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Ngy nay ta ang sng trong mt th gii ca thng tin,vn giao tip gia con

ngi ngy cng tr nn thun li hn v hon ho hn nh vo cc h thng truyn tin


a dng nh h thng thng tin v tuyn hay h thng thng tin hu tuyn.Cc h thng
ny thc s l phng tin hu ch v n c kh nng ni lin mi ni trn th gii
vt qucr khi nim v khng gian v thi gian gip con ngi gn gi nhau hn mc
d qung ng th xa vn dm,gip con ngi cm nhn c cuc sng hin ti ca
th gii xung quanh xy ra m khng phi i xa thng qua cc phng tin truyn thng
nh in thoi hay truyn hnh quc t.
V vy v tinh s l phng tin truyn dn cc k hiu qu trong vic truyn cc
thng tin ni trn gia cc quc gia trn ton th gii .V tinh c nhiu loi phc v cho

nhiu mc ch khc nhau mi loi s c cu to v gi thnh khc nhau.


Chnh v li ch ca v tinh cc tp on vin thng ln trong nc v th gii
lun lun theo ui nhng chng trnh v tinh chnh thng v vinasat 1 l mt v tinh
m nc ta theo ui sut hn 10 nm tri mi phng thnh cng vo nm 2008 .Vi
nhng yu cu bc thit ca vic pht trin ngnh cng nghip v tr i vi Vitnam
vic tm hiu v thng tin trong gii sinh vin i vi cc nghnh cng ngh l vic cc
k quan trng. Trong ti ny nhm sinh vin chng ti mun a cc bn tip xc
n cc vn lien quan ca ch yu l khi qut v v tinh .Vic nghin cu su v k
th cn phi c s nghin cu su v k hn na .V vy trong ti ny c iu g thiu
st mong thy v cc bn gp nhm ti c th hon thnh ti ny mt cch tt
hn v lm ti liu cho cc kha sau tham kho
Trn trng cm n
Nhm 3

THNG TIN V TINH

MC LC
A.

THNG TIN V TINH ........................................................... 4

I. Sng v tuyn in ....................................................................................................4


1. Khi nim ..............................................................................................................4
1.1 Sng b mt .....................................................................................................4
1.2 Sng khng gian..............................................................................................5
2. Cc nhn t nh hng n s truyn lan sng v tuyn .....................................5
2.1 Suy hao khi truyn lan trong khng gian t do ..............................................5
2.2 nh hng ca pha inh v ma ...................................................................5
2.3 S can nhiu ca sng v tuyn ......................................................................6
2.4 Suy hao do tng i lu ..................................................................................7
2.5 Suy hao do tng in ly ...................................................................................7
II. Phn b tn s cho cc h thng thng tin v tinh ................................................7
III. Cc h thng thng tin v tinh ..............................................................................9
IV. a truy cp trong thng tin v tinh .....................................................................10
1. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) ...................................................10
2. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) ...........................................................10
3 .CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access ............................................................11
V. Phn cc sng ........................................................................................................13
1. Sng phn cc tuyn tnh ....................................................................................13
2. Sng phn cc trn ..............................................................................................14
VI. Anten trong h thng thng tin v tinh ...............................................................16
1. Cc loi vng ph sng .......................................................................................16
2. Anten trn v tinh ................................................................................................17
2.1 Anten loa .........................................................................................................17

NHM 3

Trang 1

THNG TIN V TINH


2.2 Anten c nhiu bp sng (multibeam antenna) ............................................18
3. Cc loi anten trn mt t ..................................................................................20
3.1 Anten Parabol ...............................................................................................20
3.2 Cc Anten vi b phn phn x kp .............................................................21
3.3 Anten dn ........................................................................................................2
VII. Phn loi h thng thng tin v tinh theo qu o ...........................................23
1.V tinh qu o a tnh (Geostationary orbit) ..................................................24
2. V tinh qu o thp (Low Earth Orbit) ...........................................................26

B. PHN CNG CA V TINH .............................................. 29


I. H thng kim sot v tr v nh v v tinh (attitude determination and control
system ADCS)..............................................................................................................29
II. H thng my tnh v tinh .....................................................................................30
III. H thng in .......................................................................................................30
IV. H thng truyn thng .........................................................................................31
V. H thng khung c hc .........................................................................................32
VI. H thng cn bng nhiT ....................................................................................33

C. TRM MT T .................................................................. 34
I. Cu hnh chung ca trm mt t .............................................................................34
1. Cu hnh v chc nng ca trm mt t .......................................................34
2. Cc cng ngh quan trng vi trm mt t ...................................................35
II. Cng ngh my pht .................................................................................................35
1 My pht cng sut cao ....................................................................................35
2. Phn loi cc b khuch i cng sut ............................................................36
3. Mo dng xuyn iu ch ................................................................................37
4. Cu hnh d phng cho b khuch i cng sut cao .....................................37
III. Cng ngh my thu ..................................................................................................38
1.B khuch i nhiu thp LNA ..........................................................................38

NHM 3

Trang 2

THNG TIN V TINH


1. H s tp m ...........................................................................................................39
2. Cc loi khuch i nhiu thp ..............................................................................39
3. Cu hnh d phng cho b khuch i tp m thp ...............................................40
IV. B chuyn i nng tn v h tn .......................................................................41
1. Qu trnh chuyn i nng tn ...............................................................................41
2. Qu trnh chuyn i h tn ...................................................................................42
V. H thng bm ui v tinh ..................................................................................43
1. S cn thit ca h thng iu khin anten bm v tinh ........................................43
2. nh hng cho anten ............................................................................................43
3. H thng bm ui v tinh .....................................................................................45

D.

CC NG DNG CA THNG TIN V TINH48

1. Dch v Internet qua v tinh ....................................................................................48


2. Bng rng ................................................................................................................49
3. VoIP ........................................................................................................................49
4. PSTN .......................................................................................................................50
5. Mng doanh nghip .................................................................................................50
6. Truyn hnh v tinh ................................................................................................ 50
7. Thng tin di ng qua v tinh .................................................................................51

KT LUN ...................................................................................................... 52

NHM 3

Trang 3

THNG TIN V TINH

A.THNG TIN V TINH


I. SNG V TUYN IN
Khi nim:

1.

Sng v tuyn l sng in t c tn s t


30KHz n 300GHz v c chia ra cc bng tn LF,
HF, VHF, UHF v bng tn cao dng cho thng tin v
tinh.
C hai loi sng v tuyn l sng dc v sng
ngang:
- Sng dc l sng lan truyn

theo phng

chuyn ng ca n (tiu biu nh sng m thanh


lan truyn trong khng kh).
- Sng ngang l sng in t c vect cng
in trng v t trng vung gc vi nhau v
vung gc vi phng truyn sng.
Cc sng v tuyn c th c truyn t
anten pht n anten thu bng hai ng chnh: bng
sng b mt v sng khng gian.
1.1.

Sng b mt

Khi sng v tuyn lan truyn dc theo b mt


tri t, th nng lng truyn dn b tiu hao. Mc

3 tng kh quyn:
+ Tng i lu:cch mt t
khong 10-15km. Tng ny
thch hp cho vic truyn sng
ngn.
+ Tng bnh lu: l lp kh
quyn nm trong min t tng
i lu ln n cao khong
60km, tng ny c mt phn
t kh thp, chit sut kh lm
khc x tia sng. Do vy rt
thch hp cho victruyn sng
cc ngn.
+ Tng in ly: cao 602000km, min ny hpth nhiu
tia t ngoi c nng lng ln,
cc tia ny c tc dng phn ly
cc phn tkh thnh cc ion t
do, mt phn t kh gim
thp. Khi tia sng c pht ln
gn tng in ly th cng b phn
x b cong v quay tr li mt
tdo vy rt thch hp cho vic
truyn sng ngn.

tiu hao ny ph thuc vo hng s in dn v in


mi hiu dng ca t. tng t nh khi sng i dc theo ng dy. Khi tn s sng

NHM 3

Trang 4

THNG TIN V TINH


trn 30MHz t c tc dng nh mt dy dn km gy tiu hao ln. Do ,
trong thc t khi truyn sng trn mt t ngi ta thng chn sng c tn s
thp.
1.2.

Sng khng gian


L mt loi sng quan trng trong thng tin (VHF,UHF v SHF). Nng

lng truyn ca sng khng gian t anten pht n anten thu theo ba ng
truyn tng ng vi sng trc tip, sng phn x t mt t v sng phn x t
tng i lu.
+ Sng trc tip: L sng truyn trc tip t anten pht n anten thu
khng b phn x trn ng truyn. Trong iu kin truyn lan bnh thng,
suy hao l t nht so vi cc song khc.
+ Sng phn x t: Sng ny n anten thu sau lc phn x mt vi ln t
mt t hoc t cc vt th xung quanh. Sng phn x ti anten thu c bin v
pha khc vi bin v pha ca sng trc tip, lm tn hiu thu khng n nh gy
ra s suy hao ph thuc vo bin ca sng phn x.
+ Sng phn x tng i lu: Do thay i ch s khc x ca khng kh,
nn sng c th b phn x, tu theo gc sng ti c th xy ra phn x ton phn
t tng i lu. Trong trng hp ny xut hin mt bin gii c tc dng ging
nh mt b mt phn x, gi sng tr li mt t. Mt s tia ny s n anten thu,
c th lm suy gim sng trc tip do s thay i pha v bin gy ra. Sng
truyn theo tng i lu c th lan rng n 10 dm (khong 15km).
2.

Cc nhn t nh hng n s truyn lan sng v tuyn:

2.1.

Suy hao khi truyn lan trong khng gian t do

Khong khng m trong cc sng truyn lan b suy hao c gi l


khng gian t do. Mc suy hao ca sng v tuyn t l thun vi khong cch
gia hai anten v t l nghch vi di bc song.

NHM 3

Trang 5

THNG TIN V TINH


L0 = 20log(

) [dB]

d khong cch truyn dn v bc sng ca sng v tuyn.


2.2.

nh hng ca pha inh v ma

Pha inh l s thay i cng tn hiu sng mang cao tn thu c do s thay
i kh quyn v phn x t, nc trong ng truyn sng.
Thc t cho thy nh hng do ma v pha inh nhiu tia l nhng nh hng lan
truyn, ch yu i vi cc tuyn v tuyn lm vic trong di tn GHz v c tm nhn
thng trn mt t. V chng quyt nh cc tn hao truyn dn v do quyt nh
khong cch lp cng vi ton b gi thnh ca mt h v tuyn chuyn tip.
Pha inh nhiu tia tng khi di ca tuyn tng tuy nhin n khng ph thuc
nhiu vo tn s. Cn tiu hao do ma tng ln khi tn s tng.
Vy i vi cc ng truyn di v c tn s hot ng thp th pha inh nhiu
tia l nh hng chnh. Cn i vi cc tuyn ngn v c tn s hot ng cao hn th
tiu hao do ma l nh hng ch yu.
Suy hao dB/km
6
GHz

1
0GHz

2
0GHz

Ma va 0,25mm/h

0GHz
0,

Ma ln 5mm/h
Bo 50mm/h

0
,012

Bo ln 150mm/h

0,

,22

1,

45

1,
5

5,

2
1

07
0,

08
0

,2

013

0,

5,

1
3

5
8

2
7

Kt qu thc nghim v suy hao do hi nc v kh hu theo

NHM 3

Trang 6

THNG TIN V TINH


tn s sng v tuyn ca Alcatel.
2.3.

S can nhiu ca sng v tuyn

Thng thng nhiu xy ra khi c thnh phn can nhiu bn ngoi trn ln
vo sng thng tin. Sng can nhiu c th trng hoc khng trng tn s vi sng
thng tin. Chng hn h thng Vi ba s ang s dng b nh hng bi s can
nhiu t cc h thng vi ba s ln cn nm trong cng khu vc, c tn s sng v
tuyn trng hoc gn bng tn s ca h thng ny, ngoi ra n cn b nh hng
bi cc trm mt t ca cc h thng thng tin v tinh ln cn.
2.4.

Suy hao do tng i lu

Tng i lu l lp kh quyn nm st mt t ln n cao 10-15Km


.Suy hao ny ph thuc nhiu vo tn s v gc ngng ca anten v ch ng k
khi tn s cng tc t 10GHZ tr ln.ngha l khi cng tc bng KU (14/12Ghz)
hay bng KA (30/20 Ghz) .anten c gc ngng cng ln th suy hao tn i lu
cng nh .Do ng truyn ca sng trong tn i lu cng ngn.

2.5.

Suy hao do tng in ly

Tng in ly l lp kh quyn nm cao khong 60Km n 2000Km ,do


b ion ha mnh nn lp kh quyn cao ny ch yu l cc in t t do ,cc
ion m v dng nn c gi l tng in ly.s hp th song trong tng in ly
gim khi tng s tng, tn s trn 600MHz th s hp th khng ng k.
II.

PHN B TN S CHO CC H THNG THNG TIN V

TINH
Phn b tn c thc hin di s bo tr ca Lin on vin thong quc
t (ITU). tin cho vic quy hoch tn s, ton th gii c chia thnh ba vng:
o

Vng 1: Chu u, Chu Phi, Lin x c v Mng C

Vng 2: Bc M, Nam M v o Xanh

NHM 3

Trang 7

THNG TIN V TINH


o

Vng 3: Chu (tr vng 1), c v Ty nam Thi Bnh Dng

Cc dch v do v tinh cung cp bao gm:

Cc dch v v tinh c nh (FSS): Cung cp cc ng truyn cho cc

mng in thoi hin c cng nh cc tn hiu truyn hnh cho cc hng TV cp phn
phi trn cc h thng cp.

Cc dch v v tinh qung b (BSS): Ch yu pht qung b trc tip n

gia nh, gi l dch v trc tip n nh (DTH: direct to home).

Cc dch v v tinh di ng (MSS): Di ng mt t, di ng trn bin v di

ng trn my bay.

Cc dch v v tinh o hng:Cc h thng nh v ton cu.

Cc dch v v tinh kh tng: thng cung cp c dch v tm kim v cu

h.
K hiu bng
Di tn, GHz

NHM 3

tn

0,1-0,3

VHF

0,3-1,0

UHF

1,0-2,0

2,0-4,0

4,0-8,0

8,0-12,0

12,0-18,0

Ku

18,0-27,0

27,0-40,0

Ka

40,0-75

75-110

110-300

mm

300-3000

Trang 8

THNG TIN V TINH


Cc k hiu bng tn
Ty vo dch v cung cp ca h thng v tinh m ngi ta s dng nhng
bng tn khc nhau cho vic truyn dn.
+ Bng Ku l bng hin nay c s dng cho cc v tinh qung b trc
tip v n cng c s dng cho mt s dch v v tinh c nh. i vi dch v
qung b trc tip trong bng Ku, di thng c s dng l vo khong t 12
n 14 GHz v c k hiu l 14/12 GHz.
+ Bng C c s dng cho cc dch v v tinh c nh v cc dch v
qung b trc tip khng c s dng bng ny. i vi cc dch v v tinh c
nh trong bng C, phn bng c s dng rng ri nht l vo khong t 4 n
6 GHz. Hu nh cc tn s cao hn c s dng cho ng ln v thng bng
C c k hiu l 6/4 GHz trong con s vit trc l tn s ng ln.
+ Bng VHF c s dng cho mt s dch v di ng v o hng v
truyn s liu t cc v tinh thi tit.
+ Bng L c s dng cho cc dch v di ng v cc h thng o hng.

III.

CC H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

INTELSAT (International Telecommunications Satellite) l mt t chc


c thnh lp vo nm 1964 bao gm 140 nc thnh vin v c u t bi 40
t chc. Cc h thng v tinh INTELSAT u s dng qu o a tnh.
H thng v tinh INTELSAT ph ba vng chnh:
-

i Ty Dng (AOR: Atlanthic Ocean Region).

n Dng (IOR: Indian Ocean Region.

Thi Bnh Dng (POR: Pacific Ocean Region).

INMARSAT c sng lp vo nm 1979 phc v cho nhng ngi i


bin, vi mc ch theo di qun l tu thuyn v cung cp cc ng dng ng cu

NHM 3

Trang 9

THNG TIN V TINH


v tiu khin ngoi khi qua v tinh. Cc dch v mang tnh thng mi bt u vo nm
1982, v k t , mt lot cc dch v phn phi ca Inmarsat bnh trng nhm thu
tm cc khu vc th trng trn t lin v hng khng.
n nhng nm u ca thp k 90, Inmarsat c 64 nc thnh vin. Vo thng 4
nm 1999, Inmarsat tr thnh mt cng ty trch nhim hu hn c tr s chnh t ti
Lun n. H thng Inmarsat c vng ph nh Intelsat

IV.

A TRUY CP TRONG THNG TIN V TINH

K thut s dng mt v tinh chung cho nhiu trm mt t v vic tng hiu qu
s dng ca n ti cc i gi l a truy cp. (a truy cp l phng php dng mt b
pht p trn v tinh, chung cho nhiu trm mt t).
Yu cu i vi a truy cp: khng nhiu gia cc trm mt t. V vy phi
phn chia tn s, cc khe thi gian mt cch thch hp cho tng trm mt t.
a truy cp c th phn ra 3 dng nh sau: (theo quan im sng mang)
1.

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access):

L loi a truy cp c dng ph bin nht trong thng tin v tinh. Cc chm mt
t pht i cc song mang vi tn s khc nhau vi cc bng tn bo v thch hp sao cho
cc bng tn khng chng ln ln nhau.
u im:khng cn ng b gia trm thu-pht.
Nhc im: cha tn dng trit di tn (nhng khong bo v khng dng
truyn tin) do FDMA ch thch hp cho cc h thng c bng tn c cp pht rng
nh thng tin v tinh.
2.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access):

Mt khung TDMA c chia ta theo thi gian, sao cho mi trm mt t pht i
tn s sng mang nh nhau trong mt khe thi gian c phn trong mt chu k thi
gian nht nh.

NHM 3

Trang 10

THNG TIN V TINH


Yu cu TDMA sng mang pht i t mi trm mt t cn phi c
iu khin chnh xc sao cho sng mang ca chng nm trong khong thi gian
c phn phi bng cch:
+ Truyn tn hiu mt cch gin on.
+ D phng mt khong thi gian bo v gia cc i pht gin on sao
cho chng khng b chng ln ln nhau.
V vy phi c mt trm chun pht i tn hiu chun.
TDMA thch hp cho vic truyn thoi.
u im:so vi FDMA th TDMA s dng trit hn di tn s cp pht
(ton b di tn u c s dng).
Nhc im:

Yu cu cao v tnh ng b gia trm thu pht => khng thch hp

cho h thng thng tin v tinh.

Cn khong thi gian bo v nht nh khng dng truyn tin =>

gim tc truyn ti.

3.

NHM 3

CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access:

Trang 11

THNG TIN V TINH


L mt phng php a truy cp, trong mi trm mt t pht i vi tn s
sng mang nh nhau, nhng sng ny trc c iu ch bng mt mu bit t
bit quy nh cho mi trm mt t trc khi pht tn hiu iu ch.
loi ny ngay c khi c nhiu tn hiu c a vo mt b pht p, ti trm
thu cng c th tch tn hiu cn thu bng mt mu bit c bit gii iu ch.
u im:

Tnh bo mt cao.

Do cc ngun pht dng chung bng tn, v ng thi c th pht cng thi

im vi nhau nn tn dng ti a ti nguyn v thi gian v tn s => nng cao dung


lng h thng.
Nhc im: x l tn hiu phc tp.
* Nu xt a truy cp theo quan im phn phi knh th TDMA c th c chia
ra lm hai loi l a truy cp phn phi trc v a truy cp phn phi theo yu cu.
+ TDMA phn phi trc: l phng php truy cp trong cc knh c phn
b c nh sn, bt chp c hay khng cc cuc gi pht i.
+ TDMA phn b theo nhu cu: l phng php truy cp trong cc knh v tinh
c sp xp li mi khi c yu cu thit lp knh c a ra t cc trm mt t c
lin quan.

NHM 3

Trang 12

THNG TIN V TINH

V.

PHN CC SNG

Bng tn ca v tinh vin thng c rng 500MHz, khng phi l v hn


khi yu cu thng tin rt cao, tng dung lng trn h thng thng tin v tinh
ngi ta p dng k thut s dng li tn s v phn cc.
Trng in t ca sng v tuyn in i trong mi trng truyn sng s
dao ng theo mt hng nht nh. Phn cc sng chnh l hng dao ng ca
in trng.
Sng in t c pht ra bi anten c th to ra nhng dng khc nhau nh
hng n s qung b, cc hnh dng ny s ty thuc vo s phn cc ca
anten.. Cn bit s phn cc sng b tr anten v cc b phn thu c thch
hp nhm tip nhn s bin i ca sng in t cha ng lng thng tin truyn
t. C 2 loi phn cc c s dng trong thng tin v tinh: phn cc tuyn tnh
(linear porilazation) v phn cc trn (circular polarization).
1.

NHM 3

Sng phn cc tuyn tnh:

Trang 13

THNG TIN V TINH

Phn cc tuyn tnh, c th theo chiu ngang (phn cc ngang) hoc theo chiu
dc (phn cc dc). Nu theo chiu ngang th vector trng in s nm trn mt mt
phng thng ng, nu theo chiu dc th vector trng in nm trn mt phng nm
ngang.
thu c sng anten thu cng cn phi b tr ging t th ca anten pht, nh
hnh v.

2.

Sng phn cc trn:

Sng phn cc trn l sng khi truyn lan phn cc ca n quay trn.
C th to ra loi sng ny bng cch kt hp hai sng phn cc thng c phn cc
vung gc vi nhau v c gc lch pha l 900.

NHM 3

Trang 14

THNG TIN V TINH


Sng phn cc trn l phn cc phi hay tri ph thuc vo s khc pha
gia cc sng phn cc thng l sm pha hay chm pha.
Phn cc quay theo chiu kim ng h hay ngc kim ng h vi tn s
bng tn s sng mang.
i vi sng phn cc trn: ti ni thu khng cn chnh hng ca loa thu.
Phn minh ha c th hin nh sau:

NHM 3

Trang 15

THNG TIN V TINH


VI.

ANTEN TRONG H THNG THNG TIN V TINH

1.

Cc loi vng ph sng

Khc vi anten trm mt t, anten trn v tinh phi ph sng mt khu vc gi l


vng phc v vi mc cng sut yu cu (thng thng trong vng mt cng sut
khng gim qu 3 dB so vi hng cc i). Nh vy tt c cc trm mt t nm trong
vng ph sng u thu c mc cng sut yu cu khng nh hn mc cc i 3 dB.
Tu theo c im thng tin, loi dch v... m vng ph sng c hnh dng, khu vc ph
sng v do anten s c cu to khc nhau. C bn loi vng ph sng c bn ln mt
t ca anten trn v tinh:

Ph sng ton cu.

NHM 3

Ph sng bn cu.

Trang 16

THNG TIN V TINH

Ph sng vng.
2.

Anten trn v tinh

Cc chc nng chnh ca anten trn v tinh:

Ph sng du (spot footprin).

- La chn sng v tuyn c pht i trong bng tn d cho vi phn cc


cho t cc trm mt t nm trong vng ph sng ca v tinh.
- Thu can nhiu cng nh cng tt.
- Pht sng v tuyn bng tn v phn cc cho ln khu vc quy
nh trn mt t.
- Pht cng sut nh nht ra ngoi vng quy nh.
- Nh anten m cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng (EIRP:
Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power) v h s phm cht thu GR/TS tng ln.
Tu theo dng ph sng, din tch vng ph sng m trn v tinh s dng
cc loi anten khc nhau, c hnh dng, kt cu v phng php tip sng khc
nhau.
2.1.

Anten loa

Anten loa l mt th d v anten mt m vi s chuyn i t t ng dn


sng vo mt m ln hn ghp hiu qu vi khng gian. Cc anten loa c s
dng trc tip lm cc b pht x trn v tinh chiu x cho cc vng rng ln
ca qu t v chng cng c s dng rng ri lm cc chiu x tip sng cho
cc anten phn x c ch pht ln ch thu. Ba kiu c s dng rng ri
nht ca cc anten loa:

NHM 3

Trang 17

THNG TIN V TINH

2.2.

Anten c nhiu bp sng (multibeam antenna).

Cc bp sng c th bng tn v phn cc khc nhau. Dng bp sng quyt nh


bi hnh dng ca mt phn x. Thng c dng ph sng ln mt t l hnh trn.
Loi anten nhiu bp sng n gin v ph bin nht l anten mt phn x c
nhiu b chiu x (multiple feeds).
Anten bc x nhiu bp sng c mt mt phn x v nhiu b chiu x t xung
quanh tiu im. Mi b chiu x s to ra mt bp sng ring r, hoc bi t hp ca
cc b chiu x.
Vng ph sng ca bp sng c quyt nh bi tnh cht tip in cho h thng.
Nu tip in ti u c h s tng ch cc i th cc bp sng s tch bit nhau hn.

NHM 3

Trang 18

THNG TIN V TINH


Anten c bp sng dng c bit c hai loi c s dng cho v tinh thng
tin hin nay:
Loi anten dng nhiu b chiu x.

Loi anten dng mt phn x c dng c bit: Anten ny ch c mt

mt phn x lch m b mt ca n c thit k c bit to ra bp sng c


dng mong mun m ch cn s dng mt b chiu x n. Loi anten ny c
s dng kh ph bin hin nay v n c cc u im:

Ch cn mt b chiu x (khng cn mch to dng bp sng)

Dng mt phn x khng phi l parabol

Tn hao thp

D dng thc hin

t cc b phn ph

n gin trong lp t v th

Trng lng nh

Hiu qu cao

Tiu chun ho khi sn xut bng phn mm ti u

Gim chu trnh thit k

H thng anten in hnh cho v tinh dch v c nh, bp sng c dng c


bit bng C hoc Ku.

b pht p ginh
cho phn cc ng

b pht p ginh cho


phn cc ngang

NHM 3

b chiu x
phn cc
ng

b chiu x
phn cc
ngang

Anten bp sng c bit cho v tinh dch v c nh

mt
phn x
phn cc
ng

mt
phn x
phn cc
ngang

Trang 19

THNG TIN V TINH

Phn cc thng, dng anten mt phn x li kp


B chiu x chung cho thu v pht c b lc phn hng (D: diplexer) theo tn s

Vng ph sng bng C ca vinasat1 gm: Vit Nam, ng Nam , Trung Quc,
Triu Tin, n , Nht Bn v Australia.

3.

Cc loi anten trn mt t

3.1.

Anten Parabol

Cc b phn x parabol c s dng rng ri trong thng tin v tinh nng cao
khuych i anten.
B phn x m bo c ch hi t tp trung nng lng vo mt phng cho
trc. Dng phn x parabol thng c s dng l dng mt m hnh trn. y l dng
thng gp trong cc h thng thu tn hiu TV t v tinh gia nh. Cu hnh mt m trn
c gi l b phn x parabol trn xoay.

NHM 3

Trang 20

THNG TIN V TINH

Tnh cht chnh ca b phn x parabol trn xoay l tnh cht hi t. Ging
nh i vi nh sng trong cc tia khi p ln b phn x s hi t vo mt
im duy nht c gi l tiu im v ngc li khi cc tia c pht i t tiu
im s c phn x thnh cc tia song song.
Khuych i ca an ten parabol c xc nh nh sau:

Trong I c gi l hiu sut chiu x c gi tr t 0,5 n 0,8;


S=D2/4 l din tch vt l ca mt m v S l din tch hiu dng ca mt m.
3.2.

Cc Anten Vi B Phn X Kp

Trong cc anten vi b phn x kp, phi ni loa tip sng n thit b


pht thu phi m bo cng ngn cng tt gim thiu tn hao. iu ny c bit
quan trng i vi cc trm mt t ln khi cn cng sut pht ln v tp m thu
rt nh. H thng mt phn x xt trn khng t c iu ny, v h thng
phn x kp cho php t c iu ny nhng t tin hn. Loa tip sng c
t pha sau b phn x chnh qua mt l hng nh. Lp pha sau cho php t
c cu trc tip sng chc chn, y l mt u im khi cn s dng cc anten

NHM 3

Trang 21

THNG TIN V TINH


cho php quay v vic bo dng cng d hn. B phn x ph c lp pha trc b
phn x chnh ni chung c kch c nh hn loa tip sng v gy ra che ti t hn. C hai
kiu chnh c s dng l anten Cassegrain v Gregorian mang tn ca cc nh thin
vn hc u tin pht trin chng.

3.3.

Anten Dn

Ta c th t c s to hnh bp bng cch s dng dn cc phn t c s. Cc


phn t ny c b tr sao cho cc mu pht x ca chng m bo tng cng pht x
v mt s hng nht nh v loi tr s pht x cc hng khc. Hu ht cc dn
anten s dng trong thng tin v tinh l dn loa.

NHM 3

Trang 22

THNG TIN V TINH

VII.

PHN LOI H H THNG THNG TIN V TINH THEO

QU O
Tu thuc vo cao so vi mt t cc qu o ca v tinh trong h thng
thng tin v tinh c chia thnh:

NHM 3

Trang 23

THNG TIN V TINH


* HEO (Highly Elpitical Orbit): qu o elip cao
* GEO (Geostatinary Earth Orbit): qu o a tnh
* MEO (Medium Earth Orbit): qu o trung
* LEO (Low Earth Orbit): qu o thp.

Ta tm hiu v 2 loi v tinh c ng dng ph bin nht nghin cu:

1.

NHM 3

V tinh qu o a tnh (Geostationary orbit)

Trang 24

THNG TIN V TINH

cc v tinh c th thc hin ph sng cho vng no trn mt t, th


v tinh phi c phng vo v tr v c treo l lng trn mt qu o vng
quanh tri t vi thi gian l 24 gi (bng ng thi gian tri t t quay quanh
n), ng ngha vi vic c v tr ng yn so vi tri t. V th c gi l v
tinh a tnh (Geostationary Satellite).
Vic treo v tinh a tnh nh vy c thc hin theo nh lut Kepler,
m bo 3 iu kin nh sau:

Mt phng tip xc ca qu o v tinh pht song song vi ng

xch o v tinh khng di chuyn lch hng.

Nm trong qu o tri t 35.863 km trn b mt ca cc dc

ng xch o (lm trn 36000km), thot khi lc ht t tri t.

Nu 3 v tinh a tnh c t cc v tr cch u nhau trn xch

o, th c th thit lp thng tin gia cc vng trn qu t bng cch chuyn tip
qua 1 hoc 2 v tinh. Chnh iu ny cho php chng ta xy dng mt mng thng
tin trn ton th gii. Cc v tinh a tnh dng cho truyn thng c trang b
kh nhiu thit b: nhng my o kim tra, h thng pin mt tri (sn xut nng
lng din trn 3000 W), thit b thu tn hiu, iu, khuych i, lc, truyn i v
gi v tri t qua h thng anten v pht.

NHM 3

Trang 25

THNG TIN V TINH


Qu o a gip cho vic b tr nhng anten trn mt t d dng, hiu qu v tit
kim do khng phi u t cc thit b theo di s chuyn ng ca v tinh. c bit l
nhng dch v yu cu s lng ln nhng ng ten mt t nh (truyn hnh trc tip
TV), tit kim chi ph thit b trn mt t c xem hn nhiu ln chi ph a v tinh ln
qu o.

u im:

Vng ph sng ln.

GEO v tinh c mt ci nhn gi 24 ca mt khu vc c th (tnh lin tc).

L tng cung cp a dch v (dch v c nh, qung b, di ng, o

hng, kh tng).

Nhc im:

Vn khong cch khin cho vic giao tip thng tin d b tr, nht l cc

dch v giao tip im im.


Do nm trn ng xch o, nn v tinh GEO

kh trin khai dch v trn cc khu vc gn cc; vic xin cp pht v tr qu o l kh


khn do hn ch ti nguyn qu o.

2.

NHM 3

V tinh qu o thp ((Low Earth Orbit)

Trang 26

THNG TIN V TINH

Ngoi v tinh a tnh cn c v tinh qu o thp ( a low-orbit satellite) l


v tinh m nhn t mt t n c th chuyn ng lin tc, thi gian cn thit
cho v tinh chuyn ng xung quanh qu o ca n khc vi chu k quay ca qu
t. V tinh a tnh c kh nng m bo thng tin n nh lin tc, c nhiu u
im hn v tinh qu o thp v n s dng lm v tinh thng tin
(communication satellite).
c im ca v tinh qu o thp:

Qu o cao: 500 1500km.

Bay mt vng quanh tri t ht 90 pht.

C vng ph sng nh. Ch hin th cho 15 n 20 pht mi vt

Cn nhiu v tinh ph sng ton tri t.

qua.

V cao thp ca n, nhng v tinh ny ch c th nhn thy trong vng


bn kinh 1000 km t im chiu xung ca v tinh. Thm na, nhng v tinh thp
thay i v tr ca chng so vi b mt tri t rt nhanh. V vy cho mt ng dng
ti mt ni, cn s lng ln cc v tinh ny trong kt ni khng b ngt qung.
Vic u t v tinh LEO tt nhin r hn v tinh GEO do tit kim chi ph
phng v tinh v chi ph vn hnh v gn mt t nn khng i hi tn hiu c
cng ln (nh rng cng tn hiu gim t l vi bnh phng khong
cch).

u im:

V tinh LEO gn tri t hn so vi v tinh GEO nn cho tn hiu tt

hn, gim tr v tt cho vic giao tip im im.

NHM 3

Trang 27

THNG TIN V TINH


o

Vng ph sng nh, iu li l mt u im trong vic ti u s dng

bng thng cho mt khu vc.

Nhc im:

trin khai dch v n nh v lin tc trong mt khu vc th vic xy

dng mt mng li cc v tinh LEO l tn km.


o

Phi tnh ton ti hiu ng Doppler do s chuyn ng ca n (Doppler

vic thay i tn s do khong cch).


o

NHM 3

Lc ht tri t khin qu o v tinh LEO c th b thay i.

Trang 28

THNG TIN V TINH


B.

PHN CNG CA V TINH

Mt v tinh l s tng hp ca rt nhiu b phn vi nhng chc nng khc


nhau. Mi mt loi v tinh c chc nng khc nhau s c nhng b phn khc
nhau. Tuy nhin theo mt cch khi qut nht mt v tinh bt k u phi c
nhng phn chung sau:
I.

H thng kim sot v tr v nh v v tinh (attitude

determination and control system ADCS)


y l mt h thng nh hng gip v tinh mt v tr ti u nh iu
chnh v tinh x dch mt khong nht nh xung quanh ta nh trc cng
nh gip v tinh nh hng tri t.
H thng ny gm rt nhiu cm bin nh cm bin anh sng, cm bin gia
tc, cm bin t lc Cc thng s ly t cc cm bin c a n b x l
trung tm, da vo cc thut ton ngi ta c th m phng gn nh chnh xc v
tr ca v tinh trong v tr t a ra cc cc iu chnh thch hp
-

iu chnh nh v tr ta da vo h thng y phn lc. Trn

mi v tinh u cha mt lng nht nh nguyn liu c nn li, khi mun


v tinh xe dch v tr hay chuyn ng ln xung hay sang tri, phi ngi ta cho
m cc van nguyn liu phun ra ngoi t lm v tinh chuyn ng theo
hng ngc li theo nh lut bo ton ng lng
-

iu chnh nh hng tri t, mt tri: vi mong mun cc pin mt

tri c chiu sng mt cch ti a cho cng sut ln nht cng nh m bo


thng tin n trm mt t lun c thng sut trng thi quay ca v tinh s
c iu chnh theo c 3 trc ta . Ngy trc ngi ta dng h thng pht y
nhng do nguyn liu tch tr c hn nn ngi ta thay bng h thng gm 3 mt
vi 3 qu nng t trn 3 trc ta khi mun v tinh xoay theo mt trc no
ngi ta s cung cp in cho mt trn trc .

NHM 3

Trang 29

THNG TIN V TINH


Khi v tinh c a ln v tr n s c mt ta nht nh v c th b quay
hay x dch do qu trnh phng. Khi trm mt t s hng anten v pha ta nh
trc v pht cc lung tn hiu iu chnh v tr, v tinh s ly lung tn hiu lm
chun t iu chnh trng thi mt cch t ng.
II.

H thng my tnh v tinh ( on board computer)

N c coi nh b no ca v tinh gim st v iu khin ton b mi hot ng


ca v tinh. N ly d liu t cc h thng con phn tch v gi kt qu ti trm iu
khin cng nh cc b phn con khc ca v tinh. V d nhit bn trong mt phn con
no c ly mu trong khon thi gian nht nh, s ha v lu tr. Da vo phn
mm phn tch nu c mt gi tr bt thng no n s bo v trm iu khin mt t.
Ngy nay trn cc v tinh hin i h thng my tnh chnh l mt h thng my vi
tnh kt ni trc tip n trm iu khin v c iu khin trc tip t trm. Ngi ta
c th thao tc trc tip trn h thng my tnh ny nh chng ta ang s dng my tnh
nh thng qua cc phn mm iu khin qua mng.
III.

H thng in

m bo cho mi hot ng ca v tinh mt cch n nh v tin cy. Cc pin mt


tri chuyn ha quang nng thnh in nng v c th xc cho cc pin hoc t in nhm
tch tr khi v tinh i vo phn ti ca tri t. N s dng b chuyn i DC/DC nhm
cung cp cho mi phn con vi nhng mc in p khc nhau.
-

Pin mt tri cung cp nng lng chnh bn cnh cn c pin c th xc

li v t in cung cp thm nng ln khi cn bi khng phi lc no pin mt tri


cng hot ng ht cng sut. Vic chn pin n nh v c th s dng lu di l mt
iu ht sc cn thit.
-

Ngun in phi c d tr v m bo cng sut cn thit cho cc h

thng con ng thi khi c s c bt ng xy ra cng phi m bo c th cung cp


ngun khi ng h thng cng nh sa cha h thng.

NHM 3

Trang 30

THNG TIN V TINH


Tt c cc ngun in c kim sot c v dng v in p bng

cc vi mch s. Cc mch iu khin c kh nng tng gim c v p ln dng v


c lp thit b khi c li. Bn cnh n cng thu thp cc thng s v cng sut,
dng in, in p v gi v b x l trung tm so snh v tm ra cc gi tr
bt thng.
IV.

H thng truyn thng: Gm cc mch iu ch, anten thu pht

v cc modem k thut s
Anten truyn tn hiu t v tinh n trm mt t v thu cc tn hiu

t trm mt t. Thng tin c x l v iu ch ri a ra anten, nhim v ca


anten v bin cc tn hiu trn thnh sng in t thng qua c ch ca mch dao
ng in t i vi anten pht v ngc li vi anten thu. Anten s la chn cc
sng v tuyn trong bng tn cho t cc trm mt t nm trong vng ph sng
ca v tinh. Nh c anten m cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng (EIRP :
Equivalent isotropic radiated power) v h s phm cht thu GR/TS tng ln. Ty
theo vng ph sng cng nh cht lng yu cu m s c kh nhiu loi anten
khc nhau.
Yu cu chnh ca thit b an ten cho mt h thng v tuyn l c
suy hao truyn dn nh v kinh t (hiu sut bc x an ten cao), h s khuch i
ln.
Anten YAGI c s dng cho tn s 400MHz - 900MHz.
Anten Parabol c s dng cho tn s t 1GHz n 60GHz, b phn
phn x c ch to bng kim loi hoc nha c ph mt lp kim loi mng
mt lm ca an ten. Khi tn s nh hn 4GHz b phn phn x c th c ch to
bng vic ph kim loi trn cc thanh mng lm gim trng lng anten v lm
cho gi lt xuyn.

NHM 3

Trang 31

THNG TIN V TINH

li ca an ten theo hiu sut v tn s (s liu ca hng Alcatel)

Cc modem gip truyn cc tn hiu k thut s t v tinh n trm mt t.

Ni chung modem c cng vic chnh l chuyn giao tn hiu t s sang tng t nh
cc mch iu ch v gii iu ch v ngc li cng thm vic m ha bo mt d
liu.
V.

H thng khung c hc

Gip nng cng nh kt gn cc b phn ca v tinh. Cht liu c s dng l


hp kim nhm dng cho ngnh hng khng v tr. Hp kim nhm ngoi bn c hc
rt cao ( t l bn cao trn cng mt khi lng) v c tnh phn x nh sng v bc x
nhit rt tt. Bn ngoi nhm c lp oxit nhm cc bn khng b h hng nh lp bc m

NHM 3

Trang 32

THNG TIN V TINH


trn cc thit b. Bn cnh mt s b phn cn c ph nhm tng nhit
cho chng nh tnh hp thu bc x mt tri tt v bc x hng ngoi vo ban m
thp.
VI.

H thng cn bng nhit

Mi trng khng gian v tr c nhit rt khc nhit ban ngy nhit


c th ln ti trn 500C v ban m nhit xung -100C l chuyn bnh thng.
Ngoi ra s khc bit nhit ca cc b phn c chiu x v b phan b khut
cng kh ln. Nhit lm nh hng rt ln n cc thit b thm ch cn c th
ph hy chng. Bn cnh cc tia v tr nh tia gama, tia X cng lm nh
hng rt ln n cc thit b nh ph hy, gy nhiu thng tin .... Yu cu t ra
cn bo v v nhit ca cc thit b ng thi hn ch, ngn cn cc tia bc x
v tr. lm c iu ny ngi ta dng v bc bng nhm cho cc thit b.
Nhm khi bay hi trong chn khng c kh nng phn x gn nh ton b cc tia
in t n n. H thng tn nhit bng cht lng cho nhng b phn ta nhit ln
nh nhng b vi x l hay cc transitor cng sut, lng nhit sinh ra c a
n cc b phn c nhit thp hn do b khut, mt phn c a n cc tm
kim loi c bit bin thnh cc tia bc x ta ra ngoi v tr. Khi v tinh i vo
vng ti ca qu o nhit gim xung rt nhanh khi c th cn n b phn
pht nhit bng in duy tr nhit n nh
Ngoi nhng phn c bn trn, ty theo chc nng ca v tinh m chng
cn nhng phn chuyn dng khc: my nh k thut s vi phn gii cc cao,
my chp hnh hng ngoi, my o lng bc x

NHM 3

Trang 33

THNG TIN V TINH

C.

TRM MT T

I.

Cu hnh chung ca trm mt t:

1.

Cu hnh v chc nng ca trm mt t:

Bao gm cc khi chinh: Anten, b HPA, b LNA, cc b bin i tn s

pht thu, b iu ch v gii iu ch, thit b song mang u cui v thit b iu khin
v gim st

.
S khi ca trm mt t
Gm 2 nhnh: pht tnh hiu v thu tnh hiu.
nhnh pht: Tn hiu t thit b truyn dn trn mt t ( chng hn t b ghp
knh) c a n b truy cp v qua b iu ch thnh tn hiu trung tn. Sau
c a n b a truy cp v qua b iu ch thnh tn hiu trung tn.Sau c bin
i thnh tn hiu cao tn nh b i tn ln U/C v c a vo b khuych i cng
sut cao HPA cng sut a ra anten bc x ln v tinh.
nhnh thu: anten trm mt t thu tn hiu t v tinh, sau c my thu
khuch i tp m thp, qua b i tn xung D/C bin thnh trung tn ri c gii

NHM 3

Trang 34

THNG TIN V TINH


iu ch v a n thit b a truy cp, qua thit b gii ghp knh a tn hiu
vo cc knh thng tin ring l.
2.

Cc cng ngh quan trng vi trm mt t

Cng ngh Anten: Yu cu c h s tng t cao, hiu sut cao, biu

d bc x cao, bp song ph nh, c tnh phn cc tt v c tnh nhiu thp.


-

Cng ngh my pht cng sut cao: yu cu c h s khuych i

cng sut cao v c kh nng chngnhieeux xuyn iu ch.


-

Cng ngh my thu nhiu thp: yu cu c tnh nhiu thp v h s

khuch i ln.
-

Cng ngh iu khin ting di: yu cu trit v nn ting di, c

hiu qu truyn dn cao v c kh nng iu khin li.


II.

Cng ngh my pht

1.

My pht cng sut cao

Do t im c li thng tin rt xa, tn hiu b hp thu ln nn yu cu

my pht trm mt t phi c cng sut cao hang tram n hng ngn watt
m bo cho cng sut ca tn s bc x b c tn hao trn ng truyn v t
c cng trng ln v tinh
-

Myas pht cng sut cao c quyt nh bi loi v s song mang,

ni chung c thc hin mt trong hai dng sao:


+ Cc song mang c khuch i bng b HPA chung:

Yu cu b khuych i cng sut mc cao phi c bang thng rng


khuch i cc song mang ca tt c cc knh vi mc song sut ra c d tr

NHM 3

Trang 35

THNG TIN V TINH


ln c th b c tn hao cng sut do mo iu ch pht sinh trong qu trnh
khuch i ng thi cc knh thng tin. Khi s song mang t th cu hnh ny khng
kinh t nhng thun li cho khai thc
+ Mi sng mang c khuych i bng mt b HPA ring
Trong cu hnh ny cc b khuych i i vi mi sng mang cho trc, cu hnh
ny ch thc hp khi h thng c s sng mang t.

Mi sng mang c khuch i bng mt b HPA ring


2.

Phn loi cc b khuch i cng sut

Ty thuc vo cng sut ra ca bng tn v my pht m s dng cc loi nh:


n sng chy(TWT), Klyst(KLY) v tranzitor hiu ng trng
So snh cc b khuch i cng sut mc cao:

NHM 3

Trang 36

THNG TIN V TINH


-

n sng chy(TWT) c bng tn rng c th ph tt c cc bng

tn phn nh cho truyn dn, iu c li cho vic s dng nhiu sng mang
hn
-

Klyston (KLY) c rng bng tng i hp, tn s c th diu

chnh n bt k gi tr no trong khong tn s phn nh cho truyn dn vi h


s khuch i thch hp, thng c th chn t 5 n 10 knh trong b iu hng
-

Tranzitor hiu ng trng c s dng trm c dung lng thp

khi cng sut ra nh, d c cng sut cao th mc song song cc transistor vi nhau
3.

Mo do xuyn iu ch

vng bo ha ca b khuch i cng sut cao in p ra khng t

l vi in p vo nen khi c nhiu sng mang c khuch i ng thi th cc


tn hiu tp m tn s khc c pht sinh. Do , mt s b khuch i cng
sut cao, khi khuch i nhiu sng ng thi, im lm vic ca b khuch i
c chn sao cho mc u ra thp hn mc bo ha khong 6dB n 10dB
trit cc tn hiu tp m, im gi l im li.
-

i vi cc trm mtt t ta dung cc phng php iu khin cng

sut ra trit tiu nhiu xuyn iu ch


-

C mt bin php khc trit nhiu xuyn iu ch, gi l tuyn

tnh ha. Trong trng hp ny ngi ta chn vo tng trc mt mch in vi


c tnh b sung (b) c tuyn khng ng thng ca b khuch i ci thin
tuyn tnh ton b

4.

Cu hnh d phng cho b khuch cng sut cao

Trong v tin tin cy cc k quan trng khi s dng b khuch i

cng sut cao, vic truyn dn b ngng li. V vy phi s dng b d phng
-

NHM 3

Cu hnh c bn nht l cu hnh:

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THNG TIN V TINH

Cu hnh cho b d phng cho b khuch i cng sut cao


Tn hiu ng ra ca b nng tn c chia u bi b chia cng sut a n ng
vo ca HPA1, HPA2.B chuyn i cho php tn hiu ng ra ca HPA1 c pht i,
trong khi tn hiu ng ra ca HPA2 ra ti kt hp. Khi HPA1 b hng, b chuyn
i s t ng chuyn ng ra HPA2 ti b tip sng anten
III.

Cng ngh my thu

1.

B khuch i nhiu thp LNA

trm v tinh mt t b khuch i tp m thp (LNA) ng vai tr quan trng,


v tn hiu nhn c ti u vo anten rt nh do song bc x t v tinh b hp th rt
ln trn ng truyn v c ly truyn dn qu di. B khuch i tp m thp cng cn
phi c rng bng tn ph c khong tn s ca bng tn v tinh. Quy nh ca
Intelsat v tiu chun cc trm v tinh mt t c quyt nh bi: H s phm cht ca
h thng (G/T). (G/T) c nh gi u tin l h s tng ch ca anten, h s tp m v
h s khuch i m thp

B khuch i LNA t cng gn my thu cng tt, ti thiu ha tp m a


va h thng, mc khc phi iu chnh bp sng anten ng vo tm anten

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH


2.

H s tp m

Tp m sinh ra trong 1 my thu thng c biu th bng h s tp m F:


F=(Si/Ni)/(So/No)
Si: l mc tn hiu vo

So: l mc tn hiu ra

Ni: l mc tp m u vo

No: l mc tp m u ra

Trong thng tin v tinh khi lm vic vi cc tn hiu yu th nhit tp m


c thay th cho h s tp m (F)
3.

Cc loi khuch i nhiu thp

C 3 loi khuych i tp m thp :khuych i thng s ,khuych i


dng GaAsFET v HEMT.

Khuych i thng s

Khuych i thng s hot ng nh sau :t tn hiu kch thch ln Diode


bin dung cc thng s mch in ca n thay i v to nn mt in tr m do
khuych i tn hiu vo.V vy s bin i in dung ca diode bin ungo tn
hiu kch thch c dng khuych i ,vic gim in tr ni ca diode bin
dung mc ni tip vi in dung s to ra cc c tnh tp m thp.

Khuych i GaAs-FET

GaAs-FET l Transistor hiu ng trng dng loi bn dn hn hp gia


Gali v Arsenic.c dng rng ri tn s cao vi cc c tnh bng tn rng,h
s khuych i v tin cy cao .Do chng c s dng rng ri cho cc b
khuych i tp m thp.Trong thng tin v tinh cc c tnh tp m thp c ci
thin.u dim ca b khuych i GaAs-FET so vi khuych i thng s:
+Khng c mch to tn hiu kch .
+Bng tn rng , tin cy cao.

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH


+D iu chnh ,ph hp vi sn xut hng lot.
+Thun li bo tr bo dng.

HEMT(Hight Electron Mobility Tranzitor)

Transistor c linh hot in t cao .


+HEMT hot dng da trn hiu ng cht kh in t hai chiu vi linh dng
in t cao v ph hp vi khuych i tp m thp ,tn hiu tn s cao.
-C cu ny s dng tip gip pha trn gia GaAs v AlGaAs.Gi di dn ca
AlGaAs c s sai khc nng lng ,di ny kch thch loi n,cn GaAs khng c kch
thch .V vy hnh thnh lp giu in t trong AlGaAs gn b mt tip gip vi GaAs
khi t mt in trng song song vi lp giu in t ,cc in t chuyn ng vi
linh hot cao v chng khng cha bt k s tn s no do cc nguyn t cho v chng
c phn khng gian bi cc nguyn t cho ca vt liu sinh ra chng .
HEMT c c tnh thp tt hn so vi GaAs FET vi chiu di in t nh nhau
ca cc cng nh linh ng cao.Hiu ng ny c bit tt khi c cu ny c lm
lnh.HEMT c c im ni bt nh c tnh nhiu thp tt hn so vi GaAs-FET,bng
tng rng,kch thc nh,gi thnh thp,d bo dng v thun li cho sn xut hang lot
nn n bt u c s dng rng ri.
Mc d b khuch i ny m bo lm vic bnh thng nhit phng nhng
c khi chng c lm lnh ci thin c tnh m ca chng.
-C hai phng php lm lnh:
+Lm lnh bng kh Heli
+Lm lnh nhit xung -40C
4.

Cu hnh d phng cho b khuch i tp m thp

Cu hnh ph bin nht vn l cu hnh 1:1 c th hin hnh v.Trong

hai b khuych i tp m thp c ni song song bi hai b chuyn mch dung ng


dn sng.Khi LNA hot ng m gp s c th b chuyn mch s t ng chuyn i
kch hot LNA d phng.

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH

IV.

B chuyn i nng tn v h tn

1.

Qu trnh chuyn i nng tn

B chuyn i nng tn nhn song mang trung tn IP thnh tn s RF tuyn


ln trong ph tn tuyn ln ca v tinh bng cch trn tng s fo vi tn s dao
ng ni fe.Bchuyn i c th thc hin theo mt hoc hai qu trnh.
-Xt sng mang IF c dng cos(wot+) v sng mang dao ng ni c
dng: cos(wet),(we>wo)Kt qu l qu trnh trn nh sau:
Cos(wot+)cos(wet)=1/2(cos((we-wo)t-)+cos((we+wo)t+))
Dng b lc ly tn hiu bng tn cao: we+wo.
By gi ta xt hai qu trnh:

NHM 3

Trang 41

THNG TIN V TINH

Qu trnh chuyn i th nht cho kt qu:


Cos(wo+we1)t+)cos(we2t)=1/2[(cos((we2-we1-wo)t-)+cos((we1+we2+wo)t+))]
Qu trnh chuyn i th hai cho kt qu:
Cos(wo+we1)t+)cos(wwe2t)=1/2[(cos((we2-we1-wo)t-)+cos((we1+we2+wo)t+))]
B lc th hai lc ly bin tn: cos((we1+we2+wo)t+)) v v vy:wu=
we1+we2+wo.iu ny c ngha l: we1,we2 chn sao cho we1+we2=wu-wo.Trong qu trnh
chuyn i n.Mun chuyn i wo =>wu.Chng hn,truyn n b pht p khc th
yu cu thay i tn s dao ng ni v thay i trong b lc .iu ny rt bt tin trong
cc trm mt t.
2. Qu trnh chuyn i h tn
-B chuyn i h tn thu sng mang RF c iu ch b khuych i tp
m thp LNA v chuyn tn s v tuyn wd ca n trrong ph tn tuyn xung v tinh
sang tn s trung tn IF
-Qu trnh chuyn i n t c s dng,ta xt qu trnh chuyn kp:

-Xt qu trnh th nht:


Cos(wdt+)cos(we2t)+1/2[(cos((wd-we2)t+)+cos((wd+we2)t+))]
B lc th nht chn ly bang tn thp:cos((wd-we2)t+) v qu trnh chuyn i
th hai c thc hin vi sng mang dao ng ni we1ta c:

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH


Cos((wd-we2t)t+))cos(we1t)=1/2[(cos((wd-we1-we1)t+) v v th:wo=wdwe1-we1 tn s we2 chn m sao cho tha:wd-wo=we1+we2
V.

H thng bm ui v tinh

1. S cn thit ca h thng iu khin anten bm v tinh


-Cc v tinh a tnh trong thc t khng nh tn gi l ng yn.Khi v
tinh trn qu o n b tc ng bi cc thin th khc nh qu t ,mt trng
,mt tri v nhiu hnh tinh khc thuc h mt tri,qu t cng khng phi l trn
tuyt i.Bi vy cc v tinh lun b li ko theo cc hng khc nhau gy ra s
tri dt v tinh trn qu o ca n.Do ,cc trm mt t cn c h thng iu
khin bm ui v tinh sao cho tn hiu thu c lun t c gi tr tt nht .
2. nh hng cho anten
Ba thng s quan trng xc nh ng ta v tinh v hng phn cc
ca n l gc ngng,gc phng v v gc phn cc.Thit b lin quan n ba
thng s ny l anten parabol ,phu thu sng.

Gc ngng(Elevation e)

Gc ngng l gc to bi ng thng ni v tinh vi im thu v tip


tuyn vi mt t ti im thu .Gc ngng ti xch o l gc ln nht v bng
90,cng li v haik cc gc ngng cng nh.

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH


Trong lp t anten ngi ta dng gc b d o c .Gc b l gc to bi b
mt cho khi c ng thng i qua vi mt t .Thc t n c gi l gc nghing

Gc phng v(Azimuth a)

-Gc phng v l gc dn ng cho anten quay tm v tinh trn qu o a tnh


theo hng t ng sang ty.
-Gc phng v c xc nh bi ng thng hng v phng Bc vi ng
ni ti v tinh.Gc c xc nh theo chiu kim ng h.
Gc phng v c tnh theo cng thc :a=180+kinh ty hoc a=180- kinh
ng
R rng l a ph thuc vo kinh ,va kinh ti im thu v kinh ca v
tinh.

Gc phn cc(Angle Of Polarization)

Khi ng trc ca cho parabol hng thng n tm bp sng chnh ca anten


pht ca v tinh th mt cho gn nh thu ton b nng lng cu chm sng chnh trong
mt phng phn cc .Nu anten nm lch tm vi chm sng chnh ca tn hiu v tinh
,hiu sut thu nng lng gim v cn gy tc hi nh lm mo dng tn hiu tng tp
nhiu .V vy cn phi hiu chnh li gc phn cc bng u d phn cc u thu.

NHM 3

Trang 44

THNG TIN V TINH


3. H thng bm ui v tinh

Bm ui v tinh bng xung n

H thng ny lun xc nh tm bp sng anten c hng no v tinh hay


khng th iu khin hng anten.
Trc bc x cc i:

Khi tn hiu n trc tip pha trc b dn sng th h thng lm vic


loi sng TE10 .Nu tins hiu n lch khi tm th h thng lm vic loi sng
TE20 .Qua vic pht hin cc loi sng cng tc c th gii quyt vn iu
chnh anten .Pha ca tn hiu to ra s sai lch tri hay phi
-

u im ca phng php bm ui v tinh bng xung n l

chnh xc cao ,
-

Nhc im l thit b nh du phi lm vic lin tc s chng hao

mn v dn ti mau hng do phi lin tc cung cp nng lng

Bm ui v tinh theo tng nc

- H thng iu chnh hng sao cho mc tn hiu thu l cc i bng cch


dch chuyn nh v tr anten cc khong thi gian nht nh
* S khi ca h thng bm tng nc :

NHM 3

Trang 45

THNG TIN V TINH

Chc nng cho cc khi :


LNA : b khuch i tp m thp l mt phn ca cc mch tn hiu x l thng
tun .N c th dng cho h thng iu khin bm ui v tinh
B chia : ly mt phn tn hiu a vi D/C
B D/C : chuyn tn s bc x RF thnh tn s IF ph hp h thng s dng
Khi iu khin anten ACU :lm nhim v ti u ha mc tn hiu ban u thng
qua qu trnh iu khin bm tng nc ,to ra cc tn hiu iu khin li cho ng c iu
khin gc phng v v gc phng
Khi iu khinmt : nhn lnhca ACU s cung cp cng sut hiu chnh n
moto nh v anten
Khi chuyn mch han ch : ngt ngun cung cp cho cc mt khi anten chuyn
n cc bin gii hn phng nguy him cho my mc

Nguyn l hot ng

Sau khi thu tn hiu dn ng t v tinh anten c lnh dch chuyn gc ban u
so snh vi mc tn hiu dn ng thu c trc v sau khi dch chuyn ,hng ca
ln dch chuyn k tip c th c quyt nh l : nu mc tn hiu dn ng tng
ln th anten tip tc dch chuyn theo hng trc ,cn nu mc tn hiu dn ng
gim i th anten dich chuyn theo hng ngc li v qu trnh ny s c lp li .u
im ca phng php ny l cc anten khng ,phi bm lin tc nh h thng xung n

NHM 3

Trang 46

THNG TIN V TINH

Bm ui v tinh theo chng trnh

H thng ny da trn s liu lch thn hc d on cc v tr v tinh c


Intelsat cung cp .S liu ny c a vo phn mm my tnh x l thnh cc
gi tr thc cho trm v tinh mt t iu khin bm v tinh cho trc cc
s liu thin vn .Loi iu khin bm theo chng trnh khng cn h thng iu
khin v cc thit b lin quan ,gim c gi thnh trm mt t ,c quan tm
hng u nht l cc trm mt t nh .

Bm ui v tinh bng nhn cng

- Cc anten ca cc trm mt t nh hn c th ch cn iu chnh hng


tun, hng thng v bp sng ca anten rng ,iu chnh ny c th c thc hin
bng cch lm cho cc chuyn mch ph hp vi mt gc ngng v gc phng
v .
- cc h thng bm ui t ng thng c kh nng iu khin bng tay
cho php bo dng anten ,iu khin bng nhn cng cng l phng php thm
vo khi hng thit b .C phng php iu khin bm nhn cng khc l bin
php c kh trc tip quay anten
- Cc anten nh hn c th ch ni lng mt ci cht ,sau iu chnh mt
s vt thay i gc phng v v gc t
- Cc anten ln hn c th yu cu mt tay vn c gn trc tip b
phn ui ca anten .i vi anten ln y l trng hp khn cp khi c s c
ngun tng cung cp cho cc khi iu khin

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH


CC NG DNG CA THNG TIN V TINH

D.

So vi cc h thng thng tin mt t th thng tin v tinh c nhiu u im ni


bt hn trn rt nhiu ng dng. Mt u im vt tri ca thng tin v tinh so vi cc
h thng thng tin mt t khc l s sn sng ca thng tin v tinh khp mi ni, bi
vy n thc s c bit hu ch nhng ni m cc cng ngh khc khng th cung cp.
Ngoi ra thng tin v tinh cn cung cp mt lot cc dch v c tnh ton cu.
Dch v Internet qua v tinh

1.

Dch v Internet qua v tinh c chia lm hai mng chnh: cc dch v trung k
(tng t nh trung k trong h thng in thoi), v truy nhp trc tip nh vic ci t
VSAT hai chiu. Cc dch v trung k c cung cp cho cc nh cung cp dch v
Internet v cc nh khai thc mng Internet. Trong khi dch v truy nhp trc tip
c cung cp ch yu cho cc doanh nghip, cc khch hng s dng trc tip dch v
Internet.
Khng ch gii hn phm vi di mt t, khi i trn my bay cng c th s
dng Internet.

M hnh cung cp dch v Internet qua v tinh cho nhng khu vc nh

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH


2.

Bng rng

Cc nh cung cp vin thng bn cnh vic s dng h thng thng tin v


tinh lm mi trng truyn dn, cn cung cp cc dch v bao ph ton cu bi
vic s dng cc bng tn c nh bng tn C, bng tn Ku v tip theo l bng
tn Ka. Thng tin v tinh khc phc c mt nhc im nt c chai trong cc
h thng mng mt t bng vic ng vai tr nh l mt mng chuyn tip cung
cp dch v trc tip ti khch hng.
Cho n nay vic s dng cc b pht p cho cc tuyn trung k Internet
tng ng k. V tinh c th truyn ti lu lng ln ti 1300 Mbit/s cho mng
ng trc Internet. i vi cc nh khai thc v tinh th li nhun ca h ch yu
nm khu vc pht thanh, truyn hnh qung b (chim ti 70% li nhun t vic
cho thu cc b pht p). Tuy nhin, con s ny s gim do nhu cu s dng cc
b pht p cho cc kt ni Internet trung k, trc tip hay cc mng doanh nghip
tng cao. Trong thi gian 1998-2000, s tng trng ca cc dch v Internet qua
v tinh rt ng kinh ngc, phm vi ton th gii vi tc tng trng ny l
958 %.

T l s dng bng thng v tinh trong khu vc chu nm 2000 v d bo


nm 2009
3.

VoIP

VoIP l mt phn ca thoi c truyn qua giao thc Internet theo hai
kiu: in thoi Internet v thoi c truyn bng giao thc Internet. in thoi

NHM 3

Trang 49

THNG TIN V TINH


Internet l mt dch v khng qun l qua mng Internet cng cng. Thoi c truyn
bng giao thc Internet l mt dch v c qun l s dng giao thc Internet. Cc gi
thoi c qun l cung cp cc mc cht lng khc nhau. VoIP c cung cp
bi cc nh khai thc mng theo cc tuyn ring. VoIP truyn qua v tinh c mt s thun
li nh: trin khai nhanh, lun sn sng v ng tin cy, vng ph ton cu, d m rng,
c th truy nhp t mi a hnh khc nhau: t lin, bin, hi o, rng, ni,... Ch vi
mt (hoc vi) nt mng c th truy cp ti cc im truy cp mng chnh khc trnh
c tnh trng tc nghn mch so vi cc mng IP khc.
4.

PSTN

Mng PSTN l ngun kt ni ch yu cho hu ht cc nh khai thc mng. Cht


lng cc tuyn thoi khc nhau c thit k p ng nhu cu thc t ph thuc vo
hiu chnh li theo yu cu v phng php iu ch. Trc y truyn dn thoi qua v
tinh chim mt t l ln ca cc b pht p v tinh, tuy nhin con s ny ngy cng nh
do vic pht trin cc dch v mi nhiu trin vng hn.
5.

Mng doanh nghip

Cc doanh nghip c th s dng dch v ny nh: ngn hng, cc t chc ti


chnh, du la, khch sn, hng khng, gio dc, vin thng... Cc dch v m cc t
chc ny c th s dng nh: truy nhp Internet, thoi, hi ngh truyn hnh, kim tra th
tn dng, o to t xa, pht hin thm ho, v h tr trong cc trng hp khn cp.
M hnh o to t xa qua h thng thng tin v tinh ang c ng dng ht sc
c hiu qu i vi nhng nc c a hnh phc tp (nhiu qun o, i ni,..). Vit
Nam c ti 80% dn c sng khu vc nng thn v c a hnh i ni him tr , do
y l mt m hnh o to c hiu qu cao v em li li ch nhiu mt cho nn gio dc
quc gia cng nh nng cao trnh dn tr ca i b phn nhn dn.
6.

NHM 3

Truyn hnh qua v tinh

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THNG TIN V TINH


Hin nay, dch v video qua v tinh c phn b ton cu vi cc dch v
truyn trc tip ti nh (dch v DTH), th thao, tin tc, s kin, HDTV... nc
ta, i truyn hnh Vit Nam trin khai dch v ny.
7.

Thng tin di ng qua v tinh

Thng tin di ng qua v tinh c nhiu u im nh: c th pht trin mng


ton cu, d dng phn b v cn bng li lu lng mng, chi ph h tng c s
thp, c nhiu kh nng gia tng li nhun cc dch v mi.

Cc thnh phn chnh cho c s h tng mng di ng qua v tinh

Cc dch v do v tinh Vinasat cung cp

Gia thng 4 v tinh Vinasat c phng ln v tr qu o 1320 ng m


ra mt chng mi trong vic a dng ha loi hnh dch v ca VNPT. V tinh
Vinasat c th cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v nh DTH, Internet, PSTN, TVRO,

NHM 3

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THNG TIN V TINH

Cc loi hnh dch v Vinasat cung cp

Kt lun
Vi nhng u im ni bt ca mnh v kh nng truyn dn, kh nng cung cp
dch v bng rng, cc dch v truy nhp Internet bng rng v vi pht trin ca cc nn
kinh t khu vc chu - Thi Bnh Dng th th trng thng tin v tinh ca khu vc
ny s tip tc pht trin mnh m, ha hn mt vin cnh tt p i vi cc nh khai
thc v tinh chu trong c v tinh Vinasat ca Vit Nam.

-------------------HT-----------------

TI LIU THAM KHO


Thng tin v tinh Hc vin bu chnh vin thng 2007
Lun vn tt nghip SV: Nguyn c Ti Spkt Tp. HCM
ti thng tin v tinh lp 07 vt nhm anh Tin Hnh
Thng tin viba, ve tinh www.tailieu.vn

www.vi.wikipedia.org/

NHM 3

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