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By Howard Choy Choy Lee Fut kung-fu has always been taught openly, since its conception in the 1830s. The passage of time has resulted in many derivative new techniques being added onto the original as passed down by Chan Heung, the founder. It is now difficult to differentiate the techniques that were devised by Chan Heung and those that were created by teachers of later generations. The three main branches of the system, namely, Hung Sing (Originally known as Great Sage Hung Sing, later changed to Heroic Victory Hung Sing), Hong Sing (Great Victory), and Buk Sing (Northern Victory, whose lineage can be traced to Tam Salm), feature slight variations in their techniques. This is especially true in the case of the wooden dummies (known as jongs in Cantonese). Since few knew about the techniques in the first place those who practiced the dummy movements did so on their own. This led to personal interpretation and experimentation. This gradual evolution of techniques came about because of geographical separation, difficulty of communication and that each generation had its own comprehension of what went before, especially if their lineage is further away from Chan Heung and the direct teaching of the Chan family. Family Secrets Unleashed Since the migration of Chen Yong-Fa from China to Australia 13 years ago, the original techniques of Chan Heung have been made public. This has introduced to the world knowledge previously kept within the Chan family. Chen Yong Fa is the great, great grandson of Chang Heung and has direct access to family documents, such as the Training Manual of Choy Lee Fut, in which all the fist forms, weaponry, lion dance and wooden dummy techniques were recorded in detail as passed down by Chan Heung. There are 184 recorded forms, in which 48 are single-person fist forms and about 20 are wooden dummy techniques. The wooden jongs are an inherent part of the Choy Lee Fut training system. Practiced along with hand fighting and weapons fighting techniques, jong training in particular emphasises the use of strong/heavy power, while also serving to sharpen the reflexes and developing accuracy in striking pressure points. Jong training originated in the Shaolin temple. Choy Fook, one of Chan Heungs mentors, survived the sacking of the Fukien temple and passed on this traditional Shaolin training technique to become part of the Choy Lee Fut martial arts system. Power Plus Chan Heung put considerable emphasis on power training, which is essential in jong techniques because one must have a strong and solid stance and tough limbs. It is not an easy task to send a heavy sandbag flying or to smash a solid piece of timber with a heavy weight attached swing from end-to-end like a yo-yo. Chan Heungs son, Chan Koon-Pak, also made jong techniques one of his specialities and received full instructions from his father. While teaching in Guangzhou, Koon-Pak was approached by Choy Kwai-Yuan and his two sons to teach them the wooden dummy

techniques. They had the space required for installing the various jongs in their home. Chan Koon Pak accepted their request and gave them the specifications to construct the jongs. Once the construction and installation of the jongs was completed, other students of KoonPak also expressed an interest in learning the techniques and would gather at Choys house to practice every day. These students included outstanding past Choy Lee Fut Masters such as, Wong Fook, Ngan Yiu Ting, and Tam Salm. Koon Paks son, Chan Yiu Chi also helped his father teach and train many of the third generation practitioners. On Chan Koon Paks retirement, Chan Yiu-Chi became the third generation grandmaster of the system. He enjoyed a tremendous following and was the first to commit to chronicling the techniques of the wooden dummies. Chen Yong Fa started his training at the age of four under the tutelage of his grandfather Chan Yiu-Chi, and his father Chan Wan-Han. After over 40 years with Choy Lee Fut, he has a deep understanding of his family system and wants to pass down and propagate these techniques, especially the wooden dummy. Choy Lee Fut jongs are divided into three levels of training, each level more advanced then the last. The ching jong (balance dummy) is usually taught first. The rest of the jongs include: sar bow jong (sand bag dummy); chuin lung jong (penetrating dragon dummy); sui sau jong (breaking hand dummy); and ma jong (horse dummy). Ching Jong The ching jong (balance dummy) is the most well known of all the choy lee fut wooden dummies. Its chief purpose is to strengthen the kiu sau (the bridge hand) the part of the arm used for blocking. The ching jong is made of a large, heavy post fixed to the ground. It has three arms and a leg protruding from the front. These arms are used to train blocking, while pads located around the post train the strength and accuracy of striking. The distinguishing feature of the ching jong is the large moveable arm at the top that can be used to practice the well-known swinging punches of Choy Lee Fut, such as the sow chui and dat chui, along with grappling techniques. The leg fixture is used for various Choy Lee Fut leg sweeps and toughening the shins at the same time. Apart from training the kiu sau, the ching jong also helps improve the mobility of the students horse stance, with the arms and leg serving as obstacles that the practitioner must manoeuvre. The name balance dummy can be derived from the idea that the dummy trains the student to move from side to side, in and out. Movements alternate between high and low strikes and from long to short-distance techniques in line with the flux of yin and yang. A balance between yin and yang, soft and hard, slow and fast is essential for good kung-fu. Sar Bow Jong The sar bow jong is a heavy, top hung swinging bag that requires strong energy to move. Full-force strikes can be used against the dummy, which cannot be done when training with a live partner. The movement of the bag requires the student to focus on timing and rhythm. When the bag is hit and made to swing, subsequent strikes must be made not only at the right moment, but also with a strong horse stance. Since the bag often is heavier than the student is, undisciplined moves will be met with the practitioner landing on the floor.

The conditioning of the arm and leg muscles and ligaments as well as the students fist is also a result of training with the sar bow jong. The sand and the swing of the bag absorb full-power strikes to the sandbag. This works the muscles and ligaments and allows the student to improve his strength by striking the bag harder each time. Rubbing Chinese medicine (dit da jow) on the forearms hardens the bones and muscles. Sui Sau Jong The sui sau jong (breaking hand dummy) is another of the Choy Lee Fut primary-level dummies. It features a swinging arm at the front of the dummy, as well as a helicopter-like arm at the top. These arms move in such a way that requires quick reactions from the student, alternating between striking and blocking as the dummy counterattacks. The arms are coordinated so that striking the swinging arm causes the rotation of the helicopter arm, which is located at head height so the student must avoid or block this arm or receive a blow to the head. The emphasis is on training speed and lightning reactions to your opponents counterstrikes. As you strike the dummy harder and faster so too will the dummy counterattack harder and faster. A formidable opponent, the mastery of the sui sau jong requires not only speed and accuracy, but also a high level of concentration and awareness, as any break in concentration usually results in a painful blow from the dummys arm. Chuin Lung Jong The chuin lung jong is designed to develop the strength of the students horse stance. Strong internal energy and muscles are used to generate power in every move. Two heavy sand bags are strapped to the students ankles to ensure that strong footwork is used at all times. Otherwise, the player will be uplifted by the weight of the sandbags. While strapped to these heavy bags the student must move changing between horses and kicking the side bags as well as the large centre bag. Punching must also be done with heavy power because it ensures that the horse stance is strong and firmly grounded. The chuin lung jong thus combines both hard chi kung as well as external kung fu, to sharpen the students internal strength (jing) through working with the jongs.

Ma Jong The ma jong is one of the most advanced dummies taught to date by Master Chen Yong-Fa to his wing sing tong instructors, although it is still relatively simple when compared with the complex tertiary-level dummies of the Choy Lee Fut dummy system. Unique to this dummy is the heavy spring-loaded horizontal log shaped in the form of a horse. The log is mounted on wheels and springs in such a way that when pushed back the horse charges forward, forcing the practitioner to defend and control the dummy.

Power and a flexible horse stance are used to avoid and redirect the energy generated by the heavy log. The use of two interlocking spinning arms also requires a quick eye, together with fast and accurate hands to hit the targets between the rotations of the arms. The dummy is designed to train a combination of speed, accuracy and power. With the dummys unique moving parts, the harder and faster the practitioner attacks the dummy the harder and faster the dummy will counterattack. This ensures the dummy will be a challenge to even the strongest of students. Agility and awareness are essential in the use of this dynamic training tool and make this dummy effective for both offensive and defensive training. The variety and uniqueness of Choy Lee Fut wooden dummies will always have an edge over other mechanical methods of training. Once the jongs are made and set up they will provide a convenient and safe way to practice. The aim of all training is to improve power, speed and accuracy. The jongs will give you all this and more.


By Dr. Leung Ting

The correct stance can make you fast and versatile. Footwork in WingTsun Kung Fu includes stances, steps and kicks. A stance means the way a practitioner stands. A step means the way a practitioner moves his legs to advance, retreat or go sideways. A kick means a move of the lower limb to attack or defense. Training in footwork is of prime importance, though Western martial artists do not pay much attention to the training. Just imagine what happens to a practitioner who has strong upper limbs but a weak stance. He is just like "Hercules standing on a piece of floating wood;" he can never make use of his strength. Even if a practitioner has a stable stance, he will still be taken in by his opponent who has fast steps and versatile movements. One who is slow in his steps is like a powerful cannon which cannot change direction. It would be easily destroyed by the enemy if he changes the direction of his attacking power. Thus the use of fast and versatile steps is the best tactic against your enemy. Fast and versatile steps will enable you to change your position, and will allow you to vary your movements before your enemy varies his, so that you can evade his strong attacks and

aim at his weak points. Besides, the application of kicks in collaboration with arm movements means increasing your attacks at your enemy. It is a superb technique of the WingTsun practitioner that he can apply both arms and one of his legs to launch attacks at three different positions at the same time, giving his enemy no chance of defense or escape. That exemplifies the importance of kicks. The stance adopted in the WingTsun system is called the "character two-adduction stance," which includes three poses, namely, the frontal stance, the sideling stance and the advancing stance.

The frontal stance The frontal stance is posed in such a way that the feet, which are placed slightly apart, are turned inward so that the soles of the feet and the imaginary line joining the heels form an equilateral triangle. In this pose, the head, the trunk and the knee are on the same straight line if seen from the side, and form a right angle with the sole of the foot. If seen from the front, the trunk and the two legs form a structure which resembles the Eiffel Tower. The stance looks high, but because of the knees, and ralxation of the body, it results in stability of the lower body and agility of the upper body, and gives the practitioner an advantage over his opponent who is posing a low stance. The inward turning of the knees gives rise to another effect, that is, it forms a linked force between the knees known as the "linkage effect". It is as if the knees are linked by a spring, which not only enables the knees to support the weight of the body, but also prevents losing balance or falling when any of the legs is being attacked with a roundhouse or hooking kick. In short, the stance allows any of the legs to resume the original position when being attacked.

The turning stance The turning stance is a technique of the WingTsun system for nullifying a forceful attack from an opponent. There are many Wing Chun practitioners who do not understand the concept of the turning stance, nor do theyrealize the effect of changing from the frontal stance to the sideling stance. Some others misunderstand the theory of applying collaboration between hand techniques and stance techniques to "evade" an attacking force from the opponent, and have the wrong idea of countering a force with a force. This is far from being correct in theory of the WingTsun system. In fact all hand techniques of the WingTsun system aim at "nullifying the opponent's force to strengthen the practitioner's counterattack." To succeed in doing this, the hand

techniques must closely collaborate with a set of footwork which is deliberately planned for this purpose. Otherwise the hand techniques will be just like a small sports car fitted with four oversized wheels. The concept of the turning stance can be explained as follows: Practitioners of most martial art systems would try to block or deflect a coming straight punch with their hands and arms. But any martial artist who has experience of real fights will realize that the above method of countering a fast and heavy attack will not bring a good result. It is just like a goalkeeper trying to block a shot with his own force and speed - the defense is not sure. If the shot is not made with a football, but with an iron ball, can the goalkeeper block it? A practitioner of the WingTsun system will therefore employ a different method of dealing which such a problem. If he were the goalkeeper, he would not block or catch the ball, whether or not it is made of iron. He would, on the other hand, remove the goal to one side to evade the shot, thus neglecting the force or speed of the coming attack! Have you ever taken notice of the turnstile at the entrance of a bank? It has no power of itself. It is you who turns it - it turns in the direction you push it, and the power comes from you!

The sideling stance (diagonal stance) The sideling stance is also known as the diagonal stance, for while posing this stance, the soles of the feet are placed on the diagonal line of two squares. And since the feet are placed at an angle of 45 degrees away from the front direction, the practitioner therefore stands at an angle of 45 degrees toward his opponent. At this position, the opponent's centerline points at the practitioner's left shoulder, while the practitioner's centerline points at the opponent's right shoulder, thus conforming to the theory of "while trunk being turned, the centerline lies on the shoulder." If the opponent's punching arm keeps coming forward toward the practitioner even though the practitioner has adopted the sideling stance, the practitioner can still keep turning until he is at a right angle with the opponent. In this position, the opponent's force, no matter how powerful, is being evaded, in the same way as a charging bull is being evaded by a bullfighter. This is the reason why the bodyweight of the practitioner is being shifted to the rear leg. Today, there are too many Wing Chun practitioners who, now knowing the real effect of the sideling stance, mix up theories of similar stances of other martial art systems with that of the sideling stance of the WingTsun system and thus have the wrong idea of keeping 30 percent of the bodyweight on the front leg and 70 percent of the bodyweight on the rear leg, or even 40 percent on the front and 60 percent on the rear.

The advancing stance (meridian stance) The advancing stance, also known as the meridian stance, is a stance being posed in such a way that one of the legs of the practitioner is placed in front of the other, with both being over the meridian line. The advancing stance can be converted from the frontal stance or the sideline stance by advancing the front leg forward while posing these two stances. The front leg of the practitioner, whether he is posing the advancing stance or the sideling stance, does not carry any bodyweight, and can thus freely and swiftly execute a kick at the opponent or perform other movements to cope with the opponent's attacks.

"WingTsun practitioners never counter force with force. Instead, the techniques "nullify" the opponent's force, while strengthening the practitioner's counterattack. To accomplish this, the hand and foot techniques must work in perfect harmony."

Source: 'Inside Kung Fu' (Sept. '89)


Had Bruce Lee been taught several rare wing chun punching techniques, he might not have needed to create jeet kune do. By Dave Carter If Bruce Lee had known that there are actually two more ways of punching in the wing chun kung-fu system, he might not have needed to look elsewhere for answers to his fighting questions. As the story goes, Lee was a young upstart in San Francisco when he was challenged by an established master. Lee used his 'wing chun gung-fu', as he called it, but found it was too limiting to do the job. Subsequently, he entered his experimental stage which eventually led to the creation of jeet kune do. Lees's main complaint was that while plenty of his punches landed, few

connected with the kind of force necessary to quickly end a fight.

More than one According to grandmaster Dr. Leung Ting's WingTsun theories, the straight punch in WingTsun (wing chun) is the most popular attacking movement among all attacking strikes, but it is not the only punch in the system, as many continue to believe "The problem is that during the lifetime of grandmaster Yip Man, he rarely gave deep explanations to his students in the common classes," Dr. Leung related. "You know, grandmaster Yip Man was a very traditional kung-fu instructor," he added. "In his way of thinking, if the students did not measure up to a certain standart to make him feel that they should be taught more about the application, he would not even explain to them the meaning or various functions of certain special movements." "Also, the traditional wing chun concepts stressed a free-form approach to learning and free use of the techniques so the practitioner could adapt to myriad attacks. Therefore, wing chun instructors normally did not advocate a systematic way of teaching their students. Most traditional wing chun instructors either adopted a personal method or one that was accepted by their students."

Leaving out something This method worked fine in another era when wing chun teachers accepted only a few disciples who remained with them a minimum of ten years. However, since grandmaster Yip Man became the first wing chun instructor to ever formally try to make a living from teaching martial arts, discrepancies occurred over time. Because of the "free" way of teaching, it was not uncommon for those with bigger classes to forget what techniques already had been covered. Subsequently, some students were taught complete sets while others only received portions of the complete curriculum. This explains why so many top Yip Man students maintain, "I am the only one who had even learned this secret technique. No was else was taught what I know." One of those students was Bruce Lee, who contended since he was only taught one straight punch that the wing chun system did not contain more. "The late grandmaster hardly provided explanation to his students that there was more than one way of punching," Dr. Leung Ting noted. "Further we cannot exclude the possibility that the late grandmaster even forgot to explain to most of his students the application of the rare punching techniques, even though they always have been part of the system's sets as Chum Kiu and Bil Tze." "If the student did not measure up to a certain standard to make (Yip Man) feel they should be taught more about the application, he would not

even explain to them the meaning of certain special movements." "Even before I learned from grandmaster Yip Man, I also thought there were only two punches in the wing chun system (e.g., the straight punch in all the three kung-fu sets and the lifting punch in the middle section of the Chum Kiu set). It was not until I became his personal student that I discovered an additional hooking punch in the Bil Tze set." "Due to this bad experience, when I started to teach in 1967, I felt that I had to change some of the traditional ideas or I would not be great in the future," Dr. Leung explained. "Actually, I did not change the traditional wing chun fighting concept; I only modified the teaching method and created a brand new grading system. And most importantly, I have enriched some of the techniques in the teaching courses to include the "missing" or "secret" techniques once through only to be known by a few men." "I have also improved a few techniques so they could be applied not only against Chinese kung-fu opponents, but also for practitioners of any system. (Note:Before wing chun was introduced to the Western world, its purpose was to face those who practised only kung-fu.) to differentiate my system from the traditional varieties, I called it 'WingTsun'," he added.

Three methods WingTsun consists of three different punching methods: the straight punch, the lifting punch, and the hooking punch. Since the straight punch is applied all the time, it appears in all three kung-fu sets and is the system's most useful punching method. The straight punch - (The character "sun" thrusting punch) The "yat gi chung kuen" or character "sun" thrusting punch is the most important attacking movement in WingTsun. It is unique in the exertion of force compared to the straight punches of other martial arts. In launching a WingTsun straight punch, the main source of power is the elbow. There is a motto for the correct way of launching a WingTsun straight punch: "Keep the elbow at the centreline while you are launching a straight punch." The first is pushed outward by a kind of special force called "explosive force". A good comparison is the firing of a cannon. The fist is the cannon ball, and the arm is like a rope with one end tied to the cannon ball, while the other is connected to the base (shoulder). To make a powerful straight punch, you should also, "Not tighten up the muscles while you're punching." Tightening up the muscles is a big mistake for anyone seeking power. Although it may feel like tighter means of power, it is just an illusion. According to the WingTsun theory, a powerful punch is "a punch that lands on the opponent and causes him strong damage", so it is the opponent who feels the power

and not the attacker. Scientifically, it is the "extensors" (e.g., the triceps, etc.) which are responsible for giving a straight punch its power, not the "contractors" (e.g., the biceps). Therefore, if a man tightens up his muscles while launching a punch, it's like someone who tries to accelerate a car by putting on foot on the gas paddle and the other on the brake. "We cannot exclude the possibility that the late grandmaster even forgot to explain to most of his students the application of the rare punching techniques." There are three ways to use a straight punch. The chain punch. The chain punch is regarded as the most practical and best attacking technique in the WingTsun system. A chain punch is a combination of a series of continuous alternating single punches. Once the left punch is launched, the right fist is held several inches in front of a WingTsun practitioner's chest waiting in an "on-guard" or ready position. When the left punch is straight, the right punch immediately darts out to the same position. At the same time the left hand withdraws and is placed in the original position in front of the chest to fill the gap, ready to fire again. This kind of alternate punching movements can be applied non-stop until the opponent is felled. The chain punches in WingTsun can be compared to a "machine gun" with a non-stop attack. This is different from the single-punching way used by other martial styles, which favour a "one-shot" pistol approach in which you have to load a new bullet everytime. The bouncing punch. At the end of the Chum Kiu set, there is a modified punching method which is a continuous movement combined with a "Gum-Sao" (pinning hand) and a straight punch. The action follows the downward Gum-Sao movement, which is supposed to nullify a frontal kick from an opponent. The defending hand then bounces up to form a half-arc and half-straight-line thrusting punch onto the opponent's face. According to WingTsun theories, no matter how fast you move, "one movement is faster than two movements". Therefore, many WingTsun techniques are set to either use two hands to defend and counterattack simultaneously, or apply one continuous movement which normally takes a practitioner of other styles more than one movement to complete (e.g., first use one hand to block and then change to another hand to counterattack). The double-punch The double-punch is another modified punching method of the straight punch in WingTsun. Different from the alternating chain punches, the doublepunch is applied at the same time with hands together landing separately on two different positions. There are two different types of double-punch. The most common is the "vertical double-punch" in which a WingTsun man separately punches toward the upper and

middle, or the middle and lower positions of his opponent at the same vertical midline of the front part of his opponent. This is different than the "combined double-punch", a double-punch using two fists close together which land on the same position (e.g., the pit of stomach). The double-punch is a modified attacking technique converted from the double Gaan-Sao movement in the Bil Tze set.

The lifting punch Found in the middle section of the Chum Kiu set right after the three sideling BongSao is a rare attacking movement called the "lifting punch". It is quite similar in shape to the uppercut in Western boxing. Unlike the uppercut, which moves from a lower position to the middle part (e.g., stomach, abdomen, etc.) or the higher position (e.g., lower jaw) of the opponent along a larger arc, the lifting punch moves out along a smaller arc from the middle level (e.g., chest) to the lower jaw position. The force of the lifting punch is also quite different from that of the uppercut. The main source of the force comes from the turning stance combined with the twisting and lifting-up movement of the spine which adds in the elbow movement to "push" the fist along a small arc from down to up toward the lower jaw. The lifting up of the whole upperbody weight with the quick turning action is a main factor that forms a very powerful smashing force to crash up against the lower jaw position, considered one of the weakest body points. The lifting punch can be applied when the opponent's head is bent forward or at the side of a WingTsun practitioner (e.g., when the opponent is dodging a straight punch). It is difficult and ineffective for the WingTsun man to use the straight punch to continue attacking his opponent. At this moment, a lifting punch combined with a "neck-pulling hand" technique will become the best technique to overcome the opponent.

The hooking punch Other than the lifting punch, there is another rare attacking technique found in the Bil Tze set. It is the "hooking punch" of the WingTsun system. Although the hooking punch looks similar to a "hook" in Western boxing, it is different in application of force. It is the turning of the stance plus the swinging movement of the arm that combine to create a powerful smash to the ear. There are also other variations of WingTsun punching techniques, for instance the "nail punch". The "nail punch" is a special punching technique which features the first joint of the first finger springing out to stab into the weakest and softest positions (e.g., throat, pit of the chest, abdomen, etc.), while the attacker's fist is landing on the opponent's body. The attack can be fatal.



The "Bot" Jom Doh, or "Eight" Slash Broadswords, is the second weapons form of the system, as well as the highest level of Wing Chun training. Only after years of diligent study can only the most dedicated of trainees be taught the use of this weapon. It can be called "The Final Reward" given to the student by a proud master of the art. I myself did not learn this form until I had spent over fifteen years perfecting the empty hand system know as "Wing Chun Kuen". As has been consistently noted in this series of books, each form is named for specific reasons which inspire the trainee to perform the sets with the correct "idea" in mind. In the case of "Bot" Jom Doh, there are three main reasons for the form's name. The first reason, is that the form consists of eight "sets" within a set, as will be seen in the pages that follow. Another very practical reason for the name, is that - contrary to names and appearences - the slashing and chopping motions of the Knives are never completely vertical or horizontal. Instead, the Knives are whipped upward or downward along a diagonally angled path that resembles the shape of the Chinese character "Bot", which stands for the number wight, and is seen in fig. 478. This comparison to a Chinese character for visual reference is common to many motions of the system, as the reader is no doubt by this time fully aware. The third reason for this name has to do with the many directions of chopping, slashing and thrusting that are possible. An old Chinese idiom, "Bot Foang" - literally "Eight areas"- is taken to mean: "All directions." HISTORY- Although the origins of the "Bot" Jom Doh are a bit obscure and, at times, debated by various Wing Chun masters, it is generally accepted that the knife skills were bestowed upon the system by or through Master Miu Heen, one of the Five Elders from the Shaolin Temple. It is also highly probable that Master NG Mui herself, the originator of WING CHUN KUEN, was well versed in the use of the short broadswords, having been trained in the Siu Lum Jee, (Shaolin Temple), where a very similar weapon called "Woo Deep Doh", or "Butterfly Knives", was commonly used. Even today, in the Shaolin School as well as many other Chinese systems that have their roots in Shaolin, the Woo Deep Doh are used in many one- and two- man weapons forms, although in a different way than the "Bot" Jom Doh are used in Wing Chun.

KINFE STRUCTURE- The Wing Chun "Bot" Jom Doh has a short, stout blade that ranges from 12" to 14" in length. It is important to use Knives made sepcifically for Wing Chun training as Woo Deep Doh cannot be safely circled inward past the upper arm and near the body due to its extra length. At the base of the blade is a strong hilt with a hand guard for protection as well as close rnage punching techniques, and a short hook on the unsharpened edge which is used for striking or trapping the opponent's weapons with a twisting lock. As can be seen closeup in fig. 8, the sharpened side of the blade extends up and around the back edge so that the first three inches of that side is also sharp, for backward-snapping cuts. In order to facilitate the holding of both Knives in one hand, as is seen in the Hoy Sick and Sau Sick sequences of the "Bot" Jom Doh 108, each Knife hilt has one flat side. The blades themselves are not flattened on one only side, however, but are symmetrically shaped. The flattened side of the hilt, besides allowing the blades to be held together for concealment or to be used together in one hand, also provides a better grip on a single Knife as the half-round handle conforms to the natural shape of the trainee's hand. The semicircular handguard portion of the hilt is sometimes referred to as "Do Jahng", or "Elbow of the Knife". This is due to the substitution of the wrist joint in Knife techniques for the elbow in empty hand motions seen in Figure 4, where this substitution is clearly seen by comparing the Boang Doh and Boang Sau positions. Because the hand serves the same function of the elbow in empty hand Techniques, many of the "Bot Jom Doh movements are executed with "Long Bridge" Structure. The bottom portion of the handguard can be used in a downward striking motion known as "Chuo Doh", or "Hammering Knife", while the front part can be used in a brutal punching technique that strikes the opponent's nose and mouth with the handguard used like brass knuckles while the sharpened edge of the blade strikes the forehead with a splitting action that can fracture the skull. Twisting locks of an opponent's knife, pole, club, or sword can be applied using the short hooking extension on the hilt. This form of Weapon Trapping is known as "Lau Doh Soh", or "Twisting Knife Lock". The hook can also be used to jab the eye at close range after a chopping block. The broad, flat inner surfaces of the blade that correspond with the flat sides of the hilt are also frequently used in slapping or pressing Knife motions based on Pock Sau and Gum Sau. Because of this similiarity in application, these surfaces of the blade referred to as "Doh Jyeung", or "Palm of the Knife". Against an opponent armed with a throwing weapon such as a dart, knife or rock, that flat surfaces, both inside and outside, can be used as shields to deflect the projectile or to bat at object down in an action similiar to swinging a short racket. The unsharpened edge of the Knife, which in actuality is sharpened

at the last three inches near the tip can be used in backward-jerking or other blocking motions, as well as to hook the opponent's neck with a movement based on the Pon Geng Sau of the Wooden Dummy form. The reason for having a small portion of the rear edge sharpened is to facilitate withdrawl of the blade after penetration or to cut backwards with an upward snap of the wrist that enlarges the vertical slit made by a direct forward thrust with the Knife tip, as is simulated by Movements 20 and 21 of the "Bot" Jom Doh form. The sharpening of both edges at the tip also enables the point of the Knife to penetrate through clothing and skin in Biu Doh techniques. The sharpened edge of the blade is used in many forms of slashing Jom Doh techniques and chopping Chahung Doh and Fun Doh motions, as well as numerous blocking motions that are designed to deflect the opponent's weapon off the line while simultaneously attacking his weapon hand or caroming off his weapon into a thrust, slash or chop. The tip of the "Bot" Jom Doh is used in various thrusting and piercing motions such as Biu Doh (Movement 20). These piercing attacks can be directed to the eyes, throat, heart or other vital areas. CUTTING PRINCIPLES NO REVERSE GRIP - Most "Bot" Jom Soh thrusts, chops, and slashes are executed with a straight grip on the weapon, which allows transfer of wrist power into the blades and provides a stronger Structure in blocking techniques without allowing any openings in the defense that would be created by retracting the tips of the blades toward the body and away from the opponent. This is one of the main contrasts between the Wing Chun "Bot" Jom Doh and the Woo Deep Doh Butterfly Knives of other Gung Fu styles in which the reverse grip is commonly used. ANGULAR CUTTING- As mentioned earlier, one reason for the name " 'Bot Jom Doh" is the resemblance of the path taken by the blades when slashing upward or downward to the Chinese character "Eight". No "Bot" Jom Doh block or strike is ever completely level in its sweeping path. The reason for this angular cutting swath is twofold. Firstly, a diagonal cut is much harder to block, as will be explained shortly. Secondly, cutting upward or downward enables the blades to "latch onto the Motherline" by taking advantage of principles of gravity and physics. To understand the logic of the diagonal cut more clearly, a simple experiment can be performed using a lightweight stick or baton. Have a partner stand firm as you swing the stick horizontally without angulation. He will find it easy to duck under or jump over most of your swings other than at hip-level, which is not ordinarily a prime target of "Bot" Jom Doh attack. Next, use a diagonal upward or downward swing in place of the horizontal movement used

earlier. Within the first few attempts, the advantage of the 45 degree angle will become obvious as your partner will be unable to evade the strike without stepping backward or sideward - an action which leaves him "set up" for a quick follow-up and traps him in the sense that he is too busy evading to pose any counterthreat. The second and perhaps most importnat reason for diagonal slashing of the "Bot" Jom Doh has to do with the knives' ability to cut more deeply into a target when that target has less margin to "give" or "go with the flow". Take for example, the case of trying to chop down a very supple sapling tree using a slightly dull blade. If a completely horizontal sweep of the blade is used to chop the tree, that tree will simply snap backward due to its resilience and flexibility. If instead an upward or downward 45 degree angular chop is used, the blade will penetrate the tree's surface. This is because in a downward cut, by "latching on to the tree to the ground, which in turn gives the tree stability to withstand the force of the blow without collapsing or bending too far in any direction. In an upward cut, the tree is pulled and straightened to its limit, where its roots prevent it from raising any further to defray the upward power of the cut. Thus, the blade penetrates its surface, and the tree is felled. These same principles apply to the body of an opponent, who will find it much more difficule to evade an angualr strike, or to "roll" with that strike as it uses gravity and his own bone Structure to "latch onto the Motherline" for a deeper, more powerful cut. As the old Wing Chun proverb says, "Bot Jom Doh Fot Sai Moh Syeung", which means: "The Techniques of the 'Eight Slash Knives have no match". BENEIFTS OF "BOT" JOM DOH TRAINING Although to the modern-day Wing Chun practitioner, this weapon might seem a bit outdated or impractical, as it is hard to conceal and therefore inconvenient to carry, this is not completely true. The principles of Knife training benefit the student in a number of ways and can be applied to nearly any sharp-edged or pointed weapon he might be able to pick up in a fight situation. For example, depending ont he location, the Wing Chun fighter could execute "Bot" Jom Doh techniques witha standard knife, straightrazor, broken bottle, screwdriver, tire iron or any of a number of implements. Another one of the main benefits of "Bot" Jom Doh training, aside from the obvious self-defense application of the weapon, is the additional hand wrist strength developed through whipping, circling and snapping the Knives at close range. Also within the text of the "Bot" Jom Doh 108, the combination Moving Stances Cheen Chong Ma (Front Bracing), Ngoy Seen Wai (Outside Facing) and Hau Huen Juen Ma (Back Circle Stepthrough) are formally introduced, as are many subtle variations on the five basic Moving Stances that are used in the transitions form one motion to another.

The 80-20 "Ding" Jee Ma ("J" Stance), also known as the "Cat Stance", first seen in the "Look Deem Boon" set, once again appears in Movement 46 of the "Bot" Jom Doh form in a slightly lower version. Another feature of the Knife set similiar to the Pole form is the frequent use of retreating footwork is designed to enable the Wing Chun Knife fighter to quickly evade a weapon strike by "giving ground" and then to quickly take back the ground he has given as he launches the counterstrike while advancing, using a form of chasing footwork known as "Bick Ma", or "Line-Crashing Stance". The additional weight and momentum of the weapon also help to accentuate the torque in all "Bot" Jom Doh footwork, as the trainee's bodyweight is pulled around by the centrifugal force created by circular whips and slashes of the blades. In this way, the student's all-around footwork skills are "whipped into shape" and refined through Knife training. WEAPONS After reaching a substantial level of development in the Biu Jee form and all of the additional knowledge described above, the student is ready to progress to weapons training. The Wing Chun system has only two weapons forms - the "Look Deem Boon" Gwun ("Six and A Half Point" Pole) and the "Bot" Jom ("Eight" Slash Butterfly Swords). These two weapons were introduced into the system by Wong Chun Lineage who were performers in the Chinese opera and were introduced into the system by Wong Wah Co and Leung Yee Tai, two ancestors of Wing Chun lineage who were performers in the Chinese opera and were proficient in the use of many types of swords, knives, spears and other Wing Chun Kuen, the weapons forms contain a series of 108 motions. Also like all the other forms, the weapons sets contain short sequences within the total sequence designed to aid flowing from one motion to the next and to suggest possible combinations of techniques from which combinations of principles can be determined. Most such fragments are made up of three motions, as this is the number of "flowing" in the system. Once a Wing Chun fighter has attacked, he will generally continued to "flow" in with two more attacking motions. This "flow" is developed and improved through forms practice. An old Wing Chun proverb says, "Som Jiu Chai Doh" "Execute three motions at one time". In "Look Deem Boon" training, the student is taught attacking and defending motions with the weapon. Some of these motions are combined with footwork that the student is already familiar with by this time, however, there is certain footwork in the weapons sets that is unique to those sets and is rarely seen in empty hand combat. Stances and footwork in the Pole form to compensate for the added weight and momentum of the weapon and to strengthen the legs while the upper arms and body are strengthen the legs while the upper arms and body are strengthened by the swing and

snap of the Pole Certain motions of the "Look Deem Boon" form require the student to snap the Pole up and down or across the body vertically, horizontally or diagonally. The snapping action in the wrists and arms developed by such motions is called "Ngahn Ging" "Elastic Energy" and can be applied to empty hand techniques as well. Similarly, working with the heavy "Bot" Jom Doh develops the wrist, forearm and finger grip strength while training the basic attacking and defending motions of the Knives.
Solo Olisi: Single Stick
Eskrima training always begins with the use of the single stick. The strong hand wields a stick (approximately 30" in length and 3/4" in diameter, usually made of rattan) and serves as the primary offense. The empty hand is used mainly for defense, focusing on controlling the opponent's weapon hand. Most (but not all) of these techniques are similar to "espada" (sword) techniques. Twirling techniques ("amarra") are taught to develop wrist strength and coordination, which facilitates the ability to generate power and re-angle the wrist evasively at short range. Solo olisi techniques are practiced in long ("largo"), medium ("medya") and short ("corto") ranges. The largo range (also referred to as "largo mano" range) is characterized by evasive footwork and angling, fast continuous strikes to the opponent's weapon hand. The medya range (also refeered to as "sumbrada" range) utilizes sophisticated checking of the opponent;s weapon hand wth simultaneous counterattacking. "Tapi Tapi", the highly sophisticated system of trapping and checking is taught to develop these skills. The corto range (also referred to as "hubad" range) emphasizes curving attacks and continuous re-angling of the strikes around the opponent's defense. One of the most fundamental solo olisi drills is the abesedario, a comprehensive defense/counter-strike drill, the seven levels of which are designed to develop movement, angling, checking and countering in each of the three ranges. A variety of disarming techniques are also studied.

Doble Olisi: Double Stick

Both hands wield a stick. The sticks are used for a combination of offense and defense. The long range is the most frequently used range in this type of fighting because of the variety of checking techniques available in that range. A wide variety of striking and twirling techniques is taught to develop power and coordination. Several drills with partner are also taght to develop these assets, known as "pinky-pinky" or "siniwali". The skills acquired through double stick training also come into play in other types of fighting such as empty hand striking ("mano mano"), combinations of solo olisi striking and checking and stick and knife ("espada y daga").

Baraw: Knife
Knife fighting is strongly developed in the Philippino martial arts and a particular great variety of styles can be found. This has a logical explanation. Eskrima was originally developed on the battlefield and contains some very realistic aspects because of that. Hence the highly developed knife fighting because it is always safer to use a weapon in one's defense when a fight occurs uexpectedly. Even if that weapon is a knife. The training starts with defense techniques against different knife attacks. Many blocking and defense techniques are taught in four ways: single, double and multiple sliding and slicing. Counterattacks are performed simultaneously. More elaborate defence techniques contain locks, dirarms and checking and redirecting the opponent's weapon. The advanced training consists of knife-to-knife techniques taught through a variety of drills containing practical offense-, defense- and countertechniques in different combinations with continuous checking and re-directing of the opponent's weapon hand.

Espada y Daga: Stick and Knife

Espada y daga (also known as "punta y daga" or "olisi y bara") is one of the most complicated and sophisticated parts of Eskrima. The strong hand wields a stick or long blade and serves as the primary offense. The weak hand holds the knife and is used for both offense (thrusting and sliding) and defense (blocking, checking and locking). Training starts with drills teaching coordination of the two weapons in striking and checking patterns. After that footwork and body angling are added. Drills then progress to those involving multiple attacks (usually the long weapon followed by the short weapon). Basic defenses are followed by transitions to the outside, that way avoiding remaining between the opponent's weapons. Finally the complicated espada y daga locks and takedowns are added.

Mano Mano: Empty Hand

It is told that in the Fillipino martial arts the weapon is mainly a substitute for the empty hand. Many techniques remain practically the same with or without a weapon being used. Many empty hand techniques come from espada y daga. Many parts of the body can serve as a weapon so empty hand fighting involves punching, kicking, elbows, knees, headbutts etc. Locks and throws are also applied. Doce Pares Mano Mano contains a special tapi tapi-drill called kaw-it. This involves trapping and checking the opponent's attacking hand with only a few fingers or even one finger and simultaeniously counterattacking. These controling techniques can be applied in armed or unarmed fighting and are also used to break the opponent's rhythm.

Dumog: Philippino Grappling

Grappling is also an important part of Eskrima training and is called Dumog. A variety of locks, throws and submission holds are taught that can be applied both with or without a weapon. In the traditional Filipino martial arts grappling wasn't as developed as it is today because knives were very often used. In those cases the fight ususally didn't continue on the ground for obvious reasons. Nowadays this has changed and dumog is a highly developed and sophisticated part of eskrima training.

Program of instruction

Doce Pares' 5 year-training curriculum covers all the aspects and phases of the Filipino Martial Arts. Close, Medium and Long range styles, Espada y Daga, Knife and Blade and Mano y Mano ( Empty Hands) as originally advocated and introduced by the founding masters and subsequently expounded,modified and expanded through further study, research, experiment and creativeness, some salient features of the program are as follows:

Various types of Striking techniques Twirling ( Amarra ) -Single and Double Olisi Footwork and Stances in all ranges of Eskrima and Espada y Daga Disarming with or without olisi Sparring in traditional, progressive and tournament type Pingki-Pingki (Sinawali) Doble Olisi Sayaw (Form) - all the popular 12 form of Doce Pares Baraw (Knife) - all knife defense and drill techniques Abesedario - the five types of abesedario, a comprehensive, defense/ counter strike drill, which incorporate all the basic Principles of the various ranges of Eskrima Espada Y Daga -emphasis of footwork and body angling in coordination with Olisi and dagger and easily connect to locks and takedown Locks and Takedowns ( Eskrido with the use of Olisi ( Stick) techniques to lock and takedown/throw (whether the attacker is unarmed or wields a blade or olisi ) Mano y Mano using the same patterns of olisi technques, with emphasis of open palm blocks and counter strikes, utilizing the very effective "kaw-it" technqiues. Suntok-Patid/Sikaran is part of this subject The highly sophisticated form of trapping and checking (tapi-tapi) with all its accompanying energy drills- the ultimate in training methods

Lessons schedule
Frans Stroeven's time-table for Eskrima, Jeet Kune Do and knife fighting classes:

Saturday from 10:00 to 11:00 Eskrima Saturday from 11:00 to 12:00 Pangamot (empty hands eskrima) Tuesday from 19:30 to 20:30 Jeet Kune Do Tuesday from 20:30 to 21:30 full contact sparring eskrima Thursday from 20:00 to 21:00 Eskrima Thursday from 21.00 to 22.00 knife class

LEVEL 2 Requirements After 6 months to 1 year take this test. (Revised 11/30/98 ND)

EMPTY HANDS 1. Any kick with a 1-2-3 hand combination 2. Sungob 3. Defensive moves-bob, slip, weave, duck, squat, hit the floor, roll, shoulder roll, cover, salute, parry, catch, shoulder stop, hambak (forearm roll), pass, swim blocks. 3. Advanced muay thai drills - about 6-8 combinations off Thai Pads/Mitts: Recommended a) foot jab, double kick b) block a hit, double kick c) pull, double knee left/right, push, double kick d) left parry off a left jab, down right elbow, pull,double knee L/R, pull/push, double kick e) Feed left cut kick to inside of left leg, defense moves back left leg & delivers left double kick/Feed right cut kick to outside of left leg, defense shuffles back right rear leg and left leg slides back & right leg delivers double kick to pads. f) Feed a left tap to chest, defense double parries left attack with a left right then delivers right upward knee, push then double kick. 4. Advanced mitt drill 5. Trapping - basic trapping. Hampak, Butong, Tiklod, Saggang, hambak, palusot, saludo, dakop, ala contra, saggang sagawas, walis, pasunod, sampal, pitik, libot, dagdag, ordabis, etc... 6. Entries-guntings, palusut, salute 7. 5 silat takedowns & 1 finishing technique SINGLE STICK 1. Angles 6-12 disarms- snake, strip, vine. Able to disarm with solo stick and empty hands. 2. Full sumbrada, 3-1-2 sumbrada, roof/1/drop/1/insidesweep/4 sumbrada. 3. Figure 8 counters for angles 6-12. Includes down /up/ sunside/ moonside/ horizontal/ horizontal -diagonals. 4. Largo mano 1-5, meet & follow. Stationary, moving forward, moving backward, and one-for-one. 5. jab takedown drills, slash, overhand, uppercut, close spacing DOUBLE STICK 1. 2. 3. 4. 8 count- both sides 4 count-both sides upward 6 count All footwork with stick. Example: forward triangle, reverse,

male/female, lateral, horseshoe, sempok/dempok, sidestep, chicken step, heel down sidestep, eskala pattern. 5. Double stick versus single stick. IE: six count versus solo baston, roof six vs solo baston, etc... 6. Fraile 1-5 counters 7. Double stick dummy KNIFE 1. Single & double knife tapping 2. Attached/disattached 3. Knife to knife tapping-single 4. 6 finishing moves out of knife tapping. Instructor's discretion. Example: wrist lock, arm bar, return to sender, puter kapala, arm drag, figure 4, etc... 5. Basic echikite, Hubad Lubad with Knife. PRINCIPLES 1. 2. 3. 4. 2 man attack (mass) Coordination of hands & feet Familiarity of vital points Knowledge of FMA history Level Three, From The Basics To Intermediate (11/30/98) Duration: About Two-3 Years Requirements Red Shirt, Pass level I & II tests Own equipment for training (Thai pads, sticks, dagger sticks, staff, focus mitts, boxing gloves,head gear, full-contact stickfighting equipment, pipes) Prepayment of Classes Open Hands Western boxing/Panantukan Combinations - able to do defensive moves with offensive moves shadow box, with mitts, and with live partners. -able to open with tadyak, jeet kick, cut kick, tiger block to punching range

-able to transition from trap to box, from boxing to trappping, from trapping to locking Walking forward/backward/stationary Chut Chun Choi Hubad Lubad with solo stick, espada y daga, daga, & empty hands: able to do switches, elbows, knees, disarms, takedowns, transitions, etc... Footwork Kali triangle Footwork Muay Thai Box Stepping, Muay Thai half shuffle, back shuffle, Forward shuffle attack to a double kick. Shuffle step Switch Leads Cross Step Clock System, Four Corners, Movement on your knees, Movement on the ground,fake takeoff, shuffle sidestep, horseshoe footwork, zoning footwork, eskala footwork pattern, (from foil like weapons or whip stick)lunging, ballestra, riposte. Walking Tiger (from Harimau), Four-Stepping (from Pusaka-Dwipantara). Kicks/Sikaran From Level I: Thai Roundhouse Push Kick/Foot Jab Tadyak/Oblique Thai Knee Low Side Kick/Dongab Plus: back kick, groin flick kick, hook kick, inverted cut kick, Silat front and back sweep, rolling tiger (from Harimau)

Traditional Wing Chun Weapons

Butterfly Swords - "Bart Jarm Dao" Predominately a southern Chinese weapon due to its short length and uses. It will differ from the butterfly swords of northern China. In the north, kicking techniques are employed with the sword. In southern China,

close range double handed coordination is stressed. The Butterfly Swords or knives are employed in a similar fashion to empty hand techniques. Defences may vary due to the type of weapon you are countering. For instance, you may use the cutting edge against a pole but not against a sword due to the risk of blade damage. Bart Jarm Dao or eight-slash sword form, deals with the defence against of many types of weapons. The construction of the swords allows rotation from the inside of the body from close range. The guards prevent your fingers or knuckles from injury and the hook assists in capture and trapping of your opponent's weapons. Just as the distance in Wing Chun's empty hand training is very close, so is the distance with Butterfly Swords. The attacks of the short butterfly swords were predominately to the wrist, elbow, knee and ankle. The reason for this was mainly to maim the opponent rather than kill, since the swords originated from the Shaolin temple and most attacks occurred when the monks travelled around China promoting their philosophies. In 1644 when the Manchus invaded China, the use of the Butterfly sword changed dramatically. Abbott Jee Shin created Wing Chun Kung Fu to defend the lands from the invaders. Butterfly swords and Dart knives were the main weapons employed by the monks in their endeavour to repel the invaders. They became the most effective and deadly weapon of all, due to their emphasis on coordinating 2 swords, training of the eyes, wrists and footwork and utilizing the efficiency of Wing Chun footwork. Dragon Pole - "Louk Dim Book Kwun" The pole dates back as far as 3000 BC. and were used in hunting as well as fighting. With the discovery of bronze and iron, the staff and pole were modified into weapons such as spears and choppers. The staff was very popular among the monks at Shaolin. The monks used the pole to help emperor Sung establish the Sung Dynasty. (960-1279 AD). During the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911), the monks also used them to defend themselves against the Manchu's siege on the Shaolin temple. There were many forms of staff and pole, but the most feared and efficient was the "six and half point dragon pole form" originated by Abbott Jee Shin. The pole descended through 3 generations of Jee Shin's family to Wong Wa Bo and was then reunited back to the Wing Chun system. Yim Wing Chun's husband, Leung Bok Bo, chose to find a disciple to pass on his knowledge of Wing Chun system and chose his nephew, Wong Wa Bo. As Wong was not interested in learning Wing Chun, Leung Bok Bo challenged him to a fight. Butterfly swords against dragon pole. The pole was no match for the swords and as a consequence Wong Wa Bo was defeated and then eagerly became a Wing Chun practitioner thus introducing the dragon pole into the Wing Chun Kung Fu System.

Jee Shin Wing Chun Weapons

Broadswords The principle of the broadsword is the foundation of all sharp edged weapons. There were 2 types of broadsword - one type was used by mounted soldiers, the other, employed by soldiers on foot. There are no less than 40 kinds of broadsword and the Butterfly swords, being one type, was the most efficient of all. Ma Dao - Saber broadsword This was the main weapon of the Cavalry. It originated in China around the Warring State period, (403-222 BC). The weapon used by General Lien Po, was a big bronze Saber. Later the saber was subject to improvement and refinement. In the period of the 3 kingdoms, Ma Teng, formed a cavalry of strong and courageous men who were adept in the use of the Saber. His victories made the saber a very practical weapon and many tribes adopted this weapon into their own environment. The legend of this weapon spread to the West, where the saber became synonymous with many victories across Europe, supporting armies such as Genghis Khan. In Japan, the saber broadsword was passed down from generation to generation to eventually become the weapon of the Japanese Samurai. When the Manchus inveded China in 1644, their main weapon was the dragoon, well rehearsed in saber techniques, but towards the end of the Ching dynasty the saber was replaced by gun powder and firearms. Dai Dao - The hand Broadsword In ancient China, most martial artist fought on foot. Therefore, the hand broadsword was the most suited to the Foot Soldier. The length and weight of this sword varied, dependant on the size of the user, thus it was tailored to meet the individual needs of each warrior. The hand broadsword can be used for slashing, lunging, chopping, stabbing, blocking and close-quarter fighting. There have been many masters of the broadsword in China, the most famous being Mo Chong, a hero of the Sung Dynasty, (900-1279AD). Mo Chong was reputed to have killed a fierce tiger with his bare hands. The blood splashing hand broadsword techniques created by Mo Chong are still exercised today. Ch'iang/Qiang - Chinese Spear The spear is as ancient as China. It is considered to be the oldest military weapon in China. The spear was originally developed as a horse soldier weapons. Before 400BC, foot soldiers used either a nine feet spear or an eighteen feet spear. These weapons combined a thrusting point with a hooking or slicing blade. Unlike the spear that is used in other parts of the world, the Chinese spear was never meant to be thrown. Instead, a specialized set of techniques was developed that strongly resembled the single-headed staff techniques. In ancient China, many advanced warriors knew that this pointed weapon, under the usage of a proficient player was usually both lethal and formidable. Two of the top spear proponents were the famous General

Yueh Fei and the first woman warrior, Fa Mu Lan. Both warriors were considered invincible, due to their proficiency with the spear in combat. Under the guise of warfare, the British, in the mid 19th century, concluded that the chinese spear was far superior to their bayonets. While the Chinese straight sword is considered to be the most difficult to learn. The spear is considered to be the next most difficult of all Chinese weapons to master.

Terminology Terminology

No current listings.

Bat jaam do - Eight Chopping Knives (knife form of Yip style). Bik ma - Pressing Stance. (name sometimes used for stepping stance from Chum Kiu form) Bui jee - Ajabbing motion with the fingers/Darting Fingers . Bong sau - Wing Arm/Elbow-up position Bil Sao-Finger thrust block(wrist out,fingers in)

Chang Sao- Shovel Arm. Chi Sao - Crossing hands=arm clinging exercise/Sticky hands Cho Ma - Sitting Stance. (name sometimes used for turning stance from Chum Kiu form) Chum Kiu -Searching for the bridge Chum Ma- Seeking Bridge Horse (name sometimes used for stepping stance from Chum Kiu form) Chum Sao- Sinking Arm.

Dao Jong - Knife Dummy Dan Chi Sao-Single hands Chi Sao Dai Jeung-Downward Palm strike Ding Jarn-Butting elbow


No current listings. Fook Sao- Controlling Arm. Fak Sao- Whisking Arm/Sideward hands. Fuk Sao -Hooking on top position Fut Sao- Outward down block Fack Sao-Neck chopping

Gaun Sao - Cultivating Arm/Splitting hands. Gok Ma- Angle Stance. Gum Sao - Push block/Pinning hands/Prohibiting Arm. Gwun Jong- Pole Dummy. Gwun Ma - Pole Stance. Gam Sam-Outward palm block


Huen Ma- Circling Stance. (name sometimes used for circular advancing version of footwork from Biu Jee form) Huen Sao- Circular motion/Circling Arm. No current listings.

Juen Ma- Turning Stance. Jueng- Palm. Jam Sao - Chopping Arm. Juk San Ma- Side Body Stance. Jut Sao-Sharping jerking motion


Kao Ma - Hooking Stance. Kao Sao - Detaining Arm. Kuen- Fist, Boxing. Lan Sao- Bar Arm. Lop Sao - Deflecting arm/Grappling arm/Grasping Arm. Luk Dim Boon Gwun- Six and a Half Point Pole (pole form of Yip Man Wing Chun) Luk Sao-Rolling hands


Ma - Horse, Stance. Muk Yan Jong - Wooden Dummy. Mun Sao-Asking hands/Leading hands position(Inquistive arm/hand) No current listings.

No current listings. Pak Sao - Slapping Hand/Slapping motion. Pien San Ma - Side Body Stance. Pie jarn-Elbow hacking


Quan Sao-Rotating hands No current listings. Sam Gok Ma- Triangle Stance. Sao - Hand, Arm. Seung Huen Sao- Double Circling Arms. Sil Lum Tao- Small Imagination(First form of Yip Man Wing Chun)

Tan Sao - Palm-up position/Dispersing Arm Tok Sao-Lifting hands


No current listings. No current listings.

Wing Chun Kuen - Praise Spring Boxing (name used by Yuen, Yip, and a few other branches)

Wu Sao- Guarding hand/Rear hand position/Protecting Arm(Vertical palm block) Wung Jeung-Sideward palm strike Woy Moon Choie-Vertical punch


No current listings. Yee Jee Kim Yeung Ma - Trapezoid Shape Clamping Goat Stance (name of center stance used in most Wing Chun branches).

No current listings.

The Empty Hands of the Filipino Martial Arts

To most people and martial artists, the Filipino Martial Arts purely concentrate on the use of Sticks, Knives and Edged weapons. To those who have some knowledge of the arts they know that it contains a large section of empty hand fighting skills. These empty hand skills are derived from the movements with the weapons and are taught within the framework of weapons techniques. For instance, the footwork and arm positioning used in a snake disarm would also be used in delivering an uppercut or hook punch to the ribs.

Footwork is one of the key things which bind all the various fighting areas together. This is basically around a boxing format with the notable addition of the triangular footwork patterns. As any eskrimador will tell you the footwork is the primary means of evasion to an attack. Male and Female footwork is based around two triangles placed on the floor in the shape of an X. If you stand in the centre point, the triangle growing away from you is the female triangle and the triangle going behind you is the male triangle. If you keep one foot in the centre and step out into a boxing stance to one of the points or backwards keeping your lead foot in the centre you will gain the basic footwork.(Fig 1) Female Triangle

Male Triangle fig 1. If you add a large square around the X pattern you can then practice your step and slide around the X then go through the X and make your own patterns up.(fig 2)

The shapes can either be made up from sticks placed on the floor or you can use tape to mark the pattern out with on the floor. I prefer the latter method because you can use different coloured tapes for the triangles and the square which makes it easier for you to pick them out if you only want to practice one particular form of footwork. Another important piece of footwork is that of the arrow. If you imagine a straight line attack towards you, such as a right cross, is the shaft of an arrow you can step down either side of arrowhead to avoid the attack.(fig 3) Direction of Attack

fig 3. Application of Female Triangle

Empty Hands(Panantukan)
The empty hand skills taught are essentially a modified boxing format with one key difference, the fighting range. In Western Boxing the fighting range is from the end of the punching hand to your opponents chin, the Filipino styles however have their fighting measure from the end of the punching hand to a distance where you can attack the attacking limb. For example, where you can elbow strike your opponents cross to prevent him from punching you again. A lot of these movements are tied in to the use of the knife, where evasive footwork and parries followed by an attack to the weapon hand is often preferred. This limb destruction is also due to the fact that by applying forward pressure to your opponent you are preventing him from hitting you as effectively and you are closing your opponents attacking tools down, i.e. "Defanging the Snake". Limb destruction is commonly performed with 2 tools at the upper body range, these being the hand and the elbow. Of these the elbow is by far the more potent weapon in terms of destructive power, the only problem is unless you are attacking the hand you have to close the gap to employ it. Common methods in which the elbow is employed is by using the point of the elbow on the fingers of the fist, or driving into the bicep or pectoral. Against a side kick the point of the elbow can also be dropped onto the side of the calf. The major hand attacking method used in Limb Destruction is Gunting(Scissor type motion). This is where one hand parries an attack and your other hand attacks the limb which attacked you. For Example :

Your opponent attacks with a Right Cross, you step to the outside of the punch, parry to your right with your left hand and you hit the nerve between the bicep and tricep with the knuckles of your right hand. The Gunting can be delivered either horizontally, vertically and in either direction, up or down. The choice of tool you use is up to you, it can be the knuckles, backfist or knife hand. One important thing to note with the use of the Gunting is that in certain situations you are open to very subtle counters which will probably destroy your own limb. This is where your opponent either drops or bends his elbow as you attack. This can be applied against you if you are attacking from the outside line or if you are attacking vertically upwards. There are no blocks per se but rather parry's and evasions as used in boxing, these are often used with a limb destruction as described above. These include slapping blocks and jams to hinder your opponent whilst you setup your own counter. Twisiting of the body is stressed to move your vital organs out of the line of attack and to present as small a target as possible. The elbow can be brought up to cover the side of the face whilst the arm covers the side of the head. If you step forwards as you do this it can also be used as a strike to the pectoral or shoulder joint of your opponent. The major striking tools are the fist (In the major boxing punches), hammerfist, knife hand, knuckles and elbow. Flowing attacks are commonplace where once you close the gap you hit and hit until your opponent is incapacitated. Remember the art revolves around the flow, you must be like water, moving from one obstacle to the next, you either go through it or around it. This may well be due to the fact that most fights in the Phillipines involved weapons and you could not afford to let your opponent gain the advantage over you. For instance : You counter with the gunting as desribed above, then eye jab your opponent with your right hand, wrench the attacking arm back as you deliver a left hand elbow strike to the bicep, then grab the head and leg sweep your attacker to the floor and finish. To see a sample technique click here : Technique


Your stick striking patterns can also be applied into your empty hands, such as Heaven 6 by replacing the sticks with hammer fists or knife hands. Empty hand skills are also taught against the stick and the knife, in terms of a street attack in the USA or Europe your are probably more likely to face the knife and Eskrima has plenty or parries, evasions and tie ups for facing a knife attacker following up with strikes or disarms. It must be stressed however that these are desparate measures when all other options such as getting away from the area are not

available options. I recommend you see a qualified instructor if you wish to learn these techniques.

Dumog is the Filipino form of wrestling involving Joint locks and Off balancing techniques. It is basically designed to keep your opponent from hitting you whilst you hit them. A favourite technique is to use your forearm to wrench the bicep of an opponent down this will drag your opponents upper body down enabling you to headbutt, elbow, take down or lock. This technique is effective no matter how big your opponent is, if they happen to be a bit of a Goliath then step back slightly as you perform it. Locks are usually taught in a flow during Dumog this is done to help you flow from one technique to another as mentioned above and if your opponent is wriggling out of a lock teach you to quickly change to a different one. The flow I was taught begins with a basic one handed wrist lock and finishes with a figure four armlock, working up the arm from wrist to elbow to shoulder. Locks are generally not sought after but if there is an opening to use them you should know how to apply them, there may also be a time when locking somebody is preferable, e.g. if a friend or relative is drunk and behaves irresponsibly you may not want to take their head off. A lot of the locks tend to dominate the head, this is because if the head is moving the rest of the body will follow. One main characteristic of Dumog throws is that they are not very easy to fall from, like Silat they often involve twisting and turning the opponents body during the throw the aim being to cause as much damage as possible. Remember that there are no mats out there on the street just good old tarmac and concrete so the harder your opponent falls the worse off they are going to be when they land.

Kicking (Pananjakman/Sikaran)
The Filipino arts do not kick very high, instead they prefer to kick at waist level and below, the primary targets being the thigh, knee, and shin. The kicks are not very pretty to watch but are delivered with body weight behind them and usually from punching range. You may be asking yourself "Why from Punching Range?", this is because at this distance you will be trying to counter your opponents attack and the kicking techniques are used to distract your assailant, destroy his mobility and if possible take them to the floor. You should be able to put these low level kicks in whilst punching or locking. Striking Tools

The most common Kicking tools are the Knee and sole of the foot, occasionally the ball of the foot is used. I have never seen the instep used this possibly being due to the fact that the instep does not give you as much penetration of power. Oblique Kick(Sipa) - This is delivered with the sole of the foot, usually from the rear leg to the knee or the shin. This type of attack will cause instant pain and is intended to stop the forward motion of the attacker. This kick will also keep pressure on the opponent whilst allowing yourself time to manouver into a better position. Front / Point Kick - The Eskrima front kick is generally delivered with the ball of the foot or the toes. This gives more penetration to the kick. The kick can either be used as a straight attacking tool or as a counter attacking tool. Knee - The knee is primarily used to attack the thigh. The points to attack are the Sciatic Nerve ("Dead Leg"), the back of the thigh (Hamstring) and the front of the thigh. Kneeing the front of the thigh is usually done to stop your opponent moving forwards. This is not to say that obvious targets such as the groin are not taken advantage of. The knee is also used in pushing attacks to off balance your opponent, this is done by pushing your opponents knee either to the outside of his body or by pushing the knee straight back. This is sometimes done in conjunction with a foot trap to provide a lever. Shin - The shin is usually delivered in a roundhouse fashion, either to the side of the thigh, similar to a Muay Thai kick, or to the front of the thigh which has to be felt to be believed. This is usually delivered to help bend your opponent over. The kick to the front of the thigh is delivered from the side and is done in conjunction with a trapping move to the arm. Feet - The feet are also used to apply trips and sweeps to the lower leg to put and opponent down. Stamping is also another viable form of attack. As said before this is usually done in conjuction with another form of attack to keep your opponent off balance and confused. The heel is also used in a hooking type of kick to attack the rear of a opponents leg, this would be to the Knee, Calf or Ankle. The preferred targets are the knee and the shin. The knee if pushed from either side is very easy to collapse and will result in your opponent taking a tumble. The shin is very easy to contact and can cause a lot of pain if contacted with boots or shoes.

Sensitivity Drills
Filipino Martial Arts are one of only two arts that I know of which contain sensitivity drills, the other being Wing Chun, the sensitivity drill of the FMA is called Hubad Lubad. Hubad as it is commonly called is used to train sensitvity in your limbs so you feel how your opponent is moving, this will help you to keep contact and flow from one technique to another.

Hubad can be practiced in many forms and in any number of counts. The easiest method is probably 4 count. This is difficult to explain in words but I will do my best. 1. Your partner throws a straight right punch at you. 2. You parry his wrist with your left palm. 3. Now scoop his wrist to his inside zone with the back of your right hand. This should be in front of your left hand. 4. Slap his arm down with your left palm. 5. Punch towards him with your right fist. The sequence now reverses and your partner has his turn. This is only a basic Hubad but at even a slightly higher level it includes changeovers from right arm to left arm and also changing from the outside of the arm to the inside. If you want to learn Hubad I suggest you do so from a qualified instructor. WING CHUN TERMS (Yale phonetic) A-B: BAAT-JAM-DAO : Eight-Cutting- Broadswords Techniques BIK-MA : Pressing Stance BIU-JEE : Thrusting Fingers Form BIN-BO : Circle Step BIU-JEE-SAU : Thrusting-fingers BONG-SAU : Wing-arm

C: CHAAN-SAU : Shovel-hand CHANG-SAU: Spade-hand CHAT-GENG-SAU: Throat-cutting-hand CHI-DAB-SAU : Single Hand-clinging CHI-DAN-SAU : single hand sticking

CHI-KWUN : Pole-clinging CHONG : Prefighting Posture CHONG-SAU : Guard-hands CHI-SAU : Sticking Hands CHOH-BO : side sitting step CHOH-MA : sitting horse step, basic turning stance CHUEN-KIU : Fist over Bridge/Piercing Fist CHUM-KIU : Sinking Bridge Form CHUM-KIU : Seeking Bridge Form CHUM-SAU : Sinking-hand CHUN GING : One Inch Punch CHUNG-KUEN : Center line punch, strike punch CHUNG-LO : Mid-level CHUNG-SIN : Median Line CHUNG-SUM-SIN : Center Line

D-E: DAI-JEONG : Lower palm strike DAO-JONG : Knife Dummy DING-JARN : Butting-elbow DIU-KOK-MA : Diagonal Stance

F-G: FAK-SAU : Whisking-hand FUT-SAU : Buddha-hand

FUK-SAU : Bridge-on Controlling Hand GAM-KIU : killing bridge GAM-SAU : Press down GAAN-SAU : Splitting-block/Cultivating-hand GAN-SAU : cutting down GEE-NG-DIU-TIE-MA : Meridian Half-hanging Stance GEE-NG-MA : Meridian Stance GENG : neck GEUK : foot CHI-GEUK : sticking leg GOK-MA : Angle Stance GWAN-SAU : Inward Bong-Sau/Tan-Sau combination GUM-SAU : Pinning-hand GUNG-LIK : forward elbow energy GWAI-JAANG : horizontal elbow strike GWUN-JONG : Pole Dummy GWUN-MA : Pole Stance

H: HAAN-KIU : press bridge, strike with fist HAU-JEONG : Rear Palm Strike HAR-LO : Lower Level HAU-GUM-SAU : Back Pinning-hand HEUN-SAU : Circling hands HOI-MA : Setting up of Stance

HOI-MOON : Outdoor Area HUEN-BO : Circling Steps HUEN-GOT-SAU : Circling Cut HUEN-SAU : Circling-hand

I-J: JANG-JEONG : Sideways Palm JEUN-MA : Turning Stance JEONG : Palm JU-JEUNG : Sideward Palm JU-GUM-SAU : Back Pinning-hand JIN-BO : Attacking forward step JIK-JEUNG : Palm outward Strike, Front Vertical Palm JIK-JENG-KUEN : attacking center punch JUM-SAU : Hacking-hand JUM-SAU : Sinking-hand JU-SUN-KUEN : Sideline Punch JU-SUN-MA : Sideline Stance/Diagonal Stance JUT-SAU : Jerk-hand

K: KAU-MA : Hooking Stance KAU-BO : Puking Steps KAU-SAU : Circle-block-hand KIU-SAU : Bridge-arm

KUEN : Fist, Boxing KUEN-TO : Boxing Form KUO-SAU : Fighting Hands KUP-JANNG : downward elbow strike KWAI-JAANG : Downward Elbow Strike KWAN-SAU : Outward Bong-Sau/Tan-Sau combination; Inside/Outside hand KWAN : elastic power

L: LAN-BO : turning step used with lan-sau LAN-SAU : Bar-arm LAT-SAU : freeing hand LAU-SAU : Scooping-hand LIN-WAN-KUEN : Alternate-thrusting Punches LOK-SAU : Rolling Arms LAHP-SAU : Grasping-hand LUHK-DIM-BOON-GWUN : Six and a Half Point Pole

M: MANG-GENG-SAU : Neck-pulling-hand MAN-SAU : Inquisive-hand (3rd form) MUK-YAN-JONG : Wooden Dummy MUK-YAN-JONG-FA : Wooden Dummy Techniques


NOI-MOON : Indoor Area NUK-SAU : Free Hand Fighting Practice

O: ONG-JEONG : Palm Strike

P: PAAK-SAU : Slapping-hand PAU-SAU : TOK-SAU PEK-JEONG : Chopping throat palm PIE-JAANG : Elbow-hacking, diagonal elbow strike PIEN-SUN-MA : Side Body Stance PO-BAI-JEONG : Double Palm strike

Q-R-S: SAAT-KIU : Killing Bridge SAAT-JEONG : Killing Palm SAAM-KOK-BO : Three Side Forward Steps SAAM-SING-JONG : Three Stars Dummy SAAM-PAI-FUT : Praying Thrice to the Buddha SAN-SAU : Free Hands SAU-BEI : arm SEI-PING-MA : Four Side Level Stance SEUNG-CHI-SAU : Double Sticking Hands SEUNG-HUEN-SAU : Double Circling Hands

SEUNG-KUEN : Double Punches SEUNG-LO : Upper-level SIU-LIM-TAO : Little Idea SUM-GOK-MA : Angle Stance

T: TAN-SAU : Dispersing-hand TAT-SAU : Cutting-down-hand TIE-SAU : Lifting-hands TOK-SAU : Elbow-lifting-hand TUT-SAU : freeing-hand, contact with little finger side downward

U-V-W: WAN-JEONG : Palm down Strike WING CHUN KUEN : Always Spring Boxing WU-SAU : Protective-hand

X-Y-Z: YAN-JEONG : Stamping-palm YAN-JEE-DAO : Converging Knives YEE-CHI-SEUNG-DAO : Parallel Double Knives YEE-CHI-KIM-YEUNG-MA : stationary front stance (pinching goat stance)

Wing Chun Glossary and Terms

Here I have included a list of Wing Chun terminology. Most of it came from elsewhere on the Internet as well as terms from literature given by Dai-Sifu Goldberg to his class. I am updating it as I find new words and terms in my readings and studies.

*****Please note that because of the diffculty in transliterating and translating from Chinese to English, some terms may be spelled differently in different places, or translated slightly differently.*****

Baht Cham Do - Eight Cutting Broadswords (Final Weapons form in Wing Chun) Bil Jee - "Thrusting Fingers" (3rd Wing Chun hand form) Bil Jee Sao - Thrusting Fingers Bik Sao - Pressing Arm Bok Jeung - Shoulder Butt (palm pushes down) Bong Chor Sao - "Wrong" Bong (inside gate) Bong Gerk - Wing Leg Block Bong Sao - Wing Arm Block Bui Do - Thrusting Knives Bui Ma - Thrusting Stance Bui Sao - Thrusting Arm

Chang Sao - Spade hand Chi Dan Sao (dan chi) Chi Gerk - Sticky Legs Chi Kwan - Sticky Pole Chin Tek - Front Kick Chin Gum Sao - Front Pinning Hand Chin Jeung - Front Palm Chi Sao (Sheung Chi Sao) - Double Sticky Hands Chum Kiu - "Seeking the Bridge (Arm)" Form (2nd hand form in Wing Chun) Chung Lo - Mid Level Single Sticky Hands

Chung Si - Grandmaster of A Style Chung Sin - Mid Line Chung Sum Sin - Center Line (Mother Line) Cup Jarn - Downward Elbow

Ding Jarn - Butting Elbow Dip Sao - Butterfly Hand Doy Ying - Forward Energy Dui Kok Ma - Diagonal Stance

Fak Sao - Whisking Arm/Side Chop Fook Sao - Bridge On Arm Fung Gerk - Stomp Foot Block

Garn Sao - Splitting Block/Low Block Simultaneous Punch Gee Ng Dui Tie Ma - Half Hanging Stance (Pole) Gerk - Leg Gnoi Moon - Outside Gate Gum Sao - Pinning Hand Gwai Jarn - Downward/Kneeling Elbow

Har Lo - Lower Level Hau Gum Sao - Back Pinning Hand

Hau Ma - Back Stance Hoi Ma - Opening Of Stance Heun Bo - Circle Steps Heun Do - Circling Knife Heun Got Sao - Circling cut Heun Sao - Circling Hand

Jeung - Palm Jik Chung - "Sun Punch" (Vertical Fist Punch) Jong - Dummy/Stake Jor Ma - Left Stance Jum Sao - Sinking Block Ju Cheung - Side Palm Ju Tek - Side Kick Ju Gum Sao - Side Pinning Hand Ju Sun Kuen - Turning Punch Ju Sun Ma - Turning of Stance Jut Sao - Jerking or Cutting Hand

Kar Sik - Prefighting Posture Kau Bo - Plucking Steps/Circle Steps Kau Gerk - Half Moon Kick Kau Sao - Circling Block Kuen - Fist/Fist Fighting Kuen To - Forms

Kui Sao - Bridge Arm Kuo Sao - Sparring/Fighting Practice Kwun Ma - Pole Stance Kwun Sao - Rolling/Rotating Block

Laan Sao - Bar Arm Laap Sao - Deflecting Arm Lau Sao - Scooping Arm Lin Wan Kuen - Chain Punches Lok Ma - Retreating Stance Luk Dim Boon Kwan - Six & Half Point Pole

Ma - Stance/Horse Mang Geng Sao - Neck Pulling Hand Man Sao - Inquisitive Hand Mook Yan Jong - Wooden Dummy Mook Yan Jong Fa - Dummy Form

Noi Moon - Inside Gate Nuk Sao - Freehand Fighting Practice

Pak Sao - Slap Block Pai Jarn - Hacking Elbow

Po Pai Jeung - Double Palms

Saam Kok Bo/Ma - Triangular Stance (advancing) Saam Bat Fut - Three Bows To Buddha (alternate name for Sil Lum Tao) San Sik - Separate Form - typically short sequences containing one or two concepts and/or techniques. In some cases, San Sik are not really very formal, and may vary with almost every practice. In some Wing Chun systems there are a few, however, usually set into a specific grouping or ordered sequence, which have become part of the formal curriculum. (source - Sei Ping Ma - Horse Stance Shat Geng Sao - Throat Cutting Hand Sheung Kuen - Double Punches Sheung Lo - Upper Level Siong Ma - Advancing Stance Sil Lum Tao - "The Little Idea" Form (1st hand form in Wing Chun) Sut - Knee

Tan Gerk - Leg Block Tan Sao - Palm Up Block Tei Sao - Rising Arms Tek - Kick Tok Sao - Elbow lifting Hand/Supporting Tong Tek - Diagonal Kick Tui Ma - Pushing Horse Stance Tut Sao - Freeing Arm

Wu Sao - Guarding Hand (Protective Arm/Rear Guard)

Yau Ma - Right Stance Yee Chi Kim Yeung Ma - "Clamping the Sheep" Stance

Family Structure and Relationships

Chung Si - Grandmaster Of Style Jor Si - Founder Of Style (Ng Mui) Si Bak - Elder Kung Fu Brother Of Si fu Si Bak Gung - Elder Kung Fu Brother Of Si Gung Si Dai - Younger Kung Fu Brother (trained less time) Si Fu - Teacher/Parent Figure Si Gung - Kung Fu Grandfather (Teacher of Teacher) Si Hing - Elder Kung Fu Brother (trained longer time) Si Je - Elder Kung Fu Sister (trained longer time) Si Jo - Teacher Of Kung Fu Grandfather Si Jook - Kung Fu Nephew (student of younger kung Fu Brother) Si Mo - Wife of Kung Fu Teacher Si Mui - Younger Kung Fu Sister (trained less time than you) To Dai - Student To Suen - Kung Fu Grandson (student of student) Tung Moon - Fellow Student

Yat - One

Yee - Two Saam - Three Say - Four Ng - Five Look - Six Chat - Seven Baat - Eight Gau - Nine Sup - Ten Sup Yat - Eleven Sup Yee - Twelve Yee Sup - Twenty Saam Sup - Thirty Yat Baak - Hundred

Wing Tsun Techniques Using Muk-Yan-Chong Tranining Device

Presented by: Master Debbie Hintopoulos Master Instructor and Director Karate Camp - July, 2001 American Kang Duk Won Association

Wing Tsun An Abbreviated History

This probably should begin with, Once upon a time..., because no one really knows what is fact or fiction of Wing Tsun's beginnings. The story of Wing Tsun begins with a fire at the Siu Lam Monastery. There are two different tales of this event. They vary in who set the fire, who escaped the fire, and when the fire occured.

1674 A.D., 1733 A.D., and 1734 A.D. are all dates for when the Siu Lam Monastery was to have burned. It would problably be safe to say that Wing Tsun is 200 to 300 years old, for the burning of the monastery set a chain of events in motion that led to the birth of Wing Tsun. In the most popular version, Buddhist Mistress Ng Mui was one of the skilled martial artists that escaped the fire. Although Ng Mui found a seemingly safe haven in the White Crane Temple she still worried that the Manchu government or the Siu Lam defectors would find her. (The Manchu government most certainly hired the burning of Siu Lam and most certainly the Siu Lam defectors were involved.) She felt the only way to protect herself was to devise a fighting system that was different from the Siu Lam system. One day Ng Mui observed a fight between a fox and a large wild crane. The fox, using its speed, ran around the crane trying to make surprise attacks with its paws. The crane turned with the fox and blocked the fox with its wings and counter-attacked with its beak. This inspired Ng Mui with an idea for a new fighting system. The Siu Lam Kung-Fu system that she had trained in emphasized fixed patterns of regular movements. She felt these were too complicated. The new system she created consisted of simple basic movements incorporated into three boxing forms and a set of wooden dummy techniques (Muk-Yan-Chong Fa) for practicing purposes. Ng Mui emphasized defeating an enemy with method rather than strength. This new system utilized chasing steps and infighting techniques. The Sui Lam system used the front stance most often, where Ng Mui used the back stance. This allowed for the executing of front thrusting kicks and also quick retreats. Ng Mui was still at the White Crane Temple and frequented the market place, down the mountain, for supplies. She became acquainted with a stall owner and his teen age daughter, named Wing Tsun. Ng Mui learned that the local bully threatened to force Wing Tsun to marry him and Wing Tsun's father was too old to protect her. Ng Mui decided she would train Wing Tsun in the new system of kung-fu. After three years of training at the White Crane Temple, Wing Tsun had attained competence. She was ready to return home and when she did the bully was there to confront her. Wing Tsun challenged him to a fight. The bully was convinced he would have a wife, but Wing Tsun defeated him. After being taught in secret to select heirs over the years, Wing Tsun surfaces in 1949. The man who brought it out of secret was Yip Man. Wing Tsun was especially popular with the Hong Kong police force. Between 1970 and 1971, Bruce Lee, one of Yip Man's students brought Wing Tsun to the attention of the world. This also brought to the world's attention the Muk-YanChong (Wooden Dummy) training device. It is not known which came first, Wing Tsun or Muk-Yan-Chong. There were stories that the Siu Lam monastery had a wooden dummy alley. It is believed that the first

wooden dummy was an erected wood stake to take the place of a trainee's opponent. Later Wing Tsun practitioners improved the training device. Originally, when Wing Tsun was first developing, there were 140 Muk-Yan-Chong techniques. These were divided into ten sections for reasons of practice. Later, Grandmaster Yip Man feeling the 140 techniques were too numerous and complicated, pared it down to 108 techniques. (108 is a number liked by the Chinese people. It corresponds to a special set of stars.) After years of experience, he determined some of the essential parts of the Muk-Yan-Chong were not included. He then regrouped the techniques into 116 movements as it still is today.


D: Defender A: Attacker 1. Bong-Saulran-Sau & Lower Lying-Palm

D: Right lead A: Right punch D: Right Bong-Sau (wing arm) Right Tan-Sau (rotate palm up as in reverse knife hand position, this diverts A's arm) Simultaneously step to left side w/left to do left low palm strike to ribs

2. Double Tan-Sau/Huen-SaulDouble Lower Palm Strike

D: Left lead A: Attempt at double lapel grab D: Double Tan-Sau (double outside blocks, palms up) Huen-Sau (immediately make a circular movement to the inside, palms facing one another) Double palm strike to ribs

3. Double Tan-Sau/Double Upper Lying-Palm

D: Left lead A: Double lapel grab attempt D: Double Tan-Sau (similar to spread middle block to inside of opponent's double grab attempt) Double palm strike to face

4. Indoor Area Pak-Sau (slap hand)

D: Right lead A: Right punch

D: Right Pak-Sau (right palm slap to inside of right arm) A: Left punch D: Left Pak-Sau (left palm slap to inside of left arm) Immediately going into downward press followed by right vertical punch to face

5. Lower Bong-Sau/Sideward Slap-Palm & Man-Sau

D: Left lead A: Right low punch D: Left low Bong-Sau A: Left high punch D: Right palm slap Left palm strike to left arm pit Note: Lower Bong-Sau gets better results if you co-ordinate with turning the body to maximize its 'evasive effect'. Man-Sau is derived from the lower Bong-Sau. When attacking arm of opponent is weakening in force or about to retreat, the defender's arm, which is bending down in the form of Bong-Sau, now turns up to form Man-Sau.

6. Bong-Sau/Grappling Hand & Throat-Cutting Hand/Pak-Sau & Spade-Hand

D: Left lead A: Right punch D: Left Bong-Sau Circular movement to grab inside of arm Right knife hand strike to throat Right Pak-Sau (downward palm press) Left palm strike to chin

7. Bong-Sau/Grappling Hand & Sweep-Kick

D: Right lead A: Right punch D: Right Bong-Sau Circle into a right grab of attacker's right arm followed by a left grab Forcefully pull 'A' forward into a sweep-kick to right knee of 'A' Continue to pull 'A' forward

8. Bong-Sau/Elbow break/Reverse Bong-Sau/Palm strike/Elbow strike

D: Left lead A: Right push D: Left Bong-Sau

Right grab Left elbow break Left reverse Bong-Sau Right palm strike to jaw Right elbow strike to side of head Note: All of these techniques can be done on the other side. If done on the left side, it can be done on the right side.


Bong-Sau: Wing arm Chong: Wooden dummy, piles, special equipment for Huen-Sau: Circling-hand Man-Sau: Inquisitive arm Muk-Yan-Chong: Wooden dummy Muk-Yan-Chong Fa: Wooden dummy techniques Pak-Sau: Slap block Tan-Sau: Palm-up arm

Body Structure
by Rene Ritchie
(Excerpted, in part, from Yuen Kay-San Wing Chun Kuen) Wing Chun kuen san ying (body structure) strives to achieve several important goals. It works off simple, natural, geometrical shapes that can be reflexively assumed and easily maintained, even during stressful situations like combat (where more complicated mechanics can break down). Utilizing the concepts of the meridian line, the body is positioned so that it closes off direct access, obstructing the opponent before they begin (increasing the effort and time it takes for attacks). This skeletal alignment also naturally disperses incoming force, reducing the need for muscle movement (making responses faster and less tiring). These enable the practitioner to work as little as possible while forcing the opponent to work as much as possible. While each individual motion will have its own unique characteristics, there are several overall structural principles that can generally be applied to most movements. It should be remembered that positions are always relative and depend on the build of the individual involved.

Lower Body
The ha san (lower body) is often referred to as ma. Although frequently translated as "stance", ma is actually the word for "horse". This reveals a dynamic rather then static nature. In Wing Chun kuen the horse should actively clamp like flexible steel and move like the wheels of a cart. It is the connection between the ground (the source of power in Chinese martial arts) and the upper-body. When standing it serves to root the practitioner to the ground. If an opponent pushes, he or she pushes the ground. If he or she pulls, he or she

pulls the ground. When moving, the lower body functions like a spatula or a cow-pusher to disrupt, uproot, and send off an opponent. 1. Point the feet inward and grab with the toes. While standing, the feet are the ultimate connection between the body and the ground. The converging nature of the feet creates an internal rotation in the horse and aids in stability. The grabbing action of the toes helps with rooting. 2. Lower the posture and clamp the knees. Lowering the posture aids stability and helps ensure a rooted horse. Clamping the knees involves rotating them inward and closing them to one-fist distance. This provides a solid, pyramid-like structure for training and can help in the channeling of power from the ground. The two work in concert, however, as the knees are brought close together not so much by horizontally pressing them in as by sinking the posture to adduct them. 3. Tuck the hips under. The hips tuck under, joining the upper and lower bodies together. This is important in order to create the connection between the ground and the torso and to project power through that connection. 4. Drawn the anus in. Drawing in the anus helps to connect both the ren and du mai points, completing the microcosmic orbit.

Upper Body
The seung san (upper body) forms the link between the bridge arms and the horse. It should be sunken and relaxed. If it becomes tense, power will not be able to flow freely. When still it is said to be neutral like a standing crane. When in contact, the expansion and contraction of the torso (intercostals, chest, etc.) also works to generate and disperse certain forms of power. 1. Straighten the back. In general the back is kept vertical, leaning neither forward nor backward. This neutral posture is in keeping with Wing Chun kuen's concept of the center. In application, it works with the rest of the torso, expanding and contracting when expressing or receiving power. 2. Relax the chest and abdomen. The stomach and chest are not tensed but naturally relaxed and sunken. As Wing Chun kuen can boil down to a game of seconds and inches, the relaxed body can react more quickly and the sunken posture can provide a slight advantage in reach (keeping the body a little further back). 3. Straighten the head. Since the head can weigh a fair amount, having it droop forward or back can affect balance. With the head in line with the upper and lower body, uniformity of structure is maintained allowing for proper alignment when standing and moving.

Bridge Arms
Kiu sao (bridge arms), sometimes shortened to simply kiu (bridges) or sao (hands or arms) are so named in Southern Chinese martial arts because they are the most common tools used to contact the opponent. Thus, the arms form the bridge between the practitioner and their target. Like the torso, the bridges are relaxed and adaptable (moving, it is sometimes said, like swimming dragons.)
1. Hang the shoulders. The shoulders should remain relaxed. Tense shoulders will stop the transfer of power from the ground and cause the body to rely on local arm power alone. 2. Close the elbows. Wing Chun kuen does not flare the elbows but keeps them closed towards the meridian line. This means that in most situations, the elbows are kept down and in near the body. The exact placement will vary (depending on the situation.) Keeping the elbow joint pointing down ensures a straight punch that is more difficult for an opponent to turn with or deflect from the outside, or to jam or

lock. Keeping the elbows in minimizes exposed areas, reducing the opponent's chance of stealing a strike. Furthermore, a flared elbow requires local arm muscle to maintain its structure. Closed elbows, on the other hand, put the entire body mass directly behind the punch. This allows the arm to remain relaxed and yet move with even greater power. 3. Extend the elbows. When the bridges go out the elbows are not restrained against the torso but move to a position roughly one-fist distance in front of the body. This is done both to increase the structural integrity of the arms and to prevent an opponent from using the bridges to lever the body. 4. Bend the elbows. The elbow should usually form an obtuse angle (greater then 90). With a lesser angle, the bridge loses structural integrity and can be collapsed by an opponent. The angle should not be so great, however, that the arm begins to straighten. A straight arm can be slipped under or around, and can be more easily jammed and locked. Even with motions like the thrusting punch or darting fingers, the arms extend for only the instant in which power is applied, relaxing and naturally bending again immediately thereafter. 5. Center the wrists. The wrists tend to maintain a position along the meridian line. As with the elbow, this is both the simplest and most direct route to the opponent and allows the body's full structure to be behind the hand. Oftentimes, the fingers will also be placed on the mutual meridian line, pointing intently towards the opponent. This serves to both create a threatening presence (like a snake about to strike) and to ensure proper dominance of the position. Wing Chun kuen is not a technical style, it is a conceptual system. More then a set combination of poetic movements it is an ingenious index and guide to the core principles of Southern Chinese martial arts. The ideas are what are important since from them come the many individual applications and implications. Rather then forcing a practitioner to spend vast amounts of time repeating large numbers of fixed patterns it allows them to economically practice a few root points that can be applied in almost limitless ways. This maximizes training time and means that the art is not bound to material but can develop and grow as far as the practitioner's intelligence and devotion allows. Body structure is a simple, yet integral part of this.

"Foshan" Wing Chun

by Rene Ritchie
Many systems have used the name Foshan Wing Chun Kuen in their marketing. This has come about in large part due to the popularity of Yip Man's Wing Chun Kuen and its sometimes classification as "Hong Kong Wing Chun Kuen". None of these geographical names, however, properly serve to illustrate their diversity of Wing Chun Kuen. Foshan (Fushan or variously Futsan, Fatshan, etc. in Cantonese) is the modern birthplace of Wing Chun Kuen. In fact, almost all modern Wing Chun Kuen can be traced back to this town in China's Guangdong province. How did Foshan come to be home to so many Wing Chun masters? The answer lies with the art's origin aboard the Hung Suen Hei Ban (Red Junk Opera Company). The Red Junk performers were secretly members of revolutionary societies who's goal was to overthrow the occupying Ching dynasty of the Manchurians and restore the Ming dynasty of the native Han people. Since the Junks had relative freedom of travel and the performers routinely wore elaborate make-up and costumes that could disguise their identities, they were an ideal hiding place for wanted revolutionaries. Their route would often take them through town like Guangzhou (Kwang Chow), Zhaoqing (Siu Hing), and Foshan. Later, they organized in support of the Taipin Rebellion and paid the price for the movement's failure. The Ching destroyed the operan and the members who survived were

driven into hiding. Many took Foshan as their new home base. Among the famous masters of Wing Chun who learned their skills in the Foshan area were Leung Jan (student of Wong Wah-Bo and Leung Yee-Tai), Fung Siu-Ching (student of Painted Face Kam), Fok Bo-Chuen (student of Wong Wah-Bo and Painted Face Kam), Siu La-Cheung (student of Tall Man Chung), Lok Lan-Goon (student of Painted Face Kam), and others. Over the years, this diversity of masters and methods lead to several distinct branches of Wing Chun Kuen, each legitimately a part of Foshan Wing Chun Kuen. It should be pointed out that geographical names used to distinguish the branches of Wing Chun are not unique, especially when a famed teacher had students in different cities or brought the art to a new location. Leung Jan, for example, taught Wing Chun Kuen first in Foshan where he worked. There he had students such as Chan Wah-Shun (Moneychanger Wah), Lo Kwai (Butcher Kwai), Lai Ying, etc. Later, he returned to his native village, a short distance away, and taught another version of Wing Chun Kuen for a few years before passing away. In this village, his students included Wong Wah-Sum, Leung Bak-Cheung, and others. To mark the difference, the San Sao (Separate Hands) art of this second group of students came to be called after the village- Gulao (Koo Lo) Wing Chun. Perhaps the most well known example of this, as stated previously, is the art of Yip Man, the most widely known and practiced branch of the Wing Chun family. Yip Man learned his art in Foshan from Chan Wah-Shun and Chan's senior students, Ng Jung-So and Lui Yiu-Chai. Yip Man did not teach in Foshan, however, for many years. Eventually however, due to the hardship he suffered under the Japanese occupation, Yip Man took a few students in order to repay the kindness of a man from Yongan (Wing On). These students included such individuals as Kwok Fu (Guo Fu) and Lun Gai (Lun Jie). Yip Man later left the rise of Communism in China to for Hong Kong where he gained far greater fame as a Wing Chun Kuen teacher, thanks primarily to the international attention brought on by his student Bruce Lee (Lee Jun-Fan/Lee Siu-Lung). This fame, fortified by the hard work and dissemination of his many other students, lead to the worldwide renown of Wing Chun Kuen. So popular, in fact, did Yip Man's art become in the colony, that it came to be known as Hong Kong Wing Chun, despite the fact that many other branches of Wing Chun Kuen were also established there. This lead, of course, to the version of Yip Man's art practiced by Yip Man's students in his native town to be called Foshan Wing Chun Kuen. Of course, this distinction only works inside the Yip Man branch. Otherwise it, like the others, is just one piece of the Foshan Wing Chun Kuen pie. Another branch commonly refered to as Foshan Wing Chun Kuen can be traced to Yip Man's classmate, Yiu Choi. Yiu Choi was a large and powerful student of both Yuen Chai-Wan and Ng Jung-So. Yiu Choi passed this art on to several students, including his own son, Yiu Kai. Often referred to as Foshan Siu Lam Wing Chun, the system of Pan Nam remained in its place of birth long after many others had spread to other cities, countries, and continents. Pan Nam began his martial career in the Southern Siu Lam and Hung Ga Kuen traditions, gaining a firm foundation under several teachers. He brought this with him when he began studying Wing Chun in the 1940s, following an interest in the Wing Chun of Cheung Bo under Sum Nung, he shortly gained tuition under Jiu Chao. Jiu Chao, alongside his brother, Jiu Wan (who later moved to Hong Kong and followed Yip Man) learned the art from Chan WahShun's son, Chan Yiu-Min. Pan Nam was also skilled in the Ng Jee Mui Fa Hei Gong (Five Petal Plum Blossom Qigong) of Ng Man-Long. Pan Nam later met Chan Wah-Shun's secondto-last student, Lai Hip-Chi and further refined his Wing Chun Kuen. Lai Hip-Chi had begun his Wing Chun training with Chan Wah-Shun shortly before the Moneychanger retired back to Chen (Chan) village in Shunde (San Dak) and passed away. Lai had also trained under senior classmate Lui Yiu-Chai and later met the elderly nephew of Lok Lan-Goon (a student of Painted Face Kam's) and learned more about Wing Chun. From these myriad sources, and his own encounters with people like Yip Man and Pak Cheung (a grand-student of Fung SiuChing), Pan Nam forged his own unique interpretation of Wing Chun Kuen.

Although better known as the Pao Fa Lien system Chu Chong brought to Macao, the Wing Chun of Lao Dat-Sang also hails from Foshan and has been classified in that manner in the past. Said to descend from the Tse brothers, Gwok-Leung and Gwok-Cheung, this branch of Wing Chun, with its larger then average curriculum, is also said to integrate Siu Lam and perhaps Taijiquan methods. While Chu Chong passed on the art in Macao, his classmates like Kwok Gai remained in Foshan. The Wing Chun of Yuen Kay-San is also sometimes referred to as Foshan Wing Chun, since Yuen Kay-San learned and taught the art in his city of birth. Yuen learned the system from Fok Bo-Chuen and Fung Siu-Ching and combined his two teachers' knowledge into his own system. He passed this system on to a young man named Sum Nung in the late 1930s. Sum Nung had previously learned the San Sao Wing Chun of Cheung Bo and like Yuen Kay-San, refined and integrated his knowledge. In the 1940s, Sum Nung moved to the nearby provincial capitol of Guangzhou to practice medicine. This has led the branch to become far better known as Guangzhou Wing Chun. This name, like Foshan or Hong Kong Wing Chun, is not entirely distinctive either as other branches, such as the Gulao derived Pien San (Side Body) Wing Chun of the Fung family later also came to Guangzhou, as did Lun Gai. Branches from the Yuen Kay-San/Sum Nung tradition that have also gained such geographical monikers include Ng Mui Pai and the Wing Chun of Mai Gei Wong. Originally a student of Wong Jing (who had studied under Leung Jan's student, Lai Ying, and under Yuen Kay-San), Mai Gei Wong furthered his knowledge with Sum Nung and some of Sum's students including Pan Chao. It should also be noted that following the departure of teachers such as Yip Man for Hong Kong and Sum Nung for Guangzhou, much of the Wing Chun in Foshan began to be integrated by the next generation of practitioners. Studying under different remaining teachers, the forms and methods began to resemble a blend of the Chan Wah-Shun (Chan Yiu-Min, Ng Jung-So, Yip Man, etc) and Yuen Kay-San systems, also sometimes integrating village Hung or Weng Chun (Always Spring) elements. This represents yet another art that can be referred to as Foshan Wing Chun. TERMS: Bart-cham-dao Biu-tze Bong-sau Chi-sau Chi-kwun Chong-sau Chong Chuen-Kiu Chum-kiu Chung-sien Dan-chi-sau Fak-sau Gaun-sau Gum-sau Huen-bo Huen-sau Jum-sau Jud-cheung Jud-sun-ma Jut-sau Kau-sau Kiu-sau Kwai-jarn Kwun-ma Eight-cutting Broadswords Techniques Thrusting-fingers form Wing-like arm Sticking hand Pole-sticking technique Pre-fighting posture Wooden dummy Piercing arm Arm-seeking form Median line/center line Single sticking hand excercize Flipping hand Splitting-block Pressing hand Circling step Circling hand Chopping hand Sideward palm Sideling stance Jerking hand Circling block Bridge-arm Downward elbow strike pole stance

Kwun-sau Lan-sau Lap-sau Lau-sau Lok-sau Luk-Dim-Boon-Kwun Man-sau Muk-Yan-Chong Mung-geng-sau Nuk-sau Pak-sau Pie-jarn Po-pai-cheung Saam-kok-bo Sei-ping-ma Shat-geng-sau Siu-Nim-Tau Tan-sau Tie-sau Tut-sau Wu-sau Yan-cheung Yee-chi-chung-kuen Yee-chi-kim-yeung-ma

Rotating arms Bar arm Grabbing hand Scooping arm Rolling arms Six and One Half Piont Long Pole form Asking arm Wooden dummy Neck-pulling hand Arm freeing techniques Slap block Elbow hacking Double palm strike Triangular step Quadrilateral level stance Throat-cutting hand Little Idea form Palm-up arm Lifting arm Freeing arm Protective arm Stamping palm Character "Sun" Thrusting punch Character "Two" Adduction stance