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GPON=Gigabits Passive Optical Network - mng quang th ng

GPON h tro tc bit cao nht t truc ti nay vi tc hung


xung/hung ln tuong ng ln ti 2,5/2,5 Gbit/s. GPON cung cp
rng bng ln chua tung c t truc ti nay va l cng ngh ti uu cho
cc ng dng ca FTTH v FTTB
Cc thng s k thut:
Buc sng:1260-1360nm ung ln; 1480-1500nm ung xung
a truy nhp hung ln:TDMA
Cp pht bng thng ng DBA (dynamic bandwith alloation)
Loi luu luong: d liu s
Khung truyn dn :GEM
Djch v: djch v y (ethernet,TDM,POTS)
Ti l chia ca b chia th ng: ti a 1:128
Gi trj BER ln nht 10
-12

Phm vi cng sut s dng lung xung:-3 n +2 dbm (10km
ODN) hoc +2 n +7 (20km ODN)
Phm vi cng sut s dng lung ln: -1 n +4 dbm (10km v
20km ODN)
Suy hao ti a gia cc ONU:15db
Cu ly cp ti a: 20km vi DFB laser lung ln, 10km vi Fabry-
perot
Kh nng cung cp bng thng: cng ngh GPON h tro 1,25Gbps
hoc 2,5 Gbps hung xung v hung ln c t x djch t 155Mbps
n 2,5Gbps. Hiu sut bng thng t >90%
Kh nng cung cp djch v: gii hn cu li ca cng ngh GPON hin ti
uoc quy jnh trong khong 20km v cung cp ti l chia ln ti 1:128
(hin ti thung s dng ti l 1:64, ti a qua 2 cp chia)
Mt s vn cn quan tm khi tnh ton thit k mng GPON
m bo cc iu kin v thng s k thut cng ngh
m bo cc c tnh k thut co bn lp vt l
Bng tn hot ng
Xc jnh ti l phn tch (hin ti s dng ph bin 2 loi l 1:32 v
1:64)
m bo cu li gi OLT v ONU/ONT trong gii hn cho php
(<20km)



Gigabit PON (GPON)
1.H thng GPON
G-PON l giao thc FSAN TDMA PON th 2 c nh ngha trong chui
khuyn ngh G.984 ca ITU-T. G-PON c xy dng trn tri nghim ca B-PON
v E-PON.
GPON vit tt ca t Gigabit Passive Optical Network. GPON l s pht trin
ca APON/BPON n hot ng tc ln ti hng Gbps v c chun ha
thnh ITU-T G.984. GPON khng ph thuc vo ATM, GPON s dng lp con
truyn dn hi t (GTC- GPON Transmission Convergence), khung GTC c th ng
gi cc cell ATM. Khng ging nh APON/BPON, khung GTC c th ng gi trc
tip cc gi d liu thng qua phng php ng gi GPON (GEM- GPON
Encapsulation Method). Phn ti khung GTC cha c ATM v GEM.
Mc d G-PON h tr truyn ti tin ATM, nhng n cng a vo mt c ch
thch nghi ti tin mi m c ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet c gi
l phng thc ng gi G-PON (G-PON Encapsulation Method - GEM). GEM l
phng thc da trn th tc ng khung chung trong khuyn ngh G.701, ngoi tr
vic GEM ti u ha t mo u phc v cho ng dng ca PON, cho php sp
xp cc d liu Ethernet vo ti tin GEM v h tr sp xp TDM.
G-PON s dng cu trc khung GTC (G-PON Transmission Conversion) cho
c hai hng xung v hng ln. Khung hng xung bt u vi mt t mo u
PLOAM, tip sau l vng ti tin GEM hoc cc t bo ATM.
PLOAM gm c thng tin cu trc khung v sp t bng thng cho
ONT/ONU gi d liu trong khung hng ln tip theo.
Khung hng ln bao gm cc nhm khung gi t cc ONT. Mi mt nhm
c bt u vi t mo u lp vt l m c chc nng tng t trong B-PON,
nhng cng bao hm tng hp cc yu cu bng thng ca cc ONT. Cc yu cu
bng thng chi tit hn c gi i km vi cc nhm hng ln khi c yu cu t
OLT.
OLT gn cc thi gian cho vic gi d liu hng ln t cho mi ONT/ONU.
Ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet bng phng thc GEM (GPON
encapsulation method).
S dng cu trc khung GTC (GPON tranmission coversion) cho c hai
hng ln v xung.

Hnh 2.1: Lp con truyn dn hi t
2. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON
2.1 Chc nng ca GTC
Chc nng chnh ca lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC- GPON
Transmission Convergence) l cung cp ghp knh vn chuyn gia OLT v ONU.
Cc chc nng khc bao gm:
Thch nghi vi giao thc tn hiu lp con, cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v
bo dng lp vt l PLOAM, giao din phn phi bng tn ng, sp xp v ng k
ONU, sa li (mc nh), mt m lung d liu hng xung (mc nh) v knh
thng tin cho giao din qun l v iu khin ONT/ONU.
H thng GTC cung cp iu khin a truy nhp cho lu lng hng ln.
Trong khi nim c bn, cc khung hng xung ch th vng c php truyn lu
lng ln trong khung hng ln ng b vi khung hng xung.


Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on Passive
Optical Networks (PON), 2005.
Hnh 2.2 : Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON
Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON c m t Hnh 2.2 OLT gi
cc con tr trong khi iu khin vt l PCBd, cc con tr ny ch th thi gian bt u
v kt thc m mi container truyn dn (T-CONT) c th dng truyn d liu
hng ln. Bng cch ny, ch c mt ONU truy nhp mng ti bt k thi im no
khng c s tranh chp trong hot ng bnh thng. Cc con tr c a vo cc
khi byte, cho php OLT iu khin mi trng mng vi tc 64 kbps. Tuy nhin,
chun cho php nh khai thc dch v thm cc tc ln hn.
2.2 Tc bit ca GPON
Khi tc bit tng ln n hng gigabit th cn c b pht cng sut cao v do
dn n l cng cn c b thu c nhy cao hn. iu ny c th c khc phc
bng cch s dng c ch cn bng cng sut. C ch cn bng cng sut h tr cho
vic iu chnh cc mc cng sut ca ONU lm gim vng chnh lch cng sut
nhn c OLT. Mt ONU gn OLT th suy hao thp, S khi to nh hn cng
sut ONU xa.
Bng 2.1: Lit k tc bit trong GPON


3 Khung truyn dn GPON
3.1 Cu trc khung hng xung
Mi khung hng xung GTC di 125 s c tc khung l 1.24416 Gbit/s
v 2.48832 Gbit/s, cha khi iu khin vt l (PCBd- downstream Physical Control
Block) v phn ti c m t hnh 2.3
Header ca khi iu khin vt l bao gm phn c nh v phn c th thay
i. Phn c nh cha vng ng b vt l, vng ID v vng PLOAM. Phn c th
thay i bao gm chiu di ti hng xung (Plend-Payload length downstream) v
b nh bng thng hng ln. Chi tit cc vng c m t Hnh 2.4.

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on Passive
Optical Networks (PON), 2005.
Hnh 2.3 : Khung hng xung GTC
a. Vng ng b vt l
Vng ng b vt l c c nh l 4 byte v n bt u mi khi PCBd.
ONU s dng phn ny tm v tr bt u khung. ONU thc hin c ch ng b
nh hnh 2.5. ONU bt u trng thi tm kim. ONU tm ra Psync trong hng i.
Mi ln n tm ra Psync th n s chuyn thnh pre-sync v thit lp b m ci gi tr
l 1. Sau , ONU s tm Psync khc sau chu k 125 s. C mi Psync ng, b m
s tng thm 1. Nu Psync khng ng, ONU s truyn ngc li trng thi tm kim.
Trong trng thi pre-sync, nu b m truyn ng ti M1 th ONU s truyn n
trng thi ng b sync. Mi ln ONU n trng thi sync, ONU biu th n tm ra
cu trc khung hng xung v bt u x l thng tin PCBd. Nu ONU pht hin
vng Psync M2 k tip khng ng, n s biu th l mt khung v tr v trng thi
tm kim.
b. Vng ID
Vng ID c 32 bit trong mt bit dng kim tra li khung FEC hng
xung, mt bit dnh v 30 bit ch th cu trc khung ln hn. B m siu khung
ny c dng cho h thng m ha d liu ca ngi dng v cng c th c dng
cung cp tn hiu tham chiu ng b tc thp. 30 bit ca vng ID dng m
v mi ID ca khung s ln hn khung trc . Bt c khi no b m tng ti gi
tr ti a th n s quay v 0 cho khung tip theo.
c. Vng qun l, vn hnh v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM
Vng PLOAM c 13 byte trong khi iu khin vt l, n cha cc bn tin
OAM lp vt l. Hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM lin quan n cc cnh bo
gy ra bi cc s kin c truyn qua cc bn tin trong vng PLOAM 13 byte. Tt c
kch hot u lin quan n bn tin c nh x trong vng PLOAM.
ONU ID nh a ch cho mi ONU ring. Trong lc sp xp, ONU s c
gn mt s gi l ONU ID. S ny c gi tr t 0 n 253. Lc cha c sp xp
vng ny c gi tr l 0xFF qung b cho tt c ONU.
Bn tin ID ch th loi bn tin.
D liu c dng cho phn ti ca bn tin truyn dn hi t GPON GTC.
CRC dng kim tra li khung.
d. Vng BIP
Vng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn i,
u thu cng tnh s bit c chn vo l chn hay l, sau so snh vi kt qu ca
BIP c truyn o s li trn ng link.
e. Vng chiu di ti hng xung
Vng chiu di ti hng xung (Plend) ch nh chiu di b nh bng
thng v phn dnh ring cho ATM trong container truyn dn. Vng ny c gi 2
ln. Trong 12 bit u biu din chiu di b nh bng thng. iu ny gii hn s
ID phn b c th c gn ch ln ti 4095. Chiu di phn dnh ring cho ATM
c biu din 12 bit tip theo. iu ny cho php hng ln 4095 cell ATM trong
mt khung v tc ln ti 10 Gbps. 8 bit cui kim tra CRC. u thu ca vng
Plend s thc hin pht hin v sa li.
f. Vng b nh bng thng
Vng b nh bng thng l mt mng c cu trc 8 byte. Mi vng trong
mng ny biu th phn bng thng cho mt container truyn dn ring. Ton b s
vng trong b nh c biu din chiu di ti Plend. Khun dng mi vng c
m t Hnh 3.11.

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on
Passive Optical Networks (PON), 2005.
Hnh 2.4 : M t chi tit khung hng xung GTC
Vng phn b ID cha 12 bit ch th CON-T ring m n c gn thi gian
lung ln ca mng PON. Tip theo l Vng c cha 12 bit ch th cch phn phi
dng (Hnh 2.4 biu din cc chc nng ca 12 bit c) . Tip l Bit 11 gi PLSu
(power levelling sequence upstream): nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin
PLSu trong lc phn b. Nu khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi thng tin
PLSu trong lc phn b. Bit 10 gi PLOAMu: nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi
thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn b. Nu khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi
thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn b. Bit 9 s dng sa li FEC (forward error
correction): nu bit ny c ci t ONU s tnh ton v chn FEC trong lc phn
b. Bit 7 v 8 gi bo co bng thng ng DBRu (Dynamic Bandwidth Report
upstream): ph thuc vo ni dung 2 bit ONU s gi DBRu ph hp vi v tr ID hay
khng. V 00: khng gi DBRu, 01: gi DBRu mode 0 (2 byte), 10: gi DBRu mode
1 (3 byte), 11: gi DBRu mode 2 (5 byte) cui cng l Bit 0-6: dnh.

Hnh 2.5 : C ch trng thi ng b ONU
Vng StartTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian bt u phn b. Thi gian ny
tnh bng byte, bt u khung l 0. iu ny gii hn kch thc ca khung ln l
65,536 byte. iu ny nh a ch cho tc hng ln ti 2.488 Gbps. Thi
gian bt u tr n ni bt u truyn d liu khng bao gm thi gian overhead ca
lp vt l.
Vng StopTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian kt thc phn b. Thi gian ny
c tnh bng byte, bt u khung l 0. Thi gian kt trc tr n byte d liu cui
cng c kt hp vi vic phn b ny.
Vng CRC: cu trc phn b c bo v s dng CRC-8.
g. Vng ti
Vng ti truyn dn hi t c 2 phn: phn dnh ring cho ATM v phn dnh
ring cho GEM.
Phn dnh ring cho ATM: cha 53 cell ATM. Kch thc phn ny c a
vo vng Plend dnh cho ATM. Do vng ny cng c kch thc l bi s 53 byte.
Cc cell hng xung th c lc ONU da vo ch s nhn dng ng o VPI
cha trong mi cell.
Phn dnh ring cho GEM: cha mt s khung GEM phc ha thnh a
khung. Kch thc ca phn dnh ring GEM th bng ton b chiu di khung tr i
khi iu khin PCBd v phn ATM. Khung hng xung c lc ONU da vo
12-bit Port-ID cha trong mi phn on khung.
3.2 Cu trc khung hng ln
Cu trc khung hng ln c biu din Hnh 2.6. Chiu di khung th ging nh
khung hng xung. Mi khung cha mt s truyn dn t mt hay nhiu ONU. B
nh bng thng ch nh vic sp xp truyn dn ny. Mi chu k phn phi phi theo
s iu khin ca OLT, ONU c th truyn mt n bn overhead v d liu ngi
dng. Bn loi overhead l:
Overhead lp vt l (PLOu- Physical layer overhead).
Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l (PLOAMu-Physical layer
operations, administration and management upstream).
San bng cng sut (PLSu- Power levelling sequence upstream).
Bo co bng thng ng (DBRu-Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream).
Hnh 2.7 ch ra chi tit cc overhead. OLT ch th thng qua c trong b nh
bng thng c hay khng thng tin vng PLOAMu, PLSu hay DBRu c gi trn
mi vng phn b. Trng thi ca PLOu th n trong vng sp xp khi phn phi. Quy
lut l mi ln mt ONU chuyn qua mi trng mng PON

.
Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks
(G-PON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004.
Hnh 2.6 : Khung hng ln GTC
a. Vng overhead lp vt l hng ln
Vng overhead lp vt l hung ln gm cc vng l li m u, vng
ranh gii v 3 vng d liu tuong ng vi ONU. duy tr kt ni vi ONU,
OLT s th cp vic truyn ln ca mi ONU trong khong thi gian ti thiu.
Khong thi gian ny uoc xc jnh bi cc thng s djch v ca ONU. OLT
s jnh dng v iu khin li m u v ranh gii trong cc bn tin
overhead. Vng BIP c 8 bit.
Truc khi ONU-D uoc gn, ONU t gi trj khng xc jnh l 255
trong vng ny. OLT c th kim tra vng ny xc nhn ja chi phn b v
truyn ng n ONU. Vng ID cung cp trng thi ONU thi gian thuc bo
co cho OLT. Khi ONU chi ra mt PLOAM khn cp ang oi, OLT s cp
mt vj tr hung ln cho php ONU gi bn tin PLOAM. Thi gian p li s
t hon 5 ms.
b. Vng vn hnh, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu
Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu c 13 byte cha cc
bn tin PLOAM c m t phn PLOAMd.

Ngun: CEDRIC F. LAM , Passive Optical Networks Principles and Practice, October
2007.
Hnh 2.7 : M t chi tit khung hng ln GTC
c.Vng san bng cng sut PLSu
Trnh t san bng cng sut PLSu c kch thc 120 byte, ONU s dng cho
vic o cng sut. Chc nng gip iu chnh mc cng sut ONU. Vng ny c
gi khi c ch th c. C ch iu khin cng sut th c li trong 2 trng hp l khi
to cng sut ban u ca b pht ONU (ch xy ra lc kch hot ONU) v thay i
cng sut ca b pht ONU (xy ra lc hot ng cng nh lc kch hot). PLSu c
th c yu cu bt k thi im no. nhiu trng hp, trong lc kch hot,
OLT c th ci t bit PLSu qung b cho php ONU thit lp b pht. Nu ONU
khng s dng vng PLSu th ONU s khng kch hot b pht. iu ny lm gim s
ng .
d. Vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu
Cu trc DBRu cha thng tin T-CONT. Vng ny uoc gi khi c chi
thj c. Vng DBA cha trng thi luu luong ca T-CONT. Vng 8, 16 hay 32-
bit uoc dng cho mc ch ny. Vng CRC: cu trc DBRu uoc bo v s
dng CRC-8. u thu ca DBRu s thuc hin pht hin v sa li CRC-8.
Nu CRC chi thj rng li khng th sa uoc th thng tin trong DBRu s bj
loi b.
e. Phn ti
Phn ti a ln c th l cell ATM, khung GEM hay bo co DBA.
Phn ti ATM hng ln c 53 byte. Chiu di ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu
di overhead c yu cu. OLT sp xp cc con tr phn ti ATM lun l 53
bytes. Nu ti khng 53 bytes th n s n thm cho 53 byte, cc cell ATM
hng ln c trnh by nh Hnh 3.15.

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-
PON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004
Hnh 2.8 : Cc cell ATM hng ln
Phn ti hng ln GEM cha mt s khung GEM (Hnh 3.16). Chiu di ca
phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu di overhead c yu cu.
Phn ti hng ln DBA cha bo co phn b bng thng ng t ONU nh
trong Hnh 3.17. Bo co bng thng ng u tin c xp hng cc byte u tin
ti v tr bt u phn b, tt c bo co th lin tip nhau. Nu chiu di phn b
khng khp vi ton b chiu di bo co th ONU s b bt phn cui ca bo co
hay m thm cc bit 0 phn cui nu khng . Ch rng ONU phi phn hi
vic phn b ti DBA thm ch nu mode ny ca DBA khng h tr th n vn duy
tr phn ti ny.


Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-
PON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004
Hnh 2.9 Cc khung GEM hng ln

Ngun: ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-
PON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004
Hnh 2.10 : Bo co DBA hng ln
3.3. Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON
Phng php c bn nht ca phn phi bng thng hng ln l phn b
bng nhau gia cc ONU. Phng php ny khng hiu qu. c bit l lu lng gi
bi nhu cu bng thng ca cc ONU th t khi bng nhau ti mi thi im. Vic tn
dng ton b bng thng c th c thc hin nu bng thng hng ln c phn
phi ng ty theo nhu cu ca ONU. Trong khi ITU-T khng quy nh thut ton
DBA, G.983.4 quy nh khung v c ch thc hin DBA trong h thng BPON v
GPON. G.983.4 quy nh 2 c ch gn bng tn ng nh sau:
Vi phng php u tin, ONU ng vai tr l b ng, OLT gim st bng
thng ca mi ONU c s dng da trn s cell ATM nhn ri v khung GEM
nhn ri m n nhn trong khung GTC hng ln. V l do ny, phng php ny
c coi nh l iu chnh cell nhn ri. Phng php ny cn c gi l bo co
khng trng thi. C nhiu bng thng hn c gn cho ONU nu vic tn dng
bng thng vt qu ngng quy nh. Thun li ca phng php ny l lm n
gin ha ONU v trnh vic s dng bng thng hng ln cho vic bo co nhu cu
bng thng.
Vi phng php th 2, ONU bo co trng thi b m n OLT. Do vy, n
c gi l bo co trng thi b m hay bo co trng thi SR (Status Reporting).
Ch th nhu cu bng thng trong loi T-CONT c truyn trong vng overhead lp
vt l c th hn l vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu. OLT s dng thng tin bo
co trng thi quyt nh phn b bng thng ph hp cho mi v tr ID.
4. Bo mt
Trong h thng PON th hng xung, d liu c truyn broadcast n tt
c ONU. Mi ONU ch c th truy cp d liu ca mnh, nhng nu ngi dng no
c nh ph hoi th c th gi ONU ca ngi dng khc truy cp d liu, h
thng bo mt PON s ngn chn vic ny. Ging nh cc mng khc, GPON s dng
th tc mt m ngn nga vic nghe trm cc tn hiu khng mong mun. Khng
ging nh truy cp wireless hay modem, trong mng PON, bt k ONU no cng
khng th thy c lu lng hng ln ca ONU khc. iu ny cho php lm n
gin ha th tc mt m. u tin l ch cn mt m hng truyn xung ca d
liu. Th 2 l d liu hng ln c th truyn kha mt m. GPON s dng chun mt
m AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). l mt khi mt m m n hot ng
trn mt khi d liu 16 byte (128 bit). c bit ch m c s dng. Khi mt
m gi ngu nhin 16 byte c pht ra v XOR vi d liu ng vo to ra d liu
mt m OLT. ONU, d liu c mt m ny th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin
16 byte tng t nh OLT to li d liu ban u. Vi ATM ch c 48 byte c
mt m, vi GEM ch c phn ti GEM c mt m. OLT khi to vic trao i
kha bng vic gi bn tin n ONU thng qua knh PLOAM. Sau ONU s chu
trch nhim to ra kha v pht ngc tr v OLT.