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The solution for the termination of organisms in water
ALAN FLIGHT BrightWater Environmental ALAN LESTER Chemist & Cooling Tower Specialist GARY MADDISON The Rodin Group.

Prevention is far better than trying to cure the problem !!!

What does AOP oxidise?


Fungi & Yeasts



Legionella are transported by Amoebae


Pseudomonas Bacteria problems that occur

A greasy film, coating strainers, pipe work, tank etc. which attracts dirt Produces noxious smells Causes a muddy red/brown colouring to the water In the long term can cause corrosion

What is a Biofilm?
A biofilm consists of different kinds of micro organisms, especially bacteria. It can be seen as a society where micro organisms shelter each other. It should not be mistaken with a layer of algae.

Why remove the biofilm?

Biofilm Legionella

Temp > 25C

Colonypipe enters bacteria of the biofilm the biofilm Mass forming forming of in the Outbreakcolonyof thein the Legionella in Wateroutbreakother parts in the water Inoculation of a Legionella Legionella bacteria biofilm Multiple ofwithof biofilm water biofilm

Cleaning of the Biofilm

Water pipe directly after cleaning. No biofilm is present

After cleaning

The biofilm will start growing from day 1 after the cleaning

The Biofilm regrows

After several weeks to months the biofilm is present to let Legionella grow and the process starts all over

Why remove the Biofilm?

The bacteria will enter the Legionella without biofilm biofilm a single cell through the Water pipecannot not possible without nutrition Colony forming isbe transported as water and cannot cause a Legionella outbreak

Keeping the Biofilm out of the pipes

Titanium AOP Disinfection

All micro organisms are terminated. New forming of the biofilm is not possible

Properties of Legionella
Ideal growth temperature: 37C Growth range: 20 - 55C Death range: > 60C

Survives to low temperatures but are dormant (count stays stable) Aerobic rod: needs moisture

Properties of the Legionella pneumophila

Optimal growth at 37C Growth range: 20 - 55C Death range: > 60C Survives to low temperatures but are dormant (count stays stable)

Needs 10 different amino acids and iron Needs host (Amoebae) to multiply Aerobic rod which needs moisture

Outbreaks of Legionnaire's Disease

Source:European Working Group for Legionnella Infections

Legionnaire's Disease

The genus of Legionella contains 50 species and 24 subspecies Legionella pneumophila is the only species which causes dangerous disease: Serotype 1 Legionnaire's disease Inflammation of the lungs Inflammation of stomach and intestine Attack of the central nerve system Serotype 2-15 Pontiac fever Flu like disease Some other Legionella species can cause Pontiac fever

2. Aerosol 3. Breathe Bronchia Alveoli

1. Lp growth 4. Susceptibility of the individual

(Temp, time, biofilm, nourishments)

Legionnaires Disease

Disease outcome Death Severe brain disorder Full recovery High risk population: People over the age of 45 Heavy smokers or drinkers People suffering from respiratory problems or kidney diseases Immunodeficient patients (cancer, AIDS, transplantation) Males are 2.5 times more susceptible than females

Aerosol Generation
Droplet break-up on impact

Droplet formation

Droplet diameters 1 mm 100 microns 10 microns 3 microns 1 micron Aerosols Description Rain droplets Drizzle droplets Falling speed 4000 mm/s 1000 mm/s 20 mm/s 5 mm/s 0.0002 m/s
A 3 micron droplet falling by 2 meters takes more than 6 minutes to touch the ground !

Aerosols in Whirlpool Baths

Air bubble

Risk Areas

Pseudomonas Closed system protection Legionella Control - HWS Cooling towers Humidifiers Recycling of grey water Rainwater harvesting Bore hole water disinfection Process applications Food & Beverage Industry Laboratory & Hospital Sterilisation applications Swimming pool treatment Water Closets.

Preferred Current Methods

Temperature Control Temperature Control + UV C Temperature Control + Chlorine Dioxide Temperature Control + Other Methods Temperature Control + Copper Silver Ionisation
3% 5% 9%



Alternative Technologies

Chemical (process water) Environmentally unfriendly. No WRAS approval

Ionisation of copper silver DWI prohibits Silver. Anodic oxidation (Chlorine) Temp & Iron sensitive. Ozone Expensive & difficult to maintain

Physical (drinking water)

UV-C Shadow effect. Ultra filtration incubation unit for all bacteria. Pasteurisation does not destroy bio-film.

Complete Prevention Concept is Unique

Good Practice in System Design

Design Concepts Drinking water

All water pipe systems are polluted with Legionella The complexity of the system and the risks have to be determined The pipe system has to be designed and modified to eliminate risks Biofilm and bacteria have to be removed

Main Drivers

A.C.O.P (H.S.E. L8 ) Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999, Regulation 6

Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, Regulation 3

Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, Sections 2, 3

Titanium AOP (Advance Oxidation Process)

Rodin Oxidation technology for water disinfection The technology is based on the combination of well-proven ultraviolet light radiation and a photo-catalytic effect in the water, i.e a combination of UV light and the semiconductor titanium dioxide. This process is called AOP (Advanced Oxidation Process). So does this enhanced oxidation process mean that viruses, bacteria and other pathogens found in the water are eradicated faster and more effectively than by other similar systems?

Titanium AOP 100




H2O Water


Hydroxyl Radical

Redox Oxidation Value




(UV-C) Light, wavelength 185 and 254 nm Photolysis (@ wavelength 185 nm) Transforms H2O into OH radicals Photocatalysis (@ wavelength 254 nm) UV at 254nm excites electrons on titanium surface Results in Electron-Hole pair formation (TiO2e-h+) Electron-Hole is catalyst which initiates the formation OH

Conductive Band

Process Mechanisms


UV @254nm

eValence Band


Process Mechanisms
Catalyst reacts with H2O to produce OH radicals e-h+ Pair reacts with O2 to produce superoxide ions Catalyst also oxidises organisms at the H2O/TiO2 interface OH revert to H2O by oxidising organisms and VOCs +H2O





Drinking water Cooling towers Humidifiers Process water in production areas

Legionella System Control

Inventory of risk and plan of control.

Chemical technical cleaning.

Installation Titanium AOP system.

Monitoring with culture method.

Product Performance Testing

The Titanium AOP has been tested independently in 2008 by the ISO accredited Vitens Laboratories in The Netherlands. All tests were done according to KIWA guideline 976 which defines the exact test installation, bacteria cultivation, performance requirements, test conditions and the test rig. 1. Test installation To perform the test an installation was constructed from the following components: Storage tank, maximum volume 1000 litres; Pump with a suitable control valve, capacity 5 m / h Volumetric flow meter with an accuracy of 5%; Hoses and fixtures to connect the equipment to be tested fitted with sampling taps and a collection tank with a maximum volume of 1000 litres. 2. Cultivating Legionella bacteria Legionella bacteria were cultivated in accordance with the inoculation bottle method in NPR 6268. 3. Performance requirements During a test in accordance with the test protocol, the Equipment must reduce the amount of Legionella bacteria present in the water phase continuously with an efficiency of over 5 logarithmic units. The calculation model for removal capacity on the basis of the measured concentration in CFU/l; log reduction LR = 10log [blank sample concentration] /[sample concentration]

Vitens Report
3.3 The test set-up The set-up comprises of the following elements: 2 x (sealed) tanks with a capacity of 1000 Litres pump with a delivery of 5 m / h flow meter with a measurement range of 05m/h at an accuracy of < 5% PVC pipes diameter 32mm needle valve for setting the required rate of delivery 8 x manually operated valves 2 x sampling cocks Titanium AOP 5 The set-up is shown in the form of a schematic diagram Figure 1 below

Vitens Report
4 RESULTS 4.1 Determination of blank concentration The Legionella bacteria should be cultivated in accordance with NEN 6265. This method is ideal for cultivating very high concentrations of Legionella. In the execution of the testing 2 samples taken at each time. Because of the accuracy of the analysis readings even if all readings are 0 Legionella this is recorded as 50 cfu/l. In order to record a log reading reduction of 5 therefore the blank samples must contain at least 5,000,000 cfu/l.

Table 3 The Legionella pneumophila blanks Blank (cfu/l) Blank (cfu/l) Average blank (cfu/l) Lowest reporting limit NEN 5265 (cfu/l) Maximum possible log reduction Test 124,000,000 124,500,000 124,250,000 50 6.4

As table 3 shows, when testing was carried out with these blanks a log reduction of over 5 was possible. Note: the destruction of micro-organisms is not species specific.

Vitens Report
4.2 Titanium test Below can be seen the results of the Titanium AOP 5.

Table 4 Destruction of Legionella pneumophila with Titanium AOP Flow (L/min.) 20 40 60 80 Time (s after start) 60 60 60 60 Number of Legionella bacteria behind Titanium (cfu/l) < 50 < 50 < 50 400 Average Log Reduction > 6.4 > 6.4 6.4 5.2

Test Results
Titanium AOP 5 Titanium AOP 1

Starting concentration Legionella pmeumophila serotype 1: 124,000,000 cfu/l Note: Due to the required bottle culture method a contaminated concentration of 106,000,000 cfu/l of other bacteria was present in the testing inoculum. These bacteria are also substantially removed. They have been in competition with Legionella which means that the efficiency of removal of legionella could be higher when those contaminants are not present.

Titanium AOP System Layout

Titanium AOP Control Panels

AOP 1 & 5 AOP 10, 20, 50, & 100

Model Capacity Flow Rates (L/sec) Flow Rates (m/hour) Pressure Drop (bar) Electrical Voltage (V) Power Consumption (W) Number of lamps Reactor dimension Diameter x length (mm) Material Flange dimension Reactor weight (Kg) Control Functions Constant UV regulation Lamp lifetime control Soft heating function Failure indications Mild start Measurement UV intensity Remote control system Measurement of water temperature inside reactor

AOP 1 0.28 1 <0.1 230 26 1 75x470 Titanium DN 15 2.0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

AOP 5 1.42 5 <0.1 230 95 1 75x895 Titanium DN 50 3.5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

AOP 10 2.84 10 <0.1 230 190 2 120x890 Titanium DN 50 6.5 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

AOP 20 5.5 20 <0.1 230 380 4 160x960 Titanium DN 100 14.0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

AOP 50 13.8 50 <0.1 230 700 7 225x955 Titanium DN 125 21.3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

AOP 100 27.7 100 <0.1 230 1300 13 305x955 Titanium DN 150 32.8 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Titanium AOP Dimensions

Titanium AOP Reactor Dimensions AOP 1 AOP 5 AOP 10 AOP 20 AOP 50 AOP 100 A 50 90 90 165 170 190 B 470 895 890 960 955 955 C 75 75 120 160 225 305 D 30 75 70 150 155 170 E 90 110 125 200 210 250

Control Cabinet Dimensions Height 180 180 600 600 600 1200 Width Depth 180 150 180 150 600 250 600 250 600 250 600 600

Hot and Cold Water Treatment

Gate keeper on new systems




Sites with Titanium AOP Specified

The Royal London Hospital Belmarsh Prison RAF Wyton Skanska Test Facility British Nuclear Power Scotlands National Arena Kent County Council Cooling Tower

Key Benefits

The complete oxidation of all organism in water Complete oxidation & destruction of pollutants A gatekeeper protecting the entire water system Completely chemical free Very low maintenance and energy costs Environmentally friendly


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