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M U Cng ngh vin thng c n h n g p h t t r i n v t b c trong nhng nm gn y. Khi m cng ngh mng thng tin di ng th h th ba 3G cha c thi gian khng nh v th ca mnh trn ton cu, ngi ta bt u ni v cng ngh 4G (Fourth Generation). T th h mng di ng u tin 1G ,trong hn mt thp k qua, th gii chng kin s thnh cng to ln ca mng thng tin di ng th h th hai 2G. Mng 2G c th phn ra 2 loi: mng 2G da trn nn TDMA v mng 2G da trn nn CDMA. Sau mng thng tin di ng th h th ba 3G v ang c trin khai nhiu ni trn th gii. Ci tin ni bt nht ca mng 3G so vi mng 2G l kh nng cung ng truyn thng gi tc cao nhm trin khai cc dch v truyn thng a phng tin. Mng 3G bao gm mng UMTS s dng kthut WCDMA, mng CDMA2000 s dng k thut CDMA v mng TD-SCDMA c pht trin bi Trung Quc. Trong giai on hin ti, khi nim v mng di ng th t 4G tn ti v hnh thnh cc chun k thut vi mc ch ngi s dng c th truy cp tt c cc dch v mi lc mi ni trong khi vn di chuyn: xem phim cht lng cao HDTV, in thoi thy hnh, chi game, nghe nhc trc tuyn, ti c s d liu v.v vi mt tc siu tc. Mng 4G c trin da trn c s h tng ca mng di ng 3G , giai on u ca qu trnh c gi th h mng di ng tin 4G LTE . y l mt cng ngh mi ang c trin khai th im mt s quc gia trn th gii, ti Vit Nam cng ang c th nghim bi Viettel

CHNG I : TNG QUAN H THNG THNG TIN DI NG 3G


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H thng thng tin di ng 3G l h thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 , l th h pht trin sau h thng thng tin di ng th h th nht (1G) v h thng thng tin di ng th h th hai (2G). Chun IMT-2000 (International Mobil Telecommunication -2000) cho h thng 3G c a ra bi ITU nm 1992 vi cc u im : Cung cp dch v thoi cht lng cao. Cc dch v tin nhn (e-mail, fax, SMS, chat, ...). Cc dch v a phng tin (xem phim, xem truyn hnh, nghe nhc,...). Truy nhp Internet (duyt Web, ti ti liu, ...). S dng chung mt cng ngh thng nht, m bo s tng thch ton cu gia cc h thng. IMT-2000 c kh nng cung cp bng thng 2Mbps, nhng thc t trin khai ch ra rng vi bng thng ny vic chuyn giao rt kh, v vy ch c nhng ngi s dng khng di ng mi c p ng bng thng kt ni ny, cn khi i b bng thng s l 384 Kbps, khi di chuyn bng t s l 144Kbps. 1.1 UMTS (W-CDMA) UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone System), da trn cng ngh W-CDMA, l gii php c a chung cho cc nc ang trin khai cc h thng GSM mun chuyn ln 3G. UMTS c h tr bi Lin Minh Chu u v c qun l bi 3GPP t chc chu trch nhim cho cc cng ngh GSM, GPRS. UMTS hot ng bng thng 5MHz , cho php cc cuc gi c th chuyn giao mt cch hon ho gia cc h thng UMTS v GSM c. c im ca WCDMA : WCDMA s dng knh truyn dn 5 MHz chuyn d liu. N cng cho php vic truyn d liu tc 384 Kbps trong mng di ng v 2 Mbps trong h thng tnh. Kt cu phn tng: H thng UMTS da trn cc dch v c phn tng, khng ging nh mng GSM. trn cng l tng dch v, em li nhng u im nh trin khai nhanh cc dch v, hay cc a im c tp trung ha. Tng gia l tng iu khin, gip cho vic nng cp cc quy trnh v cho php mng li c th c phn chia linh hot. Cui cng l tng kt ni, bt k cng ngh truyn d liu no cng c th c s dng v d liu m thanh s c chuyn qua ATM/AAL2 hoc IP/RTP. Tn s: hin ti c 6 bng s dng cho UMTS/WCDMA, tp trung vo UMTS tn s cp pht trong 2 bng ng ln (1885 MHz 2025 MHz) v
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H thng vin thng ng xung (2110 MHz 2200 MHz). S pht trin ca WCDMA ln 3.5G l HsxPA 1 . 2 CDMA 2000 Mt chun 3G quan trng khc l CDMA2000, chun ny l s tip ni i vi cc h thng ang s dng cng ngh CDMA trong th h 2. CDMA2000 c qun l bi 3GPP2, mt t chc c lp v tch ri khi 3GPP ca UMTS. CDMA2000 c tc truyn d liu t 144Kbps n Mbps. 1.3 TD-SCDMA Chun c t bit n hn l TD-SCDMA ang c pht trin ti Trung Quc bi cc cng ty Datang v Siemens. Hin ti c nhiu chun cng ngh cho 2G nn s c nhiu chun cng ngh 3G i theo, tuy nhin trn thc t ch c 2 tiu chun quan trng nht c sn phm thng mi v c kh nng c trin khai rng ri trn ton th gii l WCDMA (FDD) v CDMA 2000. WCDMA c pht trin trn c s tng thch vi giao thc ca mng li GSM (GSM MAP), mt h thng chim ti 65% th trng th gii. Cn CDMA 2000 nhm tung thch vi mng li IS-41, hin chim 15% th trng.

CHNG II : CU TRC MNG LTE 2.1 Cng ngh LTE H thng LTE pht trin trn nn tng GSM/UTMS , l mt trong nhng cng ngh tim nng nht cho truyn thng 4G (h thng tin 4G). Kin trc mng
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H thng vin thng mi c thit k vi mc tiu cung cp lu lng chuyn mch gi vi dch v cht lng, tr ti thiu. H thng s dng bng thng linh hot nh vo m hnh a truy cp OFDMA v SC-FDMA. Thm vo , FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) v TDD (Time Division Duplexing), bn song cng FDD cho php cc UE c gi thnh thp. Khng ging nh FDD, bn song cng FDD khng yu cu pht v thu ti cng thi im. iu ny lm gim gi thnh cho b song cng trong UE. Truy cp tuyn ln da vo a truy cp phn chia theo tn s n sng mang (Single Carrier Frequency Division multiple Access SC-FDMA) cho php tng vng ph tuyn ln lm t s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh thp (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio PAPR) so vi OFDMA. Khi ci thin tc d liu nh, h thng LTE s dng hai n bn ln h s ph cell so vi h thng HSPA Release 6. c tnh c bn ca h thng LTE : -Hot ng bng tn : 700 MHz-2,6 GHz. -Tc : DL : 100Mbps( BW 20MHz) UL : 50 Mbps vi 2 aten thu mt anten pht. - tr : nh hn 5ms - rng BW linh hot : 1,4MHz; 3MHz; 5MHz; 10MHz; 15MHz; 20MHz. H tr c 2 trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng nhau hoc khng. -Tnh di ng : Tc di chuyn ti u l 0-15 km/h nhng vn hot ng tt vi tc

di chuyn t 15-120 km/h, c th ln n 500 km/h ty bng tn. -Ph tn s: Hot ng ch FDD hoc TDD ph sng t 5-100 km Dung lng 200 user/cell bng tn 5Mhz. -Cht lng dch v : H tr tnh nng m bo cht lng dch v QoS. VoIP m bo cht lng m thanh tt, tr ti thiu thng qua mng UTMS
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Thng s vt l :

K thut truy cp

UL DL

DTFS-OFDM (SC-FDMA) OFDMA 1.4MHz, 3MHz , 5MHz, 10MHz, 1 MHz, 20MHz 1ms

Bng thng

TTI ti thiu Chiu di CP

Ngn 4.7s Di 16.7 s QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 1 lp cho UL/UE Ln n 4 lp cho DL/UE S dng MU-MIMO cho UL v DL

iu ch Ghp knh khng gian

2.2 Cu trc ca LTE. S khc nhau gia SAE v LTE

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Trc tin ta xem s khc nhau v cu trc ca UTMS v LTE. Song song vi truy nhp v tuyn LTE, mng gi li cng ang ci tin ln cu trc tng SAE. Cu trc mi ny c thit k ti u hiu sut mng, ci thin hiu qu chi ph v thun tin thu ht phn ln dch v trn nn IP. Mng truy nhp v tuyn RAN (Radio Access Network): mng truy nhp v tuyn ca LTE c gi l E-UTRAN v mt trong nhng c im chnh ca n l tt c cc dch v, bao gm dch v thi gian thc, s c h tr qua nhng knh gi c chia s. Phng php ny s tng hiu sut ph, lm cho dung lng h thng tr nn cao hn. Mt kt qu quan trng ca vic s dng truy nhp gi cho tt c cc dch v l s tch hp cao hn gia nhng dch v a phng tin v gia nhng dch v c nh v khng dy. C nhiu loi chc nng khc nhau trong mng t bo. Da vo chng, mng c
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H thng vin thng th c chia thnh hai phn: mng truy nhp v tuyn v mng li. Nhng chc nng nh iu ch, nn, chuyn giao thuc v mng truy nhp. Cn nhng chc nng khc nh tnh cc hoc qun l di ng l thnh phn ca mng li. Vi LTE, mng truy nhp l E-UTRAN v mng li l EPC. Mc ch chnh ca LTE l ti thiu ha s node. V vy, ngi pht trin chn mt cu trc n node. Trm gc mi phc tp hn NodeB trong mng truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA/HSPA, v v vy c gi l eNodeB (Enhance Node B). Nhng eNodeB c tt c nhng chc nng cn thit cho mng truy nhp v tuyn LTE, k c nhng chc nng lin quan n qun l ti nguyn v tuyn. Giao din v tuyn s dng trong E-UTRAN by gi ch cn l S1 v X2. Trong S1 l giao din v tuyn kt ni gia eNodeB v mng li. S1 chia lm hai loi l S1-U l giao din gia eNodeB v SAE GW v S1-MME l giao din gia eNodeB v MME. X2 l giao din gia cc eNodeB vi nhau.

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Mng li: mng li mi l s m rng hon ton ca mng li trong h thng 3G, v n ch bao ph min chuyn mch gi. V vy, n c mt ci tn mi : Evolved Packet Core (EPC). Cng mt mc ch nh E-UTRAN, s node trong EPC c gim. EPC chia lung d liu ngi dng thnh mt phng ngi dng v mt phng iu khin. Mt node c th c nh ngha cho mi mt phng, cng vi Gateway chung kt ni mng LTE vi internet v nhng h thng khc. EPC gm c mt vi thc th chc nng. - MME (Mobility Management Entity): chu trch nhim x l nhng chc nng mt bng iu khin, lin quan n qun l thu bao v qun l phin.
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- Gateway dch v (Serving Gateway): l v tr kt ni ca giao tip d liu gi vi EUTRAN. N cn hot ng nh mt node nh tuyn n nhng k thut 3GPP khc. - P-Gateway (Packet Data Network): l im u cui cho nhng phin hng v mng d liu gi bn ngoi. N cng l Router n mng Internet. - PCRF (Policyand Charging Rules Function): iu khin vic to ra bng gi v cu hnh h thng con a phng tin IP IMS (the IP Multimedia Subsystem) cho mi ngi dng. - HSS (Home Subscriber Server): l ni lu tr d liu ca thu bao cho tt c d liu ca ngi dng. N l c s d liu ch trung tm trong trung tm ca nh khai thc. Cc min dch v bao gm IMS (IP Multimedia Sub-system) da trn cc nh khai thc, IMS khng da trn cc nh khai thc v cc dch v khc. IMS l mt kin trc mng nhm to s thun tin cho vic pht trin v phn phi cc dch v a phng tin n ngi dng, bt k l h ang kt ni thng qua mng truy nhp no. IMS h tr nhiu phng thc truy nhp nh GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000, truy nhp hu tuyn bng rng nh cp xDSL, cp quang, cp truyn hnh, cng nh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng WLAN, WiMAX. IMS to iu kin cho cc h thng mng khc nhau c th tng thch vi nhau. IMS ha hn mang li nhiu li ch cho c ngi dng ln nh cung cp dch v. N v ang c tp trung nghin cu cng nh thu ht c s quan tm ln ca gii cng nghip. Tuy nhin IMS cng gp phi nhng kh khn nht nh v cng cha tht s chn thuyt phc cc nh cung cp mng u t trin khai n. Kin trc IMS c cho l kh phc tp vi nhiu thc th v v s cc chc nng khc nhau.

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H thng vin thng Cu trc LTE lin kt vi mng khc:

Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp 3GPP

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Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp3GPP v khng phi 3GPP

Cu trc h thng cho mng truy cp3GPP v lin mng vi CDMA 2000
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2.3 Cc knh s dng trong E-UTRAN Knh vt l : cc knh vt l s dng cho d liu ngi dng bao gm: -PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel) : ph ti c ch (payload) -PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel) : PUSCH c dng mang d liu ngi dng. Cc ti nguyn cho PUSCH c ch nh trn mt subframe c bn bi vic lp biu ng ln. Cc sng mang c ch nh l 12 khi ti nguyn (RB) v c th nhy t subframe ny n subframe khc. PUSCH c th dng cc kiu iu ch QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM. -PUCCH(Physical ACK/NAK. -PDCCH(Physical Downlink Control Channel): lp biu, ACK/NAK. -PBCH(Physical Broadcast Channel): mang cc thng tin c trng ca cell. Knh logic : c nh ngha bi thng tin n mang bao gm: -Knh iu khin qung b (BCCH) : c s dng truyn thng tin iu khin h thng t mng n tt c my di ng trong cell. Trc khi truy nhp h thng, u cui di ng phi c thng tin pht trn BCCH bit c h thng c lp cu hnh nh th no, chng hn bng thng h thng. -Knh iu khin tm gi (PCCH) : c s dng tm gi cc u cui di ng v mng khng th bit c v tr ca chng cp v v th cn pht cc bn tin tm gi trong nhiu (vng nh v). -Knh iu khin ring (DCCH) : c s dng truyn thng tin iu khin ti/t mt u cui di ng. Knh ny c s dng cho cu hnh ring ca cc u cui di ng chng hn cc bn tin chuyn giao khc nhau. -Knh iu khin a phng (MCCH) : c s dng truyn thng tin cn thit
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Uplink

Control

Channel):

chc

nng

lp

biu,

H thng vin thng thu knh MTCH. -Knh lu lng ring (DTCH) : c s dng truyn s liu ca ngi s dng n/t mt u cui di ng. y l kiu logic c s dng truyn tt c s liu ng ln ca ngi dng v s liu ng xung ca ngi dng khng phi MBMS. -Knh lu lng a phng (MTCH) : c s dng pht cc dch v MBMS.

Knh truyn ti : bao gm cc knh sau: -Knh qung b (BCH) : c khun dng truyn ti c nh do chun cung cp. - N c s dng pht thng tin trn knh logic. -Knh tm gi (PCH) : c s dng pht thng tin tm gi trn knh PCCH, PCH h tr thu khng lin tc (DRX) cho php u cui tit kim cng sut c quy bng cch ng v ch thc thu PCH ti cc thi im quy nh trc -Knh chia s ng xung (DL-SCH) : l knh truyn ti pht s liu ng xung trong LTE. N h tr cc chc nng ca LTE nh thch ng tc ng v lp biu ph thuc knh trong min thi gian v min tn s. N cng h tr DRX gim tiu th cng sut ca u cui di ng m vn m bo cm gic lun kt ni ging nh c ch CPC trong HSPA. DL-DCH TTI l 1ms. -Knh a phng (MCH) : c s dng h tr MBMS. N c c trng bi khun dng truyn ti bn tnh v lp biu bn tnh. Trong trng hp pht a s dng MBSFN, lp biu v lp cu hnh khun dng truyn ti c iu phi gia cc tham gia pht MBSFN. 2.4 Giao thc ca LTE (LTE Protocols) LTE chc nng ca RLC c chuyn vo eNodeB, cng nh chc nng ca PDCP vi m ha v chn tiu . V vy, cc giao thc lin quan ca lp
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H thng vin thng v tuyn c chia trc y UTRAN l gia NodeB v RNC by gi chuyn thnh gia UE v eNodeB

Giao thc ca UTRAN

Giao thc ca E-UTRAN

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Phn phi chc nng ca cc lp MAC, RLC, PDCP Chc nng ca MAC(Medium Access Control) bao gm : -Lp biu -iu khin u tin (Priority handling) -Ghp nhiu knh logic khc nhau trn mt knh truyn n RLC Chc nng ca PDCP bao gm: -M ha (ciphering) -Chn tiu

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CHNG III : TRUY CP V TUYN V CC K THUT S DNG TRONG LTE

3.1. Cc ch truy nhp v tuyn Giao din khng gian LTE h tr c hai ch l song cng phn chia theo tn s ( FDD) v song cng phn chia theo thi gian ( TDD), mi ch c mt cu trc khung ring. Ch bn song cng FDD cho php chia s phn cng gia ng ln v ng xung v ng ln v ng xung khng bao gi s dng ng thi. K thut ny c s dng trong mt s di tn v cng cho php tit kim chi ph trong khi gim mt na kh nng truyn d liu. Giao din khng gian LTE cng h tr pht a phng tin v cc dch v pht qung b a im (MBMS). Mt cng ngh tng i mi cho ni dung pht sng nh truyn hnh k thut s ti UE bng cch s dng cc kt ni im- a im. Cc thng s k thut 3GPP cho MBMS u tin c xut hin trong UMTS phin bn 6. LTE xc nh l mt cp cao hn dch v MBMS pht trin (eMBMS), m n s hot ng qua mt mng n tn s pht qung b / a im(MBSFN), bng cch s dng mt dng sng ng b thi gian chung m c th truyn ti a trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. MBSFN cho php kt hp qua v tuyn ca truyn a ti UE, s dng tin t vng (CP) bo v cc s sai khc do tr khi truyn ti,
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H thng vin thng cc UE truyn ti nh l t mt t bo ln duy nht. Cng ngh ny gip cho LTE c hiu sut cao cho truyn ti MBMS. Cc dch v eMBMS s c xc nh y trong thng s k thut ca 3GPP phin bn 9. 3.2 Cc k thut s dng trong LTE LTE s dng k thut OFDMA cho truy cp ng xung v SC-FDMA cho truy cp ng ln. Kt hp ng thi vi MIMO, cc k thut v lp biu, thch ng ng truyn v yu cu t ng pht li lai ghp. 3.2.1 K thut truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM

Truyn n sng mang

Nguyn l ca FDMA

Nguyn l a sng mang


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H thng vin thng K thut iu ch OFDM, v c bn, l mt trng hp c bit ca phng php iu ch FDM, chia lung d liu thnh nhiu ng truyn bng hp trong vng tn s s dng, trong cc sng mang con (hay sng mang ph, sub-carrier) trc giao vi nhau. Do vy, ph tn hiu ca cc sng mang ph ny c php chng ln ln nhau m pha u thu vn khi phc li c tn hiu ban u. S chng ln ph tn hiu ny lm cho h thng OFDM c hiu sut s dng ph ln hn nhiu so vi cc k thut iu ch thng thng.

So snh ph tn ca OFDM vi FDMA

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Tn s-thi gian ca tn hiu OFDM LTE s dng OFDM trong k thut truy cp ng xung v n c cc u im sau: -OFDM c th loi b hin tng nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI (Inter-Symbol Interference) nu di chui bo v (guard interval) ln hn tr truyn dn ln nht ca knh truyn.

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-Thc hin vic chuyn i chui d liu t ni tip sang song song nn thi gian symbol tng ln do s phn tn theo thi gian gy bi tri tr do truyn dn a ng gim xung. -Ti u hiu qu ph tn do cho php chng ph gia cc sng mang con. -OFDM ph hp cho vic thit k h thng truyn dn bng rng (h thng c tc truyn dn cao), nh hng ca s phn tp v tn s (frequency selectivity) i vi cht lng h thng c gim thiu nhiu so vi h thng truyn dn n sng mang. -Cu trc my thu n gin. -Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu trong min tn s. -Tng thch vi cc b thu v cc anten tin tin.

Cc sng mang trc giao vi nhau Mt vn gp phi OFDM trong cc h thng thng tin di ng l cn dch cc tn s tham kho i vi cc u cui pht ng thi. Dch tn ph hng tnh trc giao ca cc cuc truyn dn n nhiu a truy nhp. V vy n rt nhy cm vi dch tn. LTE chn khong cch gia cc sng mang l 15KHz, i vi khong cch ny l khong cch ln i vi dch tn Doppler.

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iu ch tn hiu OFDM s dng bin i FFT v IFFT cho bin i gia min thi gian v min tn s.

Bin i FFT Chiu di bin i FFT l 2n vi n l s nguyn. Vi LTE chiu di c th l 512 hoc 1024...Ta s dng bin i IFFT khi pht i, ngun d liu sau khi iu ch c chuyn i t ni tip sang song song. Sau c a n b bin i IFFT. Mi ng vo ca IFFT tng ng vi tng sng mang con ring bit (thnh phn tn s ring bit ca tn hiu min thi gian) v mi sng mang c iu ch c lp vi cc sng mang khc. Sau khi c bin i IFFT xong, tn hiu c chn thm tin t vng (CP) v pht i. b thu ta lm ngc li.

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Thu pht OFDM Mc ch ca vic chn thm tin t vng l c kh nng lm gim hay loi tr nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI (Inter Symbol Interference). Mt mu tn hiu c di l TS, chui bo v tng ng l mt chui tn hiu c di TG pha sau c sao chp ln phn pha trc ca mu tn hiu nh hnh v sau:

Chui bo v GI Do , GI cn c gi l Cyclic Prefix (CP). S sao chp ny c tc dng chng li nhiu xuyn k hiu ISI do hiu ng phn tp a ng. Nguyn tc ny gii thch nh sau: Gi s my pht i mt khong tn hiu c chiu di l Ts, sau khi chn thm chui bo v c chiu di TG th tn hiu ny c chiu di l T = TS+TG. Do hiu ng a ng multipath, tn hiu ny s ti my thu theo nhiu ng khc nhau. Trong hnh v, hnh a, tn hiu theo ng th nht khng c tr, cc ng th hai v th ba u b tr mt khong thi gian so vi ng th nht. Tn hiu thu c my thu s l tng hp ca tt c cc tuyn, cho thy k hiu ng trc s chng ln vo k hiu ngay sau , y chnh l hin tng ISI.Do trong OFDM c s dng chui bo v c di TG s d dng loi b hin tng ny. Trong trng hp TG MAX nh hnh v m t th phn b chng ln ISI nm trong khong ca chui bo v, cn thnh phn tn hiu c
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H thng vin thng ch vn an ton. pha my thu s loi b chui bo v trc khi gi tn hiu n b gii iu ch OFDM. Do , iu kin cn thit cho h thng OFDM khng b nh hng bi ISI l: knh. TG MAX vi MAX l tr truyn dn ti a ca

a ) Khng c GI

b) C GI Tc dng ca chui bo v OFDM lng t ha trong min tn s da trn c lng p ng tn s ca knh. Do n hot ng n gin hn WCDMA v n khng ph thuc vo chiu di ca knh (chiu di ca a ng trong cc chip) nh khi lng t WCDMA. Trong WCDMA cc cell khc nhau c phn bit bi cc m tri ph khc nhau nhng trong OFDM tri ph khng c gi tr, n s dng cc k hiu
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H thng vin thng tham kho ring bit gia cc cell hoc gia cc anten khc nhau. LTE s dng OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) cho tuyn ln. OFDMA gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao l cng ngh a truy cp phn chia theo sng mang, l mt dng nng cao, l phin bn a ngi dng ca m hnh iu ch s OFDM K thut a truy nhp ca OFDMA cho php nhiu ngi dng cng truy cp vo mt knh truyn bng cch phn chia mt nhm cc sng mang con (subcarrier) cho mt ngi dng ti mt thi im. cc thi im khc nhau,nhm sng mang con cho 1 ngi dng cng khc nhau. iu ny cho php truyn d liu tc thp t nhiu ngi s dng.

Sng mang con OFDMA

OFDM v OFDMA

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H thng vin thng Ti nguyn thi gian - tn s c chia nh theo cu trc sau : 1 radio frame c chiu di l 10ms, trong chia thnh nhiu subframe nh c chiu di l 1ms, v mi subframe nh li c chia thnh 2 slot vi chiu di ca mi slot l 0.5ms. Mi slot s bao gm 7 k t OFDM trong trng hp chiu di CP thng thng v 6 k t OFDM trong trng hp CP m rng. Trong OFDMA, vic ch nh s sng mang con cho ngi dng khng da vo tng sng mang con ring l m da vo cc khi ti nguyn (Resource Block). Mi khi ti nguyn bao gm 12 sng mang con cho khong thi gian 1 slot v khong cch gia cc sng mang con l 15KHz dn n kt qu bng thng ti thiu ca n l 180 KHz. n v nh nht ca ti nguyn l thnh phn ti nguyn (RE), n bao gm mt sng mang con i vi khong thi gian ca mt k t OFDM. Mt RB bao gm 84 RE (tc 7 x12) trong trng hp chiu di CP thng thng v 72 RE (6x12) trong trng hp chiu di CP m rng.

Ch nh ti nguyn ca OFDMA trong LTE

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Cu trc ca mt khi ti nguyn Tn hiu tham kho (RS) : LTE s dng cc tn hiu tham kho c bit d dng c lng dch sng mang, c lng knh truyn, ng b thi gianCc tn hiu tham kho c b tr nh hnh sau:

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Cu trc b tr tn hiu tham kho Cc tn hiu tham kho ny c pht k t OFDM th nht v th nm ca mi slot v sng mang th su ca mi subframe. Tn hiu tham kho cng c s dng c lng tn hao ng truyn s dng cng sut thu tn hiu tham kho (RSRP).

Nhc im ca OFDM :

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H thng vin thng

c tnh ng bao ca tn hiu OFDM

PAPR cho cc tn hiu khc nhau Dng sng OFDM th hin s thng ging ng bao rt ln dn n PAPR cao. Tn hiu vi PAPR cao i hi cc b khuch i cng sut c tnh tuyn tnh cao trnh lm mo dng tn hiu. t c mc tuyn tnh ny, b khuch i phi lm vic ch cng tc vi li (so vi im bo ha cao). iu ny dn n hiu sut s dng cng sut (t s cng sut pht vi cng sut tiu th mt chiu) thp v th c bit nh hng i vi cc thit b cm tay.
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H thng vin thng khc phc nhc im ny, 3GPP nghin cu s dng phng php a truy nhp ng ln s dng DTFS-OFDM vi tn gi l SC- FDMA v p dng cho LTE. 3.2.2 K thut SC-FDMA Cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c tn hiu PAPR tt hn OFDMA. y l mt trong nhng l do chnh chn SC-FDMA cho LTE. PAPR gip mang li hiu qu cao trong vic thit k cc b khuch i cng sut UE, v vic x l tn hiu ca SCFDMA vn c mt s im tng ng vi OFDMA, do , tham s hng DL v UL c th cn i vi nhau. Ging nh trong OFDMA, cc my pht trong h thng SC-FDMA cng s dng cc tn s trc giao khc nhau pht i cc k hiu thng tin. Tuy nhin cc k hiu ny pht i ln lt ch khng phi song song nh trong OFDMA. V th, cch sp xp ny lm gim ng k s thng ging ca ng bao tn hiu ca dng sng pht. V th cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c PAPR thp hn cc tn hiu OFDMA. Tuy nhin trong cc h thng thng tin di ng b nh hng ca truyn dn a ng, SC-FDMA c thu ti cc BTS b nhiu gia cc k t kh ln. BTS s dng b cn bng thch ng min tn s loi b nhiu ny.

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OFDMA v SC-FDMA Hnh trn cho thy s khc nhau trong qu trnh truyn cc k hiu s liu theo thi gian. Trn hnh ny ta coi mi ngi s dng c phn thnh 4 sng mang con (P = 4) vi bng thng con bng 15KHz, trong mi k hiu OFDMA hoc SC-FDMA truyn 4 k hiu s liu c iu ch QPSK cho mi ngi s dng. i vi OFDMA 4 k hiu s liu ny c truyn dng thi vi bng tn con cho mi k hiu l 15KHz trong mi khong thi gian hiu dng TFFT ca mt k hiu OFDMA, trong khi i vi SC-FDMA, 4 k hiu s liu ny c truyn ln lt trong khong thi gian bng 1/P (P = 4) thi gian hiu dng k hiu SC-FDMA vi bng tn con bng P x 15KHz (4 x 15 KHz) cho mi k hiu. Trong OFDM, bin i Fourier nhanh FFT dng bn thu cho mi khi k t, v o FFT bn pht. Cn SC-FDMA s dng c hai thut ton ny c bn pht v bn thu.

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Thu pht SC-FDMA trong min tn s 3.2.3 K thut MIMO MIMO l mt phn tt yu ca LTE t c cc yu cu y tham vng v thng lng v hiu qu s dng ph. MIMO cho php s dng nhiu anten my pht v my thu. Vi hng DL, MIMO 2x2 (2 anten thit b pht, 2 anten thit b thu) c xem l cu hnh c bn, v MIMO 4x4 cng c cp v a vo bng c t k thut chi tit. Hiu nng t c ty thuc vo vic s dng MIMO. Trong , k thut ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing) v pht phn tp (transmit diversity) l cc c tnh ni bt ca MIMO trong cng ngh LTE. Gii hn chnh ca knh truyn thng tin l can nhiu a ng gii hn v dung lng theo quy lut Shannon. MIMO li dng tn hiu a ng gia my pht v my thu ci thin dung lng c sn cho bi knh truyn. Bng cch s dng nhiu anten bn pht v thu vi vic x l tn hiu s, k thut MIMO c th to ra cc dng d liu trn cng mt knh truyn, t lm tng dung lng knh
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H thng vin thng truyn.

M hnh SU-MIMO v MU-MIMO Trong h thng MIMO, b pht gi cc dng d liu qua cc anten pht. Cc dng d liu pht thng qua ma trn knh truyn bao gm nhiu ng truyn gia cc anten pht v cc anten thu. Sau b thu nhn cc vector tn hiu t cc anten thu, gii m thnh thng tin gc. i vi tuyn xung, cu hnh hai anten trm pht v hai anten thu thit b u cui di ng l cu hnh c bn, cu hnh s dng bn anten ang c xem xt. y chnh l cu hnh SU-MIMO, v s dng k thut ghp knh khng gian vi li th hn cc k thut khc l trong cng iu kin v bng thng s dng v k thut iu ch tn hiu, SU cho php tng tc d liu (data rate) bng s ln ca s lng anten pht. Ghp knh khng gian cho php pht chui bit d liu khc nhau trn cng mt khi ti nguyn tuyn xung. Nhng dng d liu ny c th l mt ngi dng

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(SU-MIMO) hoc nhng ngi dng khc nhau (MU-MIMO). Trong khi SUMIMO tng tc d liu cho mt ngi dng, MU-MIMO cho php tng dung lng. Da vo hnh 2.29, ghp knh khng gian li dng cc hng khng gian ca knh truyn v tuyn cho php pht cc d liu khc nhau trn hai anten.

Ghp knh khng gian K thut phn tp c bit n t WCDMA release 99 v cng s l mt phn ca LTE. Thng thng, tn hiu trc khi pht c m ha tng hiu ng phn tp. MIMO c s dng khai thc vic phn tp v mc tiu l lm tng tc . Vic chuyn i gia MIMO truyn phn tp v ghp knh khng gian c th ty thuc vo vic s dng knh tn s. i vi ng ln, t thit b u cui di ng n BS, ngi ta s dng m hnh MU-MIMO (Multi-User MIMO). S dng m hnh ny BS yu cu s dng nhiu anten, cn thit b di ng ch dng mt anten gim chi ph cho thit b di ng. V hot ng, nhiu thit b u cui di ng c th pht lin tc trn cng mt knh truyn, nhiu knh truyn, nhng khng gy ra can nhiu vi nhau bi v cc tn hiu hoa tiu (pilot) trc giao ln nhau. K thut c cp n, l k thut a truy nhp min khng gian (SDMA) hay cn gi l MIMO o.

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H thng vin thng

KT LUN

Cng ngh LTE l mt cng ngh mi, v ang c tip tc nghin cu v trin khai trn ton th gii, vi kh nng truyn ti tc cao kin trc mng n gin , s dng bng tn hiu qu v hon ton tng thch vi cc h thng GSM & WCDMA v da trn mt mng ton IP . LTE c th tr thnh h thng thng tin di ng ton cu trong tng lai. V vy vic tm hiu v cng ngh LTE l cn thit v c ngha thc t. ti cp mt cch tng quan v cng ngh LTE, trng tm gm cc phn : o Tng quan v h thng di ng 3G o Cu trc mng LTE o Truy cp v tuyn trong LTE o K thut s dng trong LTE

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TI LIU THAM KHO

1. www.Vntelecom.org

2. L trnh pht trin 3G ln 4G TS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng

3. L trnh trin khai LTE Tp on vin thng Viettel

4. K thut iu ch a sng mang Phan Minh c

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MC LC M U..1 I.TNG QUAN H THNG THNG TIN DI NG 3G2 1.1 UMTS (W-CDMA)...2 1.2 CDMA 2000..3 1.3 TD-SCDMA..3 II.CU TRC MNG LTE....4 2.1 Cng ngh LTE.4 2.2 Cu trc LTE6 2.3 Cc knh s dng trong E-UNTRAN.12 2.4 Giao thc ca LTE (LTE protocols)...14 III.TRUY CP V TUYN V CC K THUT S DNG TRONG LTE .....17 3.1 Cc ch truy nhp v tuyn17 3.2 Cc k thut s dng trong LTE.17 3.2.1 K thut truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM 17 3.2.2 K thut SC-FDMA.29 3.2.2 K thut MIMO31 KT LUN34 TI LIU THAM KHO..35

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