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Heat pump and refrigeration cycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle

Heat pump and refrigeration cycle
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thermodynamic heat pump and refrigeration cycles are the models for heat pumps and refrigerators. The difference between a heat pump and a normal air conditioner is that a heat pump can be used to heat a home as well as cool it. Even though the heat pump can heat, it still uses the same basic refrigeration cycle to do this. In other words a heat pump can change which coil is the condenser and which the evaporator. In cooler climates it is common to have heat pumps that are able only to heat the house, making the pumps simpler and cheaper, since cooling is rarely necessary.

Contents
1 Heat pumps 1.1 Vapor-compression cycle 1.2 Vapor absorption cycle 1.3 Gas cycle 2 References 3 External links

Heat pumps
A heat pump has the ability to pump heat two ways. This allows the heat pump to both bring heat into a house and take it out. In the cooling mode a heat pump works the same as your typical A/C. It uses an evaporator to absorb heat from inside the house and rejects this heat outside through the condenser. The refrigerant is flowing in the normal direction to where the condenser and compressor are outside of the space to be conditioned, while the evaporator inside. The one key component that makes a heat pump different from an A/C is the reversing valve. The reversing valve allows for the flow direction of the refrigerant to be changed. This allows the heat to be pumped in either direction. In the heating mode the outdoor coil becomes the evaporator, while the indoor becomes the condenser which absorbs the heat from the refrigerant and dissipates to the air flowing through it. The air outside even at 0 degrees Celsius has heat in it. With the refrigerant flowing in the opposite direction the evaporator(outdoor coil) is absorbing the heat from the air and moving it inside. Once it picks up heat it is compressed and then sent to the condenser(indoor coil). The indoor coil then rejects the heat into the air handler, which moves the heated air through out the house. In the cooling mode the outdoor coil is now the condenser. This makes the indoor coil now the evaporator. The indoor coil is now the evaporator in the sense that it is going to be used to absorb the heat from inside the enclosed space. The evaporator absorbs the heat from the inside, and takes it to the condenser where it is rejected into the outside air. Many heat pumps also use an auxiliary heat source. This means that, even though the heat pump is the primary source of heat, another form is put in place as a back-up. Electric, oil, or gas are the most commons sources.

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org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle This is put in place so that if the heat pump fails or can't provide enough heat. This makes a heat pump one of the cheapest ways to heat. Vapor cycle. 2. They work in the same manner as an air to air heat pump. A heat pump is a very efficient appliance. They use the ground and water to work as the condensers and evaporators. Vapor compression refrigeration 2. Geothermal heat pumps are another form.wikipedia. 2 of 5 06-11-09 8:30 PM . Heat pump can be classified as: 1. The operating principle of the refrigeration cycle was described mathematically by Sadi Carnot in 1824 as a heat engine. the auxiliary heat will kick on to make up the difference. Figure 1 provides a schematic diagram of the components of a typical vaporcompression refrigeration system. Gas cycle. but instead of indoor and outdoor coils they use the earth as natural evaporators and condensers. the free encyclopedia http://en.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle . These are very eco-friendly and are a cheaper alternative in the long run due to lower operating cost. Insulation is used to reduce the work and energy required to achieve and maintain a lower temperature in the cooled space. Gas absorption refrigeration Vapor-compression cycle (See Vapor-compression refrigeration for more complete technical details) The vapor-compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators as well as in many large commercial and industrial refrigeration systems. and 3. Work is applied to cool a living space or storage volume by pumping heat from a lower temperature heat source into a higher temperature heat sink. Heat naturally flows from hot to cold.Wikipedia. It has an efficiency rating of 200%. Stirling cycle Vapor cycle refrigeration can further be classified as: 1.

the vapor absorption cycle using water-ammonia systems was popular and widely used but.Wikipedia. More information about the design and performance of vapor-compression refrigeration systems is available in the classic "Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook". From point 1 to point 2. or non-ideal gas behavior (if any). except for the method of raising the pressure of the 3 of 5 06-11-09 8:30 PM . The above discussion is based on the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. after the development of the vapor compression cycle. Between points 4 and 5. slight thermodynamic irreversibility during the compression of the refrigerant vapor. the free encyclopedia http://en. causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of. and does not take into account real-world effects like frictional pressure drop in the system. The absorption cycle is similar to the compression cycle. the vapor absorption cycle is used only where waste heat is available or where heat is derived from solar collectors.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle . it lost much of its importance because of its low coefficient of performance (about one fifth of that of the vapor compression cycle). The cold liquid-vapor mixture then travels through the evaporator coil or tubes and is completely vaporized by cooling the warm air (from the space being refrigerated) being blown by a fan across the evaporator coil or tubes. the liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases.[3] Figure 1: Vapor compression refrigeration Figure 2:Temperature–Entropy diagram Vapor absorption cycle (See gas absorption refrigerator for more details) In the early years of the twentieth century. In this cycle. typically. the superheated vapor travels through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature.org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle The thermodynamics of the cycle can be analyzed on a diagram[1][2] as shown in Figure 2. less than half of the liquid. From point 2 to point 3 and on to point 4. a circulating refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. the vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the compressor superheated. That results in a mixture of liquid and vapor at a lower temperature and pressure as shown at point 5. The resulting refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor inlet at point 1 to complete the thermodynamic cycle. Nowadays.wikipedia.

ISBN ISBN 0-07-049479-7. for a given quantity of refrigerant. ^ Perry.r744. and water (refrigerant) and lithium bromide (absorbent).html) Scientific Papers about CO2 Heat Pumps / Eco Cute (http://www. McGraw Hill. ^ Scroll down to "The Basic Vapor Compression Cycle and Components" (http://iehmtu. the refrigeration effect is equal to the product of the specific heat of the gas and the rise in temperature of the gas in the low temperature side. Delmar. a gas refrigeration cycle will require a large mass flow rate and would be bulky.edu/me372/Spring2001 /Vapor%20Compression%20Refrigeration%20Cycles. 598. a suitable combination of refrigerant and absorbent is used. These jet aircraft's cooling and ventilation units also serve the purpose of pressurizing the aircraft cabin. for the same cooling load. D. External links The Refrigeration Cycle: How Air Conditioners Work (http://www. the compressor is replaced by an absorber which dissolves the refrigerant in a suitable liquid.html) 3. Ibrahim (2003). Because of their lower efficiency and larger bulk.com /toc/chapt_r/ch18s82. As such the working fluid does not receive and reject heat at constant temperature. Thermodynamics: Concepts and Applications (http://books. Refrigeration and Air conditioning Technology. In the absorption system. on gas turbine-powered jet airliners since compressed air is readily available from the engines' compressor sections. Inc.com/knowledge/) 4 of 5 06-11-09 8:30 PM . ISBN 0471623512.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle . In an absorption refrigerator.google. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (6th Edition ed. components corresponding to the condenser and evaporator in a vapor compression cycle are the hot and cold gas-to-gas heat exchangers in gas cycles.org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle refrigerant vapor.). R. References 1. however. Therefore. Air is most often this working fluid.com /How-Air-Conditioners-Work. (1984). Gas cycle When the working fluid is a gas that is compressed and expanded but does not change phase. the refrigeration cycle is called a gas cycle.edata-center.H. ^ The Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle (http://web. As there is no condensation and evaporation intended in a gas cycle. pp.wikipedia. The air cycle machine is very common. air cycle coolers are not often applied in terrestrial refrigeration.best-air-conditioner-reviews. The gas cycle is less efficient than the vapor compression cycle because the gas cycle works on the reverse Brayton cycle instead of the reverse Rankine cycle. it is much smaller than needed by the compressor in the vapor compression cycle. 756.. Some work is required by the liquid pump but.google. John Wiley and Sons. http://books. the free encyclopedia http://en. Dincer.Wikipedia. on heat addition. Cambridge University Press. Bill (2008).pdf) 2. The most common combinations are ammonia (refrigerant) and water (absorbent). Stephen (2006). and Green. drives off the refrigerant vapor from the high-pressure liquid. In the gas cycle.com /books?id=fy5hs04OeMQC&dq=Heat+pump+and+refrigeration+cycle) .unr. a liquid pump which raises the pressure and a generator which. ISBN 0521850428.com/books?id=fy5hs04OeMQC& dq=Heat+pump+and+refrigeration+cycle.W. Refrigeration Systems and Applications. (see pages 12-27 through 12-38) Notes Turns.me. pp. Whitman.

org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle "The Basic Refrigeration Cycle" (http://www. a non-profit organization. the free encyclopedia http://en.org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle" Categories: Thermodynamic cycles | Heat pumps This page was last modified on 5 October 2009 at 16:42.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle . 5 of 5 06-11-09 8:30 PM .central-air-conditioner-and-refrigeration.com/basicrefrigeration-cycle. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.wikipedia. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation..Wikipedia. See Terms of Use for details. Inc.wikipedia. additional terms may apply.html) Retrieved from "http://en.