii php kinh t. Ngoi ra WiMAX cn gip vic trin khai WiFi thm nhanh chng do cc hotspot WiFi s khng cn ng leased-line m s ni trc tip vi

WiMAX BS. Kh nng roaming gia cc dch v Wi-Fi v WiMax s mang li nhiu li ch cho ngi s dng. - c th dng dch v Internet bng thng rng ca WiMAX (fixed WiMAX), nh cung cp dch v ch cn lp t mt ang-ten BS gia khu dn c. Mi ngi dng s c cung cp mt ang-ten thu (CPE), lp trn mi nh/ca s. CPE c th c ni trc tip vi my vi tnh hoc thng qua mt Access Point WiFi. Vic trin khai kh n gin, m gi thnh li thp hn nhiu so vi cng ngh hin hnh. - Bn cnh dch v c nh, WiMAX cn cung ng cc dch v di ng. Trong tng lai, cc thit b mobile m hin nay c tch hp WiFi s c tch hp WiMAX. Khi , ngi dng c th kt ni mng mi lc mi ni thng qua WiMAX, v c bit l vn c th dng cc dch v ging nh nhng dch v ca mng cellular 3G. Hn na, tc truyn ca WiMAX cao hn hn 3G m gi ha hn s r. i vi cc nh cung cp mng, gi thnh ca mt WiMAX BS r hn rt nhiu so vi gi ca mt BS UMTS. Do , c th nh cung ng mng 3G s dng WiMAX thay th 3G nhng khu vc tha dn c.

V. Li ch ca cng ngh WiMAX


- i vi cc doanh nghip, WiMAX cho php truy cp bng rng vi chi ph hp l. V phn ln cc doanh nghip s khng c chia thnh khu vc c ng cp, la chn duy nht ca h i vi dch v bng rng l t cc nh cung cp vin thng a phng. iu ny dn ti s c quyn. Cc doanh nghip s c hng li t vic trin khai cc h thng WiMAX chng nhn nh to ra s cnh tranh mi trn th trng, gim gi v cho php cc doanh nghip thit lp mng ring ca mnh. iu ny c bit ph hp i vi cc ngnh nh kh t, m, nng nghip, vn ti, xy dng v cc ngnh khc nm nhng v tr xa xi, ho lnh. - i vi ngi s dng l h gia nh nhng vng nng thn (ni dch v DSL v cp cha th vn ti), WiMAX mang li kh nng truy cp bng rng. iu ny c bit ph hp cc nc ang pht trin ni m h tng vin thng truyn thng vn cha th tip cn.

VI. WiMAX Vit Nam


- Sau khi c s ng ca Th tng Chnh ph, c bn doanh nghip l Tp on Bu chnh Vin thng VNPT, Tng cng ty Vin thng qun i Viettel, cng ty FPT Telecom v Tng cng ty truyn thng a phng tin VTC c php m dch v Wimax di ng v c nh. Cng ty VDC (thuc VNPT) l n v u tin trin khai cc loi hnh dch v v cng ngh tin tin ny ti Lo Cai. WiMAX do VDC trin khai th nghim hot ng trong di tn t 3,3GHz n 3,4GHz, vi thit b nhp t hng Alvarion. Tt c 4 cng ty ny c cp php th nghim WiMAX trong vng 1 nm. Hin ti Alvarion l nh cung cp thit b WiMAX ln nht. Ngoi ra c cc cng ty khc cung cp thit b WiMAX vi gi thnh r hn nh Infinet, Siemens, Aperto... - Va qua, giai on I trin khai cng ngh WiMAX c VDC cng cc i tc hon thnh th nghim v bt u trin khai giai on II ti tnh min ni pha Bc vi mong mun to nn mt m hnh kt ni khng dy cho nng dn.

- Sau bc u th nghim thnh cng ti thnh ph Lo Cai, t thng 5/2007 ti thng 10/2007 ba i tc l Tp on Intel, C quan pht trin quc t M (USAID) v cng ty in ton v Truyn s liu VDC cng nhau tip tc trin khai th nghim a dch v cng ngh WiMAX n x T Van, huyn Sapa, tnh Lo Cai. - Vit Nam, khi m cng ngh 3G cha c trin khai, m cng ngh WiMAX li ha hn nhng tnh nng ging v vt 3G, bi ton t ra l nn trin khai cng ngh no cho hiu qu. Phi nhn nhn mt u rng cng ngh 3G trn th gii vn ang c trin khai vi tc rt chm. Nguyn do chnh l kinh ph u t c s h tng mng rt ln (khng th nng cp t mng 2G) trong khi rt t ngi dng dch v ny do gi c t v tc truyn khng cho php trin khai cc dch v multimedia. Ni thm l mng 2G ch c th nng cp ln GPRS hoc EDGE, nhng tc truyn d liu khng cao. - Mng WiMAX cng i hi nh cung cp mng phi xy dng mt h tng mng mi. thi im hin ti, WiMAX mobile vn cha ra i, nn nhng kh nng ca WiMAX vn mang tnh l thuyt. Chng ta nn chn cng ngh no, hay cng lc trin khai c hai cng ngh ny? Nu c hai cng ngh cng tn ti, cu hi t ra l chng s h tr nhau hay c lp nhau? Cu tr li nm nh cung cp mng v liu k thut c cho php chuyn giao gia hai loi hnh mng ny hay khng? Ngoi ra cng khng nn b qua nhu cu thc s ca ngi dng trc khi quyt nh trin khai mt cng ngh mng mi. - Trong khi chng ta cha c 3G, 3G LTE v ang bt u c chun ha. 3G LTE ang nh ngha mt radio interface han tan mi v mt kin trc mng mi, n gin hn nhiu so vi 3G hin ti. iu ny c ngha l li phi xy dng mt c s h tng mng han ton mi - Hi Truyn thng V tuyn in ITU chp nhn a WiMAX vo h cng ngh IMT2000. Quyt nh quan trng ny s gip tng kh nng trin khai ng dng WiMAX ti nhiu nc chu trong c Vit Nam - nhng ni cn ang ch chun ha WiMAX tn dng kinh t qui m ton cu v cng ngh v thit b. - Cc cng ngh IMT-2000 khc bao gm GSM, CDMA v UMTS. V quyt nh mi nht ny a WiMAX ln ngang tm vi cng ngh khc. Tin s Ray Owen, Gim c cng ngh, Motorola khu vc chu cho bit: By gi, WiMAX c cng nhn l cng ngh IMT-2000, n m bo cho cc nh khai thc v nh qun l trn ton th gii c th yn tm u t vo bng thng rng di ng thc s dng cng ngh WiMAX. iu ny c bit quan trng ti chu i vi bng tn 2.5 GHz. y cng l mt bc ngot quan trng gip xo b cc hoi nghi lu nay v kh nng ng dng rng ri WiMAX ci thin vic pht trin bng thng rng cc nc ang pht trin ti chu nh Vit Nam. - ng cng a ra khuyn ngh Vit Nam nn dng bng tn 2.3 GHz v 2.5 GHz cho WiMAX, v y l bng tn c nhiu quc gia s dng cho cng ngh ny. Khi cp bng tn WiMAX, Vit Nam nn cp ln hn 30 MHz cho mi nh h c bng tn pht trin khch hng. Motorola nh gi, 2008 s l nm cng ngh dch v WiMAX thc s ct cnh ti Vit Nam.